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Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project the past, current and future distribution of vegetation and associated water and carbon fluxes. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a new trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model (the aDGVM2) that allows each individual plant to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how each individual plant grows and competes with other plants under given environmental conditions. The performance of individual plants in turn drives the assembly of a plant community. A genetic optimisation algorithm is used to simulate the inheritance of traits and different levels of reproductive isolation between individuals. Together these model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are well adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. Simulated communities can be classified into different plant functional types or biome types by using trait data bases. We illustrate that the aDGVM2 can simulate (1) how environmental conditions and changes in these conditions influence the trait spectra of assembled plant communities, (2) that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity, and (3) the emergence of communities dominated by life history strategies that are suggestive of colonisation-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current dynamic vegetation models. We argue that this approach will yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe that it could foster fruitful collaborations between research communities that focus on plant functional traits, plant competition, plant physiology, systems ecology and earth system science.

Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven; Langan, Liam

2013-04-01

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Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi) and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes). Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

Richard Hrivnák

2005-01-01

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LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology) and “normal data” (physiology) for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation). Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

E. GIGLIO

2006-01-01

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The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

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The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

NONE

1996-03-29

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Arctic Ecological Classifications Derived from Vegetation Community and Satellite Spectral Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a result of the warming observed at high latitudes, there is significant potential for the balance of ecosystem processes to change, i.e., the balance between carbon sequestration and respiration may be altered, giving rise to the release of soil carbon through elevated ecosystem respiration. Gross ecosystem productivity and ecosystem respiration vary in relation to the pattern of vegetation community type and associated biophysical traits (e.g., percent cover, biomass, chlorophyll concentration, etc.). In an arctic environment where vegetation is highly variable across the landscape, the use of high spatial resolution imagery can assist in discerning complex patterns of vegetation and biophysical variables. The research presented here examines the relationship between ecological and spectral variables in order to generate an ecologically meaningful vegetation classification from high spatial resolution remote sensing data. Our methodology integrates ordination and image classifications techniques for two non-overlapping Arctic sites across a 5° latitudinal gradient (approximately 70° to 75°N). Ordination techniques were applied to determine the arrangement of sample sites, in relation to environmental variables, followed by cluster analysis to create ecological classes. The derived classes were then used to classify high spatial resolution IKONOS multispectral data. The results demonstrate moderate levels of success. Classifications had overall accuracies between 69%–79% and Kappa values of 0.54–0.69. Vegetation classes were generally distinct at each site with the exception of sedge wetlands. Based on the results presented here, the combination of ecological and remote sensing techniques can produce classifications that have ecological meaning and are spectrally separable in an arctic environment. These classification schemes are critical for modeling ecosystem processes.

David M. Atkinson; Paul Treitz

2012-01-01

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Closed type vegetable cultivation apparatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a closed vegetable growing device which comprises an under frame (1), a cover body (6) which is composed of a frame body and a plastic film (5) and is arranged at the periphery on the under frame (1), and a water seepage pipe (3) which is arranged under the under frame (1), is buried under the ground and can penetrate water from a ridge furrow, wherein, two ends of the water seepage pipe (3) respectively extend out of two sides of the under frame (1), and a water through hole (2) is arranged at the position which is corresponding to the inner part of the under frame (1). The closed vegetable growing device can supply water by the gravity irrigation method, thereby greatly reducing the workload of growing vegetable for truck farmers. The manufacture, the installation, the use and the move, and the carrying of the closed vegetable growing device are convenient, so the cost can be greatly lowered, and the demands of the truck farmers who have less management capital or need small planting area can be met.

BAILING GAN

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NUTRITIONAL STATE OF ECOLOGICAL VEGETABLES IN DROUGHT CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The contents of mineral nutritional elements in vegetables’ leaves were studied in an ecologically assessed field at the Research-Development Station for Vegetables (SCDL) Bac?u, on a Fluvisol, in 2006 and 2007. Soil texture is sandyloamy, pH 6.2-6.8, and the humus content 2.4-2.6%. Vegetables have been grown here for several tens of years. In the last years, in an ecological agriculture system, the soil has been fertilized only with farm-made compost and green manure. Organic fertilization didn’t significantly improve the nutritive elements soil contents but it had the merit to preserve the soil fertility properties, along with the natural equilibrium between nutritional elements. Under these conditions, lower total nitrogen contents were determined in tomato leaves and higher in egg-plant leaves. Phosphorus contents proved to be relatively constant with egg-plants and a little lower with tomatoes; potassium and calcium contents were much lower with tomatoes; zinc and copper contents registered depletions, both for egg-plants and tomatoes, the iron contents slightly increased, while manganese contents remained relatively constant. In 2007 the potassium contents in tomatoes leaves shifted towards the critical domain, as compared to the lower limit of the excessive domain in 2006, in egg-plants leaves it remained under this domain limit, as in 2006; the calcium contents remained in the excessive domain, as in 2006, the magnesium contents shifted towards the critical domain, as compared to the normal one in 2006, iron contents remained excessive for tomatoes; the zinc remained in the normal content domain for tomatoes, as in 2006, and decreased to the critical domain for egg-plants; the copper remained in the excessive content domain, but at the inferior limit of it, unlike in 2006. Due to these modifications of ratios between the mineral nutritional elements absorbed in leaves in 2007 the cellular sap pH values were lower than in 2006.

Mihaela Lungu; Lucian Stoian; Marcela F?lticeanu; Mihaela Monica Aldea; Rodica Doina Laz?r; Monica Dumitra?cu

2008-01-01

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Vegetation types and surface soils of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1956 the newly formed Ecology Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), now called the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under the Department of Energy, initiated a project, using aerial photos taken in 1949, 1953, and 1954 to prepare a vegetation map of the site. This area was designated a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in 1975. The first map prepared by N. R. French and Ray McBride was produced in 1958, and differentiated vegetation types on the basis of the two most prominent species of plants occurring in each type. This map gave adequate resolution between major vegetation types only in the complex mosaic of types at the northern end of the site, designating everything else as one homogeneous vegetation classification: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) and Chrysothamnus viscidifluorus (green rabbitbrush). To improve the resolution of the vegetation map and thereby make it more useful in distinguishing habitats in all parts of the site, efforts were immediately begun to reclassify the vegetation types on the basis of the three (instead of two) most prominent species of plants representative of each type. This effort was continued on a low-priority basis for several years. In 1965 a vegetation map, according to the three species designation, was prepared by Ray McBride. The map was never documented in a formal report, but was reproduced in a thesis by Harniss (1968) and was referenced by Harniss and West (1973a) in their outline of the vegetation types of the NRTS. It is the purpose of this report to document the original vegetation type map prepared by the late Ray McBride and to provide general descriptions of the different vegetation types. The map has been revised and redrawn, and is appended to this report. Because vegetation is intimately related to soil development, a preliminary soil type map prepared and discussed by Adrian H. Dahl is included in this report

1978-01-01

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[Succession pattern of artificial vegetation community and its ecological mechanism in an arid desert region].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Focusing on the artificial vegetation protection system of the Shapotou section of Baotou-Lanzhou railway in the arid desert region of China, this paper examined the dynamics of dominant plant species and the succession pattern of artificial plant community in the process of establishing and developing regional artificial vegetation. It also studied the driving force and the ecologically intrinsic mechanism of the community succession. The results demonstrated that the species composition of the artificial vegetation dramatically changed after 40 years of succession, from original artificial plant community of shrub and semi-shrub to artificial-natural desert plant community with annual herb dominated. During the process of succession, the importance values of artificial shrubs, such as Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparius, decreased and gradually retreated from the artificial plant community, while the naturally multiplied annual herb, such as Eragrostis poaeoides, Bassia dasyphylla, Salsola ruthenica, Chloris virgata and etc., were presented one after another and gradually became dominant. Besides, Artemisia ordosica always played a key role in the community due to its ability of naturally sowing and self-replacement. This type of succession pattern was closely related to the shortage of precipitation resource in this region and the formation of soil crust which inhibited the reproduction of shrub and perennial herb with deep root systems. This study provided a theoretical ground for realizing persistent development of artificial plant community.

Xu C; Li Z

2003-09-01

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The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

Steven Mark Rutter

2007-01-01

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[Evaluation of nitrate, nitrite and total protein content in selected vegetables cultivated conventionally and ecologically  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nitrates, nitrites and total protein content in selected vegetables from conventional and ecological farms were estimated. The beetroots, carrots, potatoes available on market or special shops in January, May and March were evaluated. The content of nitrates and nitrites was determined by colorimetric method with Griess reagent after previous reduction of nitrates to nitrites by metallic cadmium. Total protein content was determined by Kjel-Foss Automatic 16210 analyser working on the basis of classical Kjeldahl method. The higher content of nitrates was found in vegetables from conventional farms. Amounts of nitrates in both groups of vegetables did not exceed allowed limits. Levels of nitrites in ecological and conventional vegetables were similar-above 0.5 mg NaNO2/kg (except conventional potatoes from January). Slightly more content of protein was recorded in conventional vegetables.

Wawrzyniak A; Kwiatkowski S; Gronowska-Senger A

1997-01-01

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Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spe...

Joanna Kapusta-Duch; Teresa Leszczy?ska; Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

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VEGETATION BANK PROTECTION BLOCK AND ITS MANUFACTURING METHOD FOR ECOLOGY RESTORATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vegetative revetment block for ecological restoration and the manufacturing method thereof are provided to make quick restoration possible by securing the area of a mat, which is formed by backstitching netting threads located on the bottom of a vegetative revetment block and used for ecological restoration in many folds, to be wider than the area occupied by a concrete skeleton. A vegetative revetment block(11) for ecological restoration comprises a vegetation unit(13) formed with soil(16) made by mixing peat, loess, artificial soil, a seed, adhesives and surface soil on a mat(14) manufactured by backstitching many netting threads, which are manufactured by mixing one or more than two threads selected from natural fiber, synthetic resin and metallic threads to overlap each other, and a concrete skeleton(12) formed by making a concrete skeleton located on the outer edge wider and higher and making a concrete skeleton located on the inside narrower and lower than the concrete skeleton of the outer edge to be strong against an external impact and to heighten durability.

JUNG EUL JUN; PARK MOON SU; KIM KI BONG

15

Using plant functional types in a global vegetation model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global vegetation models have been developed under the assumption that climate is the dominating driving force of vegetation composition and structure, and that the broad-scale pattern of global vegetation is in equilibrium with climate. Non-climatic habitat factors, such as soil parent material, and competition limit the applicability of such models, but they have proven to be useful at a global scale. The concept of plant functional types was first introduced by E.O. Box into global vegetation models, using a scheme with 90 different types. A more recent model, BIOME, reduces this number to only 14 types, using more mechanistically defined bioclimatic indices, fewer parameters and an improved database. With the BIOME model, realistic global maps of potentially natural vegetation can be derived. Using high-resolution, present day climate data along with smoothed climate change anomalies derived from atmospheric general circulation models, climatic change impact scenarios about equilibrium shift of the major biomes can be produced. (orig.)

Cramer, W.

1994-09-01

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Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically) the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radical. Results.All these species of cruciferous vegetables contained similar total polyphenols amounts regardless of its origin. Only red cabbage from organic farms was characterized by significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to vegetables purchased from local retailers in Cracow and similar or those cultivated near the steelworks. In white cabbage from farms located in a former steelworks protection zone a higher antioxidant activity was found than in organically grown vegetables and similar to that in vegetables available in retail. Brussels sprouts was characterised by a similar antioxidant activity regardless of its origin. Conclusions. On the basis of the present study, it cannot be concluded that organically grown cruciferous vegetables generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones.

Joanna Kapusta-Duch; Teresa Leszczy?ska; Agnieszka Filipiak-Florkiewicz

2012-01-01

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Effect of vegetation type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper compares different vegetation types (coniferous and deciduous forest, grassed and pure heathland) in terms of input (throughfall deposition) and output (seepage flux) in a region with intermediate nitrogen load (±20 kg N ha-1 y-1 via bulk precipitation) in comparable conditions in north Belgium. Coniferous forest (two plots Pinus sylvestris and two plots Pinus nigra) received significantly higher nitrogen and sulphur throughfall deposition than deciduous forest and heathland. Grassed and pure heathland had significantly highest throughfall quantities of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The observed differences in throughfall deposition between the different vegetation types were not univocally reflected in the ion seepage flux. Considerable seepage fluxes of NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+ and Al(III) were only found under the P. nigra plots. We discuss our hypothesis that the P. nigra forests already evolved to a situation of N saturation, while the other vegetation types did not. - Vegetation type determines the time of onset of nitrogen saturation.

2008-01-01

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Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

2013-03-20

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Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

El-Sheikh MA

2013-07-01

20

Ecological Factors Affecting the Distribution of Woody Vegetation Near the Arkansas River, Tulsa County  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological factors affecting plant distribution were studied over different rock strata and slope exposures above the Arkansas River, Tulsa County. Here the Wann sandstone caprock is underlain by the Iola limestone formation. The vegetation was analyzed taxonomically by a complete collection throughout one growing season. Belt transects crossing rock strata on all slope exposures permitted computation of parameters summarized by an Importance Percentage for each woody species. Differences in species populations and degree of mesophytism exist on the slope exposures. Sandstone upland dominants are post and blackjack oaks. Smoke-tree, rare in Oklahoma, and chinquapin oak are closely associated in limestone microhabitats, where each occupies a separate niche. The smoke-tree, of disjunct distribution, appears to be a relict of widespread occurrence in past geologic periods. Its survival with limited ecological amplitude is due to the continuance of the microhabitats to which it is so well adapted.

Anne Wanamnaker Long

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Characterizing the Seasonal Dynamics of Plant Community Photosynthesis Across a Range of Vegetation Types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The seasonal cycle of plant community photosynthesis is one of the most important biotic oscillations to mankind. This study built upon previous efforts to develop a comprehensive framework to studying this cycle systematically with eddy covariance flux measurements. We proposed a new function to represent the cycle and generalized a set of phenological indices to quantify its dynamic characteristics. We suggest that the seasonal variation of plant community photosynthesis generally consists of five distinctive phases in sequence each of which results from the interaction between the inherent biological and ecological processes and the progression of climatic conditions and reflects the unique functioning of plant community at different stages of the growing season. We applied the improved methodology to seven vegetation sites ranging from evergreen and deciduous forests to crop to grasslands and covering both cool-season (vegetation active during cool months, e.g. Mediterranean climate grasslands) and warm-season (vegetation active during warm months, e.g. temperate and boreal forests) vegetation types. Our application revealed interesting phenomena that had not been reported before and pointed to new research directions. We found that for the warm-season vegetation type, the recovery of plant community photosynthesis at the beginning of the growing season was faster than the senescence at the end of the growing season while for the coolseason vegetation type, the opposite was true. Furthermore, for the warm-season vegetation type, the recovery was closely correlated with the senescence such that a faster photosynthetic recovery implied a speedier photosynthetic senescence and vice versa. There was evidence that a similar close correlation could also exist for the cool-season vegetation type, and furthermore, the recovery-senescence relationship may be invariant between the warm-season and cool-season vegetation types up to an offset in the intercept. We also found that while the growing season length affected how much carbon dioxide could be potentially assimilated by a plant community over the course of a growing season, other factors that affect canopy photosynthetic capacity (e.g. nutrients, water) could be more important at this time scale. These results and insights demonstrate that the proposed method of analysis and system of terminology can serve as a foundation for studying the dynamics of plant community photosynthesis and such studies can be fruitful.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Black, Andy [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Suyker, A.E., [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Vesala, Timo [University of Helsinki; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University

2009-01-01

22

Effect of vegetation type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper compares different vegetation types (coniferous and deciduous forest, grassed and pure heathland) in terms of input (throughfall deposition) and output (seepage flux) in a region with intermediate nitrogen load (+/-20kg Nha(-1)y(-1) via bulk precipitation) in comparable conditions in north Belgium. Coniferous forest (two plots Pinus sylvestris and two plots Pinus nigra) received significantly higher nitrogen and sulphur throughfall deposition than deciduous forest and heathland. Grassed and pure heathland had significantly highest throughfall quantities of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively. The observed differences in throughfall deposition between the different vegetation types were not univocally reflected in the ion seepage flux. Considerable seepage fluxes of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Ca(2+) and Al(III) were only found under the P. nigra plots. We discuss our hypothesis that the P. nigra forests already evolved to a situation of N saturation, while the other vegetation types did not. PMID:17942204

De Schrijver, A; Staelens, J; Wuyts, K; Van Hoydonck, G; Janssen, N; Mertens, J; Gielis, L; Geudens, G; Augusto, L; Verheyen, K

2007-10-22

23

Vegetation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

• Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime.

Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.

2012-01-01

24

[Influence of three types of riparian vegetation on fluvial erosion control in Pantanos de Centla, Mexico].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wetlands constitute very important ecological areas. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil losses due to fluvial erosion from 2006 to 2008 in two riverbanks under three types of vegetal coverage dominated by Haematoxylum campechianum, Dalbergia brownei and Brachiaria mutica, in the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve, SE Mexico. The relationship between the texture, organic matter and pH of soils and soil losses was evaluated. We used erosion sticks to estimate soil losses in 18 plots (three plots per type, three vegetation types, two riverbanks). Soil loss decreased in this order: H. campechianum>B. mutica>D. brownei indicating that D. brownei scrubland has the most potential to retain soil. The higher erosive impact within H. campechianum sites can be related with the low density of these trees in the study areas, as well as the lack of association with other types of vegetation that could reinforce the rooting of the soil profile. Furthermore, soil losses in H. campechianum sites were dependent on soil texture. The soils under this type of vegetal coverage were mainly sandy, which are more vulnerable to the erosive action in comparison with fine textured soils or soils with higher clay content, like the ones found in D. brownei and B. mutica sites. Soil losses of 100 % in the second year (B. mutica plots) can be attributed to the distribution of roots in the upper soil layer and also to livestock management along riverbanks. This study recognizes the importance of D. brownei scrublands in riverbank soil retention. Nevertheless it is necessary to consider the role of an entire vegetal community in future research.

Sepúlveda-Lozada A; Geissen V; Ochoa-Gaona S; Jarquín-Sánchez A; de la Cruz SH; Capetillo E; Zamora-Cornelio LF

2009-12-01

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Ecological life cycle optimization of vegetable oils. Oekologische Optimierung beim Einsatz von Pflanzenoelen in chemisch-technischen Produkten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetable oils are of rising importance as raw materials for the chemical industry, especially because of advantages in the ecological point of view. But there are many possibilities for a further increase of the ecological qualities of vegetable oils compared to petrochemicals. Such improvement is attainable in the following fields: regionalization of cultivation, promotion of certified organic farming, technical use of more than one part of a plant, reserve in modification of the oils to save energy and to maintain an easy return into the biological cycles. Ecological optimization in these fields will further increase the public acceptance of vegetable oils as raw materials for chemical-technical products and in this way develop the given advantages in the market-place. (orig.)

Fischer, H. (AURO Pflanzenchemie GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany))

1994-07-01

26

Effect of vegetation type on throughfall deposition and seepage flux  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper compares different vegetation types (coniferous and deciduous forest, grassed and pure heathland) in terms of input (throughfall deposition) and output (seepage flux) in a region with intermediate nitrogen load ({+-}20 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} via bulk precipitation) in comparable conditions in north Belgium. Coniferous forest (two plots Pinus sylvestris and two plots Pinus nigra) received significantly higher nitrogen and sulphur throughfall deposition than deciduous forest and heathland. Grassed and pure heathland had significantly highest throughfall quantities of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, respectively. The observed differences in throughfall deposition between the different vegetation types were not univocally reflected in the ion seepage flux. Considerable seepage fluxes of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Ca{sup 2+} and Al(III) were only found under the P. nigra plots. We discuss our hypothesis that the P. nigra forests already evolved to a situation of N saturation, while the other vegetation types did not. - Vegetation type determines the time of onset of nitrogen saturation.

Schrijver, A. de [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium)], E-mail: an.deschrijver@ugent.be; Staelens, J.; Wuyts, K. [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Hoydonck, G. van [Haskoning Belgium BVBA, Hanswijkdries 80, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Janssen, N. [Natuurpunt, Coxiestraat 11, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Mertens, J.; Gielis, L. [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Geudens, G. [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Haskoning Belgium BVBA, Hanswijkdries 80, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Augusto, L. [UMR-TCEM, INRA-Bordeaux, 71 Avenue Edouard Bourlaux, 33883 Villenave d' Ornon Cedex (France); Verheyen, K. [Laboratory of Forestry, Ghent University, Geraardsbergse Steenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium)

2008-05-15

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Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em c (more) opos de jornal, com volume (V) igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo. Abstract in english Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 (more) cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.

Mannfredini, Edcarlos; Destro, Deonisio; Homechin, Martin; Sachsida, Gustavo; Miglioranza, Édison

1998-08-01

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Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V) igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo.

Edcarlos Mannfredini; Deonisio Destro; Martin Homechin; Gustavo Sachsida; Édison Miglioranza

1998-01-01

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Plant physiological ecology and the global changes/ Ecofisiologia vegetal e as mudanças globais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As mudanças globais englobam importantes alterações nos padrões normais de processos bioquímicos e biofísicos da Terra. Os reais efeitos e retroalimentações das mudanças globais sobre a vegetação ainda são incertos. Parte das incertezas pode ser atribuída à falta de atenção de cientistas e políticos para a vegetação, enquanto componente do sistema terrestre. Entretanto, algumas questões sobre as mudanças globais poderiam ser mais bem esclarecidas por (more) abordagens mais voltadas à ecofisiologia vegetal. Nesse artigo, alguns pontos relacionados e esses problemas, como as limitações em se abordar a vegetação como um componente estático da atmosfera enquanto outros subsistemas do sistema terrestre são dinâmicos, são discutidos. Dentro dessa perspectiva, essa revisão traz uma reflexão inicial do papel da vegetação, em termos de estrutura e funcionamento, no contexto das mudanças globais. Para isso, foi feita uma revisão das terminologias relacionadas às mudanças globais e ao sistema terrestre, buscou-se ilustrar alguns dos principais temas de pesquisa da ecofisiologia vegetal no contexto das mudanças globais. Foram feitas considerações em relação ao tratamento de plantas como sistemas complexos, o que é importante para o estudo de aspectos relacionados à sensibilidade, estabilidade e vulnerabilidade a variações ambientais. Finalmente, são discutidas alternativas que podem ser utilizadas para incorporar aspectos do funcionamento da vegetação, de forma dinâmica, em estudos de mudanças globais, considerando o desafio de mudança de escalas. Espera-se que essa revisão possa auxiliar pesquisadores subsidiando suas estratégias de identificação e compreensão dos efeitos potenciais das mudanças globais sobre os processos mais vulneráveis da vegetação, da folha ao globo. Abstract in english The global changes are marked by alteration on the normal patterns of important biochemical and biophysical processes of the Earth. However, the real effects as well as the feedbacks of the global changes over vegetation are still unclear. Part of this uncertainty can be attributed to the inattention of stakeholders and scientists towards vegetation and its complex interrelations with the environment, which drive plant physiological processes in different space-time scale (more) s. Notwithstanding, some key subjects of the global changes could be better elucidated with a more plant physiological ecology approach. We discuss some issues related to this topic, going through some limitations of approaching vegetation as a static component of the biosphere as the other sub-systems of the Earth-system change. With this perspective, this review is an initial reflection towards the assessment of the role and place of vegetation structure and function in the global changes context. We reviewed the Earth-system and global changes terminology; attempted to illustrate key plant physiological ecology researches themes in the global changes context; consider approaching plants as complex systems in order to adequately quantify systems characteristics as sensibility, homeostasis, and vulnerability. Moreover, we propose insights that would allow vegetation studies and scaling procedures in the context of the Earth-system. We hope this review will assist researchers on their strategy to identify, understand and anticipate the potential effects of global changes over the most vulnerable vegetation processes from the leaf to the global levels.

Barbosa, João Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino; Rambal, Serge; Soares, Angela Maria; Mouillot, Florent; Nogueira, Joana Messias Pereira; Martins, Giordane Augusto

2012-06-01

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Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

2013-06-05

31

Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity.

Wang M; Qu L; Ma K; Yuan X

2013-06-01

32

[Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and o,p'-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC. A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p'-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (microg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.05) for the concentration of OCP in the different types and commercial brands of vegetable oils. Lindane concentration in the corn oil (0.0125 microg/g), as well as cischlordane (0.0091 microg/g) and aldrín (0.0287 microg/g) in the soybean oil exceeded maximal residual limits (MRL) established by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In conclusion, it was detected a high incidence of OCP residues in vegetable oils analyzed.

Piñero González M; Izquierdo Córser P; Allara Cagnasso M; García Urdaneta A

2007-12-01

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The ecology of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana: abundance, productivity and survivorship.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Irrigated vegetable farms within the city of Kumasi, Ghana, create hotspots for the breeding of malaria vectors, which could lead to high transmission of malaria. This study investigated the abundance and productivity of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana. METHODS: Adult mosquito productivity was estimated five days in a week in different irrigated scheme types (dug-out wells, furrows and footprints) for 12 weeks using emergence traps. Larval sampling was done five days a week to estimate the abundance of larvae from the different irrigated schemes types. RESULTS: Mosquito breeding in the irrigated vegetable field was confined to dug-out wells, furrows and human footprints. Mosquito productivity (m2/week) was highest in the dugout wells followed by the human footprints and the least was in the furrows (11.23, 5.07 and 4.34 An. gambiae/m2/week). Larval abundance for the late instars (3rd, 4th and pupae) also followed the same trend, with the dug-out wells having the highest larval abundance followed by the human footprints and then the furrows (13.24, 6.81, 5.87 larvae/week). Mosquito productivity and abundance was negatively correlated with rainfall (R2 = 0.209; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study showed that adult and larval mosquito abundance and larval survival were high in the irrigated fields in the irrigated vegetable farm. This therefore, contributed significantly to adult mosquito populations and hence malaria transmission in the city.

Afrane YA; Lawson BW; Brenya R; Kruppa T; Yan G

2012-01-01

34

Ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

1978-01-01

35

Vegetation change and emerging research feedback for Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of theenvironmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetationdynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in fourKorean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER) sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was notobserved in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitudegradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change--convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Workshowed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes ofspecies richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas onespecies disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order): Mt. Nam(25.5%), Mt. Jeombong (24.3%), Mt. Worak (16.4%) and Mt. Jiri (0.8%). In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows(in descending order): Mt. Nam (63.7%), Mt. Worak (12.9%), Mt. Jeombong (7.6%) and Mt. Jiri (7.3%). The mortalityrate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002), and the recruitment rate andchange rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026). In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes wereattributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affectthese changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed.

Yong Chan Cho; Chang Seok Lee; Hyun Je Cho; Kyu Song Lee; Pil Sun Park

2011-01-01

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Koncept ekologických fenomén? v interpretaci st?edoevropské vegetace Ecological phenomena concept: the interpretation of the Central-European vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of literature referring to floristic, vegetation and habitat diversity in Bohemian Massif has resulted to a revision and detailed classification of ecological phenomena. Each phenomenon represents an open nonhierarchical system of lithological, hydrological, topoclimatic and biotic aberrations, that differ from common features of surrounded “zonal“ environment. Two main groups of ecological phenomena have been distinguished: (i) large-scale ecological geo-phenomena originated by prominent lithological factors, and (ii) meso-scale ecological topo-phenomena produced by local action of hydrology, topoclimate, and air currents. With regard to the first group, the following geo-phenomena play a particular role in the Central European vegetation: (a) sandstone, (b) limestone and dolomite (karst phenomenon), (c) marl (flysch and loess), (d) neovolcanic, and (e) serpentinite phenomena. With regard to the latter group, the following meso-scale phenomena contribute to the diversity of habitats in landscape scenery: (f) river (or valley), (g) summit, (h) frost hollow, and (i) scree (and glacial cirque) phenomena. The “insular“ feature of the ecological phenomena in vegetation cover is expressed mainly by the occurrence of treeless ecosystems, such as swamps, bogs, marshes, steppes, rock faces and scree ecosystems, etc. Relatively higher species richness can indicate most of ecological phenomena (they should be detected by the distance from the regional species-area curve), and by the presence of rare plant species, especially by the relic and/or endemic species, which survive on extreme habitats due to the lower competition of prevailing dominant woody or graminoid species.

Tomáš Ku?era

2005-01-01

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Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania) Tailing Pound. Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi). We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

Monica Marian; Leonard M. Cozmuta; Camelia Varga; Anca M. Cozmuta; Eugen Nour

2009-01-01

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Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation  

Science.gov (United States)

In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

2008-07-01

39

Iron ore industry emissions as a potential ecological risk factor for tropical coastal vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO(2) originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

Kuki KN; Oliva MA; Pereira EG

2008-07-01

40

Using Remote Sensing to Quantify Vegetation Change and Ecological Resilience in a Semi-Arid System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research extends upon land cover change studies by incorporating methodological approaches, which are compatible with heterogeneous ecosystems, are able to link landscape changes to system processes, such as climate change, and provide potential linkages to concepts of ecological resilience. The study region in southern Africa experienced a significant climatic shift in the 1970s, resulting in drier conditions. The state of these ecosystems and their response to such climatic shock is quantified in terms of vegetation amount and heterogeneity. We monitor these characteristics pre- and post-disturbance using a Landsat image series and examine the utility of continuous characterizations of land cover for measuring ecosystem resilience. Land cover change is evaluated using a mean-variance analysis in concert with a spatial persistence analysis. This investigation indicates that although the impact of the decreased precipitation is evident in the 1980s, recovery occurred by the 1990s and 2000s. We found the continuous methodological approach used holds potential for studying heterogeneous landscapes within a resilience framework.

Xia Cui; Cerian Gibbes; Jane Southworth; Peter Waylen

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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THE PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONAL CELL ERYTHRON STATUS OF PERIPHERAL LEVEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT VEGETATIVE HOMEOSTASIS AT TEENAGERS FROM REGIONS WITH DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL BALANCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results ofexamination of 267 teenagers who live in various ecological biogeochemical regions are indicated in the work. Vegetative regulation differences of cardiac function and the peculiarities oferythrocytic background have been determined

T.P. Bondar; Yu.l. Polovko; E.V. Vereshchak; O.I. Zaparozhtseva; T.V. Karchinskaja; L.D. Tsaturjan

2008-01-01

42

CUT-SLOP REINFORCEMENT METHOD USING GRID TYPE VEGETATION BLOCKS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A construction method for a cut slope using lattice vegetation blocks is provided to improve the scenic beauty with vegetation and to have environment-friendly effect by vegetating on a cut slope, to take ground reinforcement effect and ground surface reinforcement effect simultaneously, and to maximize the safety of a cut slope. A construction method for a cut slope using lattice vegetation blocks comprises the steps of leveling the surface of a cut slope and dividing lattice vegetation blocks(20) by sizes and partitioning the cut slope, and perforating each center of the partitioned cut slope to form a perforated hole, inserting a body portion(11) of a soil nail(10) into each perforated hole and projecting a head portion(12) of the soil nail to the outside of the ground, and injecting grout material into the perforated hole, and then fixing, fixing the lattice vegetation block into the head portion of the soil nail and attaching closely to the cut slope, and then fixing a pressure plate(30) into the head portion of the soil nail and attaching closely to the lattice vegetation block, fastening the adjacent lattice vegetation blocks through a through hole(21) formed on the border of the lattice vegetation block, and then unifying, coupling a fixing nut(40) to the head portion of the soil nail and tightening with a nut to fix the lattice vegetation block and the pressure plate, and vegetating in a lattice frame of the lattice vegetation block.

KIM YONG KI

43

Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

2013-04-01

44

Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: an ecological assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. PMID:21277663

Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Allen, Edith B; Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa; Fenn, Mark E; Manrique, Esteban; Pérez-Corona, M Esther; Sheppard, Lucy J; Stock, William D

2011-02-01

45

Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Afric...

Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J-F; Evrard, Charles-Marie; Malaisse, Francois; Defourny, Pierre

46

Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: ? N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. ? Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. ? Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. ? Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

2011-01-01

47

Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

2011-10-15

48

[Ecological distribution and antimicrobial effects of soil actinomycetes in artificial vegetation systems in Shazhuyu of Qinghai, China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to probe into the effects of artificial vegetation rehabilitation on soil actinomycetes, dilution plate and agar block methods were used to investigate the ecological distribution and antimicrobial effects of actinomycetes in sandy soil in Shazhuyu area of Qinghai after artificial vegetation restoration. The results showed that with the vegetation rehabilitation and the improvement of vegetation coverage on alpine sandy dry land, the quantity of soil actinomycetes increased significantly, being 145.4% higher in the grassland transferred from farmland than in sandy land. The quantity of soil Micromonospora in grassland transferred from farmland was about six times as much as that in sandy land. The average selection rate of antimicrobial actinomycetes was increased greatly, with the antimicrobial actinomycetes in the soil of grassland transferred from farmland, the antibacterial actinomycetes in the soil of natural grassland, and the pathogenic fungus resistant aetinomycetes in the soil of forestland being approximately 2, 3.2 and 1.5 times as much as those in the soil of sandy land, respectively. Vegetation coverage and soil nutrients had great influences on the quantities of actinomycetes and antimicrobial actinomycetes. The contents of soil organic matter and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and the yield of fresh grasses had significant correlations with the quantities of actinomycetes (P < 0.01), and the content of soil organic matter and the yield of fresh grasses significantly correlated with the strain numbers of antimicrobial actinomycetes (P < 0.01). Furthermore, vegetation coverage and the contents of soil total nitrogen, total phosphorous, total potassium, total salt, and available potassium had significant correlations with the total quantities of actinomycetes, Streptomycetes, and Micromonospora (P < 0.05).

Yang B; Xue QH; Chen ZQ; Guo ZY; Zhang XL; Zhou YQ; Xu YJ; Sun DF

2008-08-01

49

Associations of Phlebotomus orientalis and other sandflies with vegetation types in the eastern Sudan focus of kala-azar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abundances of Phlebotomus orientalis, P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and other sandflies were investigated in relation to different types of vegetation associated with endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan. Sandfly collection sites were in Umsalala Village (Galabat Province) and Dinder National Park (Dinder Province). Sandfly species found in the area were P. orientalis, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia africana, S. antennata, S. clydei, S. schwetzi and S. squamipleuris. Among the types of trees in the Dinder area, P. orientalis was more abundant in forests dominated by Acacia seyal than where Combretum kordofanum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Hyphaena thaibaica or Ziziphus spinachristi were the dominant trees. At Umsalala, P. papatasi was more abundant in the village than at any site with dense vegetation, but P. orientalis was uncommon. Sergentomyia spp. were distributed fairly evenly amongst most types of vegetation investigated at both localities. The ecological distribution of sandflies and epidemiology of kala-azar in Sudan are discussed with emphasis on the association of P. orientalis with A. seyal woodlands.

Elnaiem DA; Hassan HK; Ward RD

1999-05-01

50

Associations of Phlebotomus orientalis and other sandflies with vegetation types in the eastern Sudan focus of kala-azar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abundances of Phlebotomus orientalis, P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and other sandflies were investigated in relation to different types of vegetation associated with endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan. Sandfly collection sites were in Umsalala Village (Galabat Province) and Dinder National Park (Dinder Province). Sandfly species found in the area were P. orientalis, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia africana, S. antennata, S. clydei, S. schwetzi and S. squamipleuris. Among the types of trees in the Dinder area, P. orientalis was more abundant in forests dominated by Acacia seyal than where Combretum kordofanum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Hyphaena thaibaica or Ziziphus spinachristi were the dominant trees. At Umsalala, P. papatasi was more abundant in the village than at any site with dense vegetation, but P. orientalis was uncommon. Sergentomyia spp. were distributed fairly evenly amongst most types of vegetation investigated at both localities. The ecological distribution of sandflies and epidemiology of kala-azar in Sudan are discussed with emphasis on the association of P. orientalis with A. seyal woodlands. PMID:10484166

Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, H K; Ward, R D

1999-05-01

51

Quantifying the effect of organic farming, field boundary type and landscape structure on the vegetation of field boundaries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The general aim of the study was to determine the main factors of plant species richness and composition in field boundaries. We surveyed the vegetation of field boundaries in organic and non-organic farms, recorded the field boundary type and width. We characterized landscape structure around the vegetation plots (r =250m). We classified plant species into two ecological response groups: (1) common weeds and other species occurring frequently on agricultural land, i.e. ‘agrotolerant species' (47 species), and (2) all other species intolerant to contemporary agricultural practices—so-called ‘nature-value species' (190 species). We analysed the effect of organic farming, boundary type and landscape structure on the diversity of these two species groups. We found that field boundary type and landscape structure described most of the variation in species composition of these boundaries, while organic farming had little effect. However, the analysis of plant species diversity revealed that organic farming significantly supported the species richness of high nature-value species by increasing species richness on average by two species on 4m² plot, while the richness of agrotolerant species did not depend on farming type. Boundary type had a specific impact on species diversity—ditches enhanced the richness of nature-value species and suppressed agrotolerants; woody boundaries hosted only a few agrotolerant species and road verges increased the species richness of both species groups. The richness of nature-value species benefited from wider open boundaries, while narrow boundaries hosted more agrotolerant species.

Aavik Tsipe; Liira Jaan

2010-01-01

52

Rainfall interception by the vegetation in a Mediterranean type climate  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of rainfall interception by the canopy of the vegetation is of great importance in the basin water balance, because a large part returns to the atmosphere as evaporation. The presence or absence of vegetation not only affects the amount of rainfall that reaches the ground level also affects the moisture content in soil and surface runoff. In arid or semiarid regions there are few studies related to the Mediterranean vegetation and its relationship to hydrological processes. Furthermore, most studies have characterized the interception by rainfall simulators in the laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate in situ the amount and distribution of rainfall through the process of interception by the canopy of trees and shrubs present in the hydrologic watershed of "The Cabril" (Córdoba, southern Spain). The predominant vegetation is scrub, composed mostly of rockrose (Cistus ladanifer), and arboreal formations of tree pines (Pinus pinea). The record of precipitation was performed using a rain gauge tipping bowl Eijkelkamp mark during periods of rain occurred in 2010 and 2011. The amount of precipitation intercepted by the canopy has been determined indirectly from the difference between incident precipitation and rain that passes through the canopy of vegetation, which is divided into the flow of throughfall and cortical flow. To measure the throughfall the soil surface was waterproofed. Throughfall volume that is generated after each rain event is collected in four tanks of 200 liters capacity interconnected. For measurement of cortical flow a spiral hose previously cut lengthwise was placed around the trunk in the case of tree pines. In rockrose, a container was installed around it at its base. Monitoring soil moisture was determined by moisture probes 6 Delta-T SM200 randomly distributed, which records the water content of the topsoil. Compared with rockrose, there is a higher percentage of interception in pine and lowest percentage of cortical runoff. This is due to the architecture of the rockrose and the resin secreted by the stem and leaves, acting as a water repellent and reducing the retention of intercepted rainfall. Besides, in both species decreases the capacity of interception with increasing rainfall.

Moreno-Pérez, M. F.; Roldán-Cañas, J.; Cienfuegos, I.

2012-04-01

53

Community type classification of forest vegetation in young, mixed stands, interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 53 upland mixed communities were sampled and classified into five community types: Populus tremuloides/Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Populus tremuloides/Shepherdia canadensis, Betula papyrifera-Populus tremuloides/Viburnum edule, Betula papyrifera-Populus tremuloides/Alnus crispa and Picea glauca-Betula papyrifera/ Hylocomlum splendens. Community types were described by distribution and physical environment, vegetation composition, structural features, and relation to previously described vegetation units.

Youngblood, A.

1993-04-01

54

Pan-Arctic albedo variability among tundra vegetation types: implications for ecosystem carbon cycling (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in albedo dynamics as a result of increases in vegetation stature have the potential to alter a number of biogeophysical processes in tundra ecosystems. Specifically, albedo is reduced as vegetation protrudes above snowpack, and this impacts shortwave radiation fluxes with effects on snowmelt, soil thermal regimes, and, ultimately, ecosystem carbon fluxes. Evidence exists at local scales to support some of these hypotheses, however there is a paucity of information regarding the interaction between vegetation stature and albedo within tundra ecosystems at regional and pan-Arctic scales. Here we use the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) in conjunction with MODIS albedo data to quantify differences in albedo between plant communities with different dominant vegetation types, particularly during the dynamic spring snowmelt period. Additionally, vegetation indices and climate data are used to examine other physical differences between vegetation types that may lead to variation in albedo dynamics. Within bioclimate subzones with similar temperature regimes, we find clear differences in springtime albedo between vegetation classes with different dominant growth forms. These relationships remain consistent interannually despite year-to-year differences in the absolute timing of snowmelt. Higher resolution maps of Alaskan tundra ecosystems are further used to describe these relationships in more detail. We quantify the patterns of relative differences in surface radiation budgets and evaluate its feedbacks to climate. We discuss our findings in the context of potential impacts on carbon cycling in tundra ecosystems, illustrated with examples from related work.

Loranty, M. M.; Jin, Y.; Beck, P. S.; Goetz, S. J.

2010-12-01

55

Productive vegetation: relationships between net primary productivity, vegetation types and climate change in the Wet Tropics bioregion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Full text: There is now ample evidence demonstrating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and human society (Walther ef a/. 2002). Numerous studies have shown climate change is one of the most significant threats to tropical forests, such as the Wet Tropics Heritage Area, due to their high biodiversity and endemism (Pounds ef al. 1999; Hughes 2000; Parmesan and Yohe 2003). Williams ef al. (2003) suggested that small shifts in net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of climate change could lead to potentially massive follow-on effects for the extremely diverse and vulnerable rainforest flora and fauna. It is therefore crucial to explore the relationships between NPP and local biodiversity, especially to create models for different climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, NPP in the Wet Tropics has yet to be estimated. This is the first study to provide a general NPP estimate for the Wet Tropics bioregion using climate surrogates (Schuur 2003). This technique estimates NPP in an accurate, repeatable, and cost-effective way. NPP values were linked to vegetation types and examined under various climatic and environmental conditions. Results show a significant difference in productivity according to vegetation types and climatic variables, with temperature and rainfall seasonality as the most important determining variables. Additionally, lowland and upland vegetations showed a significant difference in productivity patterns throughout the year. Vegetation types located above 1000 metres in altitude had the lowest values of mean annual productivity due to their high rainfall and low temperatures; vegetation types located below 600 metres showed increased productivity values during the wet season (December-March). Net primary productivity will certainly be impacted by changes in temperature and rainfall, due to climate change. Although an increase in NPP values can be predicted for upland areas, the more widely distributed lowlands will drastically decrease their productivity values. Information regarding the variability of net primary productivity across the Wet Tropics bioregion and its possible modifications due to climate change is crucial for management of future scenarios. The results from this study will help management agencies and conservation groups to plan accordingly

2000-01-01

56

Major vegetation types, climatological data, and solar radiation calculations for Colorado's Brush Creek valley  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we present information on the vegetative cover, climate, and solar radiation for the Brush Creek valley. A brief vegetative survey was made on October 3, 1984, to identify the vegetation types in the lowest 8 km of the valley; the reader is cautioned that this included only a small part of the Brush Creek valley. The intent was to identify the principal vegetation types, with no attempt to use available scientific sampling techniques to determine accurate relative frequencies of the vegetation types. Nevertheless, the site survey has allowed us to identify the major species of vegetation, and to make reasonably accurate differentiations of both major vegetation types on valley surfaces (the valley floor, two sidewalls, and ridgetops) and the relative abundance of major vegetation types on each surface.

Whiteman, C.D.; Lambeth, R.; Allwine, K.J.

1987-04-01

57

Participation of Xenopus Elr-type proteins in vegetal mRNA localization during oogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Directional transport of specific mRNAs is of primary biological relevance. In Xenopus oocytes, mRNA localization to the vegetal pole is important for germ layer formation and germ cell development. Using a biochemical approach, we identified Xenopus Elr-type proteins, homologs of the Hu/ELAV proteins, as novel components of the vegetal mRNA localization machinery. They bind specifically to the localization elements of several different vegetally localizing Xenopus mRNAs, and they are part of one RNP together with other localization proteins, such as Vg1RBP and XStaufen 1. Blocking Elr-type protein binding by either localization element mutagenesis or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide-mediated masking of their target RNA structures, as well as overexpression of wild type and mutant ElrB proteins, interferes with vegetal localization in Xenopus oocytes.

Arthur PK; Claussen M; Koch S; Tarbashevich K; Jahn O; Pieler T

2009-07-01

58

Vegetation type conversion in Los Penasquitos Lagoon, California: an examination of the role of watershed urbanization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to examine the role that watershed urbanization has played in changes to the vegetation types within Los Peñasquitos Lagoon, San Diego, California. Aerial photographs taken between 1928 and 1999 were used to examine changes in vegetation types. The aerial photographs were scanned into digital format and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS). A combination of image classification techniques was used to differentiate the vegetation types. Land use/cover of the Carmel Valley watershed of the Los Peñasquitos Lagoon was mapped for the same dates as the aerial photographs. A temporal geographic analysis was conducted on the conversion of areal extent of lagoon vegetation types compared to areal extent of urban development in the watershed. Soil salinity and dry season (June-September) stream discharge were measured. The results show that approximately 80.3% of the vegetation in the study area has changed types between 1928 and 1999. Increases in the areal extent of urban development within the watershed show a strong positive relationship compared to the areal extent of brackish marsh and riparian vegetation, and a strong negative relationship to the areal extent of salt panne and mudflats. There was no significant relationship between urban development and salt marsh vegetation.Dry season stream discharge has increased by an order of magnitude. The increase in stream discharge supports the hypothesis that increased freshwater has lowered soil salinity, allowing for invasion by glycophytic species. Hydrology and soil salinity appear to be significant factors for maintaining the distribution of the lagoon vegetation types and the biotic communities that rely upon them.

Greer K; Stow D

2003-04-01

59

Plant treatment, pollutant load, and soil type effects in rhizosphere ecology of trace element polluted soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Re-vegetation of trace element contaminated soils can alter the pH and chelating capacity in the rhizosphere, increasing the mobility of pollutants, which, in turn, may impact on rhizosphere ecology. In this study a short-term pot experiment was carried out in order to investigate the multi-factorial effects of: buffering capacity (sandy-loam and loam soils); pollutant load (0%, 1.3%, and 4% of pyrite sludge), and the presence/absence of plant (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) on the mobility of trace elements, soil biochemical functionality (hydrolase activities), and biological diversity (bacterial and nematode communities). The experiment was carried out with representative soils from the Guadiamar basin (SW Spain), an area where the Aznalcóllar mining spill affected over 4000ha. Results indicated that the development of rhizospheres in polluted soils (coarse-textured) increases the mobilization of trace elements. In general the presence of roots has stimulatory effects on soil quality indicators such as hydrolase activities and both bacterial and nematode communities. However, the presence of high amount of metals interferes with these beneficial effects. This study provided evidence about the complexity of the impact of growing plants on trace element polluted soils. Trace element mobilization, hydrolase activities and bacterial and nematode communities in the rhizosphere are dependent on plant species, soil type, and pollution dose.

Belén Hinojosa M; Carreira JA; García-Ruíz R; Rodríguez-Maroto JM; Daniell TJ; Griffiths BS

2010-07-01

60

Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest Florida vegetable production area has been developed to identify 'hot spots' and reservoir crops for viruses and whiteflies, and will be useful in evaluation of management strategies to decrease virus incidence in commercial fields. PMID:21549768

Adkins, Scott; Webster, Craig G; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Webb, Susan E; Roberts, Pamela D; Stansly, Philip A; Turechek, William W

2011-04-28

 
 
 
 
61

Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted viruses of vegetable crops in Florida.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A variety of fresh market vegetables, including watermelon and tomato are economically important crops in Florida. Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was first identified in squash and watermelon in Florida in 2005 and shown to cause a severe decline of watermelon vines as crops approach harvest. Florida is most economically impacted by SqVYV, although the virus has been detected more recently in Indiana and South Carolina. The origin and evolutionary history of SqVYV, one of the few members of the genus Ipomovirus within the family Potyviridae, are not known. Sequence diversity of SqVYV isolates collected at different times, from different locations and from different plant species is being analyzed for insights into the origin of the virus. More recently, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), also whitefly-transmitted, have been detected in watermelon in Florida. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was first detected in south Florida tomato crops in 1997. Several surveys have been conducted in the region to identify alternative hosts for these four viruses. Cucurbit weeds including Balsam-apple (Momordica charantia), creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula) and smellmelon (Cucumis melo var. dudaim) provide reservoirs for SqVYV, CuLCrV and/or CYSDV. Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) also can be a reservoir for CuLCrV. No wild hosts of TYLCV have been reported in Florida. The effectiveness of insecticides and silver plastic mulch to manage whiteflies and mitigate TYLCV has been demonstrated and is currently being evaluated for SqVYV, CuLCrV and CYSDV. In addition, potential sources of SqVYV resistance have been identified in greenhouse and field screening of watermelon germplasm. Further studies to refine these sources of resistance are underway. Lastly, a comprehensive map of 33,560 hectares (82,928 acres) of vegetable fields in the three counties comprising the majority of the southwest Florida vegetable production area has been developed to identify 'hot spots' and reservoir crops for viruses and whiteflies, and will be useful in evaluation of management strategies to decrease virus incidence in commercial fields.

Adkins S; Webster CG; Kousik CS; Webb SE; Roberts PD; Stansly PA; Turechek WW

2011-08-01

62

Vegetation ecological restoration during geothermic exploratory perforation: A case study in Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Las Tres Virgenes, B.C.S., Mexico developed the Geothermic exploratory drilling of the area. One of the main recommendations of our Environmental Impact Assessment Study includes transplantation of the plant individuals found in the zones of roads and drilling platforms. In this work we describe the methodologies used to transplant the vegetal individuals found in such zones. We listed the species selected and the survivorship rate obtained for every one of them. From a total of 4,266 transplanted individuals, including many endemic species, a total of 2349 survived. Members of the Agavaceae and Cactaceae families show the maximum survivorship rate, meanwhile the members of the Burseraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fouqueriaceae families exhibited the minimum survivorship rate (between 12.7% and 20%).

Ortega-Rubio, A.; Salinas, F.; Naranjo, A. [and others

1997-12-31

63

An ecological approach to the assessment of vegetation cover on inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vascular plants have been collected from abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in three mining areas in Canada. The collection was evaluated to determine some characteristics of vegetation development and to identify the plants which will persist on the sites. A total of 170 species were identified. Many of the species are widely distributed in North America, none has been reported as rare in any of the locations from which they were collected. Species richness was highest on Bancroft sites and lowest on Uranium City sites, though values were variable between sites. Forty-four per cent of the total number of species were found on only a single site. Only seven species occurred on more than half of the tailings sites and in all three mining areas. There was no difference between amended and unamended sites in terms of either species richness or species composition. There was no apparent relationship between species richness and either site size, site age or amendment history. The results of this survey suggest that the uranium mill tailings sites are at an early stage of colonization where the seed input from surrounding areas and the heterogeneity of the sites are factors determining species composition and species richness. The fate of an individual once it has reached the site will be determined by its ability to establish on the sites. A perennial growth habit and the ability to expand clonally are important characteristics of the species on the tailings. The species on the tailings are commonly found in a variety of habitats. Consistent with the observation that the tailings sites are at a stage of early colonization, we find that the few species widely distributed across sites are all characteristic pioneering species with wide environmental tolerances. These species included Populus tremuloides, P. balsamifera, Scirpus cyperinus, Equisetum arvense, Betula papyrifera, Achillea millefolium and Typha spp. The vegetation on the tailings is likely to be characterized by these species for a long period of time. (author)

1982-01-01

64

Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the 1990’s, there has been increasing scientific interest in investigating place effects on dietary and exercise behaviors. The two overall aims of this dissertation are designed to investigate at an area level and at an individual level, how food and physical activity resources are spatially distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study investigating the health and health behaviors of 11-to-15-year old school children. Outcome measures for these studies were infrequent less than daily intake of fruit and vegetables (Paper II) and frequent vigorous physical activity of one hour or more per day (Paper IV). The individual dataset was appended with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths). The neighborhood-based analyses uses validated and cross-referenced objective data about food and physical activity resources in each of the 400 neighborhoods in Copenhagen and combines them with area-level socioeconomic and demographic data derived from The National Statistics Bank of Denmark. Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In general, study findings indicate no clear socioeconomic patterning of food or physical activity resources by examining neighborhood units alone. For example, there was no association between areal income and supermarket exposure in Copenhagen, while low income areas were more likely to be exposed to fewer fast food outlets than high-income neighborhoods (RR = 0.66; CI: 0.46-0.97). Areas with a high proportion of residents lacking a high school diploma had greater exposure to physical activity resources such as, public open space (OR = 1.90; CI: 1.15-3.15), cycling and walking paths (OR = 3.46; CI: 1.86-6.42) and one or more sports facilities (OR = 2.05; CI: 1.36-3.10) than the referent. Areas with high proportions of children were less likely to have exposure to connected streets (OR = 0.51; 0.31-0.83) than areas with low proportions of children. Results from individual-level studies generally show that while socioeconomic status remains an important individual predictor for diet and exercise behavior, the exposure to resources in the neighborhood environment may differentially affect children according to social class background. Children from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to supermarkets had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.43

Svastisalee, Chalida

2011-01-01

65

[Reproductive phenology of three vegetation types from a coastal plain of Paraguana Penninsula, Venezuela].  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated by herbaceous species; woody species were mostly frequent in the mangrove vegetation. Phenological data revealed that 14 (27.5%) plant species flower and fruit year-round; 23 (45.1%) plant species flower and fruit at the beginning of the wet season; seven (13.7%) plant species flower at the end of wet season, and seven (13.7%) more flower at the beginning of the dry season. Flowsring and fruiting phenology showed similar frequency distribution during the year; reproductive phenology was independent of life forms. Flowering and fruiting peaks occurred during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season for trees and perennial herbs, and from one to three months later for shrubs and annual herbs. The lowest proportion of flowering and fruiting occurred before rain increase for all life forms. Flowering and fruiting phenologies were similar for the three vegetation types evaluated: flowering peak occurred during the lowest value of precipitation, three to four months after precipitation peak, and fruiting peak occurred four months later from the precipitation peak. These results suggest that flowering and fruiting phenology were not affected by life form and vegetation types. The peaks of flowering and fruiting during the lowest values of precipitation may be considered as a slow and late response to the precipitation maximum, and to the proximity between maximum and minimum of precipitation. PMID:12945492

Lemus-Jiménez, Luis José; Ramírez, Nelson

2002-01-01

66

[Reproductive phenology of three vegetation types from a coastal plain of Paraguana Penninsula, Venezuela].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive phenology of 51 plant species was evaluated according to life form and vegetation types in a coastal plain of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Estado Falcón, Venezuela. Plant species distribution according to three vegetation types (herbaceous littoral, herbaceous psamophil, and mangrove area) was determined. Life form frequency was different according to vegetation type. Herbaceous littoral and herbaceous psamophil vegetation were dominated by herbaceous species; woody species were mostly frequent in the mangrove vegetation. Phenological data revealed that 14 (27.5%) plant species flower and fruit year-round; 23 (45.1%) plant species flower and fruit at the beginning of the wet season; seven (13.7%) plant species flower at the end of wet season, and seven (13.7%) more flower at the beginning of the dry season. Flowsring and fruiting phenology showed similar frequency distribution during the year; reproductive phenology was independent of life forms. Flowering and fruiting peaks occurred during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season for trees and perennial herbs, and from one to three months later for shrubs and annual herbs. The lowest proportion of flowering and fruiting occurred before rain increase for all life forms. Flowering and fruiting phenologies were similar for the three vegetation types evaluated: flowering peak occurred during the lowest value of precipitation, three to four months after precipitation peak, and fruiting peak occurred four months later from the precipitation peak. These results suggest that flowering and fruiting phenology were not affected by life form and vegetation types. The peaks of flowering and fruiting during the lowest values of precipitation may be considered as a slow and late response to the precipitation maximum, and to the proximity between maximum and minimum of precipitation.

Lemus-Jiménez LJ; Ramírez N

2002-01-01

67

Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account.

Schaefer CE; do Amaral EF; de Mendonça BA; Oliveira H; Lani JL; Costa LM; Fernandes Filho EI

2008-05-01

68

Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account. PMID:17846909

Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

2007-09-11

69

An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 1. The Than-Droogeveld section  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A detailed classification, description and mapping of the Than-Droogeveld section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape Province, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as an ecological basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. A hierarchical classification, as well as description, ecological interpretation and a vegetation map are presented. In the phytosociological table 11 major plant communities are recognised.

H. Bezuidenhout

1994-01-01

70

An Ecological Study of Roadside Vegetation and Soils in Sahiwal District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the floristic composition of roadside vegetation and levels of some heavy metals in roadside soils in Sahiwal district, Pakistan. Among sixty recorded species, the main grass species include Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Panicum turgidum, Cyperus rotundus and Cenchrus biflorus. The dominant species exhibited little variation between different zones of verges. Other species however, showed preferences for certain zones of the verges indicating differences in microhabitat conditions in the verges. The roadside soils were analysed for lead, copper, manganese and zinc levels. The amount of total lead, zinc, copper and manganese varied from 0.5 to 48.4, 37.7 to 109.9, 3.8 to 44.3 and 170 to 258.5 ? g g-1, respectively with a mean values of 9.4, 63.0, 31.4 and 218 ? g g-1. The levels of heavy metals in the roadside soils indicated that these soils were non-contaminated.

K.F. Akbar; Z. Ahmad; M.A. Shad; T.M. Ansari

2003-01-01

71

Pollination ecology of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) in Central Brazil cerrado vegetation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pollination ecology and breeding systems of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook., and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. were investigated in an area of cerrado vegetation in the Federal District of Brazil. These species occur sympatrically, flower massively and synchronously for a month, during the dry season (July to September). Both have diurnal anthesis, with similar floral structures, a yellow tubular corolla and produce nectar. Fourteen species of bees visited both Tabebuia species, but, only three Centris species and Bombus morio, were considered potential pollinators, because of their high frequency on the flowers and their efficiency in carrying pollen. Tests on the breeding systems of T. aurea and T. ochracea demonstrated that boths species are self-incompatible, with late-acting self-incompatibility. The proportion of fruit set from cross pollination (T. aurea 17.2% and T. ochracea 12.3%) in both species was low considering the great number of flowers displayed. This suggests a lack of maternal resources for fruit-set. The great amount of seeds per fruit (about 92 in T. aurea and 285 in T. ochracea) may represent an investment of maternal resources allocated on higher quality of fertilized ovules.

BARROS MARILUZA GRANJA

2001-01-01

72

[Fine root biomass of four main vegetation types in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, Northwest China].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By the method of soil core sampling, this paper studied the fine root biomass, soil water content, and soil bulk density in 0-40 cm soil layer of four main vegetation types (Picea crassifolia forest, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, deciduous shrubs, and desert grassland) in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, and the fine root biomass in the 0-40 cm soil layer of P. crassifolia forests with the ages of 50-, 70-, and 100 a. The fine root biomass of the four vegetation types was mainly distributed in 0-20 cm soil layer, with the rank of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. crassifolia forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, and the fine root biomass of P. tabulaeformis forest was significantly higher than that of the other three vegetation types. The fine root biomass of the P. crassifolia forests with different ages was 70 a > 100 a > 50 a, and there were no significant differences in the live fine root biomass ratio and dead fine root biomass ratio among the three P. crassifolia forests. The soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil layer of the four vegetation types was P. crassifolia forest > P. tabulaeformis forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, while the soil bulk density followed an opposite pattern, and was significantly negatively correlated with the fine root biomass.

Su JS; Cheng JM; Gao Y; Qiu ZH; Cao HQ

2013-03-01

73

Study on vegetation community's structure of degraded grassland of noxious and miscellaneous grass type  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the degraded grassland of noxious and miscellaneous grass type, according to its different degree of the degradation and the distribution of the Stellera chaejasme L., the main noxious grass on this grassland type, the grassland can be plotted to five types: type 1, with Stellera chamaejasme density range of 0--19%; type 2, with Stellera chamaejasme density range of 20%--39%; type 3, with Stellera chamaejasme density range of 40%--59%; type 4, with Stellera chamaejasme density range of 60%--79%; type 5, with Stellera chamaejasme density range of 80%--95%. After research on the vegetation's constitution and function and the degradation regulation of the five types, the result shows taht on the mountain grassland with S.Krylovii Roshev and A. cristatum L. Gaertn as the main advantage grasses, vegetation structure has relative stability. But due to herds increasing, the competition among different kind plants changes. As a result, Stellera chamaejasme L., with its special competition ability, its numbers and effects increasing step by step in the vegetation community. During the processes of the Stellera chamaejasme L increasing, the output over the ground and the density of the eatable grass such as S.Krylovii Roshev and A.cristatum L. Gaerth decreased. Following with the increasing of the Stellera chamaejasme L, the variety index Shannon-Wiener and the equality index Pielou are all changed from low to high and then to low again, but the superiority index Simpson takes on a opposite trend. At last the advanced grass of the vegetation community has been changed. Stellera chamaejasme L. changed from minor to major. So the natural grassland has been degraded by the Stellera chamaejasme L. On the basis of the above research, we have also brought forward some countermeasures to resume and enhance the production of such degraded grassland.

Zhao Chengzhang; Pan Shengyue; Yin Cuiqin; He Xuebin

2004-01-01

74

Contribution of different vegetable types to exogenous nitrate and nitrite exposure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports the levels of nitrate and nitrite of 34 vegetable samples, including different varieties of cabbage, lettuce, spinaches, parsley and turnips, collected in several locations of an intensive agricultural area (Modivas, Vila do Conde, northern Portugal). Nitrate levels ranged between 54 and 2440mg [formula removed] kg?¹, while nitrite levels ranged between 1.1 and 57mg [formula removed] kg?¹. The maximum residue levels established for nitrate in spinach and lettuce samples were not exceeded. Nitrate and nitrite levels reported in the literature for the same type of samples are reviewed, as well as the contribution of vegetables to nitrate and nitrite dietary exposure of populations.

Correia Manuela; Barroso Ângela; Barroso MFátima; Soares Débora; Oliveira MBPP; Delerue-Matos Cristina

2010-06-01

75

Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey)

1997-02-01

76

Relating Ecological Properties of Habitat Types to Differences in Aspen Stand Structure and Succession for Managing Timber and Wildlife Resources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because aspen (Populus spp.) can grow on a range of site conditions, understanding spatial and temporal variability in aspen physiognomy is challenging but critical for developing plans to meet economic and ecological objectives. The objectives of this study were to quantify temporal differences in aspen physiognomy within and among different habitat types (HTs) in Michigan and to recommend how these results could be used to sustain timber and wildlife resources. We spatially defined HT boundaries and investigated ecological differences of aspen in three age classes (20-29, 50-59, and >70 years) and five HTs, ranging from xeric sand to mesic loamy soils. HTs characterized by xeric soils supported bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) and oak (Quercus), mesic sandy soils supported the greatest (P < 0.10) conifer cover, and mesic loamy soils supported a thick understory and mixed hardwood species. Timber (pulpwood) volume of stands >50 years differed (P < 0.10) between HTs (58.40-82.15 m3/ha in the 50-year age class; 77.94-100.84 m3/ha in the 70-year age class) and was lowest in HTs on extremes of the soil moisture and texture gradient. The results define geographic areas with different potentials for vegetation development, aspen structure, timber production, and wildlife habitat suitability.

Felix Alexandra; Campa HenryIII

2010-03-01

77

Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

2012-07-01

78

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

Paredes D; Cayuela L; Gurr GM; Campos M

2013-01-01

79

[Ecological surveillance on breeding ground for Oncomelania hupensis snails in the areas prevalent with islet-type schistosomiasis using remote sensing technology].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To probe rational indices suitable for ecological surveillance on breeding ground for Oncomelania hupensis snails in areas prevalent with islet-type schisitosomiasis using remote sensing technology. METHODS: Three adjacent islets, prevalent with islet-type schistosomiasis, along the Yangtze River within the boundaries of Dongzhi County, Anhui Province were selected as study field for remote sensing analysis. Multi-spectral data were composed and non-supervisedly classified in computer with Idisi software for remote sensing analysis. Values of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation index (GVI), bright index (BI), which reflect the greenness and brightness of landscape, were also calculated. Finally, all the results were comprehensively analyzed, combined with data from the field investigation. RESULTS: NDVI, GVI and BI could depict characteristics of the landscape quantitatively. Values of NDVI, BI and GVI were varied in different types of landscapes, and 95% confidence interval of these values suitable for breeding of snails was 0.0522 approximately 0.3566, 2.4162 approximately 28.2672 and 29.3404 approximately 40.3135, respectively. Classification of NDVI showed that type 5 anf type 6 were main breeding ground for snails, and type 4 with values of NDVI from 0 to 0.1 was potential areas for snail propagation. Classification of GVI showed that types 5, 6 and 7 were main breeding ground for snails, and also type 4 with values of GVI from 2 to 10 was potential areas for snail propagation. Both NDVI and GVI showed type 2 and type 3 were temporarily not suitable for snail breeding. CONCLUSION: Index figures of NDVI and GVI re-formed by reasonable classification could reflect not only breeding ground for snails and range of the areas for snail propagation in islets, but also their evolving rules, i.e., status of new marshland formation and vegetation growth.

Zhang SQ; Jiang QW; Wang TP; Zhao GM; Ge JH

2003-09-01

80

Spatial variability models of soil respiration from some vegetation types in Maritime Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil respiration is an important part of the terrestrial carbon cycling and is influenced by several aspects, such as type and distribution of vegetation. In this work we evaluated the spatial variability of the soil respiration (or soil CO2 emission) in three sites located in Maritime Antarctica at Admiralty Bay, King George Island under contrasting vegetation, representative of this region: (I) a mixed Deschampsia/Mosses field, (II) a moss carpet of Sanionia uncinata and (III) a grass field of Deschampsia Antarctica. Soil respiration was measured in a 60-point regularly spaced grid previously installed at each site. The grid size was 3 x 1.5 meter with a minimum distance of 0.5 m between grid points in March 2009 during the morning at site I and afternoon at sites II and III. The spatial variability was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and the adjustment of the semivariogram models to the soil respiration and soil temperature data. The model adjusted to the semivariogram was used in order to generate the so-called kriging map by interpolation techniques, estimating the studied property at non-sampled places. Higher mean emission was observed in the Deschampsia field (4.13 µmol m-2 s-1), but the highest variability was detected in the mixed vegetation site I. The overall results indicate that soil temperature is not directly related to the spatial pattern of the soil respiration in the studied sites. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate for emission in all studied sites. Temperature values presented degree of spatial dependence classified as strong for sites I and III and moderate in site II. CO2 emission ranges were 1.29, 2.23 and 2.79 m for sites I - II - III, respectively. Higher range values observed in site II and III suggest higher emission homogeneity. In mixed vegetation at site I, points under Deschampsia Antarctica had an overall higher mean respiration (1.49 µmol m-2 s-1) compared with remaining points under mosses tuffs (1.32 µmol m-2 s-1). Kriging maps of soil CO2 emission and soil temperature indicate a more continuity of isolines for emission maps from sites II and III. This can also be observed in soil temperature maps, suggesting that vegetation cover may also control the continuity or discontinuity of both properties in space. Therefore distribution of soil respiration and soil temperature did not appear to be related to soil type, but more associated to the vegetation type and distribution at each site.

La Scala, Newton, Jr.; Mendonça, Eduardo S.; Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Dimas, Felipe N.; Schaefer, Carlos Eduardo G.

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

A broad approach to abrupt boundaries: looking beyond the boundary at soil attributes within and across tropical vegetation types.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to "rainforest soil" than to "woodland soil". Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312

Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G; Moles, Angela T

2013-04-10

82

A broad approach to abrupt boundaries: looking beyond the boundary at soil attributes within and across tropical vegetation types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll boundaries in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation boundaries. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across boundary transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the boundary is more similar to "rainforest soil" than to "woodland soil". Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at boundaries and in non-boundary sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. Finally, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation boundaries and edge effects worldwide.

Warman L; Bradford MG; Moles AT

2013-01-01

83

The ecohydrological interaction of snow and vegetation type along a climate gradient in the Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have investigated the questions of sensitivity of snowpack dynamics, energy, or carbon fluxes with respect to different plant functional types (PFT) in a mountain ecosystem. They are hampered by the sharp microclimate gradients that occur across altitudinal zones and in conditions of complex topography. A mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris, is used to elucidate patterns of carbon and water fluxes across gradients of microclimates and PFTs (grass, deciduous and evergreen trees) typical of an Alpine system. The ecohydrological model is validated to reproduce snowpack dynamics for forested and open sites worldwide using the Snowmip-2 dataset. The model has also been confirmed to reproduce vegetation productivity and energy fluxes for several locations in an Alpine climate or similar conditions (Fluxnet dataset). Two synthetic climate gradients are used. One is representative of a dry alpine internal valley and the other one of a wet exposed mountain side. Synthetic climate gradients are constructed to represent variability of conditions with elevation using ground observations of the Meteo-Swiss network and an hourly weather generator, AWE-GEN. Specifically, observed data permit the parameterization of the weather generator and the simulation of co-variation among the principal climate drivers, i.e., precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and atmospheric pressure for elevation bands from 500 up to 3500 m a.s.l. Forced with different climate conditions, the three PFTs are allowed to evolve across the elevation gradient and for dry and wet conditions. The sensitivity of hydrological and carbon fluxes to the gradients of climate and vegetation types are addressed by simulating 30 years of ecohydrological dynamics. The representation of within canopy wind profile has been found of paramount importance in providing reliable results of vegetation-snow interaction. The approach allows one to infer complexities and characteristic signatures of PFTs on dynamics emerging from the interaction of climate, snow, and vegetation properties.

Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Rimkus, S.; Caporali, E.; Burlando, P.

2011-12-01

84

Dung beetle assemblage structure in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve: responses to a mosaic of landscape types, vegetation communities, and dung types.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is a private game reserve covering 1,020 km(2) in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has been created from a number of reclaimed farms and restocked with large indigenous mammals. Two surveys were conducted to inventory the dung beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and determine their spatial patterns and food type associations. The spatial survey used pig dung-baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle distribution across three main landscape types (plains, dunes, hills) comprising six principal vegetation communities. The food study examined their relative associations with carrion and four different dung types within a single vegetation community. A total of 70 species was recorded. Because the food association study was spatially restricted and conducted under drought conditions, abundance and species richness (47 species) were much lower than in the spatial study (64 species), which was conducted after substantial rainfall. Principal spatial differences in species abundance structure of assemblages were between the sandy southwest plains and dunes; the sandy northern dune fields and plains; and the rocky hills. Forty species analyzed in the food association study showed clear distributional biases to carrion or the dung of elephant (monogastric herbivore), pig (omnivore), cattle and sheep (ruminant herbivores), or pig and cattle. The results (1) show how dung beetle assemblage structure is locally diversified across the heterogeneous landscape of the reserve and (2) indicate how the different dung types dropped by a diverse assemblage of indigenous mammals may variously favor different species of dung beetles. PMID:20550793

Davis, Adrian L V; Scholtz, Clarke H; Kryger, Ute; Deschodt, Christian M; Strümpher, Werner P

2010-06-01

85

Dung beetle assemblage structure in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve: responses to a mosaic of landscape types, vegetation communities, and dung types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tswalu Kalahari Reserve is a private game reserve covering 1,020 km(2) in the Northern Cape, South Africa. It has been created from a number of reclaimed farms and restocked with large indigenous mammals. Two surveys were conducted to inventory the dung beetle fauna (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) and determine their spatial patterns and food type associations. The spatial survey used pig dung-baited pitfall traps to examine dung beetle distribution across three main landscape types (plains, dunes, hills) comprising six principal vegetation communities. The food study examined their relative associations with carrion and four different dung types within a single vegetation community. A total of 70 species was recorded. Because the food association study was spatially restricted and conducted under drought conditions, abundance and species richness (47 species) were much lower than in the spatial study (64 species), which was conducted after substantial rainfall. Principal spatial differences in species abundance structure of assemblages were between the sandy southwest plains and dunes; the sandy northern dune fields and plains; and the rocky hills. Forty species analyzed in the food association study showed clear distributional biases to carrion or the dung of elephant (monogastric herbivore), pig (omnivore), cattle and sheep (ruminant herbivores), or pig and cattle. The results (1) show how dung beetle assemblage structure is locally diversified across the heterogeneous landscape of the reserve and (2) indicate how the different dung types dropped by a diverse assemblage of indigenous mammals may variously favor different species of dung beetles.

Davis AL; Scholtz CH; Kryger U; Deschodt CM; Strümpher WP

2010-06-01

86

Some pathogenetic aspects of influence of ecological factors on the vegetative and haemodynamic status at children of Belarus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paradoxal sympathic vegetative regulation of central haemodynamice and the fall of basal activity of sympathoadrenal system at children under the combination chronic radio-chemical influence were established

2001-01-01

87

Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Major Megetation Types (MVT) and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA) and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on (more) the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT's were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana-Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum-Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum-Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata-Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis-Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon-Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida-Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora-Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

Mostert, Theo H.C.; Bredenkamp, George J.; Klopper, Hannes L.; Verwey, Cornie; Mostert, Rachel E.; Hahn, Norbert

2008-01-01

88

Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese.

Guillén MD; Palencia G; Sopelana P; Ibargoitia ML

2007-06-01

89

Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

S.P. Rupp

2005-10-01

90

Ecological niche study of constructive species of the vegetation ecotone of temperate grassland and warm--temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest-----Taking the vegetation on the south and north slopes of Heng Mts.Shanxi for example  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Heng Mts.,Shanxi is located in the ecotone of temperate grassland zone and warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone according to China Vegetation Regionalization.Adopting Shannon-Wiener,the niche breadth index,the article classified constructive species on both slopes into 3 ecologic groups respectively.Artemisia brachyloba,Dendranthema chanetii,Carex lanceolata and Sanguisorba alpina of the south slope,and Carex lanceolata,Denfranthema zawwadskii,Poa sphondyloes,Siline jenisseensis and Sanguisorba alpina of the north slope occupy a broader niche, showing an apparent niche generalization. By contrast, Potentilla anserine, Spiraea trilobata, Ostryopsis davidiana and Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis of the south slope, Stipa bungeana, Puccinellia distans, Artemisia brachyloba, Polygonum viviparum, Anaphalis hancockii, Spiraea trilobata, Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and Populus cathayana of the north slope occupy a much narrower niche, which is closely related to their environment. The 16 constructive populations of the south slope form 240 species counterparts, among which 100, that's 41.9% of the total, have niche overlaps, indicating that there exits niche overlap among the 16 species of the south slope. The 21 constructive populations of the north slope form 420 species counterparts, among which 69, that's 16.4% of the total, have niche overlaps, indicating that there does not exit an apparent niche overlap among the 21 species. The apparent separation in ecologic niche among populations suggests a significant difference as to their utility of recourses. All of the above are caused by the evenness the south slope while the sheerness the north, which leads to a continuous spreading of vegetation on the south and many discontinuities making overlap an rare occurrence on the north because ofmuch sharper rise of elevation. By an overall comparison and contrast of niche breadth and niche overlap of the constructive species of each slope, an establishment of Hengshan Mts. as the borderline between temperate grassland zone and warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone can achieved more objectively.

Ma Xiaoyong; Shangguan Tieliang; Zhang Feng

2006-01-01

91

Evaluation of the shelf-life of vegetable-type soybean pods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shelf-life of the vegetable-type soybean pods stored under different conditions was evaluated by chemical characteristics and color. The pods were harvested in the R6 stage and stored either at 30 or 7ºC for 9 d. After the storage period, the pods were blanched and threshed, and the immature green grains were used for the analysis. The protein content decreased after 6 d of storage at 7ºC. There was no difference in the lipid content after the storage at 30 and 7ºC for 9 d. The starch and sucrose contents decreased after the first day of storage at 30ºC. There was no difference in trypsin inhibitor activity until 6 d of storage at 30 and 7ºC. The green color of the pods that was an indication of the quality that was maintained when stored at 7ºC during 3 d. To preserve the quality of vegetable-type soybean, pods should be stored at 30ºC and consumed within 24 h or stored at 7ºC for up to 3 d of storage.

Andréia Cristina Santana; Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi; José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos Leite; Josemeyre Bonifácio da Silva; Elza Iouko Ida

2012-01-01

92

Evaluation of the shelf-life of vegetable-type soybean pods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The shelf-life of the vegetable-type soybean pods stored under different conditions was evaluated by chemical characteristics and color. The pods were harvested in the R6 stage and stored either at 30 or 7ºC for 9 d. After the storage period, the pods were blanched and threshed, and the immature green grains were used for the analysis. The protein content decreased after 6 d of storage at 7ºC. There was no difference in the lipid content after the storage at 30 and 7ºC (more) for 9 d. The starch and sucrose contents decreased after the first day of storage at 30ºC. There was no difference in trypsin inhibitor activity until 6 d of storage at 30 and 7ºC. The green color of the pods that was an indication of the quality that was maintained when stored at 7ºC during 3 d. To preserve the quality of vegetable-type soybean, pods should be stored at 30ºC and consumed within 24 h or stored at 7ºC for up to 3 d of storage.

Santana, Andréia Cristina; Carrão-Panizzi, Mercedes Concórdia; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio da; Ida, Elza Iouko

2012-08-01

93

Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arctiinae moths include nearly 11,000 species worldwide, of which approximately 700 species occur in the Brazilian Cerrado. The aim of this study was to describe the species composition of Arctiinae, as well as the variation in annual and nightly moth activity, in two Cerrado vegetation types. We sampled moths one night per month from September 2008 to June 2009, in the gallery forest and in the cerrado sensu stricto in the Jardim Botânico de Brasília. We collected 395 (more) tiger moths belonging to 65 morphospecies; 74% of the species belonged to the tribe Arctiini and 26% to Lithosiini. Thirty-one species (47.7%) occurred only in the gallery forest, 13 (20%) occurred only in the cerrado sensu stricto, and 21 (32.3%) occurred in both vegetation types. Additionally, we found the greatest species richness between 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m., and these hours were associated with 21 and 22 species, respectively. Most species (51.8%) were active for up to three hours during the night. In general, the species composition differed between the dry and rainy seasons, and the similarity of the fauna also varied hourly. Based on our results, we suggest that rapid inventories of Arctiinae be performed in both rainy and dry seasons, and sampling should be carried out the entire night.

Scherrer, Scheila; Ferro, Viviane G.; Ramos, Marina N.; Diniz, Ivone R.

2013-04-01

94

Ecology of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the primary vegetable production chain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an increased concern that plants might be more important as a carrier for human enteric pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars than previously thought. This review summarizes the knowledge available on the ecology of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the pr...

Franz, E.; Bruggen, A.H.C., van

95

The historical ecology of Namibian rangelands: vegetation change since 1876 in response to local and global drivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of both local and global drivers on long-term changes in the vegetation of Namibia's extensive rangelands was investigated. Fifty-two historical photographs of the Palgrave Expedition of 1876 were re-photographed and used to document changes over more than 130 years, in grass, shrub and tree cover within three major biomes along a 1200km climatic gradient in central and southern Namibia. We showed that patterns of change are correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and that below a threshold of around 250mm, vegetation has remained remarkably stable regardless of land-use or tenure regime. Above this threshold, an increase in tree cover is linked to the rainfall gradient, the legacies of historical events in the late 19th century, subsequent transformations in land-use and increased atmospheric CO(2). We discuss these findings in relation to pastoral and settler societies, paleo- and historical climatic trends and predictions of vegetation change under future global warming scenarios. We argue that changes in land-use associated with colonialism (decimation of megaherbivores and wildlife browsers; fire suppression, cattle ranching), as well as the effects of CO(2) fertilisation provide the most parsimonious explanations for vegetation change. We found no evidence that aridification, as projected under future climate change scenarios, has started in the region. This study provided empirical evidence and theoretical insights into the relative importance of local and global drivers of change in the savanna environments of central and southern Namibia and global savanna ecosystems more generally.

Rohde RF; Hoffman MT

2012-02-01

96

Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS.

Lakshmipriya N; Gayathri R; Praseena K; Vijayalakshmi P; Geetha G; Sudha V; Krishnaswamy K; Anjana RM; Henry J; Mohan V

2013-03-01

97

Type of vegetable oils used in cooking and risk of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little data on the type of vegetable oil used and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians. Food frequency questionnaire was used to document the type of cooking oil in 1875 adults in Chennai city. MS was assessed by new harmonizing criteria. The prevalence of MS was higher among sunflower oil users (30.7%) than palmolein (23.2%) and traditional oil (17.1%, p < 0.001) users. The higher prevalence of MS in sunflower oil group persisted even when stratified according to body mass index, except in obese groups. The risk of MS was further compounded by quantity of refined cereals consumed. Higher LA%E and linoleic acid/alpha-linolenic acid ratio in sunflower oil probably contributes to increased risk of MS. PMID:23025245

Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Praseena, Kallingal; Vijayalakshmi, Parthasarathy; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Sudha, Vasudevan; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Henry, Jeyakumar; Mohan, Viswanathan

2012-10-01

98

Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

2009-01-01

99

The vegetation types and management units of Goedverwacht farm in the mixed bushveld of the Northern Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of the vegetation of Goedverwacht farm in the mixed bushveld of the Northern Province is presented. Releves were compiled in 33 stratified random sample plots. Eight distinct plant communities were identified by means ofBraun-Blanquet pro-cedures. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) was applied to the floristic data set using the computer programme DECORANA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis) to determine a probable environmental gradient and to facilitate in the identification of management units. The computer programme CANOCO (Canonical Correspondence Analysis) was used to apply canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to the floristic data set. Two management units were determined by means of vegetation ordinations and soil data. A classification, description and ecological interpretation of the plant communities as well as a description of the management units are presented.

L. Breebaart; M. Deutschlander

1997-01-01

100

Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found. PMID:23741465

Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T

2013-05-31

 
 
 
 
101

Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found.

Branco P; Santos JM; Katopodis C; Pinheiro A; Ferreira MT

2013-01-01

102

Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

Gómez-Mendoza L; Galicia L; Cuevas-Fernández ML; Magaña V; Gómez G; Palacio-Prieto JL

2008-07-01

103

Assessing onset and length of greening period in six vegetation types in Oaxaca, Mexico, using NDVI-precipitation relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the normalized vegetation index (NDVI) for the state of Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, were analyzed in terms of precipitation anomalies for the period 1997-2003. Using 10-day averages in NDVI data, obtained from AVHRR satellite information, the response of six types of vegetation to intra-annual and inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation were examined. The onset and temporal evolution of the greening period were studied in terms of precipitation variations through spectral analysis (coherence and phase). The results indicate that extremely dry periods, such as those observed in 1997 and 2001, resulted in low values of NDVI for much of Oaxaca, while good precipitation periods produced a rapid response (20-30 days of delay) from a stressed to a non-stressed condition in most vegetation types. One of these rapid changes occurred during the transition from dry to wet conditions during the summer of 1998. As in many parts of the tropics and subtropics, the NDVI reflects low frequency variations in precipitation on several spatial scales. Even after long dry periods (2001-2002), the various regional vegetation types are capable of recovering when a good rainy season takes place, indicating that vegetation types such as the evergreen forests in the high parts of Oaxaca respond better to rainfall characteristics (timing, amount) than to temperature changes, as is the case in most mid-latitudes. This finding may be relevant to prepare climate change scenarios for forests, where increases in surface temperature and precipitation anomalies are expected.

Gómez-Mendoza, L.; Galicia, L.; Cuevas-Fernández, M. L.; Magaña, V.; Gómez, G.; Palacio-Prieto, J. L.

2008-07-01

104

Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267) minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*). The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.

Karina Czaikoski; Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi; Josemeyre Bonifácio da Silva; Elza Iouko Ida

2012-01-01

105

Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267) minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*). The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC fi (more) lm, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.

Czaikoski, Karina; Carrão-Panizzi, Mercedes Concórdia; Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio da; Ida, Elza Iouko

2012-08-01

106

Wildfires alter rodent community structure across four vegetation types in southern California, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

We surveyed burned and unburned plots across four habitat reserves in San Diego County, California, USA, in 2005 and 2006, to assess the effects of the 2003 wildfires on the community structure and relative abundance of rodent species. The reserves each contained multiple vegetation types (coastal sage scrub, chaparral, woodland, and grassland) and spanned from 250 m to 1078 m in elevation. Multivariate analyses revealed a more simplified rodent community structure in all burned habitats in comparison to unburned habitats. Reduction in shrub and tree cover was highly predictive of changes in post-fire rodent community structure in the burned coastal sage scrub and chaparral habitats. Reduction in cover was not predictive for the less substantially burned woodlands and grasslands, for which we hypothesized that interspecific competition played a greater role in post-fire community structure. Across vegetation types, generalists and open habitat specialists typically increased in relative abundance, whereas closed habitat specialists decreased. We documented significant increases in relative abundance of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner) and Dulzura kangaroo rat (Dipodomys simulans Merriam). In contrast, we found significant decreases in relative abundance for the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus Gambel), San Diego pocket mouse (Chaetodipus fallax Merriam), desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida Thomas), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii Baird). Currently, our research program involves assessment of whether habitat conservation plans (HCPs) in southern California provide long-term protection to HCP covered species, as well as preserve ecosystem function. The scenario of increased wildfires needs to be incorporated into this assessment. We discuss our results in relation to management and conservation planning under a future scenario of larger and more frequent wildfires in southern California.

Brehme, Cheryl S.; Clark, Denise R.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Fisher, Robert N.

2011-01-01

107

A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes  

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Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1): 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil) de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio) produjo un número puro (T). Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas) y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas). Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

Mosti Stefano; Alessio Papini; Luigi Brighigna

2008-01-01

108

Social support and social-ecological resources as mediators of lifestyle intervention effects for type 2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to determine if an intervention could change social support and social-ecological resources of post-menopausal women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and if those changes mediated the intervention's effects on health behaviors and outcomes. Women (N = 279) were randomly assigned to receive a comprehensive 6-month Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP) or usual care from their physicians (UC). MLP was successful in changing social embeddedness and social-ecological resources, but not a measure of perceived support. Changes in social-ecological resources mediated intervention effects on fat consumption, exercise and glycemic control. The experimental manipulation of mediators and the demonstrated mediation effects support the conclusion that social-ecological resources can contribute to improvements in healthful lifestyles for women with type 2 diabetes.

Barrera M Jr; Toobert DJ; Angell KL; Glasgow RE; Mackinnon DP

2006-05-01

109

Assessment of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of {sup 137}Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the {sup 137}Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement.

Yu, K.N.; Mao, S.Y.; Young, E.C.M

1998-12-01

110

Ecological interdependences between urban vegetation and bioclimate; assessment of urban climate. Oekologische Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Stadtgruen und Bioklima, Stadtklimabewertung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate of a town or a greater industrial area is divided into a lot of smaller microclimates with greater differences in their ecological behaviours. With regard to the bioclimate this paper presents different townstructures and discusses their important climatic factors. The greatest difficulty for climatic induced urban planning nowadays is the coordination of different structures in towns. Some examples of the Ruhr-area show how to create good or better climatic conditions by using plants and green belts. At last the possibility of valueing the climatic situation of a town under the bioclimatic aspect will be discussed. This is the first experiment to compare the climatic situation in different towns by comparing the bioclimate of smaller areas in the city limits. (orig.).

Beckroege, W. (Kommunalverband Ruhrgebiet, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

111

Environment effects on wood density of vegetation types in Minas Gerais State – Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective was to verify the general behavior of wood density of native tree species in forest types in Minas Gerais state. The trees scaling data were obtained from the Forest Inventory of Minas Gerais State. Were used data from 1988 trees distributed in different forest formations. From each tree, five discs of wood were removed, at the 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the total height. The wood basic density of each disk was determined according to NBR 7190/1997. The ombrophylous forest, semideciduous forest, savanna woodland, typical savanna and deciduous forest presented average wood density of 0.502, 0.561, 0.585, 0.612 and 0.675 g.cm-3, respectively, all statistically different. It was found a clear and consistent relation between wood density and environment characteristics that affect the different vegetation types in Minas Gerais State. The forest formations present environmental conditions so typical that they affect the floristic composition and also the cambial and physiological activity of plants, causing particular wood densities to forests formations.

Gabriel Marcos Vieira Oliveira; José Márcio de Mello; Paulo Fernando Trugilho; José Roberto Soares Scolforo; Thiza Falqueto Altoé; Antônio José da Silva Neto; Antônio Donizette de Oliveira

2012-01-01

112

Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

Mehrabian A; Naqinezhad A; Mahiny AS; Mostafavi H; Liaghati H; Kouchekzadeh M

2009-03-01

113

Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).  

Science.gov (United States)

Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced. PMID:19261068

Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

2009-03-01

114

Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction. Methods This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables. Results No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%), while 77 patients (31.6%) reported ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030) and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049) were the independent determinants of eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P < 0.01) and eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006) were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24), whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ?3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P < 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P < 0.001 in the model with ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants). Conclusion Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.

Mvitu, Moise; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Tulomba, Dieudonne; Nge, Augustin

2012-01-01

115

Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%), while 77 patients (31.6%) reported ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030) and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049) were the independent determinants of eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01) and eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006) were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24), whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ?3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants).Conclusion: Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.Keywords: red beans, cataract extraction, socioeconomic status, public health implications

Mvitu M; Longo-Mbenza B; Tulomba D; Nge A

2012-01-01

116

Natural freezing storage and freshness preserving recovering technology for anti-cold leaf type mountain edible wild herbs and vegetable  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antistaling-renaturating technique for the natural freeze storage of hardy leaf-type edible wild herb and vegetables features use of agricultural condition system and weather condition system and includes determining sowing date and harvesting date, soil preparation, sowing, applying fertilizer, field management, prestorage, natural freeze storage and thawing.

ZHAO YUNSHENG; JIN LUN; LIU ZONGLIN

117

Microbial ecology of the cystic fibrosis lung: does microflora type influence microbial loading?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to examine the association between the numbers of culturable microbial species forming the microflora of the lung in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and microbial loading (i.e., type[s] versus numbers). Additionally, it examines qualitative combinations of the microflora present in a large adult CF centre (n=138) in order to ascertain ecological relationships between the taxa present. The culturable microflora of sputum from 34 adults patients with CF are enumerated using a spread plate technique on non-selective agar, and the microflora identified phenotypically employing the API 20NE scheme. Microbiological examination of the 34 adult patients demonstrated that their sputum contained between one and three taxa, with a mean cell density of 8.25 +/- 0.85 log colony-forming units (cfu)/g sputum and a range of 5.91-9.74 log cfu/g sputum. Most colonising patterns demonstrated only Gram-negative infection (22/34), followed by a mixed Gram-positive/Gram-negative infection pattern (10/34). Only 2/34 patients had a single Gram-positive infection. Most patients (53%) were colonised by only one organism, with 38% of patients colonised by two organisms, and the remainder (4%) colonised with three organisms. There was no statistical difference (P>0.05) between microbial cell density and the number of taxa present (i.e., the greater number of taxa present in sputum did not produce a higher cell density). However, there was a significantly higher cell density (log 0.59 cfu/g sputum) noted for those patients who had only Gram-negative infection, compared to those who had a mixed Gram-negative/Gram-positive infection pattern (P=0.02). Relatively little is known about the ecological interactions that exist between the microflora in the CF lung. Further work is required to explore these interactions in order to aid understanding of the succession and dominance of Gram-negatives in chronic chest infections. Ultimately, a greater understanding of such interactions may allow the opportunity to manipulate the ecology of the lung to control otherwise problematic pathogens PMID:16411377

Moore, J E; Shaw, A; Millar, B C; Downey, D G; Murphy, P G; Elborn, J S

2005-01-01

118

Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

Törn A; Tolvanen A; Norokorpi Y; Tervo R; Siikamäki P

2009-03-01

119

Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-03-18

120

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

A. P. Palacz; M. A. St. John; R. J. W. Brewin; T. Hirata; W. W. Gregg

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

2013-01-01

122

Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model  

Science.gov (United States)

Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

2013-05-01

123

Short-term trends in vegetation cover of Danish semi-natural ecosystems : a landscape-ecological assessment of main drivers indicated by traits of winner and loser species  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The landscapes in which many plant communities persist today are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities, especially in Denmark, where most communities are influenced by for example atmospheric deposition of Nitrogen, changes in soil moisture levels (e.g. ground water-table changes caused by drainage) and changes in management regimes (primarily reduced grazing-pressure). Such modifications of the environment are filtering the persistence of species into those that are adapted to these new conditions (winners) and those that are not (losers). Across the landscape, it is reasonable to expect species with similar traits to respond similarly to systematic shifts in habitat conditions and disturbance. Consequently, contrasting traits of winner and loser species could be a powerful tool in identifying mechanisms that might be driving community changes. In this study, we use a large dataset of vegetation surveys from 207 semi-natural non-forested sites in Denmark, identifying temporal short-term changes in vegetation cover, notably identifying those species that are winners and losers. A further goal is to identify environmental drivers of contemporary vegetation change in Danish semi-natural habitats by quantifying which functional traits makes species decline or increase. We therefore assess whether winners and losers differ with regard to key functional traits and ecological indicator values, and whether these results match our expectations given the current anthropogenic disturbance regime. Notably, do winner and loser species display distinct sets of traits of the ones related to: exotic species invasion, eutrophication by nitrogen deposition, management changes (decreasing grazing and associated encroachment by woody plants), soil moisture changes (due to excessive water extraction and drainage)? Preliminary results suggest that even during a relative short time span of just seven years, it is possible to identify winner and loser species, indicating that significant shifts in species compositionare currently taking place in Danish semi-natural ecosystems. The number of identified loser species was greater than the number of identified winner species, suggesting that homogenization of species composition across the landscape may be a concern. Today, management of semi-natural habitats is a common conservation measure. However, despite traditional management, habitats may still be vulnerable to compositional changes due to e.g. surrounding land-use and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The preliminary results from this study, are dichotomous in that it seems some factors as for example soil moisture and woody species encroachment are being managed in a way that opposites expectations from human disturbances, whereas management can not combat the effects of nitrogen deposition. Further analyses are still being developed to differentiate the landscape pattern of winners and losers into the specific habitat-types to induce differences between them in their responses to environmental drivers.

Timmermann, Allan; Damgaard, Christian

124

VEGETABLE MEAT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetable meat is a high nutritional vegetable food, which uses gluten proteins, minerals, vitamins and food fibres of cereals and legumes. Vegetable meat is obtained by mixing a percentage of gluten with a percentage of one or more cereal flowers, or with a percentage of one or more legume flowers, or with a percentage of one or more cereal and legume flowers together. This mixture is seasoned with natural spices according to the taste required and then kneaded and worked with water or vegetable broth and afterwards boiled. By changing the various percentages of the components and the different kinds of flowers, various types of vegetable meat are obtained: steak, stew, mince, hamburger, sausage, pizzaiola, mortadella, ham, bresaola, guanciale, etc. It has a cylindrical shape with rounded ends.

ANZALONE Beniamino

125

Vegetation restoration of wasteland in Three Gorges Area  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ecosystems in Three Gorges Area are very frangile with complex and diverse terrain. Many kinds of extremely degraded ecosystems (wasteland) occurred for the long-term disturbance from human and nature. The wasteland type, cause of its formation and the vegetation recover pattern were reported in this paper, then some suggestions were put forward for revegetating the waselands in this area based on the local geographic and ecological condition and the development in restoration ecology. The stabilization and restoration of soil and substrate, the construction of pioneer community and the biodiversity enrichment in management were regarded as the key approaches of wasteland vegetation restoration in Three Gorges Area.

Chen Fangqing; Zhang Liping; Xie Zongqiang

2004-01-01

126

[Efficiency of the vegetative tea in diet therapy for patients with obesity associated with diabetes mellitus type 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dynamic of glycemia, insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, fructosamine, thyroid hormones, parameters of serum lipids, lipid peroxidation and system of antioxidant defense in 81 hospital patients and out-patients with obesity associated with diabetes mellitus type II was studied of influence of hypocaloric diet 9. Universal normalizing influence of hypocaloric diet 9 with vegetation tea was discovered on parameters of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative metabolism and of patients clinical state of pateni. The additional criteria of evaluation of efficacy of food dietary supplements in complex treatment of patients with obesity associated with diabetes mellitus type II was offered on basis of study of influence vegetation tea on mechanisms of metabolic disorders in these patients.

Khrushcheva IuV; Mal'tsev GIu; Popova IuL; Vasil'ev AV

2003-01-01

127

The hydrological responses of different land cover types in a re-vegetation catchment area of the Loess Plateau, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of re-vegetation on soil moisture dynamics was investigated by comparing five land cover types. Soil moisture and temperature variations under grass (Andropogon), subshrub (Artemisia scoparia), shrub (Spiraea pubescens), tree (Robinia pseudoacacia), and crop (Zea mays) vegetation were monitored in an experiment performed during the growing season of 2011. There were more than 10 soil moisture pulses during the period of data collection, and the surface soil moisture of all of the land cover types showed an increasing trend. Corn cover was associated with consistently higher soil moisture readings than the other surfaces. Grass and subshrubs showed an intermediate moisture level, with that of grass being slightly higher than that of subshrub most of the time. Shrubs and trees were characterized by lower soil moisture readings, with the shrub levels consistently being slightly higher than those of the trees. With the exception of the corn land cover type, the average soil temperature showed the same regime as the average moisture content, but exhibiting a downward trend throughout the observation period. Three typical decreasing periods were chosen to compare the differences in water losses. In periods of both relatively lower and higher water soil moisture contents, subshrubs lost the largest amount of water. The daily water loss associated with corn was most variable. The tree and shrub sites presented an intermediate level, with that of tree being slightly higher compared to shrub; the daily water loss trends of these two land cover types were similar and were more stable than those of the other types. The amount of water loss related to the grass land cover type is determined by the initial moisture content. Soil under subshrubs acquired and retained soil moisture resources more efficiently than the other cover types, representing an adaptive vegetation type in this area.

S. Wang; B. J. Fu; G. Y. Gao; J. Zhou

2012-01-01

128

INSTALLATION STRUCTURE OF ECOLOGY INSTITUTION OF BUOYANCY TYPE IN PRO- ENVIRONMENT REGULATED RISE AND FALL ACCORDING AS RIVER SLOPE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is a structure for installation of eco-friendly buoyancy-type ecological equipment, which protects the ecological system by connecting one side of a river to the other side thereof via buoyancy upon a heavy rain fall. The structure for installing an eco-friendly buoyancy-type ecological equipment liftable depending on the slope of a river comprises: a pair of retaining walls(10,10a) fixed into the bottom of a bank(90) a base block(20) embedded and fixed into the bottom of the river(100) at the middle of the retaining walls, having coupling anchors and coupling bars, coupled to each other a slope coupling plate having an upper horizontal plate and a lower horizontal plate an upper plant growth block(40) embedded and fixed into the bank, and having plant implantation grooves and coupling anchors a front post(50) and a rear post(50a) fixed to the base block and having fixing holes a sea organism growth block(60) to which a plant growth plate is fixed a linker(70) having a top surface to which an ecological moving path net is fixed and a buoyancy-type plant growth block(80) having a coupling hinge, circular holes for plants and a coupling groove into which a coupling pipe of the slope coupling plate is inserted slidably.

CHUNG CHAE KYUNG

129

Floodplain restoration leads to wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types: Insight from an integrated hydroecological model  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture availability in the root zone is one of the most important factors affecting plant species composition by creating stress on vegetation both when it is lacking (water stress) and when it is excessive (oxygen stress). Plant species have individual tolerance ranges along a gradient of available soil moisture that can be described as a hydrological niche. Combining a hydrological model and a habitat niche model can provide spatially-extensive predictions of vegetation composition, which would be useful for land management decision-making under changing environmental conditions. Floodplain ecosystem restoration provides an example of the utility of such a predictive tool as a site is hydrologically altered to create a wetter environment. We developed an integrated hydroecological model that links a quasi-3D, variably-saturated, groundwater flow model that simulates soil moisture with several plant habitat niche models. The focus of this research is a floodplain in southwestern Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the expectation of increasing regionally-threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models were created based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation. These models were then used to predict probability of presence for two dominant plant species (Carex vulpinoidea and Elymus canadensis) and composite wetland indicator score based on simulated surface effective saturation across the study site. The model predicts the site to be more wetland-species dominant overall following restoration. However, the soil moisture regime and vegetation types are slightly drier following restoration in zones where a silt-clay confining layer is present that inhibits vertical groundwater flow from a basal gravel aquifer to the near-surface soil zone. This differential response to restoration leads to a mosaic of soil water regimes across the site, which is reflected in a wider distribution of vegetation types. Therefore, the management goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence is shown to co-occur with an increase in the site-scale diversity of plant community types. This result reveals the unique ability of the presented modeling framework to predict vegetation composition and aid land managers that are faced with difficult management decisions in a complex and uncertain future.

Booth, E. G.; Loheide, S. P.

2011-12-01

130

Hydroecological model predictions indicate wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types following floodplain restoration  

Science.gov (United States)

Transitions between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems represent zones where soil moisture is a dominant factor influencing vegetation composition. Niche models based on hydrological and vegetation observations can be powerful tools for guiding management of these zones, especially when they are linked with physically based hydrological models. Floodplain restoration represents a unique opportunity to utilize such a predictive vegetation tool when a site's hydrology is altered to create a wetter environment. A variably saturated groundwater flow model was developed and used to simulate the soil moisture regime across a floodplain in Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the intent of increasing regionally threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation were used to predict probability of presence for two plant species (Carex vulpinoidea (fox sedge) and Elymus canadensis(Canada wildrye)) and wetland indicator score (a composite indicator of relative frequency of species in five habitat categories) based on simulated surface effective saturation. The vegetation predictions following restoration are more wetland-species dominant overall. However, zones of the study site where a confining layer is present that decouples groundwater from the near-surface soil zone tend to be drier following restoration due to restricted upward groundwater flow and less soil water storage above the confining layer. As reflected by an increase in the interquartile range in the predicted wetland indicator score, this restoration technique may increase the site-scale spatial diversity of plant community types while simultaneously accomplishing the goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence.

Booth, Eric G.; Loheide, Steven P., II

2012-06-01

131

The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum) and long beans (Vigna sinensis) from the soil. ...

J. Khairiah; M.K. Zalifah; Y.H. Yin; A. Aminah

132

Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes : EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16?154 participants and 12?403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340?234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.85.

Cooper, A J; Forouhi, N G

2012-01-01

133

Linking the topography signature of LIDAR-derived vegetation types and geomorphic processes as preliminary steps in integrating landscape evolution with vegetation dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Italian Alps, dominated by a high altitude climate and characterized by extreme slope movement processes, topography plays a key role in the redistribution of vegetation over the landscape. There is significant evidence that vegetation distribution on the Alpine basins influences the frequency and magnitude of sediment yields. In this study we investigate the links between topography and vegetation species in a small Alpine catchment with an elevation range of 1500 to 2000 m a.s.l., with cold snowy winters, and wet summers, in order to decipher the influence of biota on geomorphic processes in atypical high-latitude Alpine headwater setting. In the study area vegetation is mostly represented by grass species (high altitude grassland), but also shrubs (Alnus viridis), and high tree forest (Picea abies) are common. We evaluate the distribution of vegetation canopies using LIDAR-derived vegetation data. We analyzed the vertical elevation of different vegetation canopy surface layers, and we derived the spatial variation of vegetation species following their heights as surveyed in the field. Then we use a high resolution DTM (Digital Terrain Model), evaluated from filtered bare ground LIDAR points, to derive some mathematical attributes of landscape morphology including slope gradient, drainage area, aspect, convergence and topographic wetness index, slope area diagrams and power-law distribution of areas. We discussed the relationships between vegetation species distribution and landform properties.

Tarolli, P.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Dalla Fontana, G.

2006-12-01

134

Field evidence for differences in post-fire aeolian transport related to vegetation type in semi-arid grasslands  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilisation of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a significant concern for ecosystem management and risk assessment. Here we investigate the temporal change of aeolian activity following a wildfire within both a managed grassland and an adjacent shrub encroached grassland at the Cimarron National Grassland, KS, USA. Our results indicate that, even though the grassland and shrub encroached grassland sites exhibit comparable aeolian activity soon after the fire, the duration of the post-disturbance period of aeolian activity (or "window of disturbance") is shorter in the case of grassland than in the case of shrub encroached grassland. The degree of post-fire aeolian transport and its attenuation with time is strongly affected by the antecedent vegetation type. These findings have implications for management of semi-arid grasslands under both changing vegetation types (shrub encroachment) and disturbance (fire) regimes.

Ravi, Sujith; Baddock, Matthew C.; Zobeck, Ted M.; Hartman, Joe

2012-12-01

135

Protease Production In Dermatophytes During Sporulation And Vegetative Phase - Its Role In Pathogenesis And Mating Type Associated Virulence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different strains of common dermatophytes including different mating strain, collected from clinical, animal and soil sources as also some tester strains, were studied for their proteolytic enzyme activity during vegetative and sporulation phases. Sabouraus�s dextrose broth and Takashio broth were used to induce vegetative and sporulation phases respectively in these dermatophytes. All the strains of T. rubrum showed very low enzyme activity during sporulation when compared vegetative growth phase. In other species of dermatophytes. The enzyme activity was found to be almost similar during both the growth phases. High protease production in association with one mating type of A. vanbreuseghemii was observed. The enzme activity of clinical isolates of the non-anthropophilic species such T. simii, M. nanum and M. gypseum were relatively low when compared to T.mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans. The severity of the lesion produced by these established the fact that protease in dermatophytes has a define role in pathogenesis. Protease production during sporulation in T. rubrum may be one of the selective advantages of this species. General protease production was found to be independent of mating type in most of the dermatophyte species.

Ranganathan S; Rajith M S; Shankar S Gokul; Balajee S Arun Mozhi; Selvakumar B N; Aejaz Mohammad

2000-01-01

136

Vegetable meat  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetable meat is a high nutritional vegetable food, which uses gluten proteins, minerals, vitamins and food fibres of cereals and legumes. Vegetable meat is obtained by mixing a percentage of gluten with a percentage of one or more cereal flowers, or with a percentage of one or more legume flowers, or with a percentage of one or more cereal and legume flowers together. This mixture is seasoned with natural spices according to the taste required and then kneaded and worked with water or vegetable broth and afterwards boiled. By changing the various percentages of the components and the different kinds of flowers, various types of vgetble meat are obtained: steak, stew, mince, hamburger, sausage, pizzaiola, mortadella, ham, bresaola, guanciale, etc. .... It has a cylindrical shape with rounded ends.

Anzalone Beniamino

137

Riparian Ecological Types: Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood National Forests Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

In landscape ecology terms, riparian areas are zones of interaction between surface water and the surrounding uplands or hillslopes. Like the chicken and the egg, the kind, frequency and intensity of interactions that occur are both result and causative a...

N. M. Diaz T. K. Mellen

1996-01-01

138

A variational approach to ecological-type optimization criteria for finite-time thermal engine models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we apply variational calculus procedures for the optimization of a Curzon-Ahlborn thermal cycle under the so-called modified ecological criterion. Our result for the optimum efficiency is the same that Velasco et al (2000 J. Phys. D 33 355) previously obtained by means of the method of the saving functions. Besides, we show that both the saving functions and the modified ecological criteria are equivalent. (author)

Angulo-Brown, F.; Parga, G.A. de; Arias-Hernandez, L.A.

2002-05-01

139

The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum) and long beans (Vigna sinensis) from the soil. Heavy metals studied were Pb, Cd and Zn. Wet digestion method was used for heavy metals analysis in the vegetables. Heavy metals from soil samples were extracted by sequential extraction method, which extract heavy metals from easily and freely leachable fraction (EFLE), acid reduction (AR), organic oxidation (OO) and resistant fraction (RR). The results of the study showed that the level of Zn content in long beans (Vigna sinensis) was higher than in chilies (Capsicum annum). However the concentrations of heavy metals studied in these vegetables were still below the maximum level allowed by the Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Food Regulations (1985) for Pb (2.00 mg kg-1), Cd (1.00 mg kg-1) and Zn (30.00 mg kg-1).

J. Khairiah; M.K. Zalifah; Y.H. Yin; A. Aminah

2004-01-01

140

Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lead (Pb) contamination of soil poses severe health risks to humans through vegetable consumption. The variations of Pb concentration in different parts of rootstalk vegetables (radish, carrot and potato) were investigated by using twelve cultivars grown in acidic Ferralsols and neutral Cambisols under two Pb treatments (125 mg kg(-1) and 250 mg kg(-1) for Ferralsols; 150 mg kg(-1) and 300 mg kg(-1) for Cambisols) in a pot experiment. The Pb concentration in edible parts was higher in Ferralsols under two Pb treatments, with range from 0.28 to 4.14, 0.42-10.66 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) respectively, and all of them exceeded the food safety standard (0.1 mg kg(-1)) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO. The Pb concentration in edible parts was significantly affected by genotype, soil type and the interaction between these two factors. The variation of Pb concentration in different cultivars was partially governed by Pb absorption and the transfer of Pb from aerial to edible part. The results revealed that caution should be paid to the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables in Pb-contaminated Ferralsols without any agronomic management to reduce Pb availability and plant uptake. For Cambisols with slight to moderate Pb contamination, growing potato cultivar Shandong No.1 and Chongqing No.1 was effective in reducing the risk of Pb entering human food chain. The results suggest the possibility of developing cultivar- and soil-specific planting and monitoring guidelines for the cultivation of rootstalk vegetables on slight to moderate Pb-contaminated soils.

Ding C; Zhang T; Wang X; Zhou F; Yang Y; Yin Y

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because individual classes differed in scales at which they were best discriminated from others. Main classification challenges included a) presence of C3 grasses in C4-grass areas, particularly following harvesting of C4 reeds and b) mixtures of emergent, floating and submerged aquatic plants at sub-object and sub-pixel scales. We conclude that OBIA with advanced statistical classifiers offers useful instruments for landscape vegetation analyses, and that spatial scale considerations are critical in mapping PFTs, while multi-scale comparisons can be used to guide class selection. Future work will further apply fuzzy classification and field-collected spectral data for PFT analysis and compare results with MODIS PFT products.

Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

2011-12-01

142

Untangling the role of elevation, aspect, and vegetation type on ecohydrological dynamics along a climate gradient in the Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation dynamics and performance are strongly influenced by environmental conditions. Specifically, light, precipitation, and air temperature exert a predominant role. These climatic variables covariate with elevation and aspect in areas of complex terrain. Quantification of specific elevation and aspect effects on vegetation productivity and mass and energy fluxes can lead to a better understating of environment-driven distribution of vegetation and parsimonious up-scaling parameterizations useful in hydrological applications. A detailed characterization of climatic differences with elevation is however a daunting task. In this study, two synthetic climate gradients, constructed using hourly meteorological data and a stochastic weather generator, AWE-GEN, are used to force a mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris, and quantify energy, carbon, and water fluxes for three generic Plant Functional Types (PFTs). One gradient is representative of a dry, sheltered alpine valley (Valais), whereas the other one characterizes a wet, exposed mountain side (Bernese Oberland). Thirty year long time series of cross-correlated precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and atmospheric pressure for elevation bands from 500 up to 3500 m a.s.l. are generated to represent the climatic differences. The incoming radiation is successively recalculated for different combinations of aspect and slope. Under these specific climatic forcing conditions, the response of deciduous and evergreen trees, and grass typical of the Alpine system is investigated. The parameterization of the ecohydrological model was tested to reproduce vegetation productivity and energy fluxes for several locations in an Alpine climate or similar conditions (Fluxnet dataset) and to correctly simulate snowpack dynamics for forested and open sites worldwide (Snowmip-2 dataset). The three PFTs evolve at different elevations and aspects for dry and wet conditions. Results indicate that differences in hydrological fluxes across PFTs are more evident for the dry, water-limited scenario, rather than for the wet scenario. The optimum for vegetation productivity shifts from low elevations of 500-1000 m in wet conditions to higher elevations (of about 1800-2200 m) for the dry altitudinal gradient. By intercepting snow and shading ground surface, PFTs affect differently snow cover distribution and seasonal duration. The overall role of elevation was found to be predominant when compared to the role of aspect, regardless of the climate type. Nonetheless, we speculate that this is not always the case and the role of aspect, or contributing area might become the dominant control for different ecosystems.

Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Rimkus, S.; Caporali, E.; Burlando, P.

2012-04-01

143

Current Combination and wind guiding type far Infrared vegetable dehydrating device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a parallel-flow far-infrared vegetable dehydration plant, comprising a drying box body, a driving device, a conveying appliance and an irradiation unit, wherein the drying box body is composed of a plurality of layers, with every layer provided with a set of conveying appliance driven by the driving device and formed a groove shape material channel. A far infrared irradiation unit is arranged above every material channel, a feed inlet is arranged at the top of the drying box body, with a discharge port arranged at the bottom. The parallel-flow far-infrared vegetable dehydration plant is characterized in that a air inlet is arranged at the lower portion of the side wall of every layer of drying box body, an air inlet is arranged at the upper portion of the side wall of every layer of drying box body and respectively sealed connected with a draught fan through a air inducing pipe, the air inducing pipe comprises a flange, a straight tube, a connecting pipe, a taper pipe and a angle fitting, the connecting pipe connected with every layer of drying box body has the pipe diameter top-down sequentially decreased, and the pipe diameter of the air inducing pipe is also top-down sequentially decreased. The parallel-flow far-infrared vegetable dehydration plant of the utility model has every layer of drying box parallel-flow air-induced through the draught fan, resolving the question that during parallel-flow air-inducing, the upper drying box has high air humidity, and the material in the lower drying box nearly dry is easy to be blown up, with great drying effect.

SUN CHUANZHU WANG

144

Physiological quality in seeds obtained by topcrosses between vegetable soybean and grain type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Attempts were made to study the gene introgression for high physiological quality from adapted cultivars in the vegetable soybean (exotic). Promising results were obtained for all topocrosses, with increased in germination percentage in majority. General mean of the germination percentage in topcrosses with large seeds exotic parental showed an increase from 28 to 46%, and topcrosses with small seeds exotic parental, from 54 up to 60%, both cases compared to self pollinated exotic parental. Related to variance, the topcrosses showed higher values than the self pollinated exotic parental, showing to be possible the selecion of promising materials.

Yokomizo Gilberto K.; Vello Natal A.

2000-01-01

145

MINERAL WATER MANUFACTURE FEED MECHANISM FOR THE GROWTH PROMOTION OF THE FRUIT OR THE VEGETABLE TYPE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An apparatus for supplying the mineral water is provided to promote the growth of fruit and vegetable and to reduce the insect attack. An apparatus for supplying the mineral water for promoting the growth of fruit and vegetableis such that the supply water amount is checked by using the water gauge(30) when the water supplied into an input pipe(11) is transferred to a ceramic ball box(40) through a transfer pipe(12) by turning on a switch(59), and the apparatus is provided with a plurality of auto feed solenoid valves at the end of a main supply pipe(44).

MIN GEONG UK; LEE TEA HEE

146

Evolutionary ecology of human papillomavirus: trade-offs, coexistence, and origins of high-risk and low-risk types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We address the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) that lead to the dichotomy between high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) types. We hypothesize that HPV faces an evolutionary tradeoff between persistence and per-contact transmission probability. High virion production enhances transmissibility but also provokes an immune response leading to clearance and limited persistence. Alternatively, low virion production increases persistence at the cost of diminished transmission probability per sexual contact. We propose that LR HPV types use the former strategy and that HR types use the latter. Sexual behaviors in a host population determine the success of each strategy. METHODS: We develop an evolutionary model of HPV epidemiology, which includes host sexual behavior, and we find evolutionarily stable strategies of HPV. RESULTS: A slow turnover of sexual partners favors HR HPV, whereas high frequency of partner turnover selects for LR. When both sexual behaviors exist as subcultures in a population, disruptive selection can result in the coevolution and ecological coexistence of both HR and LR HPV types. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the elimination of HR HPV through vaccines may alter the evolutionary trajectory of the remaining types and promote evolution of new HR HPV types.

Orlando PA; Gatenby RA; Giuliano AR; Brown JS

2012-01-01

147

Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at th (more) e BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

Edge, D.A.; Cilliers, S.S.; Terblanche, R.F.

2008-12-01

148

Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en 4 tipos de aceites vegetales Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos identificar y cuantificar residuos de los plaguicidas organoclorados (POC) hexaclorobenceno (HCB), lindano, cis-clordano, heptacloro, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín y o,p’-diclorodifeniltricloroetano (o,p’-DDT) en aceites de maíz, soya, girasol y mezclas de aceites, que se expenden en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se analizaron 30 muestras de 4 tipos de aceites de 10 marcas comerciales. La extracción de residuos de POC se realizó según la técnica de la AOAC. Para la identificación y cuantificación se utilizó un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de captura electrónica (GC-ECD), y para la confirmación, un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas (GCMS). Todos los residuos de POC investigados fueron detectados en las muestras analizadas. Se detectaron en mayor concentración (mg/ g) aldrín (0,0088), lindano (0,0054) y o,p’-DDT (0,0035). El análisis estadístico demostró diferencias significativas (PThe present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín and o,p’-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC. A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p’-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (mg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P<0.05) for the concentration of OCP in the different types and commercial brands of vegetable oils. Lindane concentration in the corn oil (0.0125 mg/g), as well as cischlordane (0.0091mg/g) and aldrín (0.0287 mg/g) in the soybean oil exceeded maximal residual limits (MRL) established by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In conclusion, it was detected a high incidence of OCP residues in vegetable oils analyzed.

María Piñero González; Pedro Izquierdo Córser; María Allara Cagnasso; Aiza García Urdaneta

2007-01-01

149

Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day. Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the use of the range area, activity level, and feed content in the crops were observed in relation to genotype, sex, age of broilers, and also the time of day. Foraging activity was positively correlated with age. Medium-growth broilers spent more time inside and closer to the broiler houses during the day with increased foraging activity during evenings, in contrast to the slow-growing broilers that showed a more uniform activity during the day. Based on the measurement of crop content it was estimated that the slow-growing genotype had a daily intake of 5 to 8 g of forage per day, whereas the medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.

de Almeida GF; Hinrichsen LK; Horsted K; Thamsborg SM; Hermansen JE

2012-09-01

150

Série temporal de índice de vegetação sobre diferentes tipologias vegetais no Rio Grande do Sul/ Time series of vegetation index for different vegetation types in Rio Grande do Sul  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Com este trabalho objetivou-se identificar a dinâmica fenológica das principais tipologias vegetais do Rio Grande do Sul, para o período de 2000 a 2010, utilizando-se dados de Enhanced Vegetation Index, através da transformada de ondaleta. A identificação da fenologia em ciclos ou padrões sazonais em séries temporais de índices de vegetação, obtidos por sensores orbitais, permite a observação de anomalias e os efeitos de mudanças climáticas ou ambientais. U (more) m perfil temporal do Enhanced Vegetation Index foi construído para o Rio Grande do Sul e retiradas amostras para quatro tipologias vegetais: campo nativo, floresta ombrófila mista, cultivo de soja e de arroz. Essas amostras foram submetidas à transformada de ondaleta, que permitiu a decomposição da série e apresentação dos dados em relação ao tempo e frequência com que os eventos fenológicos ocorreram. Os dados apresentaram regularidade na dinâmica das tipologias vegetais testadas, com ciclos anuais de maior vigor e crescimento vegetal nas estações de primavera e verão e menor no outono e inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the identification of the phenology dynamics of the main types of vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul state, for the period from 2000 to 2010, using Enhanced Vegetation Index data through the wavelet transform. The identification of cycles or seasonal patterns in time series of vegetation indices obtained by orbital sensors allows the observation of anomalies and effects of climate and environmental change. A temporal profile of Enhanced Vegeta (more) tion Index was built for the Rio Grande do Sul region, where samples of the four main plant typologies were selected: native grassland, mixed ombrophilous forest, soybean and rice crop. These samples were submitted to the wavelet transform, which allowed the decomposition of the series and presentation of data in relation to time and frequency with which the phenological events have occurred. The data showed regularity in the dynamics of vegetation types tested, with annual cycles of plant growth and higher Enhanced Vegetation Index values in spring and summer and lower Enhanced Vegetation Index values in autumn and winter.

Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Moreira, Andreise; Fontana, Denise C.

2013-10-01

151

Plant pigment types, distributions, and influences on shallow water submerged aquatic vegetation mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of robust protocols for use in mapping shallow water habitats using hyperspectral imagery requires knowledge of absorbing and scattering features present in the environment. These include, but are not limited to, water quality parameters, phytoplankton concentrations and species, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) species and densities, epiphytic growth on SAV, benthic microalgae and substrate reflectance characteristics. In the Indian River Lagoon, Fl. USA we conceptualize the system as having three possible basic layers, water column and SAV bed above the bottom. Each layer is occupied by plants with their associated light absorbing pigments that occur in varying proportions and concentrations. Phytoplankton communities are composed primarily of diatoms, dinoflagellates, and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria. SAV beds, including flowering plants and green, red, and brown macro-algae exist along density gradients ranging in coverage from 0-100%. SAV beds may be monotypic, or more typically, mixtures of the several species that may or may not be covered in epiphytes. Shallow water benthic substrates are colonized by periphyton communities that include diatoms, dinoflagellates, chlorophytes and cyanobacteria. Inflection spectra created form ASIA hyperspectral data display a combination of features related to water and select plant pigment absorption peaks.

Hall, Carlton R.; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Virnstein, Robert

2004-11-01

152

Distribution of ecosystem C and N within contrasting vegetation types in a semiarid rangeland in the Great Basin, USA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Semiarid sagebrush ecosystems are being transformed by wildfire, rangeland improvement techniques, and exotic plant invasions, but the effects on ecosystem C and N dynamics are poorly understood. We compared ecosystem C and N pools to 1 m depth among historically grazed Wyoming big sagebrush, introduced perennial crested wheatgrass, and invasive annual cheatgrass communities, to examine whether the quantity and quality of plant inputs to soil differs among vegetation types. Natural abundance ?¹?N isotope ratios were used to examine differences in ecosystem N balance. Sagebrush-dominated sites had greater C and N storage in plant biomass compared to perennial or annual grass systems, but this was predominantly due to woody biomass accumulation. Plant C and N inputs to soil were greatest for cheatgrass compared to sagebrush and crested wheatgrass systems, largely because of slower root turnover in perennial plants. The organic matter quality of roots and leaf litter (as C:N ratios) was similar among vegetation types, but lignin:N ratios were greater for sagebrush than grasses. While cheatgrass invasion has been predicted to result in net C loss and ecosystem degradation, we observed that surface soil organic C and N pools were greater in cheatgrass and crested wheatgrass than sagebrush-dominated sites. Greater biomass turnover in cheatgrass and crested wheatgrass versus sagebrush stands may result in faster rates of soil C and N cycling, with redistribution of actively cycled N towards the soil surface. Plant biomass and surface soil ?¹?N ratios were enriched in cheatgrass and crested wheatgrass relative to sagebrush-dominated sites. Source pools of plant available N could become ¹?N enriched if faster soil N cycling rates lead to greater N trace gas losses. In the absence of wildfire, if cheatgrass invasion does lead to degradation of ecosystem function, this may be due to faster nutrient cycling and greater nutrient losses, rather than reduced organic matter inputs.

Hooker TobyD; Stark JohnM; Norton Urszula; Joshua Leffler A; Peek Michael; Ryel Ron

2008-09-01

153

Analysis of the riparian vegetation (Ia land type) of the proposed Vhembe-Dongola National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The establishment of the Vhembe-Dongola National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park would become a major component of a transfrontier park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ia land type of the proposed area for the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 70 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ia land type. All relevé data was imported into the database TURBOVEG after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. From the phytosociological table four plant communities were identified and described in the Ia land type. The ordination algorithm, DECORANA, was applied to the floristic data in order to illustrate floristic relationships between plant communities, to detect possible gradients in and between communities and to detect possible habitat gradients and/or disturbance gradients associated with vegetation gradients.

A.R. Götze; S.S. Cilliers; H. Bezuidenhout; K. Kellner

2003-01-01

154

Use of a 600-kHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure estuarine bottom type, relative abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation, and eelgrass canopy height  

Science.gov (United States)

The acoustic backscatter intensity signal from a high-frequency (600 kHz) Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was used to categorize four different types of bottom habitat (sand, mud, sparse and dense vegetation) in a shallow-water estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA). A diver survey of the bay measured sediment and bottom vegetation characteristics at 85 sites within the bay. These data were used to groundtruth the acoustic data. Acoustic data were collected at four sites with known bottom types and used to develop an algorithm that could categorize the bottom type. The slope of the echo intensity profile close to the bottom was used to determine the bottom type and the relative numerical density (sparse or dense) of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV). In areas where eelgrass (Zostera marina) was the dominant SAV species, the intensity profile data were analyzed to measure the height of the vegetation canopy. An acoustic survey which categorized the bottom type of the bay was conducted from a small vessel. The percentage of sampled sites categorized as each bottom habitat type from the acoustic survey was similar to those obtained by the diver survey. These methods may provide a means to rapidly survey estuarine habitats and measure spatial and temporal variations in SAV populations, as well as changes in the height of the eelgrass canopy.

Warren, Joseph D.; Peterson, Bradley J.

2007-03-01

155

The increase in antioxidant capacity after wounding depends on the type of fruit or vegetable tissue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wounding of fresh produce may elicit an increase in antioxidant capacity associated with wound-induced phenolic compounds. However, there have been no reports on the wounding response of different types of fresh produce. Changes in antioxidant capacity, total soluble phenolics, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total anthocyanins were evaluated after wounding in zucchini, white and red cabbage, iceberg lettuce, celery, carrot, parsnips, red radish, sweetpotato and potatoes. Phenolic changes ranged from a 26% decrease to an increase up to 191%, while antioxidant capacity changes ranged from a 51% decrease to an increase up to 442%. Reduced ascorbic acid decreased up to 82%, whereas the changes in anthocyanins and carotenoids were less evident. In general, the wound response was dependent on the type of tissue and influenced by the initial levels of reduced ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Wounding may increase the antioxidant content towards the development of selected healthier fresh-cut produce.

Reyes LF; Villarreal JE; Cisneros-Zevallos L

2007-01-01

156

Spatial-seasonal variation of soil denitrification under three riparian vegetation types around the Dianchi Lake in Yunnan, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outbreaks of nuisance cyanobacterial bloom are predicted to occur frequently under the effect of severe eutrophication in the water body of Lake Dianchi since the 1990s. Riparian buffers are now well recognized for their roles in the removal of inorganic nitrogen mainly via denitrification. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of nitrate removal in the riparian buffers of Lake Dianchi. We investigated the wet and dry seasonal dynamics of denitrification rate (DNR) in the soil profiles along the topographic gradient in three riparian buffers with different vegetation types (i.e. forest, open forest, and grass). A strong vertical pattern was observed in soil organic C and N concentrations (i.e. total N, DON, NO3-N, and NH4-N) along the soil layers. We also found significantly higher in situ denitrification activity in the upper horizon along each topohydrosequence while the activities of soil denitrification could be detected down to deeper soil horizons (0.1 to 0.8 mg N per kg dry soil per day), which may contribute significantly to the reduction of the ground water nitrate. Meanwhile, the DNR in the zones near the lake was significantly higher than that in zones near the border with the upland terrace, and also in the wet seasons than in dry seasons. Denitrification rates in the forest, open forest and grass sites were significantly different only in wet seasons. Especially, we found soil organic C had a strong correlation with denitrification in all sites, despite the large intersite variability of soil and vegetation. Our data suggested spatial heterogeneity of substrate availability along a hydrologic and topographic gradient can be the primary control on spatial-seasonal patterns of denitrification in riparian buffers.

Wang S; Cao Z; Li X; Liao Z; Hu B; Ni J; Ruan H

2013-05-01

157

Spatial-seasonal variation of soil denitrification under three riparian vegetation types around the Dianchi Lake in Yunnan, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of nuisance cyanobacterial bloom are predicted to occur frequently under the effect of severe eutrophication in the water body of Lake Dianchi since the 1990s. Riparian buffers are now well recognized for their roles in the removal of inorganic nitrogen mainly via denitrification. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of nitrate removal in the riparian buffers of Lake Dianchi. We investigated the wet and dry seasonal dynamics of denitrification rate (DNR) in the soil profiles along the topographic gradient in three riparian buffers with different vegetation types (i.e. forest, open forest, and grass). A strong vertical pattern was observed in soil organic C and N concentrations (i.e. total N, DON, NO3-N, and NH4-N) along the soil layers. We also found significantly higher in situ denitrification activity in the upper horizon along each topohydrosequence while the activities of soil denitrification could be detected down to deeper soil horizons (0.1 to 0.8 mg N per kg dry soil per day), which may contribute significantly to the reduction of the ground water nitrate. Meanwhile, the DNR in the zones near the lake was significantly higher than that in zones near the border with the upland terrace, and also in the wet seasons than in dry seasons. Denitrification rates in the forest, open forest and grass sites were significantly different only in wet seasons. Especially, we found soil organic C had a strong correlation with denitrification in all sites, despite the large intersite variability of soil and vegetation. Our data suggested spatial heterogeneity of substrate availability along a hydrologic and topographic gradient can be the primary control on spatial-seasonal patterns of denitrification in riparian buffers. PMID:23525252

Wang, Shaojun; Cao, Zilin; Li, Xiaoying; Liao, Zhouyu; Hu, Binghui; Ni, Jie; Ruan, Honghua

2013-05-01

158

Effect of prescribed fire on soil properties and N transformation in two vegetation types in South China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prescribed fire is a common site preparation practice in forest management in southern China. However, the effect of fire on soil properties and N transformations is still poorly understood in this region. In this study, soil properties and N transformations in burned and unburned site of two vegetation types (Eucalyptus plantation and shrubland) were compared in rainy and dry seasons after 2 years' prescribed fire. Soil pH and soil NH4-N were all higher in the burned site compared to the unburned control. Furthermore, burned sites had 30-40 % lower of soil total phosphorus than conspecific unburned sites. There was no difference in soil organic matter, total N, soil exchangeable cations, available P or NO3-N. Nitrogen mineralization rate of 0-5 cm soil in the unburned site ranged from 8.24 to 11.6 mg N kg(-1) soil month(-1) in the rainy season, compared to a lower level of 4.82-5.25 mg N kg(-1) soil month(-1) in the burned sites. In contrast, 0-5 cm layer nitrification rate was overall 2.47 mg N kg(-1) soil month(-1) in the rainy season, and was not significantly affected by burning. The reduced understory vegetation coverage after burning may be responsible for the higher soil NH4-N in the burned site. This study highlights that a better understanding the effect of prescribed burning on soil nutrients cycling would provide a critical foundation for management decision and be beneficial to afforestation in southern China.

Wang F; Li J; Zou B; Xu X; Li Z

2013-06-01

159

Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en 4 tipos de aceites vegetales/ Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos identificar y cuantificar residuos de los plaguicidas organoclorados (POC) hexaclorobenceno (HCB), lindano, cis-clordano, heptacloro, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín y o,p?-diclorodifeniltricloroetano (o,p?-DDT) en aceites de maíz, soya, girasol y mezclas de aceites, que se expenden en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se analizaron 30 muestras de 4 tipos de aceites de 10 marcas comerciales. La extracción de residuos de POC se real (more) izó según la técnica de la AOAC. Para la identificación y cuantificación se utilizó un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de captura electrónica (GC-ECD), y para la confirmación, un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas (GCMS). Todos los residuos de POC investigados fueron detectados en las muestras analizadas. Se detectaron en mayor concentración (mg/ g) aldrín (0,0088), lindano (0,0054) y o,p?-DDT (0,0035). El análisis estadístico demostró diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english The present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín and o,p?-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo, Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC (more) . A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p?-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (mg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P

Piñero González, María; Izquierdo Córser, Pedro; Allara Cagnasso, María; García Urdaneta, Aiza

2007-12-01

160

Vegetation of Upper Coastal Plain depression wetlands: Environmental templates and wetland dynamics within a landscape framework.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reference wetlands play an important role in efforts to protect wetlands and assess wetland condition. Because wetland vegetation integrates the influence of many ecological factors, a useful reference system would identify natural vegetation types and include models relating vegetation to important regional geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties. Across the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain, depression wetlands are a major hydrogeomorphic class with diverse characteristics. For 57 functional depression wetlands in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we characterized the principal vegetation types and used a landscape framework to assess how local (wetland-level) factors and regional landscape settings potentially influence vegetation composition and dynamics. Wetland sites were stratified across three Upper Coastal Plain landscape settings that differ in soils, surface geology, topography, and land use. We sampled plant composition, measured relevant local variables, and analyzed historical transitions in vegetative cover types. Cluster analysis identified six vegetation types, ranging from open-water ponds and emergent marshes to closed forests. Significant vegetation-environment relationships suggested environmental ''templates'' for plant community development. Of all local factors examined, wetland hydrologic regime was most strongly correlated with vegetation type, but depression size, soil textural type, and disturbance history were also significant. Because hydrogeologic settings influence wetland features, local factors important to vegetation were partly predictable from landscape setting, and thus wetland types were distributed non-randomly across landscape settings. Analysis of long-term vegetation change indicated relative stability in some wetlands and succession in others. We developed a landscape-contingent model for vegetation dynamics, with hydroperiod and fire as major driving variables. The wetland classification, environmental templates, and dynamics model provide a reference framework to guide conservation priorities and suggest possible outcomes of restoration or management.

De Steven, Diane; Toner, Maureen, M.

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Organic carbon storage in soils of the Basque Country (Spain): the effect of climate, vegetation type and edaphic variables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was performed to identify the environmental factors that control soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) and to evaluate the impact of land use change on SOC budget in this territory. A total of 30 samples of the organomineral horizon were taken under representative vegetation types including native forest, coniferous plantations, scrub, pasture and cultures. The edaphic variables measured were organic C content, pH, total N, available P, exchangeable H+ and Al3+, cation exchange capacity (CEC), texture, and carbonates. The substitution of the original forest with a pasture led to a significant increase in organic C content of the topsoil in all cases studied. Temperature was the main climatic factor affecting the organic C levels in soil, being the two variables negatively correlated. The CEC and texture were other key factors controlling the organic C content, which increased with CEC and decreased with total sand. Average organic C content of the organomineral horizon did not differ significantly (P <0.05) with base content of original substrate nor climate type, but it was more sensitive to climate change in the Atlantic soils than in the Mediterranean ones, where edaphic variables such as CEC and texture were important in regulating C sequestration.

Ganuza A; Almendros G

2003-03-01

162

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

2003-01-01

163

A high-performance ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role in dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. Here we developed a ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility, named Horn-type Producer (HTP), which was capable of simulating the microgravity effect and the continuous cultivation of leaf-vegetables on root modules. The growth chamber of the facility had a volume of 0.12 m3, characterized by a three-stage space expansion with plant growth. The planting surface of 0.154 m2 was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved forward with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m2 was provided by a combination of red and white light emitting diodes on the internal surfaces. In tests with a 24-h photoperiod, the productivity of the HTP at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Long-term operation of the HTP did not alter vegetable nutrition composition to any great extent. Furthermore, the efficiency of the HTP, based on the Q-criterion, was 7 × 10-4 g2 m-3 J-1. These results show that the HTP exhibited high productivity, stable quality, and good efficiency in the process of planting lettuce, indicative of an interesting design for space vegetable production.

Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hui; Shao, Lingzhi; Wang, Minjuan; Berkovich, Yu A.; Erokhin, A. N.; Liu, Hong

2013-07-01

164

Soil C and N cycling in three semiarid vegetation types: Response to an in situ pulse of plant detritus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant detritus is an important source of labile C that drives soil microbial growth and regulates the balance of N mineralization and immobilization. In semiarid ecosystems, timing of plant detrital inputs may be especially important in regulating microbial C and N cycling because of the relatively short window of time when moisture is available. Low soil moisture in early-summer may inhibit microbial colonization of recently released detritus, resulting in C-limitations to microbial growth, and this may explain the NO3(-) accumulation commonly observed in semiarid, arid, and Mediterranean ecosystems. We examined linkages between soil C availability and gross N cycling rates during summer in three common semiarid vegetation types: sagebrush, crested wheatgrass, and cheatgrass. To determine whether dry soils inhibit microbial colonization of plant detrital inputs, we stimulated soil C availability in situ by killing plant biomass shortly before the summer dry-season with herbicide (detrital-pulse treatment). Soil C and gross N cycling rates were determined during field incubations of intact soil cores from untreated soils on three occasions from late-spring to late summer, and from detrital-pulse treated soils on two occasions in summer. We hypothesized that greater C availability, resulting in increased microbial biomass and C mineralization rates, would translate to greater N immobilization rates, and this would inhibit the accumulation of inorganic N during summer months. There were few differences in soil C and N cycling among vegetation types. In all vegetation types, the in situ detrital-pulse stimulated soil C mineralization and gross N cycling rates compared to untreated soils; however, this treatment did not inhibit the summertime accumulation of NO3-. Instead, elevated N cycling rates and large labile N pools in detrital-pulse soils persisted throughout the summer. Our results combined with a model of microbial C-N dynamics indicate that microbes in detrital-pulse soils were utilizing substrates with C:N ratios 27% lower than in untreated soils (p < 0.04), and much lower than expected based on the C:N of plant detritus. This suggests that substrates released by senescing plants had much lower C:N than would be predicted based on the overall C:N of plant tissue. In addition, appearance of 15N in different soil density fractions showed that the detrital-pulse treatment stimulated microbial N immobilization in both C-rich and N-rich soil microsites. Greater N immobilization associated with light fraction organic matter is consistent with greater microbial growth due to earlier input of plant detritus. Interestingly, heavy fraction organic matter was also an important sink for immobilized N and was strongly stimulated by the detrital-pulse treatment, indicating that this fraction is not as recalcitrant as formerly thought.

Hooker TobyD; Stark JohnM

2008-10-01

165

Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m) and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) reflectances (1 km). Four zones (north, south and two central) were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas) was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

Verhegghen, A.; Mayaux, P.; de Wasseige, C.; Defourny, P.

2012-12-01

166

Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m) and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) reflectances (1 km). Four zones (north, south and two central) were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas) was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

A. Verhegghen; P. Mayaux; C. de Wasseige; P. Defourny

2012-01-01

167

Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas) ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga.A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or carcasses of beetles or ants) or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

Benedito Cortês Lopes

2007-01-01

168

On variability of evapotranspiration : the role of surface type and vegetation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This dissertation is part of the long-term catchment-scale hydrological observatory, HOBE, situated in the Skjern River catchment covering 2500 km2 on the western coast of Denmark. To gain a more detailed knowledge of how evapotranspiration is controlled by the local surface and weather patterns, eddy-covariance systems was installed over the tree dominant surface types in the catchment; an agricultural field, a spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] plantation and a meadow site. Measurements started in late 2008, and the full evaporation and energy balances for the years 2009-2011 forms the basis for this study. At the spruce plantation additional separate measurements of transpiration, interception evaporation and forest floor evaporation was performed. Transpiration was measured in the growing season of 2010 using Granier type TDP sap flux probes, interception was measured using net precipitation gauges for the years of 2010 and 2011 and forest floor evaporation was measured on a campaign basis by weighing cut out sections for forest floor. The cumulative measured evapotranspiration from the three surfaces showed large differences. 2009 was an unusually dry year with much lower than normal rates of precipitation in April, May and June, while 2010 and 2011 where normal years in terms of precipitation. The meadow site and agricultural site had the largest evapotranspiration in dry year of 2009 at 512 and 470 mm respectively, while the normal years 2010 and 2011 saw 446 and 455 mm for the meadow and 406 and 400 mm for the agricultural site. The spruce plantation showed the opposite pattern. In 2009 the ET was 494 mm while in 2010 and 2011 the sum was 545 and 544 mm respectively. In all years the agricultural site had less evapotranspiration than the natural surfaces. In the dry year 2009 the meadow had slightly more evapotranspiration than spruce plantation, while in the normal years 2010 and 2011 the forest had considerably more evapotranspiration than either the Meadows or the Farm. At the agricultural site, transpiration was the most important component of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by crop development and by the available energy. At the meadow site soil evaporation and evaporation from free water surfaces was the most important parts of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by the water level in the Skjern River which influenced the ground water level in the meadows and by the available energy. At the spruce plantation transpiration and terception evaporation were both important. The rate of transpiration was heavily influenced by stomatal control in response to high vapor pressure deficits. In addition soil moisture stress had a limiting effect during prolonged dry periods. Interception evaporation was controlled by the amount and duration of precipitation. During rain, advection was found to comprise about half the energy balance of the spruce plantation in summer and the majority the energy balance in winter. On average, 19% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in summer, and 12% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in winter. Canopy structure in the forest were found to affect both transpiration and interception evaporation. Young stands with an open canopy structure transpired at about 30% higher rate than mature stands with a close canopy structure; the young stands had an interception evaporation of 31% of the gross precipitation, while the mature stands had an interception evaporation of 34% of the gross precipitation. Within the mature stands there was an edge effect with trees next to access roads and aisles being responsible for a disproportionally large part of the stand transpiration.

Ringgaard, Rasmus

2012-01-01

169

Occupational protein contact dermatitis with type I allergy to different kinds of meat and vegetables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Even though occupational protein contact dermatitis is not an uncommon finding in occupational dermatology, reports about multiple sensitizations are rare. High-molecular-weight substances such as proteins can pass the epidermis only if it is damaged and cause a sensitization. In a high percentage of case, atopic dermatitis might be the cause of this damage but cannot be regarded as the only cause. An interesting case is presented that was carefully worked up. METHODS: Scratch, intracutaneous, and prick or prick-to-prick tests with native occupational allergens were performed as single tests. The patient was patch-tested with the European Standard Series. The determination of allergen-specific IgE was performed by ImmunoCAP. The results were subdivided into six classes. In addition, oral provocations with relevant allergens were performed. RESULTS: The skin tests showed positive type I allergies to beef, lamb, horse, and pork meat, to pork and horse blood as well as to rye and wheat flour, raw potato, and pasta. Weak positive reactions could be found for fowl, duck, goose, and turkey in intracutaneous testing. The ImmunoCAP showed elevated specific IgE values for pork meat, raw potato, and rye and wheat flour. The oral provocation did not show any systemic or skin change. CONCLUSIONS: This case report demonstrates how an initial case of contact urticaria turns into protein contact dermatitis. It shows that the diagnosis can be made by means of scratch or prick tests with native occupational allergens. The determination of allergen-specific IgE by ImmunoCAP might be helpful, but a negative result does not exclude protein contact dermatitis.

Iliev D; Wüthrich B

1998-06-01

170

On the Suitability of MODIS Time Series Metrics to Map Vegetation Types in Dry Savanna Ecosystems: A Case Study in the Kalahari of NE Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The characterization and evaluation of the recent status of biodiversity in Southern Africa’s Savannas is a major prerequisite for suitable and sustainable land management and conservation purposes. This paper presents an integrated concept for vegetation type mapping in a dry savanna ecosystem based on local scale in-situ botanical survey data with high resolution (Landsat) and coarse resolution (MODIS) satellite time series. In this context, a semi-automated training database generation procedure using object-oriented image segmentation techniques is introduced. A tree-based Random Forest classifier was used for mapping vegetation type associations in the Kalahari of NE Namibia based on inter-annual intensity- and phenology-related time series metrics. The utilization of long-term inter-annual temporal metrics delivered the best classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.93) compared with classifications based on seasonal feature sets. The relationship between annual classification accuracies and bi-annual precipitation sums was conducted using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Increased error rates occurred in years with high rainfall rates compared to dry rainy seasons. The variable importance was analyzed and showed high-rank positions for features of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the blue and middle infrared bands, indicating that soil reflectance was crucial information for an accurate spectral discrimination of Kalahari vegetation types. Time series features related to reflectance intensity obtained increased rank-positions compared to phenology-related metrics.

Christian Hüttich; Ursula Gessner; Martin Herold; Ben J. Strohbach; Michael Schmidt; Manfred Keil; Stefan Dech

2009-01-01

171

Food safety assessment of planting patterns of four vegetable-type crops grown in soil contaminated by electronic waste activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of crop and planting pattern on levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) in crops grown in soil contaminated by electronic waste. The crops were maize (Zea mays L. var. Shentian-1), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Zhongshu-4), cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. Jingfeng-1), and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis (L.) Makino. var. Youdonger-Hangzhou). The planting patterns were crop monoculture, crop co-planted with a legume, and crop co-planted with another crop. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of the crops varied with types of metals and crops. Pb concentration was higher in leafy vegetables (cabbage and pakchoi) than in maize or tomato, Cd concentration was higher in tomato and pakchoi than in maize or cabbage, and Cu concentration was higher in maize and pakchoi than in tomato or cabbage. Metal concentrations in the edible part were also influenced by planting pattern. Relative to monoculture, co-planting and especially co-planting with Japanese clover tended to decrease Pb accumulation and increase Cd accumulation. According to the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) standard of the National Standard Agency in China, only maize (under all planting patterns) could be safely consumed. Because co-planting tended to increase Cd accumulation even in maize, however, the results suggest that maize monoculture is the optimal crop and planting pattern for this kind of contaminated soil.

Liu L; Hu L; Tang J; Li Y; Zhang Q; Chen X

2012-01-01

172

Ecological Research ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Research has been published in English by the Ecological Society of Japan since 1986. The journal publishes original research papers, reviews, technical reports, and notes and comments covering all aspects of ecology and ecological sciences. ????????????????????????????

173

Variation of vegetation incidence by installation of a slit-type erosion control dam -a study based on mesh data and variation of substrata of habitats-  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes a field survey on physical features of and vegetation on a dry riverbed around a slit-type erosion control dam in Ozo river. Field surveys cover the range 130m to upstream and 200m to downstream of the dam and were performed in 2001 before the construction, and 2008 and 2009 after the construction. We developed a relationship between physical property of substrata and incidence of species of vegetation on the same property of substrata for each species. This incidence ratio is obtained from the observed data in 2001.Predicted mesh numbers and observed mesh numbers for all species observed in three years were shown in one figure. An estimation line between prediction and observation which is developed by Generalized Linear Mixed Model can give reliable relationship even for cases of sparse incidence of vegetation. It is shown that variation of vegetation incidence can be predicted by physical property of substrata. However, it is also shown that substrata and vegetation in studied area are still under succession stage in short period after the impact of construction.

Sannoh, Keinosuke; Sawa, Yasuo; Taya, Yuki; Tamai, Nobuyuki

174

[Ecology and ecologies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecology (from the Greek words ?????, "house" and ????? "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

Valera L

2011-01-01

175

Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Kang, S. [University of Oklahoma; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reganold, John P. [Washington State University

2010-01-01

176

Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

Reeve JR; Schadt CW; Carpenter-Boggs L; Kang S; Zhou J; Reganold JP

2010-09-01

177

Coastal Vegetation of Oman  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of the coastal vegetation of higher plants in the intertidal and spray zone shows four vegetation types. Species composition of each type is dependent on the topography, salinity and substrate of the coast and the level and frequency of inundation by the sea. Each vegetation type included some indicator species which had only limited use in the classification of the coastal vegetation into biogeographic zones; however, there was a boundary in the distribution of tropical and extra-tropical species. This indicated that climate and geomorphological factors had the major influence on the composition of species. The four vegetation types are as follows: (1) The Limonium Zygophyllum community is characteristic of the coastal vegetation of northern Oman. The coasts are mainly sandy and interspersed with rocky limestone headlands. The dominant vegetation consists of Limonium stocksii and Zygophyllum qatarense. (2) The Suaeda Limonium community characterizes the vegetation of the north-eastern coast. This type of vegetation is present in rocky shores with narrow beach areas and a wide spray zone. Limonium cf. stocksii and Suaeda vermiculata form the dominant species. (3) The Atriplex-Suaeda community is characteristic of the vegetation of the offshore islands, flat sandy beaches and sabkhas. The sand is usually fine, graded with mud and has a high content of marine carbonates. This complex consists of the dominant and associated species comprising, Atriplex coriacea, A. farinosum, A. leucoclada, Suaeda vermiculata, S. monoica, S. moschata and Arthrocnemum macrostachyum. (4) The Limonium-Sporobolus-Urochondra community is characteristic of the vegetation of the southern coasts. The dominant species, Limonium axillare, Urochondra setulosa and Sporobolus spp. are associated with several others depending on the geomorphology of the area. Coastal lagoons consists of Sporobolus virginicus, S. iocladus and Paspalum vaginatum as the main species. A single species of mangrove, Avicennia marina, occurs throughout coastal Oman in discontinuous patches and in a wide range of water salinities.

Ghazanfar, S. A.

1999-08-01

178

Soil moisture effect on bacterial and fungal community in Beilu River (Tibetan Plateau) permafrost soils with different vegetation types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study investigated the effects of environmental variables on the bacterial and fungal communities of the Beilu River (on the Tibetan Plateau) permafrost soils with different vegetation types. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial communities were sampled from meadow, steppe and desert steppe permafrost soils during May, June, August and November, and they were analysed by both pyrosequencing and the use of Biolog EcoPlates. The dominant bacterial and fungal phyla in meadow and steppe soils were Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, whereas Actinobacteria and Basidiomycota predominated in desert steppe soils. The bacterial communities in meadow soils degraded amines and amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by steppe communities. The RDA patterns showed that the microbial communities differed greatly between meadow, steppe and desert steppe, and they were related to variations in the soil moisture, C/N ratio and pH. A UniFrac analysis detected clear differences between the desert steppe bacterial community and others, and seasonal shifts were observed. The fungal UniFrac patterns differed significantly between meadow and steppe soils. There were significant correlations between the bacterial diversity (H') and soil moisture (r = 0.506) and C/N (r = 0.527). The fungal diversity (Hf') was significantly correlated with the soil pH (r = 0.541). CONCLUSION: The soil moisture, C/N ratio and pH were important determinants of the microbial community structure in Beilu River permafrost soils. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results may provide a useful baseline for predicting the variation in microbial communities in response to climate changes.

Zhang XF; Zhao L; Xu SJ Jr; Liu YZ; Liu HY; Cheng GD

2013-04-01

179

Handbook of Miombo ecology and management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea to produce a Handbook of Miombo Ecology and Management emerged during the implementation of a research study to assess responses of miombo woodland to harvesting and management. The handbook has five chapters. The first part of chapter 1 is an introduction to the indigenous vegetation types in the miombo region commonly referred to as the Zambezian phytoregion. The second part of the chapter is a description of miombo ecology. Chapter 2 is a description of the various major uses of the miombo ecosystem. Chapter 3 is a biogeography of fire, one of the principal ecological factors and a significant management problem, in the miombo ecosystem and a description of adaptations in different plant forms. Methods of carrying out management inventories and assessments of various uses of miombo are presented in chapter 4 and management guidelines are presented in chapter 5. The little that is known about the ecology of miombo is based on a few site-specific studies, often conducted without replication. Validation of such results is therefore difficult to determine and generalizations from such studies can be misleading. Nevertheless, generalizations are useful in presenting a thesis of the current ecological knowledge about miombo, especially for the non-professional. The handbook is based on this approach and the reader should bear this weakness in mind. For this reason methods and guidelines presented in chapters 4 and 5 should be treated as generic and their applicability may require modification to suit local conditions. 150 refs, 69 figs, 68 tabs

Chidumayo, E. N. [Zambia Univ., Biology Dept., Lusaka (Zambia)

1995-01-01

180

THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L.) by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 ? C4 ? CAM with commute possibilities: C3 ? CAM; C4 ? CAM.

Pyurko O.Ye.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Assessment of function area design in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve using landscape ecology principles  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Principles of landscape ecology are playing significant roles in the design and management of nature reserves. Three function zones (core zone, buffer zone, and transitional zone) in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, the first nature reserve of China, were designed in 1988 and then readjusted in 2001 to make the di-vision more reasonable. Based on vegetation map data of 1985 and 2000, we assessed the two designs using landscape ecology principles. And the changes in vegetation composition and landscape patterns between the two designs were compared. The results showed that, during the past 15 years, vegetations in the three func-tion zones were in the process of ordinal succession, meanwhile the vegetation patches became more irregu-lar. In each function zone, vegetation landscape had changed in different ways because of the different origi-nal vegetation types and human disturbance intensity: the core zone and transitional zone had become more continuous, whereas the buffer zone more fragmented resulted from excessive tourism. After readjustment of the design, the integrity of landscape vegetation in the core zone is maintained. Compared the two designs, the similarity index of vegetation landscape ranked as core zone > transition zone > buffer zone. We sug-gest setting the newly established buffer zone as an example of eco-tourism in order to protect the previous buffer zone against an excessive influx of tourists.

Zhang Linyan; Ye Wanhui; Huang Zhongliang

2006-01-01

182

Trepadeiras: florística da Estação Ecológica do Caiuá e chave de identificação vegetativa para espécies do Norte do Estado do Paraná=Climbers: flora of the Caiuá Ecological Station and an identification key for the vegetative species of Northern Paraná State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As trepadeiras são plantas com alta representatividade nas florestas tropicais e de grande importância ecológica, apontadas como um dos fatores básicos que diferencia florestas tropicais de temperadas. Este trabalho apresenta as espécies de trepadeiras da Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (EECAIUÁ), município de Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, inserida na floresta estacional semidecidual (FES) submontana, situada à margem do rio Paranapanema. Foram encontradas 17 famílias, 44 gêneros e 53 espécies. As cinco famílias mais ricas em número de espécies perfazem juntas 57% do total encontrado. As trepadeiras herbáceas ocorrem em menor número quando comparadas às lianas, e quanto à estratégia utilizada para ascender, as volúveis são as mais diversas, seguidas pelas de órgãos preensores (gavinhas) e escandentes. Uma chave de identificação para famílias, baseada em caracteres vegetativos, foi produzida para as famílias desta localidade com as famílias encontradas em outras duas no Norte do Paraná.Climbers are highly represented in tropical forests and are of great ecological importance, having been identified as one of the key factors that differentiate tropical forests from temperate rainforests. This paper presents the climber species of the Caiuá Ecological Station (EECAIUÁ) in the City of Diamante do Norte, Paraná State; the Station is located in a submountainous seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF) and is situated on the edge of the Paranapanema river. We found 17 families, 44 genera and 53 species of vines. The five families with the greatest number of species jointly accounted for 57% of the total species found. Herbaceous vines occurred less frequently than did lianas. When considering the climbing strategy used by the species, the graspers were the most diverse, followed by those that had tendrils (scramblers) and climbers. An identification key based on vegetative characters of families found in other parts of northern Paraná was created for the families of this location.

Juliana de Souza Carneiro; Ana Odete Santos Vieira

2012-01-01

183

Relação entre vegetação e solo em um gradiente florestal na Estação Ecológica do Panga, Uberlândia (MG)/ Relationship between vegetation and soil in a forest gradient in the Panga Ecological Station, Uberlândia (MG)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Relacionou-se a composição física (granulometria) e química (macronutrientes e parâmetros de fertilidade) do solo com um gradiente florestal formado por mata de galeria, mata mesófila semidecídua de encosta e cerradão, na Estação Ecológica do Panga, Uberlândia - MG. Foram analisadas 211 amostras de solo, coletadas a uma profundidade de 0-20 cm. As fitofisionomias são estatisticamente distintas entre si quanto a cálcio, magnésio, potássio, fósforo, alumín (more) io, saturação por alumínio, saturação por bases e matéria orgânica, enquanto que, para outros atributos edáficos, podem ser encontrados pares fitofisionômicos semelhantes. Algumas espécies vegetais encontram-se distribuídas no gradiente florestal seguindo a variação da composição físico-química do solo, enquanto outras se apresentam indiferentes ao gradiente edáfico. Há evidências de que o solo representa um importante papel para a estruturação vegetal ao longo do gradiente florestal estudado. Abstract in english The relationship between the soil characteristics and a forest gradient, formed by gallery forest, semideciduous forest and "cerradão", in the Panga Ecological Station, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil, was analysed. A total of 211 bulk soil samples were collected, from a depth of 0 - 20 cm, and analysed for their physical (granulometric) and chemical (macronutrients and fertility parameters) characteristics. The phytophysiognomies differed statisticaly from each other for the va (more) riables calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, aluminium, saturation of aluminium, saturation of bases and organic matter, while other edaphic attributes were similar in pairs of phytophysiognomies. Some plant species were distributed in the forest gradient following the variation of soil physical-chemical composition, while others are apparently indifferent to the soil gradient. There is evidence that the soil represents an important role in the structuring of the vegetation along the studied forest gradient.

MORENO, MARIA INÊS CRUZEIRO; SCHIAVINI, IVAN

2001-12-01

184

[Ecological-geographic landscapes of natural plague foci in China VIII. Typing of natural plague foci].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since plague is an important natural focus zoonosis, the typing of natural plague foci becomes one of the elements in understanding the nature and developing related prevention program of the disease. Natural foci of plague are composed by four fundamental parts which include Eco-geographical landscape (natural plague foci), hosts, vectors and pathogens (Yersinia pestis) that comprehensively interact through the large temporal scale of evolution. Human activities have had great impact on the foci of natural plague. Based on the published serial research papers, we tried to integrate the knowledge of each factor in natural plague foci and focusing on theoretical aspects, so as to strengthen the prevention and surveillance programs of plague to be extrapolated to other zoonosis.

Fang XY; Liu QY; Xu L; Zhou DS; Cui YJ; Dong XQ; Zhang RZ; Gu SH; Ye CD; Yang RF

2013-01-01

185

Does the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, have a preference for aquatic vegetation type, cover or height?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Knysna seahorse,Hippocampus capensis, is an endangered teleost confined to three South African estuaries. Its abundance within these systems is low and distributions are patchy. Consequently, monitoring population sizes is labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to establish if Knynsa seahorses are associated with specific regions within the estuaries, on which conservation efforts could concentrate. The relationship of Knysna seahorses with aquatic vegetation was analysed in the Knysna Estuary (the largest of the three estuarine systems inhabited by H. capensis) to determine whether this species shows a preference for a particular plant species, vegetation density or vegetation height. Seahorses were associated with five dominant aquatic plants: Zostera capensis, Caulerpa filiformis, Codium extricatum, Halophila ovalis and Ruppia cirrhosa. Together, these comprised 96% of the submerged objects with which seahorses were associated. The relative abundance of plant species changed along the estuary, but seahorses were present throughout the system, except at the estuary mouth, which was characterized by low plant densities and strong currents. No significant difference was found between the proportion of plant species present in a particular region of the estuary and the proportion of plants that seahorses used as holdfasts. However, when Z. capensis and C. filiformis were present at the same sites, adult seahorses preferred C. filiformis as holdfast. Adult seahorse density (individuals/m2) was significantly correlated with percentage vegetation cover and with holdfast length, but juvenile seahorse density was not. Nonetheless, significantly more adult and juvenile seahorses were found at sites characterized by high vegetation cover (>75%) than at sites with lower cover. Our results indicate that although there is some evidence that Knynsa seahorses prefer certain plant species over others, they are likely to be encountered anywhere in the estuary where aquatic plants are present. Conservation efforts in the Knysna Estuary should thus concentrate on such vegetated areas, which comprise approximately 11% of the total submerged surface area.

Peter R. Teske; Jacqueline F. Lockyear; Thomas Hecht; Horst Kaiser

2011-01-01

186

An ecological type nonlinear model for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by introducing liquid species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The average temperature of our planet is increasing in past several decades due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere leading to undesirable environmental consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to find a mechanism by which a global warming gas can be removed from the regional atmosphere. In this paper, therefore, we proposed an ecological type nonlinear mathematical model for the removal of a global warming gas CO2 from the regional atmosphere by externally introduced liquid species, which may react with this gas and removed it by gravity. The model consists of three dependent variables namely; the concentration of carbon dioxide, the concentration of externally introduced liquid species and the concentration of particulate matters (secondary species) formed due to interaction of carbon dioxide with liquid species. The local and global stability conditions are discussed using Routh-Hurwitz criteria and suitable Lyapunove's function respectively. It is shown, analytically and numerically, that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of externally introduced liquid species increases.

Shyam Sundar

2013-01-01

187

Genetic diversity and mating types of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum originating from different agro-ecological regions in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum are the major pathogens for dryland root/foot-rot and head-blight diseases in economically important grain crops. This study was aimed at the molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. isolates, which have been collected from cereal fields in three agro-ecological regions in Turkey. Genetic diversity has been analyzed by generating RFLP markers from the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal RNA. The selection of restriction enzymes for IGS-RFLP studies has been found critical to maximize polymorphic markers. Only 3 of 14 restriction endonucleases were useful in differentiating Fusarium spp. isolates. PstI was the most efficient enzyme to produce a maximum of nine DNA markers in one individual and total 22 polymorphic representative banding patterns. Polymorphism based on IGS-RFLP was high and average 88% in both species. There was no association between IGS diversity and geographic locations from which the samples were taken. Both MAT-1 and MAT-2 sequences were amplified in F. graminearum similarly to previous reports. Most of the F. culmorum isolates carried either MAT-1 or MAT-2 sequences, and differently two isolates carried both sequences. Mating type determination was helpful to distinguish F. pseudograminearum from F. graminearum, which cannot be discriminated by SCAR markers or morphological assessment. High genetic diversity by IGS-RFLP markers in F. culmorum was discussed in relation to its fitness as the most common pathogen in dryland root rot complex (DLRRC). PMID:22961691

Cepni, Elif; Tunal?, Berna; Gürel, Filiz

2012-09-07

188

Genetic diversity and mating types of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum originating from different agro-ecological regions in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum are the major pathogens for dryland root/foot-rot and head-blight diseases in economically important grain crops. This study was aimed at the molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. isolates, which have been collected from cereal fields in three agro-ecological regions in Turkey. Genetic diversity has been analyzed by generating RFLP markers from the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal RNA. The selection of restriction enzymes for IGS-RFLP studies has been found critical to maximize polymorphic markers. Only 3 of 14 restriction endonucleases were useful in differentiating Fusarium spp. isolates. PstI was the most efficient enzyme to produce a maximum of nine DNA markers in one individual and total 22 polymorphic representative banding patterns. Polymorphism based on IGS-RFLP was high and average 88% in both species. There was no association between IGS diversity and geographic locations from which the samples were taken. Both MAT-1 and MAT-2 sequences were amplified in F. graminearum similarly to previous reports. Most of the F. culmorum isolates carried either MAT-1 or MAT-2 sequences, and differently two isolates carried both sequences. Mating type determination was helpful to distinguish F. pseudograminearum from F. graminearum, which cannot be discriminated by SCAR markers or morphological assessment. High genetic diversity by IGS-RFLP markers in F. culmorum was discussed in relation to its fitness as the most common pathogen in dryland root rot complex (DLRRC).

Cepni E; Tunal? B; Gürel F

2013-08-01

189

Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter 10]) and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specificity. Methods We conducted an ecological study and calculated annual average concentration of 6 air pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO, O3, and PM10) using data from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration air quality monitoring stations. The Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between SO2 and age-standardized incidence rate of female lung cancer by two major pathological types (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]). In order to understand whether there is a dose-response relationship between SO2 and two major pathological types, we analyzed 4 levels of exposure based on quartiles of concentration of SO2. Results The Poisson regression results showed that with the first quartile of SO2 concentration as the baseline, the relative risks for AC/SCC type cancer among females were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.37)/1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.01) for the second, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43)/1.58 (95% CI, 1.06-2.37) for the third, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.06-1.52)/1.80 (95% CI, 1.15-2.84) for the fourth quartile of SO2 concentration. The tests for trend were statistically significant for both AC and SCC at P = 0.0272 and 0.0145, respectively. Conclusion The current study suggests that SO2 exposure as an air pollutant may increase female lung cancer incidence and the associations with female lung cancer is much stronger for SCC than for AC. The findings of this study warrant further investigation on the role of SO2 in the etiology of SCC.

Tseng Ching-Yu; Huang Yi-Chia; Su Shih-Yung; Huang Jing-Yang; Lai Cheng-Hsiu; Lung Chia-Chi; Ho Chien-Chang; Liaw Yung-Po

2012-01-01

190

Ecological Applications ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Applications invites contributions from scientists, policy makers, and managers concerned with the full spectrum of ecological applications. Included within this spectrum are global climate change and biogeochemistry, conservation biology, ecotoxicology and pollution ecology, fishe...

191

Ecological Monographs ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Monographs, issued quarterly, publishes complex, multi-faceted studies that demand greater length than those published in Ecology or Ecological Applications. These are not merely long papers, but must tell a truly complicated scientific story with multiple components....

193

[Communities of Actynomicetes fungy in three vegetation types of the Colombian Amazon: abundance, morphotypes and the 16s rDNA gene].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among soil microorganisms, Actinomycetes play an important role in the sustainability of natural and agricultural systems: decomposition of organic matter; degradation of recalcitrant compounds like lignin; nitrogen fixation; degradation of agricultural chemicals and biological control in plants and animals. We evaluated their diversity in soils under three different vegetation covers (pasture, tropical primary forest and stubble) at two depths in the Southern Colombian Amazon border. We collected five replicates per vegetation type (in each, three samples at 0-20cm and three at 20-30cm; for a total of 30 samples). Abundance and phenotypic diversity were determined by plate counting. Genomic DNA was extracted from the isolates: the 16s rDNA gene was amplified with specific primers, and its genetic diversity was estimated by means of an amplified restriction analysis (ARDRA). Actynomicetes abundance varied with vegetation and depth, possibly reflecting presence of earthworms, macro-fauna and physico-chemical characteristics associated to fertility, as well as organic matter, total bases, and optimal capacity to cationic interchange. Primary forests had the highest diversity. Sixteen morpho-types (six genera) were identified; Streptomyces was the most abundant everywhere. The heterogeneity ofARDRA patterns prevented species identification because of the intra-species variability in sequences of 16s rDNA operons. This community is a biological indicator of landscape alteration and could include new bio-active compounds of pharmaceutical interest.

Cardona GI; Peña-Venegas CP; Ruiz-García M

2009-12-01

194

Relationships among depth to frozen soil, soil wetness, and vegetation type and biomass in Tundra near Bethel, Alaska, U. S. A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vegetation was sampled in three types of tundra habitat (upland, wet meadow, and lake) in southwestern Alaska. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured by harvesting, and the depth to frozen soil was measured using ground-penetrating radar. Live and dead aboveground biomass increased, and dead belowground biomass decreased, as habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil increased. The proportion of live aerial biomass that was graminoid increased as habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil increased, whereas the proportion that was woody shrub biomass decreased with increases in habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil. The results indicate that information pertaining to either vegetation type/biomass, habitat wetness, or depth to frozen soil, could be used to infer information about the other two variables. Vegetation and frozen soil depth could be monitored remotely for large areas using tools such as satellite images and radar. Since the cycling of carbon is related to carbon storage (biomass) and depth of the biologically active (thawed) layer, it should be possible to study carbon cycles in tundra remotely, based on the relationships stated above.

Gross, M.F. (Gettysburg Coll., PA (United States)); Hardisky, M.A. (Univ. of Scranton, PA (United States)); Doolittle, J.A. (Soil Conservation Service, Chester, PA (United States)); Klemas, V. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

1990-08-01

195

Decadal-Scale Vegetation Dynamics of Kolkata and Its Surrounding Areas, India Using Fuzzy Classification Technique  

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Full Text Available Vegetation is an important component of any ecosystem. In urban areas, presence of vegetation is essential for reducing the effects of environmental pollution and maintaining the ecological balance. In the wake of excessive growth of population, the urban vegetation with parkland, especially in developing countries, are diminishing rapidly to provide additional space to various other types of land use. However, such reductions can have serious future implications. Therefore, an assessment of the vegetation cover of urban areas is essential. In this paper, Landsat satellite imageries have been used to study the changes in the vegetation cover of Kolkata, the largest metropolis in eastern India, from 1973 to 2011. The entire area of Kolkata and its surroundings (up to a distance of 10 km) has been divided into four quadrants according to the cardinal directions (northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest) and six concentric rings of 2 km radius each, and from these 24 sectors (four quadrants and six concentric circles), vegetated lands have been identified for analyzing the changes during the study period. There is a constant decrease of vegetation cover from 1973 till date. The outer periphery of the city is characterized by more urban vegetation as compared to the core of the city. Apart from this, the western sector is denser in terms of vegetation than the eastern one.

Arun Mondal; Anirban Mukhopadhyay; Subhanil Guha; Sananda Kundu; Sandip Mukherjee; Rajarshi Dasgupta

2012-01-01

196

Photo interpretations of the NWO FEC vegetation and soil types for the Aulneau peninsula, northwestern Ontario. NWOFTDU technical report No. 54  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwestern Ontario Forest Ecosystem Classification (NWO FEC) provdes a framework that forest managers can use for classifying forest soils and vegetation (S-Types and V-Types) and for land management applications. For many forest management uses, NWO FEC V- or S-type information must be mapped at a scale compatible with data collection by ground survey. However, ground surveys are typically costly or difficult, and a photointerpretation procedure for typing soils or vegetation would be useful. This study was undertaken to develop a reliable methodology for interpreting NWO FEC S- and V- types using aerial photos. The study area was the Aulneau Peninsula along the Lake of the Woods, and study methods included a review of existing information, a field reconnaissance, and development of photinterpretation keys. This report presents the study results and the interpretation procedure developed. photos together with other available information. The study area was the Aulneau Peninsula along Lake of the Woods and the study approach included a review of existing information, a field reconnassance, and preparation of photointerpretation keys. This report presents the study results and the interpretation methodology developed.

NONE

1989-12-31

197

How climate and vegetation type influence evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in Canadian forest, peatland and grassland ecosystems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of climatic factors and vegetation type on evapotranspiration (E) and water use efficiency (WUE) were analyzed using tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) data for nine mature forest sites, two peatland sites and one grassland site across an east–west continental-scale transect in Canada during the period 2003–2006. The seasonal pattern of E was closely linked to growing-season length and rainfall distribution. Although annual precipitation (P) during the observation period was highly variable among sites (250?1450mm), minimum annual E was not less than 200mm and was limited to 400?500mm where annual P exceeded 700mm. Site-specific interannual variability in E could be explained by either changes in total P or variations in solar irradiance. A highly positive linear correlation was found between monthly mean values of E and net radiation (Rn) at the grassland site (AB-GRL), the two peatland sites (AB-WPL and ON-EPL), and only one of the forest sites (coastal Douglas-fir, BC-DF49) whereas a hysteretic relationship at the other forest sites indicated that E lagged behind the typical seasonal progression of Rn. Results of a cross-correlation analysis between daily (24-h) E and Rn revealed that site-specific lag times were between 10 and 40 days depending on the lag of vapour pressure deficit (D) behind Rn and the decoupling coefficient, ?. There was significant seasonal variation in daytime mean dry-foliage Priestley–Taylor ? with maxima occurring in the growing season at all sites except BC-DF49 where it was relatively constant (?0.55) throughout all years. Annual means of daytime dry-foliage ? mostly ranging between 0.5 and 0.7 implied stomatal limitation to transpiration. Increasing D significantly decreased canopy conductance (gc) at the forest sites but had little effect at the peatland and grassland sites, while variation in soil water content caused only minor changes in gc. At all sites, a strong linear correlation between monthly mean values of gross primary production (GPP) and E resulted in water use efficiency being relatively constant. While at most sites, WUE was in the range of 2.6–3.6gCkg?1 H2O, the BC-DF49 site had the highest WUE of the twelve sites with values near 6.0gCkg?1 H2O. Of the two peatland sites, AB-WPL, a western treed fen, had a significantly higher WUE (?3.0gCkg?1 H2O) than ON-EPL, an eastern ombrotrophic bog (?1.8gCkg?1 H2O), which was related to peatland productivity and plant functional type.

Brümmer C; Black TA; Jassal RS; Grant NJ; Spittlehouse DL; Chen B; Nesic Z; Amiro BD; Arain MA; Barr AG; Bourque CPA; Coursolle C; Dunn AL; Flanagan LB; Humphreys ER; Lafleur PM; Margolis HA; McCaughey JH; Wofsy SC

2012-02-01

198

Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (?1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ?12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

2013-10-01

199

Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant (Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (?1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ?12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species. PMID:23771285

Abella, Scott R; Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Backer, Dana M

2013-06-15

200

Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant (Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (?1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ?12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

Abella SR; Chiquoine LP; Backer DM

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Multi-ecological positioning negative oxygen ion shower type cell regeneration anti-aging commercial health preserving room  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a multi-ecological positioning negative oxygen ion shower type cell regeneration anti-aging commercial health preserving room, which belongs to the field of the application study of an air ionization technique in artificial environmental science, the electro-climatology, the modern physical medicine, the rehabilitation medicine and 'ion medicine' in self health care medicine. The health preserving room consists of three parts, namely, negative oxygen ion shower single nozzles, far infrared bathroom heaters, a humidifier and a bathroom main body having temperature and humidity control function the negative oxygen ion shower single nozzles are mounted at a density of one nozzle per square meter so as to ensure that each person uses one negative oxygen ion shower single nozzle in a poisoning mode and the negative oxygen ion shower single nozzles and the far infrared bathroom heaters are evenly distributed on the ceiling or the upper space of the bathroom. The health preserving room uses the negative oxygen ion shower single nozzles to emit high-concentration pure negative ions with accurate curative effect to the air the concentration of high-concentrationpure negative oxygen ions can reach 5 to 6 thousand times of that of hydrated hydroxyl negative ions of a tourmaline health preserving room each person uses one ion shower single nozzle so as to greatly improve the curative effect and reduce the cost therefore, the health preserving room is favorable for popularization and application and can make a significant contribution to improving the health level of the entire population of a country.

JINMING CHOU; JIANFENG CHOU; JIANMEI CHOU; QINGHUA JIAO

202

Dinâmica espaço-temporal (1962-2006) das fitofisionomias em unidade de conservação do Cerrado no sudeste do Brasil/ Spatial and temporal dynamics (1962-2006) of Cerrado vegetation types in a protected area, southeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudos recentes indicam que em áreas de Cerrado protegidas das atividades antrópicas ocorre uma evolução estrutural de fitofisionomias abertas para outras mais fechadas, com tendência ao desaparecimento das primeiras. Analisou-se a dinâmica das fisionomias do Cerrado ao longo de 44 anos, na Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP, uma das poucas unidades de conservação do bioma no sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar e quantificar possíveis tranformaçõe (more) s fisionômicas no tempo e no espaço. Protegida de pressões antrópicas por longo tempo, observações de campo têm indicado um adensamento da vegetação em toda a área, rumo a um clímax de estrutura florestal. Para realizar este estudo foram utilizadas aerofotos (1962, 1984 e 1994), imagens "QuickBird" (2006) e reconhecimento de campo. Durante o período compreendido por este estudo, a área ocupada pelas fisionomias campestres foi reduzida de 23% para menos de 1% da área estudada, enquanto, no outro extremo do gradiente fisionômico, a proporção correspondente ao cerradão aumentou de 53% para 91%. O ritmo de adensamento da vegetação não foi o mesmo em toda a área, estando, aparentemente, correlacionado com a posição topográfica e diferenças edáficas. Acreditamos que as fisionomias campestres e savânicas inicialmente existentes eram mantidas em decorrência de pressões antrópicas, que impediam a evolução rumo a um clímax edafo-climático de maior fitomassa. Confirmando o que tem sido observado em outros locais, a proteção contra o fogo e a suspensão de atividades agropastoris possibilitaram uma evolução gradativa das formações abertas (campo, campo cerrado e cerrado típico) para outras mais fechadas (cerrado denso e cerradão), tendendo as primeiras ao desaparecimento, caso não ocorram novos distúrbios. As conseqüências dessas transformações, relacionadas com estratégias de manejo, conservação da biodiversidade e fixação de carbono são discutidas. Abstract in english Recent studies indicate that after protection from human pressures (fire, cattle grazing and agriculture), structural changes occur in the cerrado vegetation, changing open physiognomies into more closed savannas. We analyzed the dynamics of vegetation types along 44 years, at Assis Ecological Station, one of the rare conservation units protecting the cerrado biome in the southeastern São Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of characterizing and quantifying those changes i (more) n space and time. Protected against human pressures since a long time, field observations have shown an upgrade of local cerrado physiognomies, through a successional process whose structural climax can be a forest physiognomy, with a continuous arboreal stratum. The dynamics of the vegetation types was analyzed by using aerial photographs (1962, 1984 and 1994), Quick Bird satellite images (2006) and field surveys. During this 44 years period, field physiognomies were reduced from 23% to less than 1% of the total area studied. In the other extreme, woodland savanna increased from 53% to 91% of the area. Changes did not happen at the same rhythm across the area, and that is apparently correlated to microclimate and edaphyc differences. We believe that field and savannic physiognomies initially existing were mostly maintained due to heavy human pressures, constraining the secondary succession towards an edapho-climatic climax of greater biomass. Confirming the observations of cerrado areas elsewhere, protection against fire, cattle grazing and agriculture allowed the evolution of open vegetation types into more closed ones, tending to be locally extinct the first if new disturbances do not occur. Consequences of these changes related to management strategies, biodiversity conservation and carbon sink are discussed.

Pinheiro, Eduardo Da Silva; Durigan, Giselda

2009-09-01

203

Dinâmica espaço-temporal (1962-2006) das fitofisionomias em unidade de conservação do Cerrado no sudeste do Brasil Spatial and temporal dynamics (1962-2006) of Cerrado vegetation types in a protected area, southeastern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudos recentes indicam que em áreas de Cerrado protegidas das atividades antrópicas ocorre uma evolução estrutural de fitofisionomias abertas para outras mais fechadas, com tendência ao desaparecimento das primeiras. Analisou-se a dinâmica das fisionomias do Cerrado ao longo de 44 anos, na Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP, uma das poucas unidades de conservação do bioma no sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar e quantificar possíveis tranformações fisionômicas no tempo e no espaço. Protegida de pressões antrópicas por longo tempo, observações de campo têm indicado um adensamento da vegetação em toda a área, rumo a um clímax de estrutura florestal. Para realizar este estudo foram utilizadas aerofotos (1962, 1984 e 1994), imagens "QuickBird" (2006) e reconhecimento de campo. Durante o período compreendido por este estudo, a área ocupada pelas fisionomias campestres foi reduzida de 23% para menos de 1% da área estudada, enquanto, no outro extremo do gradiente fisionômico, a proporção correspondente ao cerradão aumentou de 53% para 91%. O ritmo de adensamento da vegetação não foi o mesmo em toda a área, estando, aparentemente, correlacionado com a posição topográfica e diferenças edáficas. Acreditamos que as fisionomias campestres e savânicas inicialmente existentes eram mantidas em decorrência de pressões antrópicas, que impediam a evolução rumo a um clímax edafo-climático de maior fitomassa. Confirmando o que tem sido observado em outros locais, a proteção contra o fogo e a suspensão de atividades agropastoris possibilitaram uma evolução gradativa das formações abertas (campo, campo cerrado e cerrado típico) para outras mais fechadas (cerrado denso e cerradão), tendendo as primeiras ao desaparecimento, caso não ocorram novos distúrbios. As conseqüências dessas transformações, relacionadas com estratégias de manejo, conservação da biodiversidade e fixação de carbono são discutidas.Recent studies indicate that after protection from human pressures (fire, cattle grazing and agriculture), structural changes occur in the cerrado vegetation, changing open physiognomies into more closed savannas. We analyzed the dynamics of vegetation types along 44 years, at Assis Ecological Station, one of the rare conservation units protecting the cerrado biome in the southeastern São Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of characterizing and quantifying those changes in space and time. Protected against human pressures since a long time, field observations have shown an upgrade of local cerrado physiognomies, through a successional process whose structural climax can be a forest physiognomy, with a continuous arboreal stratum. The dynamics of the vegetation types was analyzed by using aerial photographs (1962, 1984 and 1994), Quick Bird satellite images (2006) and field surveys. During this 44 years period, field physiognomies were reduced from 23% to less than 1% of the total area studied. In the other extreme, woodland savanna increased from 53% to 91% of the area. Changes did not happen at the same rhythm across the area, and that is apparently correlated to microclimate and edaphyc differences. We believe that field and savannic physiognomies initially existing were mostly maintained due to heavy human pressures, constraining the secondary succession towards an edapho-climatic climax of greater biomass. Confirming the observations of cerrado areas elsewhere, protection against fire, cattle grazing and agriculture allowed the evolution of open vegetation types into more closed ones, tending to be locally extinct the first if new disturbances do not occur. Consequences of these changes related to management strategies, biodiversity conservation and carbon sink are discussed.

Eduardo Da Silva Pinheiro; Giselda Durigan

2009-01-01

204

Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

2008-01-01

205

The importance of evolutionary history in studies of plant physiological ecology: examples from cerrados and forests of central Brazil A importância da história evolutiva em estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal: exemplos dos cerrados e florestas do Brasil Central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies that compare physiology, anatomy, and ecology across species have offered some of the best insight into adaptation and evolutionary constraints in plants. As a result, the comparative approach has become increasingly used in studies of plant physiological ecology. The high species diversity of Brazilian biomes provides many excellent opportunities for comparative plant ecophysiology, and could be better exploited for understanding the evolution of plant form and function. In this paper we emphasize the importance of considering phylogenetic information for the design and analysis of comparative studies, relying on examples from comparisons of woody plants from cerrado and gallery (riparian) forests. The use of congeneric species pairs, each containing one cerrado species and one forest species of the same genus, greatly improves statistical power while assuring phylogenetic independence, an essential condition for inference in comparative studies. For example, in a study of seedlings of nine cerrado species and nine forest species, when we ignore phylogenetic relationships, it is not be possible to conclude that cerrado and forest species differ with regard to leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), or seedling height. If, however, we use the generic groupings to account for phylogenetic effects, then we find that seedlings of savanna species have lower LAR, SLA, and seedling height. Much of the phylogenetic inertia observed for these traits appears related to the fact that these traits are all strongly correlated with seed mass, which has been previously shown to be strongly conserved phylogenetically. These examples emphasize the importance of phylogenetic information in comparative studies.Estudos que comparam a fisiologia, anatomia e ecologia das espécies têm oferecido algumas das melhores apreciações sobre as limitações adaptativas e evolucionárias em plantas. Como resultado, a abordagem comparativa tem sido cada vez mais utilizada em estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal. A alta diversidade de espécies dos biomas brasileiros fornece excelentes oportunidades para estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal comparada, uma abordagem que poderia ser melhor explorada em pesquisas que visam a compreensão da evolução da forma e função em plantas. Neste artigo nós enfatizarmos a importância de considerar a informação filogenética no desenho e analises de estudos comparativos, utilizando como exemplos espécies lenhosas do cerrado e de mata de galeria (mata ripária). O uso de pares congenéricos, cada par contendo uma espécie do cerrado e uma espécie de floresta do mesmo gênero, aumenta o poder estatístico das análises, enquanto assegura concomitantemente a independência filogenética, uma condição essencial para inferência em estudos comparativos. Por exemplo, em um estudo comparativo de nove espécies do cerrado e nove de mata, não seria possível concluir que as espécies de cerrado e de mata diferem na razão de área foliar (LAR), área foliar especifica (SLA) e altura da plântula, se as relações filogenéticas forem ignoradas. Entretanto, se utilizarmos agrupamentos genéricos para contabilizar os efeitos filogenéticos, nós vamos encontrar que as plântulas de espécies de cerrado tem menores valores de LAR, SLA e altura da plântula. Muito da inércia filogenética observada para estes atributos em plântulas parece estar relacionada ao fato de que estas características se correlacionam fortemente com a massa da semente, que estudos anteriores demonstraram ser um atributo fortemente conservado em termos filogenéticos. Estes exemplos ressaltam a importância da informação filogenética em estudos comparativos.

William A. Hoffmann; Augusto C. Franco

2008-01-01

206

Quaternary ecology: A paleoecological perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book considers issues and problems in ecology which may be illuminated, if not solved, by considering paleoecology. The five central chapters include a discussion of application of Quaternary ecology to future global climate change, including global warming. Other areas presented include: population dispersal, invasions, expansions, and migrations; plant successions; ecotones; factors in community structure; ecosystem patterns and processes. Published case studies are numerous. The role played by continuing climatic change in vegetation change is acknowledged but not stressed.

Delcourt, H.R.; Delcourt, P.A.

1991-01-01

207

Connection between the level of physical preparedness and type of the vegetative adjusting of cardiac rhythm of sportsmen, specialized in at run on midranges  

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Full Text Available The results of inspection of sportsmen of different qualification, specialized in at run on midranges are presented in the article. Classification of the functional states of sportsmen is conducted through the structural-linguistic analysis of ?????????????? of cardiac rhythm. Connection is certain between the level of physical preparedness and type of the vegetative adjusting of cardiac rhythm of athletes of different qualification, specialized in at run on midranges. Possibility of the use of these information is grounded for a sporting selection and prognostication of results of runners on the mean of distance.

Krivoruchenko O.V.

2010-01-01

208

Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zona sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM) presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP), con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE), con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo.The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF) has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF), with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF), with 12 species. The associations between the CF-PF and CF-POF showed the highest dissimilarity in species, and the lowest the POF-PF. This study shows the richness and distribution species of the reptiles in the different vegetation types from southeast of the state, presents new records of species from the state and provides the basis for future studies on the biology of some species of reptiles in the area. The knowledge of species richness by vegetation types from this study provides the basis on the biodiversity that help to raise studies directed to the conservation of this group.

Raciel Cruz-Elizalde; Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista

2012-01-01

209

Extraction of Urban Vegetation in Highly Dense Urban Environment with Application to Measure Inhabitants’ Satisfaction of Urban Green Space  

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Full Text Available Urban environment has functioned not only for ecological reason but also for socioeconomic function, due to this reason extraction of urban vegetation in highly dense urban environment becomes more important to understand the inhabitants’ satisfaction of urban green space. With a medium resolution of satellite imagery, the precision is very low. We used high resolution of WorldView-2 satellite to raise the accuracy. We chose Depok City in West Java as a case study area, analyse four multispectral bands, and apply TCT algorithm for getting vegetation density. The relationship between vegetation density and inhabitants’ satisfaction was calculated by Geo-statistical technique based on administrative boundary. We extracted three types of urban vegetation density: good, mid and low. The final result shows that the inhabitants are mostly satisfied with good density of urban vegetation in the city forest inside Campus University of Indonesia.

Fatwa Ramdani

2013-01-01

210

Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire  

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Full Text Available After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control) soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain) were established. Three treatments were applied: in some of the plots, the original ash layer was kept on the ground; in a second group, the ash layer was removed for simulating the effects of erosion; finally, in a third group, percolating irrigation was conducted to simulate a possible good input of water into the soil profile after burning, that could occur if the first rains were with high quantity but low intensity. During the dry season, soil moisture content was significantly lower in burned plots due to fire-induced water repellency and reduced vegetation cover. During the wet season, soil moisture decreased in the control unburnt plots due to direct evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation and consumption by roots. Fire increased soil water repellency only in plots under pine. Water repellency decreased during the wet season, disappearing in January and reappearing after declining rainfalls. This baseline recovery of soil water repellency was lower where ash removal was simulated. In unburned plots, seasonal fluctuations were less important. In general, ash removal promotes a rapid reduction of water repellency, since it can induce washing of hydrophobic compounds. Irrigation performed immediately after the fire also contributed to decreased water repellency.

P. Jiménez-Pinilla; E. Lozano; J. Mataix-Solera; V. Arcenegui; L.M. Zavala; A.Jordán; A. Morugan-Coronado

2013-01-01

211

A change detection strategy for monitoring vegetative and land-use cover types using remotely-sensed, satellite-based data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes to the environment are of critical concern in the world today; consequently, monitoring such changes and assessing their impacts are tasks demanding considerably higher priority. The ecological impacts of the natural global cycles of gases and particulates in the earth's atmosphere are highly influenced by the extent of changes to vegetative canopy characteristics which dictates the need for capability to detect and assess the magnitude of such changes. The primary emphasis of this paper is on the determination of the size and configuration of the sampling unit that maximizes the probability of its intersection with a 'change' area. Assessment of the significance of the 'change' in a given locality is also addressed and relies on a statistical approach that compares the number of elemental units exceeding a reflectance threshold when compared to a previous point in time. Consideration is also given to a technical framework that supports quantifying the magnitude of the 'change' over large areas (i.e., the estimated area changing from forest to agricultural land-use). The latter entails a multistage approach which utilizes satellite-based and other related data sources.

1993-01-01

212

Composition, useful in food preparation e.g. milk flax enriched in unsaturated fatty-acids type of omega-3 and omega-6, comprises raw material of vegetable origin source of unsaturated fatty-acids comprising starch and soluble fibers  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Composition (I) for food enriched in unsaturated fatty-acids type of omega-3 and omega-6, comprises a raw material of vegetable origin source of the unsaturated fatty-acids, where the raw material of vegetable origin comprises starch and soluble fibers, and the raw material vegetable origin source is seeds having the ratio of omega 6/omega 3 is less than 5, preferably linseeds, colza, Perilla and/or Chia. An independent claim is included for a food preparation containing at least a source of proteins of animal or vegetable origin, source of slow or fast glucids and/or a source of fat contents of animal or vegetable origin, comprising (I). - ACTIVITY : Cardiovascular-Gen Anorectic. - MECHANISM OF ACTION : None given.

ERPICUM THOMAS; GUEBEY CLOCHET FABRICE; HOEL JEAN BRUNO

213

Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

FOGWELL, T.W.

2003-07-11

214

Method for planting evergreen vegetation slope highway in south China  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a south China highway slope evergreen vegetation planting method. The reasonable plant allocation scheme is adopted. The grass seed ands the shrub species are used for the preparation of seed spray liquid spraying to the levelled slop surface suitable for greening. According to the seed spray liquid formulation, per square meter slope is in the use of 40 to 55g mixed grass and shrub seeds, 100 to 150g pulp, 3 to 8g polyvinyl alcohol or polyacrylamide type adhesive, 3 to 8g polyethylene lactam, polyacrylamide or polyacrylate type water retention agent, 50 to 100g NPK compound fertilizer and 4 liter water. The invention is suitable for the establishment of evergreen vegetation in south China highway slope with natural succession. Ultimately the purpose of soil erosion prevention, slope stability, landscaping and ecological balance protection can be achieved.

DINGQIANG LI; MUNING ZHUO; YUJI ZHENG

215

Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230?nm, polydispersity index < 0.20). The environmental safety was evaluated through an in vivo protocol (Allium cepa test) and LNCs containing RB, SB or SF oils did not present genotoxic potential. Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168?h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36?mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40?mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45?mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs.

Rigo LA; Frescura V; Fiel L; Coradini K; Ourique AF; Emanuelli T; Quatrin A; Tedesco S; Silva CB; Guterres SS; Pohlmann AR; Beck RC

2013-08-01

216

VEGETABLE TOWER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention discloses a vegetable tower, which comprises a main body. A main spiral slide guide is disposed inside the main body and vegetable growing bins can be hung on the main spiral slide guide via a plurality of chains and then slipped downstream along the main spiral slide guide by means of gravity. The vegetable growing bins further comprises several supply tubes and supply inlets. A main control module is built inside the main body, and it can automatically ascend and descend inside the main body to perform identifying, feeding, catching images and measuring functionalities. The main control module can feed the vegetable growing bins with water, fertilizer, CO2. The central management module and the main control module are integrated to be an automatic planting-care system to make the growths of the vegetables under well control.

LIN PEI-CHIEH

217

[Physico-chemical characteristics of different types of vegetable fats and oils used in the manufacture of candies].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quality of three vegetable fats (cocoa butter and two commercial fats) and three roasted nut oils (almond, hazelnut and peanut) used as raw material in the chocolate products manufacturing was studied. The hydroperoxide content, oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were determined and its health repercussion by atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. Two commercial fats and cocoa butter showed higher oxidative stability, atherogenic and thrombogenic properties than oils because of its different fatty acid profiles. Peroxide value was a low reliability parameter of raw material shelf live. Rancimat presented a good correlation with the unsaturation index of different fats and oils, it was a better index than peroxide value. In the chocolate products manufacturing it would be advisable a good raw material selection and formulation in order to get a balance between technological properties, organoleptic qualities and the influence on the health. Those raw material with less primary oxidation and higher oxidative stability were also those of higher atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes.

Saavedra MI; López-Jiménez JA; Pérez-Llamas F; Zamora S

1997-09-01

218

Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land Classification inventory data and predicted effects. (author)

2006-01-01

219

Ecological Species Groups of Hornbeam Forest Ecosystems in Southern Caspian (North of Iran)  

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Full Text Available Ecological species group were developed for hornbeam forest ecosystems in North of Iran that had been moderately disturbed. Species groups were determined from field observations and sample plot data arranged and analyzed in association tables. The groups were defined on the basis of species patterns of presence, absence and coverage values. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). The objectives of the study were to develop ecological species groups for lowland ecosystems types dominated by hornbeam in north of Iran, describe the site indicator values of species groups and increase our understanding of site-species relationships in moderately disturbed landscape in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province. Five vegetation groups were identified after the application of TWINSPAN programs. They are named after the characterizing species as follows: Menta aquatica (I), Oplismenus undulatifolius (II), Carex grioletia (III), Viola odarata (IV) and Rubus caesius (V). Result have showed that II, III vegetation groups and I, II vegetation groups had the most (65.5%) and the least (30%) of Sorenson similarity coefficient, respectively. Apparently, similarity coefficient of differentiated vegetation groups was high.

H. Jalilvand; Y. Kooch; M.A. Bahamnyar; M.R. Pormajidian

2007-01-01

220

Water deficit affects wood vessels of Croton floribundus Spreng. in different vegetation types, São Paulo State, Brazil/ Déficit hídrico interfere nos vasos do lenho de Croton floribundus Spreng. em diferentes tipos de vegetação, SP, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O déficit hídrico influenciou na formação dos vasos da madeira de Croton floribundus ocorrentes em cinco áreas com as seguintes vegetações: Floresta Ombrófila, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Cerradão. As variações dos vasos devem-se especialmente ao déficit hídrico e número de meses com déficit hídrico. Vasos de maior diâmetro ocorreram em áreas com maior déficit hídrico, o que pode indicar uma estratégia para otimizar o transporte de água em ép (more) ocas favoráveis. Vasos com menores diâmetros ocorreram em áreas com menor déficit hídrico, possivelmente influenciados pelas menores temperaturas mínimas e a ocorrência de geadas, que semelhante a seca, causa a embolia dos vasos. Na Estação Ecológica de Caetetus, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (área com maior déficit de água) observaram-se investimentos em eficiência e segurança, com a ocorrência de vasos de maior diâmetro associados a um dos menores índices de vulnerabilidade e maior proporção de vasos múltiplos de quatro ou mais elementos. Abstract in english In this paper we showed that water deficit affects the wood vessels of Croton floribundus in five areas with different vegetation types: Rain Forest, Semi-deciduous Forest and Woody Savanna. We concluded that variations in the vessels are due especially to water deficit and the number of months with water deficit. Larger diameter vessels occurred in areas with higher water deficit, which may represent a strategy to optimize the water transport in favorable periods. Vessel (more) s with smaller diameters occur in areas with lower deficit, which may be related to lower minimum temperatures and frost occurrence, which like drought can cause vessel embolism. In Caetetus Ecological Station, a Semi-deciduous Forest (area of highest water deficit), we observed investments in efficiency and safety, with the occurrence of larger diameter vessels associated with one of the lowest vulnerability indexes and highest proportions of multiple vessels of four or more elements.

Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Romeiro, Diego; Testoni, Luana Naves; Aguiar, Osny Tadeu de; Cielo Filho, Roque; Lima, Israel Luiz de; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa  

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Full Text Available The need for a scientifically-based wildlife management plan and for more knowledge on vegetation led to an investigation into the plant ecology of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve. The main aim of this study was therefore to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the reserve. The floristic data were analysed according to the Braun-Blanquet procedure using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of 15 communities that can be grouped into ten major community types. This resulted in five ecology-based management units, which could assist with the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the reserve in order to achieve sustainable utilisation of the natural resources. The Rooipoort Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and as such deserves to be conserved and protected. The riverine and pan vegetation communities are considered to be endangered and are in need of special conservation and protection.Conservation implication: The results suggest five management units, which will assist in the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the RNR, in order to allow sustainable utilization of natural resources.How to cite this article: Bezuidenhout, H., 2009, ‘The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa’, Koedoe 51(1), Art. #695, 11 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.695

Hugo Bezuidenhout

2009-01-01

222

Backyard Ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

2003-01-01

223

Ecology Letters ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecology Letters is a forum for the very rapid publication of the most novel research in ecology. Manuscripts relating to the ecology of all taxa, in any biome and geographic area will be considered, and priority will be given to those papers exploring or testing clearly stated hypotheses. The...

224

Web Ecology ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Web Ecology is an electronic peer-reviewed journal issued by the European Ecological Federation in cooperation with the Oikos Editorial Office, Lund, Sweden. Ecologists from all countries are invited to publish original results on its pages. Web Ecology will publish studies and re...

225

Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

Kroeger, S.R.

1990-07-01

226

Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

1990-01-01

227

Riparian vegetation metrics as tools for guiding ecological restoration in riverscapes Descripteurs de la végétation rivulaire comme guide de la restauration écologique au sein des paysages de cours d’eau  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Riparian woods are frequently fragmented and degraded, mainly as a consequence of land-cover related stresses, water diversion, regulation and invasive species. The need to enhance these systems towards their natural functioning has motivated numerous restoration efforts. However, river managers still need guidance on how to allocate scarce restoration resources, and to monitor and report the effectiveness of the restoration programmes. For this, the present work proposes a stepwise methodological procedure over spatial scales, using quantitative descriptors (metrics) of the ecological condition of the riparian vegetation. This evaluation is based on the composition and cover of plant assemblages, species attributes, and spatial patterns, which can reflect the deviation of the structure and condition of the riparian zone from the near-natural state to an impaired situation. Landscape metrics obtained from high spatial resolution imagery are used for the evaluation of the spatial features of the riparian zone, followed by the calculation of a riparian multimetric index, based on field observations. The integration of multi-spatial scale information provided by landscape metrics and biological metrics is essential and recommended for decision support of end-users and to evaluate the success of restoration measures. La dégradation et la fragmentation fréquentes des bois rivulaires sont principalement dues à des pressions d’usage du sol, à des modes de gestions des écoulements de l’eau et à la concurrence par des espèces invasives. C’est ce besoin de retour à des fonctionnements plus proches des conditions naturelles qui a motivé nombre d’efforts de restauration. Toutefois les gestionnaires de cours d’eau sont demandeurs d’outils d’évaluation des programmes de restauration et des manières de gérer des ressources qui se raréfient. Pour cela, notre travail propose une méthode hiérarchisée à des échelles spatiales variées, par des descripteurs quantitatifs (métriques) de l’état écologique de la végétation riparienne. Cette évaluation se fait à partir de la composition et du recouvrement des assemblages de plantes, des exigences spécifiques, et de leur répartition spatiale. Cette répartition spatiale est le reflet de l’écart de la structure et de l’état des berges, d’un état de référence quasi-naturel à une situation dégradée. Les métriques paysagères obtenues à partir d’une imagerie spatiale à haute résolution sont utilisées pour évaluer les particularités spatiales des berges, puis pour le calcul d’un indice rivulaire multifactoriel basé sur des observations de terrain. L’intégration d’une information spatiale multi-scalaire renseignée par des descripteurs du paysage est essentielle et recommandée comme support de décision pour les gestionnaires et pour évaluer le succès d’actions de restauration.

Constança Aguiar F.; Rosário Fernandes M.; Teresa Ferreira M.

2011-01-01

228

Pollination ecology of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) in Central Brazil cerrado vegetation Ecologia da polinização de Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. e T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) em cerrado do Brasil Central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pollination ecology and breeding systems of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook., and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. were investigated in an area of cerrado vegetation in the Federal District of Brazil. These species occur sympatrically, flower massively and synchronously for a month, during the dry season (July to September). Both have diurnal anthesis, with similar floral structures, a yellow tubular corolla and produce nectar. Fourteen species of bees visited both Tabebuia species, but, only three Centris species and Bombus morio, were considered potential pollinators, because of their high frequency on the flowers and their efficiency in carrying pollen. Tests on the breeding systems of T. aurea and T. ochracea demonstrated that boths species are self-incompatible, with late-acting self-incompatibility. The proportion of fruit set from cross pollination (T. aurea 17.2% and T. ochracea 12.3%) in both species was low considering the great number of flowers displayed. This suggests a lack of maternal resources for fruit-set. The great amount of seeds per fruit (about 92 in T. aurea and 285 in T. ochracea) may represent an investment of maternal resources allocated on higher quality of fertilized ovules.Foram investigadas a ecologia da polinização e a biologia reprodutiva de Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. e T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. em uma área de cerrado em Brasília (DF) Brasil. Estas espécies ocorrem simpatricamente, florescem massiva e sincronicamente, por aproximadamente um mês, durante a estação seca (julho a setembro). Ambas espécies têm estruturas florais similares, antese diurna, corola tubular e são produtoras de néctar. Quatorze espécies de abelhas visitaram ambas Tabebuia, porém somente três espécies de Centris e Bombus morio foram consideradas polinizadores potenciais, devido a alta freqüência e à eficiência no transporte do pólen. Os testes de polinização artificial, demonstraram que T. aurea e T. ochracea são auto-incompatíveis, com auto-incompatibilidade de ação tardia. A proporção de frutos maturados resultantes de polinização cruzada foi baixa (T. aurea 17,2% e T. ochracea 12,3%) em ambas espécies, considerando o grande número de flores desabrochadas, sugerindo falta de recursos maternos. A grande quantidade de sementes por frutos (cerca de 92 em T. aurea e 285 em T. ochracea) deve representar o investimento materno nos óvulos fertilizados que possuem maior vigor.

MARILUZA GRANJA BARROS

2001-01-01

229

Ecological land survey in Quebec.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After a brief review of floristic classifications, ecological survey, as carried out in Quebec, is described. Three stages of development of ecological survey over the past twenty-five years are identified: (1) the pioneer work of Jurdant; (2) major ecological surveys from the late 1960s to the late 1970s; and (3) the diversification of the groups involved in ecological land surveys beginning in the 1980s, including universities, the Quebec Environment Department (MENVIQ) and the Quebec Department of Energy and Resources (MER). Intended for use in integrated land management, ecological survey must be an effective integrator of the various ecological evaluations; the information must be easily communicable and the methodology must he flexible. Ecological land classification has two dimensions: (1) taxonomic; and (2) cartographic. In the taxonomic units, the ecological region, the ecological type and the ecological phase are identified. In cartographic terms, local (ecological phase and type), regional (ecological system and sub-system) and national (ecological district and region) resolution is identified. Quebec universities, MER and MENVIQ are presently involved in ecological land surveys. The new Forest Act, which was enacted in 1986 and which provides for sustainable yield and more intensive forest management, is a major force behind the promotion of the use of ecological inventories as the basis for management activities. Mapping of the ecological regions (1:1,250,000) has almost been completed in Quebec. Total coverage of the commercial forest as a function of ecological districts (1:250,000) could be completed within five years, and the mapping of ecological types (1:20,000) could be completed in 20 years at a rate of 10,000 km a year. Although in the past ecological land surveys have been used primarily for environmental impact analyses (for instance, the installation of hydroelectric equipment and transportation corridors), the ecological framework is presently being used to prepare development plans for a number of regional county municipalities (RCMs). Pilot projects are under way to assess the potential applications of the ecological framework to forestry as part of intensive management efforts. Improvements are needed in both the accessibility of the information provided by the ecological framework (maps, site guides) and the development of interpretative tools for silvicultural measures.

Belanger L; Bergeron Y; Camire C

1992-02-01

230

Preliminary Ecological Survey of Microflora Inhabitant Different Types of Hydrophytes in Fresh Water Systems at Middle Egypt Belt with Reference to Physico-chemical Parameters and Phytochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal as well as algal flora inhabiting different types of hydrophytes (floating, submerged and emerged) in case of healthy and unhealthy ones and from different habitats represent different aquatic ecotypes in middle Egypt area (River Nile, channels, drains and pools) were studied. The relations between fungal and algal flora were studied. Some in vivo experiments were done to analyze and confirm the in vitro observations. In addition to complete analysis of ecological parameters which may affect the abilities of microflora to colonize and inhabitant these hydrophytes, e.g. complete physical and chemical analysis of water of investigated sites, also phytochemical investigations of studied hydrophytes were conducted.

A.H. Abo El-lil

2003-01-01

231

The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD) of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés) sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets), the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

Michael C. Rutherford; Ladislav Mucina; Leslie W. Powrie

2012-01-01

232

Early introduction of root vegetables in infancy associated with advanced ß-cell autoimmunity in young children with human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Early introduction of supplementary foods has been implicated to play a role in the development of ß-cell autoimmunity. We set out to study the effects of breastfeeding and age at introduction of supplementary foods on the development of ß-cell autoimmunity. METHODS: A prospective birth cohort of 6069 infants with HLA-DQB-conferred susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes was recruited between 1996 and 2004. Antibodies against islet cells, insulin, glutamate dehydroxylase and islet antigen 2 were measured at 3- to 12-month intervals. The families recorded at home the age at introduction of new foods and, for each visit, completed a structured dietary questionnaire. The endpoint was repeated positivity for islet cell antibodies plus at least one other antibody and/or clinical Type 1 diabetes (n = 265). RESULTS: Early introduction of root vegetables (by the age of 4 months) was related to increased risk of developing positivity for the endpoint [hazard ratio (95% CI) for the earliest third 1.75 (1.11-2.75) and for the middle third 1.79 (1.22-2.62) compared with the last third (> 4 months), likelihood ratio test P = 0.006], independently of the introduction of other foods and of several putative socio-demographic and perinatal confounding factors. Introducing wheat, rye, oats and/or barley cereals (P = 0.013) and egg (P = 0.031) early was related to an increased risk of the endpoint, but only during the first 3 years of life. CONCLUSIONS: Early introduction of root vegetables during infancy is independently associated with increased risk of ß-cell autoimmunity among Finnish children with increased genetic susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes.

Virtanen SM; Takkinen HM; Nevalainen J; Kronberg-Kippilä C; Salmenhaara M; Uusitalo L; Kenward MG; Erkkola M; Veijola R; Simell O; Ilonen J; Knip M

2011-08-01

233

[Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

Zhong LS; Tang CC; Guo H

2010-07-01

234

[Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

2010-07-01

235

Mapping vegetation communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways: final technical report to the National Park Service  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation communities were mapped at two levels in Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) usign a hybrid combination of statistical methods and photointerpretation. The primary map includes 49 cover classes, including 24 cleasses that relate to vegetation associations currenly described by the United States National Vegetation Classification Standard (USNVC: The Nature Conservancy, 1994a). The remaining types include cultural features, ruderal communities on abandoned agricultural lands, and non-vegetated classes. Overall map classification accuarcy is 63 percent. The secondary mapping level aggregates communities with similar appearance and ecologically related associations into Community Types. The resultant 33-class Community Type map has an overall classification accuracy of 77 percent and identified groups of communities based on resource management goals within the park. Important additional products include 1) a general probability map for all vegetation associations, which can be used to assess final classification certainty, and 2) individual probability maps for each association, which can be used to identify areas that have a high likelihood of supporting a given type, beyond where that type was identified in the final map products. Other secondary map products include data layers derived from primary color-infrared imagery, secondary imagery data and digital elevation models. A field key and photo guide to associations and complete community descriptions were produced, along with a photo guide of fuel conditions. Wildland fuels data were used to generate a fuels map based upon Anderson's fuels models (1982).

Chastain, Robert A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.; Stroh, Esther D.; He, Hong; Larsen, David R.; Nigh, Timothy A.; Drake, Jim

2006-01-01

236

Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils), Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks), Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats), Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas) and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites). They significantly (P < 0.05) differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

Michal Slezák; Richard Hrivnák; Anna Petrášová; Daniel Dít?

2013-01-01

237

Bacterial Ecology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

Fenchel, Tom

2011-01-01

238

Climate-vegetation interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The climate exerts the dominant control on the spatial distribution of the major vegetation types on a global scale. In turn, vegetation cover affects climate via alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface like albedo, roughness, water conductivity (biogeophysical mechanisms) and atmospheric gas composition, for example, CO2 and CH4 (biogeochemical effects). The chapter covers biogeophysical interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere. Recent progess in vegetation and land surface modelling is briefly discussed. Research on climate-vegetation interaction is mostly concentrated on “hot spots” where the interaction is the most significant: boreal forests, North Afiica, and Amazon forest. Boreal forests, even deciduous ones, significantly reduce the albedo of snow-covered surfaces. Simulations with different climate models reveal that positive feedback between forest and surface air temperature in the boreal region is not strong enough to establish multiple steady states. Nonetheless, the simulations show a significant cooling trend due to historical land cover changes, mainly as a result of temperate and boreal deforestation. In general, the climate models agree that tropical deforestation exerts a net regional warming while an effect on extratropical regions is more uncertain. In the Sahel/Sahara region, several models are able to simulate ,,green Sahara” phenomenon during the mid-Holocene. Some models reveal multiple steady states in the region due to a strong interaction between vegetation and monsoon precipitation. Sensitivity simulations show that some expansion of vegetation cover into the Sahara is possible under CO2-induced climate changes.

Brovkin, V.

2002-11-01

239

Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles ? a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses ? to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

SHAHABUDDIN; SJAFRIDA MANUWOTO; PURNAMA HIDAYAT; CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE; WORO A. NOERDJITO

2007-01-01

240

Connectivity processes and riparian vegetation of the upper Paraná River, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

In fluvial systems, the relationship between a dominant variable (e.g. flood pulse) and its dependent ones (e.g. riparian vegetation) is called connectivity. This paper analyzes the connectivity elements and processes controlling riparian vegetation for a reach of the upper Paraná River (Brazil) and estimates the future changes in channel-vegetation relationship as a consequence of the managing of a large dam. The studied reach is situated 30 km downstream from the Porto Primavera Dam (construction finished in 1999). Through aerial photography (1:25,000, 1996), RGB-CBERS satellite imagery and a previous field botany survey it was possible to elaborate a map with the five major morpho-vegetation units: 1) Tree-dominated natural levee, 2) Shrubby upper floodplain, 3) Shrub-herbaceous mid floodplain, 4) Grass-herbaceous lower floodplain and 5) Shrub-herbaceous flood runoff channel units. By use of a detailed topographic survey and statistical tools each morpho-vegetation type was analyzed according to its connectivity parameters (frequency, recurrence, permanence, seasonality, potamophase, limnophase and FCQ index) in the pre- and post-dam closure periods of the historical series. Data showed that most of the morpho-vegetation units were predicted to present changes in connectivity parameters values after dam closing and the new regime could affect, in different intensity, the river ecology and particularly the riparian vegetation. The methods used in this study can be useful for dam impact studies in other South American tropical rivers.

Stevaux, José C.; Corradini, Fabrício A.; Aquino, Samia

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

The natural vegetation of PFA and factors influencing its succession  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations were commissioned by the Central Electricity Generating Board to determine the natural vegetation of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) and factors influencing succession on eight power station sites in England and Wales. The field study was mainly carried out in the summer of 1988. The report describes each site and for the most ecologically valuable habitats, characterizes the plant communities (using quadrat analysis) and gives brief observations of the fauna (birds and butterflies). Special attention was paid to the bryophytes since this group are valuable pioneer colonists of bare ground. Willows and birches were often found to be the most successful trees. Herbs and grasses were common and of interest was the occurrence of saltmarsh species in one coastal locality. The main environmental factor determining the type and rate of vegetation development was the moisture content of the PFA during tipping and subsequently, which in turn were affected by local climate and properties of the PFA. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

1989-01-01

242

Ecological bioavailability of permethrin and p,p'-DDT: Toxicity depends on type of organic matter resource.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrophobic organic contaminants readily partition from aqueous to organic phases in aquatic systems with past research largely focusing on sediment. However, within many aquatic systems, matrices such as leaf material and detritus are abundant and ecologically important, as they may represent a primary exposure route for aquatic invertebrates. The objectives of the present study were to examine partitioning and toxicity to Hyalella azteca among permethrin and p,p'-DDT contaminated sediment, leaf, and a sediment-leaf mixture. Log organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients ranged from 4.21 to 5.82 for both insecticides, and were greatest within sediment and lowest in coarse leaf material. H. azteca lethal concentrations for 50% of the population (LC50s) ranged from 0.5 to 111?gg(-1) organic carbon, and were dependent on the matrix composition. The variation in sorption and toxicity among matrices common within stream ecosystems suggests that the ecological niche of aquatic organisms may be important for estimating risk of hydrophobic pesticides.

de Perre C; Trimble AJ; Maul JD; Lydy MJ

2013-08-01

243

Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran/ Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e (more) 20cm) e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®), em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm) e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg). Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados. Abstract in english The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm) and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice (more) hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax®) were tested. The experiment was in blocks randomly distributed in four replications and five cuttings for parcel. After thirty five days the percentage of rooting, the length of the bigger root (cm) and the leaf and root dry weight (mg) were analysed. The results indicated that the vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi by cuttings is viable, once its mean rooting was over 70%. It was not observed significative interaction within the adopted treatments. The cuttings with 20cm length presented larger leaf and root dry weight but the percentage of rooting and the length of the bigger root was not affected by the cutting lenght. The substrate types did not present effect on the development of the cuttings. The production of Ocimum selloi seedlings is recommended with 20cm length cuttings using any substrate tested.

Costa, Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim; Pinto, José Eduardo Brasil Pereira; Bertolucci, Suzan Kelly Vilela

2007-08-01

244

Metabolic ecology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE.

Humphries MM; McCann KS

2013-07-01

245

Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

2007-11-15

246

Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

2007-01-01

247

Role of Mediterranean diet, tropical vegetables rich in antioxidants, and sunlight exposure in blindness, cataract and glaucoma among African type 2 diabetics  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM To assess whether regular Mediterranean diet and regular intake of vegetables may reduce the risk of blindness, cataract, and glaucoma in these type 2 diabetics. METHODS A cross-sectional design was carried out among known black diabetics admitted at the diabetic clinics of Kinshasa, between October 2008 and March 2009. The Mediterranean-style dietary score (MSDPS) was used to characterize a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern in the study population using the Harvard semi quantitative FFQ adapted for Africa. RESULTS Five hundred Type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study (48% of males; 40% aged ?60 years). There was a significant association between blindness, cataract and aging; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.05), glaucoma (P<0.05), and physical inactivity; between blindness (P<0.05), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.01) and high SES, and a very significant association between blindness (P<0.0001), cataract (P<0.0001), glaucoma (P<0.0001) and exposure to sunlight. There was also a significant association between blindness, glaucoma, and male sex. Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, Musa acuminata reduced significantly the risk of blindness, cataract and glaucoma. CONCLUSION Regular intake of Mediterranean diet, Brassica Rapa, beans, Abelmoschus, and Musa acuminata may significantly reduce the risk of blindness or its major causes among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Africa.

Moise, Mvitu Muaka; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza; Doris, Tulomba Mona; Dalida, Kibokela Ndembe; Augustin, Nge Okwe

2012-01-01

248

Vegetation restoration method for manganese mine wastelands  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to vegetation ecological restoration technology in a degraded ecosystem, which comprises the following steps: first using manganese ore slag and tailings mud in a certain proportion to perform pot experiment for screening tree seeds, and screening out anti-adversity tree seeds of koelreuteria paniculata, elaeocarpus decipiens, platycladus, palm, euonymus japonicus, evergreen magnolia, pittosporum and the like for vegetation restoration of the manganese mine wastelands and then utilizing the tree seeds to perform the vegetation restoration of the manganese mine slag wastelands. The experiment shows that the method has high survival rate of the tree seeds and good growing conditions of plants so as to achieve the excellent vegetation restoration effect in manganese mine wastelands. In addition, the method has lower manufacturing cost, quickly forms forest landscape, and achieves excellent effect of the improvement on ecology environment and landscapes.

DALUN TIAN; WENDE YAN; WENXING KANG

249

Comparing Early to Middle Miocene floras and probable vegetation types of Oberdorf N Voitsberg (Austria), Bohemia (Czech Republic), and Wackersdorf (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early Miocene vegetation of western Styria, Austria, is reconstructed on the basis of detailed investigations of leaves and diaspores from the mining area Oberdorf N Voitsberg. In this paper, the flora and probable vegetation are compared with other assemblages of similar age from the Czech Republic and Germany to elucidate the diversity of wetland and mesophytic plant communities. The floristic composition and the vegetational units represented in Oberdorf are compared to the middle part of the Most Formation (M Most Fm), Cypris Shale, Mydlovary Formation (Mydlovary Fm) of Bohemia, and the Wackersdorf mining area of Bavaria. Among these sites, Oberdorf is extremely poor in hydrophytes and reed-like monocotyledons, indicating rare pond-like habitats as well as possibly more closed swamp forest conditions than, e.g. in the M Most Fm. In Oberdorf, relatively high pH-values in the lignite-forming swamps and the possible scarcity of acidic, nutrient-poor (sandy) soils have probably influenced the floristic composition of the azonal communities. The peat-forming associations in all regions share the abundance of Glyptostrobus europaeus. However, distinct differences in the accompanying elements, such as Taxodium dubium (present and abundant only in the M Most Fm) indicate even stronger floristic variability of Early(/Middle) Miocene peat-forming and riparian plant communities than previously expected. The virtual absence of Pinus, Engelhardia, Comptonia, and probably also of Quercus kubinyii/Quercus drymeja in the megafossil record of Oberdorf can possibly be explained by the edaphic conditions. The abundance of Sequoia abietina (absent in all the other compared sites), which we assign to riparian (and mesophytic) forests in Oberdorf, may have been favoured by rich alluvial soils.In the mesophytic associations, thermophilous elements of the Lauraceae, Mastixiaceae, Symplocaceae, and Rutaceae are diverse. Usually they include Trigonobalanopsis rhamnoides/Trigonobalanopsis exacantha, an evergreen Fagaceae. This assemblage type corresponds with the Younger Mastixioid Flora sensu Mai. The Younger Mastixioid Flora is best developed in Wackersdorf, less distinct in Oberdorf, and likely in the Cypris Shale and Mydlovary Fm. It is not traceable in the M Most Fm. PMID:11295166

Kovar-Eder, J; Kvacek, Z; Meller, B

2001-03-01

250

Comparing Early to Middle Miocene floras and probable vegetation types of Oberdorf N Voitsberg (Austria), Bohemia (Czech Republic), and Wackersdorf (Germany).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Early Miocene vegetation of western Styria, Austria, is reconstructed on the basis of detailed investigations of leaves and diaspores from the mining area Oberdorf N Voitsberg. In this paper, the flora and probable vegetation are compared with other assemblages of similar age from the Czech Republic and Germany to elucidate the diversity of wetland and mesophytic plant communities. The floristic composition and the vegetational units represented in Oberdorf are compared to the middle part of the Most Formation (M Most Fm), Cypris Shale, Mydlovary Formation (Mydlovary Fm) of Bohemia, and the Wackersdorf mining area of Bavaria. Among these sites, Oberdorf is extremely poor in hydrophytes and reed-like monocotyledons, indicating rare pond-like habitats as well as possibly more closed swamp forest conditions than, e.g. in the M Most Fm. In Oberdorf, relatively high pH-values in the lignite-forming swamps and the possible scarcity of acidic, nutrient-poor (sandy) soils have probably influenced the floristic composition of the azonal communities. The peat-forming associations in all regions share the abundance of Glyptostrobus europaeus. However, distinct differences in the accompanying elements, such as Taxodium dubium (present and abundant only in the M Most Fm) indicate even stronger floristic variability of Early(/Middle) Miocene peat-forming and riparian plant communities than previously expected. The virtual absence of Pinus, Engelhardia, Comptonia, and probably also of Quercus kubinyii/Quercus drymeja in the megafossil record of Oberdorf can possibly be explained by the edaphic conditions. The abundance of Sequoia abietina (absent in all the other compared sites), which we assign to riparian (and mesophytic) forests in Oberdorf, may have been favoured by rich alluvial soils.In the mesophytic associations, thermophilous elements of the Lauraceae, Mastixiaceae, Symplocaceae, and Rutaceae are diverse. Usually they include Trigonobalanopsis rhamnoides/Trigonobalanopsis exacantha, an evergreen Fagaceae. This assemblage type corresponds with the Younger Mastixioid Flora sensu Mai. The Younger Mastixioid Flora is best developed in Wackersdorf, less distinct in Oberdorf, and likely in the Cypris Shale and Mydlovary Fm. It is not traceable in the M Most Fm.

Kovar-Eder J; Kvacek Z; Meller B

2001-03-01

251

Historical and Contemporary Geographic Data Reveal Complex Spatial and Temporal Responses of Vegetation to Climate and Land Stewardship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation and land-cover changes are not always directional but follow complex trajectories over space and time, driven by changing anthropogenic and abiotic conditions. We present a multi-observational approach to land-change analysis that addresses the complex geographic and temporal variability of vegetation changes related to climate and land use. Using land-ownership data as a proxy for land-use practices, multitemporal land-cover maps, and repeat photography dating to the late 19th century, we examine changing spatial and temporal distributions of two vegetation types with high conservation value in the southwestern United States: grasslands and riparian vegetation. In contrast to many reported vegetation changes, notably shrub encroachment in desert grasslands, we found an overall increase in grassland area and decline of xeroriparian and riparian vegetation. These observed change patterns were neither temporally directional nor spatially uniform over the landscape. Historical data suggest that long-term vegetation changes coincide with broad climate fluctuations while fine-scale patterns are determined by land-management practices. In some cases, restoration and active management appear to weaken the effects of climate on vegetation; therefore, if land managers in this region act in accord with on-going directional changes, the current drought and associated ecological reorganization may provide an opportunity to achieve desired restoration endpoints.

Miguel L. Villarreal; Laura M. Norman; Robert H. Webb; Raymond M. Turner

2013-01-01

252

Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

2004-01-01

253

Ecological Indicators ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ultimate aim of Ecological Indicators is to integrate the monitoring and assessment of ecological and environmental indicators with management practices. The journal provides a forum for the discussion of the applied scientific development and review of traditional indicator approaches as...

254

Ecological Complexity ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ecological Complexity is an international journal devoted to the publication of high quality, peer-reviewed articles on all aspects of biocomplexity in the environment, theoretical ecology, and special issues on topics of current interest. The scope of the journal is wide and interdisciplinar...

255

Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s?1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan; G. Wang; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

2012-01-01

256

Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km(2)) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies.

Hadid Y; Tzur S; Pavlícek T; Šumbera R; Šklíba J; Lövy M; Fragman-Sapir O; Beiles A; Arieli R; Raz S; Nevo E

2013-02-01

257

Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called ...

Denes Bajzak; Bruce A. Roberts

258

The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The need for a scientifically-based wildlife management plan and for more knowledge on vegetation led to an investigation into the plant ecology of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve. The main aim of this study was therefore to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the reserve. The floristic data were analysed according to the Braun-Blanquet procedure using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of 15 communities that can be grouped into ten maj (more) or community types. This resulted in five ecology-based management units, which could assist with the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the reserve in order to achieve sustainable utilisation of the natural resources. The Rooipoort Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and as such deserves to be conserved and protected. The riverine and pan vegetation communities are considered to be endangered and are in need of special conservation and protection. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION: The results suggest five management units, which will assist in the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the RNR, in order to allow sustainable utilization of natural resources.

Bezuidenhout, Hugo

2009-01-01

259

Spatial and temporal vegetation change in Southern Brazilian Amazon using GIS and NOAA /AVHRR data  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past two decades, environmental alteration in the Amazon Basin due to land development, population increase, and the consequent deforestation, has become a serious ecological problem in this region known to be, both climatologically and biogenetically, one of the most important regions in the world. In Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate, vegetation cover change has been reported to occur over large areas due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and slash-and-burn cultivation. Spatial and temporal land cover (vegetation) change is noted to potentially set up temperature increase and rainfall decrease. We stress on the importance of vegetation change information as crucial inputs for eco-climatic analysis of these spatial patterns of change and their temporal trend at local scale, as well as for real-time monitoring or detection of the deforestation events for appropriate action by the Brazilian government. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed onto NOAA AVHRR remote-sensed and multi- spectral data covering the 1981-2003 period, using GIS. Our investigation focuses on developing a vegetation quantification algorithm for change detection in the vegetation cover over every few years, using the PCA first component, which is shown to characterize the overall vegetation cover types. Land cover features and their spatio-temporal change over the Southern Brazilian Amazon are analyzed and discussed, and their relationships with global and regional eco-climatic phenomena is highlighted.

Kazadi, S.; Yoshikawa, S.

2007-05-01

260

VEGETATION FENCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A vegetation fence is provided to enable plants to grow since a box holding compost in which plant seeds are mixed with soil is arranged on a vertical post. CONSTITUTION: A vegetation fence(1) comprises vertical posts(10), a connecting bar(20), and a box(30). The vertical post comprises a space and a through hole. The vertical posts are installed in a given position at regular intervals. One end of the connecting bar is fixed to the vertical post to connect the vertical posts. The box is rotatably installed on the vertical post to be able to pass the through hole and is held or detachably installed in the space. The box holds compost consisting of plant seeds and soil.

KIM JEE HYUN; HONG TAE NAM

 
 
 
 
261

Padrões de reprodução vegetativa em espécies de Lejeuneaceae (Marchantiophyta) e seu significado taxonômico e ecológico Vegetative reproduction patterns in species of Lejeuneaceae (Marchantiophyta) and its taxonomic and ecological significances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo da reprodução vegetativa de 33 táxons infragenéricos de Lejeuneaceae, ocorrentes no Estado da Bahia (Brasil), permitiu a identificação de seis padrões básicos de processos de reprodução vegetativa: (a) produção de cládios; (b) fragmentação de filídios; (c) produção de regenerantes; (d) filídios caducos; (e) produção de gemas; (f) anfigastros semi-caducos. O emprego do padrão de reprodução vegetativa para avaliar as relações filogenéticas dos táxons não é recomendado, uma vez que está presente em vários táxons não estreitamente relacionados.The study of the vegetative reproduction of 33 infrageneric taxa of Lejeuneaceae from the State of Bahia (Brazil) allowed the identification of six basic patterns of the vegetative reproduction process: (a) cladia; (b) leaves fragmentation; (c) regenerates; (d) caducous leaves; (e) gemmae; (f) semi-caducous underleaves. The employment of the vegetative reproduction patterns to evaluate phylogenetic relationships is not recommended, since it is present in various taxa not closely related.

Cid José Passos Bastos

2008-01-01

262

SRS ecology: Environmental information document  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

1993-01-01

263

SRS ecology: Environmental information document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

1993-09-01

264

Urban Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

265

Phytoplankton Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site describes phytoplankton ecology research by marine ecologists at Mote Marine Laboratory (MML), an independent, nonprofit research organization based in Sarasota, Florida. The emphasis of MML's phytoplankton ecology research is the photophysiology of marine algae -- with recent emphasis on the ability to predict and possibly mitigate blooms of the toxic marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium breve. The no-frills phytoplankton ecology homepage describes research and offers data (maps, figures, tables) from 1998 and 1999 projects on Red Tide transects, Nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations, and Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) transect data, among several others. The site also offers general information on Red Tides, Red Tide conditions in Southwest Florida, a chronology of historic Red Tide events, and links to related resources.

266

Ecological Economics ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The journal is concerned with extending and integrating the study and management of "nature's household" (ecology) and "humankind's household" (economics). This integration is necessary because conceptual and professional isolation have led to economic and environmental policies which are mutually d...

267

Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil/ Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS): uma mercearia (quitanda), um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destaca (more) m os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra. Abstract in english The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapte (more) d from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.

Lima-Filho, Dario de O; Hokama, Anderson S; Spanhol, Caroline P

2009-03-01

268

Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS): uma mercearia (quitanda), um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra.

Dario de O Lima-Filho; Anderson S Hokama; Caroline P Spanhol

2009-01-01

269

Constructing ecologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We synthesize the generic properties of ecologically realistic multi-trophic level models and define criteria for ecological realism. We define an "ecospace" in which all ecologically realistic dynamics are confined, and construct "resource rays" that define the resources available to each species at every point in the ecospace. Resource rays for a species are lines from a vertex of maximum resource to the opposite boundary where no resources are available. The growth functions of all biota normally decrease along their resource rays, and change sign from positive to negative. This property prescribes that each species must have a zero isosurface within the ecospace. We illustrate our conditions on a highly cited three trophic level model from population dynamics, showing how to extend this system biologically consistently to a closed ecological system. Our synthesis extends the concept of carrying capacity of population models to explicitly include exhaustion of limiting resources, and so allows for population biology models to be considered as ecologically closed systems with respect to a key limiting nutrient. This approach unifies many theoretical and applied models in a common biogeochemical framework, facilitates better understanding of the key structures of complex ecologies, and suggests strategies for efficient design of experiments.

Cropp R; Norbury J

2012-02-01

270

Ecological half-times of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in dairy milk in regions with different soil types  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long-lived radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been regularly monitored since the 1960's in dairy milk in Finland. The aim of this work was to study regional differences in long-term behaviour of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in dairy milk including the nuclear weapons tests period and the period after the Chernobyl fallout. In the milk production areas soil types vary from clayish to organic soils. Although total {sup 137}Cs deposition from nuclear weapon testings was about the same in all regions, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in dairy milk during the 1960's ranged between 5 and 35 Bq/l being highest in regions with high proportion of peat soils. The uneven deposition after the Chernobyl accident before the start of the growing season gave rise to {sup 137}Cs concentrations in dairy milk ranging from 3 Bq/l to 60 Bq/l. The ecological half-times were estimated for the decrease of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after the end of nuclear weapon tests period and the Chernobyl fallout for short and longer time intervals. In the milk production areas dominated by organic soils the ecological half-times for decrease of {sup 137}Cs were twice as long as in the regions with clayish soils. Half-times of {sup 90}Sr for longer time intervals were considerably longer than those for {sup 137}Cs. This long-term data on behaviour of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in dairy milk can be utilized in testing food chain models. The incorporation of region specific parameters in models will enhance their usefulness in case of a nuclear accident. (author)

Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland)

2004-07-01

271

Environmental mutagenesis during the end-Permian ecological crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the end-Permian ecological crisis, terrestrial ecosystems experienced preferential dieback of woody vegetation. Across the world, surviving herbaceous lycopsids played a pioneering role in repopulating deforested terrain. We document that the microspores of these lycopsids were regularly rele...

Visscher, Henk; Looy, Cindy V.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Brinkhuis, Henk; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, Johanna H. A.

272

Studying the effect of elevation and edaphic variables on vegetation composition in Khezrabad rangelands using principal component analysis (PCA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major scientific challenge in plant ecology is to identify and quantify the strength of environmental factors that are responsible for the distribution and abundance of plant species within and among ecosystems. Hence, this study is focused on relation between plant communities and environmental variables in Khezrabad region of Iran. Based on field surveys, eight vegetation types including Artemisia sieberi-Acantholimon erinaceum, Artemisia sieberi-Hertia angustifolia, Artemisia sieberi-Launea acanthodes, Artemisia sieberi-Salsola tomentosa, Artemisia sieberi-Zygophyllum atriplicoides, Artemisia aucheri-Astrgalus albispinus, Artemisia sieberi-Fortuynia bungei, Haloxylon aphyllum were identified. With respecting to the present variance between vegetation and environmental factors, four samples were established in each vegetation type in 0–30 cm depth. The studied soil variables affecting plant communities were texture, EC, pH, Na+, k+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SP, O.M, CaCO3, HCO3 - and CEC. Among the topographic conditions, elevation was recorded in sampling regions as well. Data matrix of environmental factors and vegetation type was made using the windows (ver. 4.17) of PC-ORD. Results according to PCA showed that in the study area, among different environmental factors, the distribution of vegetation types was most strongly correlated with some agents such as soil texture, salinity and sodicity. In fact, soil texture controls distribution of plant species by affecting moisture availability, ventilation and distribution of plant roots. Beside, soil salinity and sodicity because of habitat condition, plant ecological needs and tolerance range can have negative affect on plant diversity. In addition, results indicated that increasing of elevation had negative effect on plant distribution. However, soil characteristics have more influence on vegetation separation than to the elevation in this study.

Ruhollah TAGHIZADEH MEHRJARDI; Ali AKBARZADEH; Mehdi BINIYAZ; Shahla MAHMOODI; Mohammad Ali ZARE CHAHOUKI

2009-01-01

273

Ecological Investigation of Three Geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A) Alhagi graecorum, (B) Cyperus capitatus, (C) Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D) Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes). The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area.

Hanafey F. Maswada; Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely

2013-01-01

274

Landscape ecological tank  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an aquaria,which in detail is a landscape ecological aquaria, comprising aquaria body and rockery installed in aquaria aquaria body is equipped with water circulation system, the rockery is cured with high-strength compressed foam, said foam is sprayed with a coloring coating layer. The water supply pipe and sewer pipe of water circulation system are located in rockery, the current flows out from rockery under action of water pump through pipeline. The aquaria is also equipped with sprayer. The new-type landscape ecological aquaria provides natural view for people and not only beauties house but also clean the environment.

LIN WEIZHI

275

The situation and development of chemical ecology(I):Ecological biochemistry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biological moleculas especially the secondary substances are summarized, and the situation and development in ecological biochemistry, including types, structure, biosynthetic pathways and the ecological effects of the biochemical substances are studied also.

Li Yuwen

1998-01-01

276

Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1) it can not be separated from GIS cartography; (2) it can compact ecological information along space and time; (3) it can create a decision space for management decisions; (4) it can go beyond the third dimension by using compressive statistical techniques. RGB ecology can also be an effective flanker of several branches of ecology, such as landscape ecology, conservation ecology, urban ecology, forest ecology and so forth.

Alessandro Ferrarini

2012-01-01

277

Vegetation, soil and hydrology management influence denitrification activity and the composition of nirK-type denitrifier communities in a newly afforested riparian buffer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil microbial community composition and activity could be affected by suitable manipulation of the environment they live in. If correctly applied such an approach could become a very effective way to remediate excess of chemicals. The concentration of nitrogen, especially nitrate deriving from agricultural managements, is generally found to increase in water flow. Therefore, by forcing the water flow through a buffer strip specifically designed and possibly afforested with suitable plant species, may result effective in reducing high nitrogen contents. The management of a riparian buffer may definitely affect the soil microbial activities, including denitrification, as well as the composition of the community. The present study reports on the changes occurred in terms of denitrifying microbial community composition, as compared to that of a neighbouring agricultural area, as a consequence of hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and to the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation. With this aim, denitrification was repeatedly measured and the data obtained were related to those deriving from a specific analysis of bacterial groups involved in denitrification. nirK, encoding for nitrite reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide and considered the key step in the denitrification process, was chosen as the target gene. The main results obtained indicated that denitrification activity changes in riparian buffer as compared to agricultural soil and it is strongly influenced by carbon availability and soil depth. Although no significant differences on the community composition between superficial (0-15cm) and medium (40-55cm) layers were observed, the nirK-type denitrifier community was shown to significantly differ between riparian and agricultural soils in both surface and medium layers.

Boz B; Mizanur Rahman M; Bottegal M; Basaglia M; Squartini A; Gumiero B; Casella S

2013-09-01

278

Vegetation, soil and hydrology management influence denitrification activity and the composition of nirK-type denitrifier communities in a newly afforested riparian buffer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil microbial community composition and activity could be affected by suitable manipulation of the environment they live in. If correctly applied such an approach could become a very effective way to remediate excess of chemicals. The concentration of nitrogen, especially nitrate deriving from agricultural managements, is generally found to increase in water flow. Therefore, by forcing the water flow through a buffer strip specifically designed and possibly afforested with suitable plant species, may result effective in reducing high nitrogen contents. The management of a riparian buffer may definitely affect the soil microbial activities, including denitrification, as well as the composition of the community. The present study reports on the changes occurred in terms of denitrifying microbial community composition, as compared to that of a neighbouring agricultural area, as a consequence of hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and to the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation. With this aim, denitrification was repeatedly measured and the data obtained were related to those deriving from a specific analysis of bacterial groups involved in denitrification. nirK, encoding for nitrite reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide and considered the key step in the denitrification process, was chosen as the target gene. The main results obtained indicated that denitrification activity changes in riparian buffer as compared to agricultural soil and it is strongly influenced by carbon availability and soil depth. Although no significant differences on the community composition between superficial (0-15cm) and medium (40-55cm) layers were observed, the nirK-type denitrifier community was shown to significantly differ between riparian and agricultural soils in both surface and medium layers. PMID:23567981

Boz, Bruno; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Bottegal, Mariangela; Basaglia, Marina; Squartini, Andrea; Gumiero, Bruna; Casella, Sergio

2013-04-06

279

The role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to cover a range of salinity (0.81 to 31.3 mS/cm) and nitrate concentrations (0.1 to 303 ?M NO3-), allowing the evaluation of environmental variables that select for denitrifier communities in the rhizosphere of Phragmites sp., Ruppia sp., and Paspalum sp. Potential nitrate reduction rates were found to be dependent on the sampling time and plant species and related to the denitrifier community structure, which was assessed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the functional genes nirS, nirK and nosZ. The results showed that denitrifier community structure was also governed by plant species and salinity, with significant influences of other variables, such as sampling time and location. Ruppia sp. and Phragmites sp. selected for certain communities, whereas this was not the case for Paspalum sp. The plant species effect was strongest on nirK-type denitrifiers, whereas water carbon content was a significant factor defining the structure of the nosZ-harboring community. The differences recognized using the three functional gene markers indicated that different drivers act on denitrifying populations capable of complete denitrification, compared to the overall denitrifier community. This finding may have implications for emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.

Bañeras L; Ruiz-Rueda O; López-Flores R; Quintana XD; Hallin S

2012-06-01

280

Political ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

2011-01-01

282

Ecological niche  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ecological niche of an organism is the set of environmental conditions under which the particular functions of the organism could be expected to assure its survival. It comprises both the set of conditions where the organism lives (often termed the habitat of the organism) and the functional role of the organism in the ecosystem. Recent works in niche theory have enabled ecologists to develop predictions and actual applications. The history of the niche concept, applications of niche theory, and ecological differences between similar species are discussed.

Shugart, H.H.

1980-01-01

283

Tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação vegetativa da menta (Mentha arvensis L.)/ Types of cuttings and substrates in the vegetative propagation of mint (Mentha arvensis L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa da menta utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos. O experimento foi conduzido no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, campus Janaúba - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (dois tipos de estacas e quatro diferentes substratos) com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela representada por seis estacas. Foram analisadas as variávei (more) s comprimento de parte aérea e de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes e número total de brotações formadas por planta. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A interação entre os fatores estacas e substratos não foi significativa para as variáveis estudadas, passando-se a estudar o efeito isolado de cada fator. A propagação de Mentha arvensis L. pode ser realizada tanto por estacas apicais como medianas, utilizando o substrato solo + areia + esterco bovino (2:1:1) para a produção de mudas de qualidade. Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to evaluate the vegetative propagation using different types of mint cuttings and substrates. The experiment was conducted in the Garden of Medicinal Plants of Unimontes, in Janaúba - MG. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD) in 2 x 4 factorial schemes (two types of poles and four different substrates) with four replications and each plot was represented by six cuttings. The variables analyzed were the length of the shoots a (more) nd roots, the dry matter of the shoots and roots and the total number of shoots per plant. The data were subject to ANOVA and the means were compared by Scott-Knott's test at 5% of probability. The interaction among stem cuttings and substrates was not significant for the variables studied, thus, the isolated effect of each factor was studied. The propagation of Mentha arvensis L. can be performed either by apical cuttings as medians, using the substrate soil + sand + manure bovine (2:1:1) for the production of quality seedlings.

Amaro, H.T.R; Silveira, J.R; David, A.M.S de S; Resende, M.A.V de; Andrade, J.A.S.

2013-01-01

284

[Landscape ecology of hantavirosis in Rio Grande do Sul state].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to study the landscape ecology of hantavirosis in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This was achieved through geocoding the occurrence of cases and overlaying onto vegetation and relief maps. The majority of cases occurred during Spring, in highland areas dominated by secondary vegetation and agricultural activity.

Henkes WE; Barcellos C

2004-11-01

285

Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

Stegen, J.A.

1994-01-17

286

Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

1994-01-01

287

Ecology, Microbial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

Konopka, Allan

2009-05-15

288

Parasitism and maintenance of diversity in a fungal vegetative incompatibility system: the role of selection by deleterious cytoplasmic elements.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fungi, horizontal transmission of deleterious cytoplasmic elements is reduced by the vegetative incompatibility system. This self/non-self recognition system may select for greater diversity of fungal incompatibility phenotypes in a frequency-dependent manner but the link between the diversity of fungal phenotypes and the virulence of cytoplasmic parasites has been poorly studied. We used an epidemiological model to show that even when transmission between incompatibility types is permitted, parasite pressure can lead to high levels of polymorphism for vegetative incompatibility systems. Moreover, high levels of polymorphism in host populations can select for less virulent cytoplasmic parasites. This feedback mechanism between parasite virulence and vegetative incompatibility system polymorphism of host populations may account for the general avirulence of most known mycoviruses. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a new perspective on the particular ecology and evolution of the host/parasite interactions acting between fungi and their cytoplasmic parasites. PMID:21382145

Brusini, Jérémie; Robin, Cécile; Franc, Alain

2011-03-08

289

Parasitism and maintenance of diversity in a fungal vegetative incompatibility system: the role of selection by deleterious cytoplasmic elements.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In fungi, horizontal transmission of deleterious cytoplasmic elements is reduced by the vegetative incompatibility system. This self/non-self recognition system may select for greater diversity of fungal incompatibility phenotypes in a frequency-dependent manner but the link between the diversity of fungal phenotypes and the virulence of cytoplasmic parasites has been poorly studied. We used an epidemiological model to show that even when transmission between incompatibility types is permitted, parasite pressure can lead to high levels of polymorphism for vegetative incompatibility systems. Moreover, high levels of polymorphism in host populations can select for less virulent cytoplasmic parasites. This feedback mechanism between parasite virulence and vegetative incompatibility system polymorphism of host populations may account for the general avirulence of most known mycoviruses. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a new perspective on the particular ecology and evolution of the host/parasite interactions acting between fungi and their cytoplasmic parasites.

Brusini J; Robin C; Franc A

2011-05-01

290

Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

2011-01-01

291

The Relationship Between Vegetables and Fruits Intake and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Values, Lipids Profiles and Nitrogen Status in Type II Inactive Diabetic Patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disease such as diabetes is rapidly increasing in all part of the world. The World Health Organization has predicted that between 1997 and 2025 the number of diabetic patients will increase from 143 million to about 300 million. In diabetic patients, oxidative stress leads to non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins such as hemoglobin and albumin, these proteins can play a significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes and development of chronic disorders in diabetic patients. Antioxidant nutrients can reduce the chronic disorders and complications of diabetes by inhibiting the oxidative reactions. Some important antioxidant such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium occur in vegetables and fruits. Our objective of this study was investigation of the relationship between vegetables and fruits intake ssand glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values in diabetic patients. METHODS: One hundred and five diabetic patients participated in this cross-sectional study. The patients were referred to health center in Khomeini shahr. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values were measured by chromatography method. Data on dietary intake and vegetables and fruits consumption were obtained from validated food frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: The unadjusted mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is significantly associated with the amount of vegetables and fruits intake (P = 0.014), but the relationship between consumption of fruits and HbA1C is not significant and the relationship between consumption of vegetables and HbA1C was roughly significant (P = 0.049). There were no significant relationship between vegetables and fruits intake and lipids profiles, BUN/creatinine and 24 h urinary protein (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the glycosylated hemoglobin, therefore choosing the appropriate diet with high fruits and vegetables may help to develop antioxidant defense and reduce the HbA1C in diabetic patients but it did not have any impact on lipids profiles, BUN/creatinine and urine protein 24 h.

Tabesh M; Hariri M; Askari G; Ghiasvand R; Tabesh M; Heydari A; Darvishi L; Khorvash F

2013-04-01

292

The South African National Vegetation Database: history, development, applications, problems and future  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD) of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near (more) its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés) sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets), the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

Rutherford, Michael C.; Mucina, Ladislav; Powrie, Leslie W.

2012-01-01

293

RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transition from the vegetative phase to reproductive phase is a crucial process in the life cycle of higher plants. Although the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation have been extensively characterized in a number of plant species, little is known regarding how the transition process initiat...

Wu, Changyin; You, Changjun; Li, Caishun; Long, Tuan; Chen, Guoxing; Byrne, Mary E.; Zhang, Qifa

294

Household three-dimensional ecological cultivating frame  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model provides a household three-dimensional ecological cultivating frame, which comprises a sprout cultivating unit, an edible mushroom cultivating unit and a greenhouse simulating unit. The sprout cultivating unit is positioned at the bottom layer of the household three-dimensional ecological cultivating frame the edible mushroom cultivating unit is positioned on the sprout cultivating unit and the greenhouse simulating unit is positioned on the edible mushroom cultivating unit. The household three-dimensional ecological cultivating frame is used for cultivating vegetables and ornamental green plants and effectively adopts three-dimensional idle spaces such as a balcony and the like therefore, not only is the environment beautified, but also safe and fresh delicious dining-table vegetables can be eaten by families.

HONGYING YAO

295

Landscape ecology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper the authors outline an approach to landscape study that employs a hierarchical paradigm of pattern and behavior. Although emphasis is on forested landscapes, we can generalize a theory of landscape ecology. Attention is focused on the wide range of phenomena in a natural terrestrial landscape by considering the apparent complexity of landscape dynamics and illustrating how a hierarchical paradigm lends itself to simplifying such complexity. This perspective also affords insights into the management of man-dominated landscapes.

Urban, D.L.; O' Neill, R.V.; Shugart, H.H. Jr.

1987-02-01

296

Marine ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

1977-01-01

297

Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

Steinmetz KA; Potter JD

1996-10-01

298

Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos da vegetação campestre do Morro da Polícia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Floristics and ecological aspects of a grassland vegetation on Morro da Polícia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a variação da composição florística da vegetação campestre e suas relações com altitude e exposição no Morro da Polícia, de origem granítica, em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, a 30ºS e 51 ºW. O levantamento foi realizado de novembro de 1992 a novembro de 1994. A presença e freqüência de espécies foi avaliada usando o método de pontos sobre transecções em 19 unidades de vegetação, as quais foram delimitadas com base na exposição da encosta (N, S, L, O) e altitude (160 a 280m). Os dados foram submetidos a análise multivariada de agrupamentos e ordenação. Nas transecções foram observadas 189 espécies, sendo Poaceae, Asteraceae e Apiaceae as famílias mais freqüentes e Trachypogon montufari e Schizachyrium tenerum as espécies dominantes. A análise de agrupamentos e de ordenação revelou conexões entre variação da vegetação e fatores altitude e exposição solar. Aristida laevis e Sorghastrum albescens são características de comunidades mais expostas à radiação solar, enquanto Agenium villosum e Eryngium eriophorum o são de comunidades menos expostas. Vernonia nudiflora e Axonopus suffultus caracterizam as áreas mais elevadas do morro, enquanto Eupatoriitm ligulifolium e Sorghastrum albescens as mais baixas.We studied floristic composition variation and its conections to elevation and exposure in the grassland vegetation of Morro da Polícia, a hill of granitic origin in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 30ºS e 51 ºW. The survey took place from November 1992 to November 1994. Species presence and frequency were assessed by using the point method on transects in 19 vegetation units, which were delimited by slope exposure and elevation (160 to 280m). Data were subjected to cluster analysis and ordination. Based on data from transects we detected 189 species, mainly from the Poaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, with Trachypogon montufari and Schizachyrium tenerum as dominant species. Cluster analysis and ordination revealed conections of vegetation variation with elevation and exposure. Aristida laevis and Sorghastrum albescens are characteristic of more exposed comunities (N and NE slopes), while Agenium villosum and Eryngium eriophorum are from less exposed communities (on S and SW slopes). Vernonia nudiflora and Axonopus suffultus are characteristic of higher elevation areas on the hill, while Eupatorium ligulifolium and Sorghastrum albescens are characteristic of lower elevation areas.

Ilsi Iob Boldrini; Silvia T. S Miotto; Hilda M Longhi-Wagner; Valério De P Pillar; Katia Marzall

1998-01-01

299

Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos da vegetação campestre do Morro da Polícia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil/ Floristics and ecological aspects of a grassland vegetation on Morro da Polícia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se a variação da composição florística da vegetação campestre e suas relações com altitude e exposição no Morro da Polícia, de origem granítica, em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, a 30ºS e 51 ºW. O levantamento foi realizado de novembro de 1992 a novembro de 1994. A presença e freqüência de espécies foi avaliada usando o método de pontos sobre transecções em 19 unidades de vegetação, as quais foram delimitadas com base na exposição da en (more) costa (N, S, L, O) e altitude (160 a 280m). Os dados foram submetidos a análise multivariada de agrupamentos e ordenação. Nas transecções foram observadas 189 espécies, sendo Poaceae, Asteraceae e Apiaceae as famílias mais freqüentes e Trachypogon montufari e Schizachyrium tenerum as espécies dominantes. A análise de agrupamentos e de ordenação revelou conexões entre variação da vegetação e fatores altitude e exposição solar. Aristida laevis e Sorghastrum albescens são características de comunidades mais expostas à radiação solar, enquanto Agenium villosum e Eryngium eriophorum o são de comunidades menos expostas. Vernonia nudiflora e Axonopus suffultus caracterizam as áreas mais elevadas do morro, enquanto Eupatoriitm ligulifolium e Sorghastrum albescens as mais baixas. Abstract in english We studied floristic composition variation and its conections to elevation and exposure in the grassland vegetation of Morro da Polícia, a hill of granitic origin in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, 30ºS e 51 ºW. The survey took place from November 1992 to November 1994. Species presence and frequency were assessed by using the point method on transects in 19 vegetation units, which were delimited by slope exposure and elevation (160 to 280m). Data were sub (more) jected to cluster analysis and ordination. Based on data from transects we detected 189 species, mainly from the Poaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae families, with Trachypogon montufari and Schizachyrium tenerum as dominant species. Cluster analysis and ordination revealed conections of vegetation variation with elevation and exposure. Aristida laevis and Sorghastrum albescens are characteristic of more exposed comunities (N and NE slopes), while Agenium villosum and Eryngium eriophorum are from less exposed communities (on S and SW slopes). Vernonia nudiflora and Axonopus suffultus are characteristic of higher elevation areas on the hill, while Eupatorium ligulifolium and Sorghastrum albescens are characteristic of lower elevation areas.

Boldrini, Ilsi Iob; Miotto, Silvia T. S; Longhi-Wagner, Hilda M; Pillar, Valério De P; Marzall, Katia

1998-04-01

300

Discrepancies among ecological, household, and individual data on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil Discrepância entre dados ecológicos, domiciliares e individuais sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil in the three levels of dietary data was analyzed and compared. Data about national supply came from Food Balance Sheets compiled by the FAO; household availability information was obtained from the Brazilian National Household Budget Survey (HBS); and actual intake information came from a large individual dietary intake survey that was representative of the adult population of São Paulo city. All sources of information were collected between 2002 and 2003. A subset of the HBS, representative of São Paulo city, was used in our analysis in order to improve the quality of the comparison with actual intake data. The ratio of national supply to household availability of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 while the ratio of national supply to actual intake was 4.0. The discrepancy ratio in the comparison between household availability and actual intake was smaller, 1.6. While the use of supply and availability data has advantages, as lower cost, must be taken into account that these sources tend to overestimate actual intake of fruits and vegetables.Dados sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil, em três níveis de informação, foram analisados e comparados. Dados sobre a oferta nacional foram obtidos em Folhas de Balanço de Alimentos da FAO; a disponibilidade domiciliar de frutas e hortaliças baseou-se em resultados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF); informações sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças foram obtidas em um inquérito de consumo alimentar representativo da população adulta do Município de São Paulo. Todas as informações referem-se ao período entre 2002 e 2003. Uma subamostra dos domicílios da POF, representativa da cidade de São Paulo, foi utilizada a fim de melhorar a qualidade da comparação com dados de consumo de folhas e hortaliças. A razão entre a oferta nacional e a disponibilidade domiciliar de frutas e hortaliças foi de 2,6, enquanto a razão entre oferta nacional e o seu consumo foi de 4,0. A razão entre a disponibilidade domiciliar e o consumo foi de 1,6. Embora o uso de dados da oferta e disponibilidade de frutas e hortaliças apresente certas vantagens, como o menor custo, sua utilização deve levar em conta a tendência a superestimar o consumo de frutas e hortaliças.

Rafael Moreira Claro; Patricia Constante Jaime; Karen Lock; Regina Mara Fisberg; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Evolving digital ecological networks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved).

Fortuna MA; Zaman L; Wagner AP; Ofria C

2013-01-01

302

Evolving digital ecological networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

"It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved). PMID:23533370

Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Wagner, Aaron P; Ofria, Charles

2013-03-07

303

Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China  

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Full Text Available With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s?1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

D. H. Yan; G. Wang; H. Wang; T. L. Qin

2011-01-01

304

Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

2000-01-01

305

Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed.

W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

2000-06-30

306

Field-Testing Ecological and Economic Benefits of Coffee Certification Programs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions.

PHILPOTT STACYM; BICHIER PETER; RICE ROBERT; GREENBERG RUSSELL

2007-08-01

307

Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions. PMID:17650248

Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

2007-08-01

308

The circumpolar arctic vegetation map  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km2), about 5.05 x 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy.

Walker DA; Raynolds MK; Daniels FJA; Einarsson E; Elvebakk A; Gould WA; Katenin AE; Kholod SS; Markon CJ; Melnikov ES; Moskalenko NataliaG; Talbot StephenS; Yurtsev BorisA

2005-06-01

309

Biomass, composition and size structure of invertebrate communities associated to different types of aquatic vegetation during summer in Lago di Candia (Italy)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared the biomass, taxonomic composition, and size distribution of invertebrates associated to emergent (Schoenoplectus lacustris), submerged (Myriophyllum spicatum), and floating leaved (Trapa natans) vegetation at two depths (surface and water column) during summer in Lago di Candia, Italy. Invertebrate biomass was positively related to epiphyton biomass (Chl-a). M. spicatum supported higher invertebrate biomass per unit of plant weight than S. lacustris whereas T. natans was somewhat intermediate. Depth did not affect invertebrate biomass significatively. Surface sections of M. spicatum and T. natans supported invertebrate communities with similar taxonomic composition dominated by oligochaetes and ostracods. Large hirudineans and gastropods characterized the communities on the water column sections of M. spicatum. S. lacustris and the water column sections of T. natans (composed of stems and aquatic roots) were supporting invertebrate communities dominated by copepod nauplii and lacking large organisms. Changes in aquatic vegetation in Lago di Candia following harvesting of T. natans and removal of submerged vegetation by the invasion of the rodent coypu (Miocastor coypus) may affect the invertebrate biomass of its littoral zone.

Celine TESSIER; Antonia CATTANEO; Bernadette PINEL-ALLOUL; Gaetano GALANTI; Giuseppe MORABITO

2004-01-01

310

Isolation and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Listeria monocytogenes from modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut vegetables collected in Ireland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in modified atmosphere packaged fresh-cut fruits and vegetables from chill cabinets of a supermarket in Ireland was investigated over a 2-year period. Overall, 9.58% of fresh-cut produce was contaminated with Listeria spp. Various species of Listeria were isolated from samples, including L. monocytogenes, L. seeligeri, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii. No fruit samples contained detectable L. monocytogenes. Overall, a total of 21 L. monocytogenes isolates (2.9% of samples) were recovered from a range of products, including dry coleslaw mix (80% shredded cabbage and 20% shredded carrot), bean sprouts, and leafy vegetables such iceberg, romaine, and radicchio lettuce and mixed salad leaves (curly endive, escarole, and radicchio leaves). Dry coleslaw mix appeared to have the highest incidence of Listeria contamination (20%) compared with other products. Listeria contamination was more frequent (P < 0.05) during the summer and autumn months than during the winter and spring months. The 21 L. monocytogenes isolates were subsequently subtyped by genomic macrorestriction techniques using ApaI with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE of digested DNA produced bands of 79 to 518 kb. Four PFGE profiles were identified, and approximately 50% of the isolates were associated with profile 1. This study indicates that fresh-cut vegetables packaged under a modified atmosphere can support growth of numerous species of Listeria, including L. monocytogenes.

Francis GA; O'Beirne D

2006-10-01

311

Migration Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the University of Lund, Sweden, introduces various research studies in the field of Migration Ecology including research information on "Orientation and navigation," "Flight," "Migration patterns," and "Energetics." The mission of the group is "to forward, by research and teaching, the understanding of adaptive values and evolutionary possibilities and limitations in animal migration, -flight, -orientation and energetics." Many of the group's publications are available for free as PDFs, and the site offers a simple search mechanism to help visitors find the publications they are seeking.

Alerstam, Thomas

2008-01-15

312

Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

313

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ISOPRENE EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A global model was developed for estimating spatial and temporal patterns in the emission of isoprene from vegetation under the current climate and used to estimate emissions under doubled-CO2 climate scenarios. urrent emissions were estimated on the basis of vegetation type, fol...

314

Comparative analysis of remotely-sensed data products via ecological niche modeling of avian influenza case occurrences in Middle Eastern poultry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological niche modeling integrates known sites of occurrence of species or phenomena with data on environmental variation across landscapes to infer environmental spaces potentially inhabited (i.e., the ecological niche) to generate predictive maps of potential distributions in geographic space. Key inputs to this process include raster data layers characterizing spatial variation in environmental parameters, such as vegetation indices from remotely sensed satellite imagery. The extent to which ecological niche models reflect real-world distributions depends on a number of factors, but an obvious concern is the quality and content of the environmental data layers. Methods We assessed ecological niche model predictions of H5N1 avian flu presence quantitatively within and among four geographic regions, based on models incorporating two means of summarizing three vegetation indices derived from the MODIS satellite. We evaluated our models for predictive ability using partial ROC analysis and GLM ANOVA to compare performance among indices and regions. Results We found correlations between vegetation indices to be high, such that they contain information that overlaps broadly. Neither the type of vegetation index used nor method of summary affected model performance significantly. However, the degree to which model predictions had to be transferred (i.e., projected onto landscapes and conditions not represented on the landscape of training) impacted predictive strength greatly (within-region model predictions far out-performed models projected among regions). Conclusion Our results provide the first quantitative tests of most appropriate uses of different remotely sensed data sets in ecological niche modeling applications. While our testing did not result in a decisive "best" index product or means of summarizing indices, it emphasizes the need for careful evaluation of products used in modeling (e.g. matching temporal dimensions and spatial resolution) for optimum performance, instead of simple reliance on large numbers of data layers.

Bodbyl-Roels Sarah; Peterson A Townsend; Xiao Xiangming

2011-01-01

315

USING ECOLOGICAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 2008-2010, the RIFG Pitesti-Maracineni and nursery Aiud have conducted research on organic product "Ceraltin®", developed by Bios-Cluj-Napoca, in order to increase the percentage of graft attachment to some cherry varieties that have a lower degree of compatibility with native vegetative rootstocks. The biological material consisted of cherry varieties: Daria, Superb, Van and Maria -first self-fertil variety created in our country and the vegetative rootstocks IP-C 4 and IP- C7. As methods of grafting were experienced the cleft grafting and chip budding". "Ceraltin® product was applied in two bindings, before and after grafting. They followed the process of callusing, vascular connection and welding at the point of grafting. The subsequent increases of the grafted scions were monitored from early May until late October, by determining the grafting percentage of attachment and growth potential, and morphological and physiological indices of the thickness in grafting zone. Data revealed that in the product "Ceraltin® "variant, the thickening ratio in the grafting area between the symbionts was closer by unit, the vascular connections were made quickly to chip budding . Instead, in the cleft grafting, the callusing and welding processes were developed slowly over a period of two years, and were dependent on the thickness of the rootstock at the point of grafting, at all studied variants.

Gh. Mladin; Teodora Panea; A. Maier; I. Dragomir

2011-01-01

316

Global change and climate-vegetation classification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three phases of the quantitative study of climate-vegetation classification and their characteristics are presented based on the review of advances in climate-vegetation interaction, a key issue of 'global change and terrestrial ecosystems (GCTE)' which is the core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP): (1) characterized by the correlation between natural vegetation types and climate; (2) characterized by climatic indices which have obviously been restricted to plant ecophysiology; (3) characterized by coupling both structure and function of vegetation. Thus, the prospective of climate-vegetation classification for global change study in China was proposed, especially the study of coupling climate-vegetation classification models with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) was emphasized.

Zhou, G.S.; Wang, Y.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany

2000-07-01

317

Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE's need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

1996-01-01

318

Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

1996-09-01

319

Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

1992-01-01

320

The New Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes new techniques and approaches to ecology, including the systems approach, behavioral studies, the use of of radioistopes to investigate ecological cycles and energetics, and evolutionary ecology, all leading to a more sophisticated understanding of complex natural systems. (EB)

Bioscience, 1970

1970-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Evolutionary Ecology Research ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evolutionary Ecology Research is a professional scientific journal focusing on the overlap between ecology and evolution. In 2002, the journal expanded its coverage of macroecology and macroevolution. It has not reduced its attention to the other areas of evolutionary ecology. ?????????...

322

Advances in Ecological Research ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in Ecological Research presents a wide range of papers on all aspects of ecology. Topics include the physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals, as well as landscape and ecosystem ecology. ?????Elsevier???????????????????????????????

323

Changes of Habitat and Vegetation in Man-made Vegetation Area of Shapotou Section Along Baotou-Lanzhou Railway  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper studied on the changes of habitat and vegetation in the man-made vegetation area of Shapotou section along Baotou-Lanzhou railway and consequently analyzed the sustained capacity of the vegetation. By analysizing climatic data for decades of years, changing trendency of precipitation and soil water content at Shapotou was indicated; the wind-erosing (or wind-cumulation) depth and patch bondage in flowing part were measured each month to learn about vegetation degradation. The resistant capacity of sandy crust against wind-sand fluid was measured in the wind-tunnel lab; all samples for vegetation coverage were by 10m * 10m. the result showed, (1) Sand water contents linearly decline with ages of vegetation within less than 30 years. Thereafter, its response to precipitation weakens (2) As the artificial vegetation coverage declined, some species of vegetable stood the test of adversity environment and existed. FOr example, especially, Artemisia ordosia ordosia could adapt to the environmental change at Shapotou and it can self-reproduce and, thereby form Artemisia ordosia community. As vegetation gets old, the shrub coverage decreases, and meanwhile grass coverage increases, thereby making the whole coverage sustainable. (3) With environmental change, the biological diversity increases. Encroachment of alga, moss, flat-root vegetable and animals transforms the simple man-made vegetation to the multi-purpose, complicated man-made and natural ecological system. This ecological system can maintain certain vegetation coverage in desert and grassland areas. it is favorable to form sand-crust and soil and further keep controlling-sand system sustainable.

Yu Yunjiang; Lin Qinggong; Shi Qinghui; Liu Jiaqiong

2002-01-01

324

Vegetative reproduction capacities of floodplain willows--cutting response to competition and biomass loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While several studies on regeneration in Salicaceae have focused on seedling recruitment, little is known about factors controlling their vegetative reproduction. In two greenhouse experiments, we studied the response of floodplain willows (Salix fragilis, S. viminalis, S. triandra) to competition with Poa trivialis, and to shoot and root removal when planted as vegetative cuttings. In the first experiment, growth performance variables were analysed in relation to full competition, shoot competition, root competition and control, taking into account two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoots were removed and the resprouting capacity of the bare cuttings was recorded. In the second experiment, the cutting performance of the three floodplain and an additional two fen willow species (S. cinerea, S. aurita) was compared when grown in three different soil compositions and with two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoot and root biomass was removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to resprout. Cutting performance and secondary resprouting were negatively affected by full and shoot competition while root competition had no or weak effects. The floodplain species performed better than the fen species in all soil types and water levels. Secondary resprouting capacity was also higher in the floodplain species, which showed an additional strong positive response to the previous waterlogging treatment. The results contribute to understanding of the vegetative regeneration ecology of floodplain willows, and suggest that the use of vegetative plantings in restoration plantings could be an effective strategy for recovering floodplain forests.

Radtke A; Mosner E; Leyer I

2012-03-01

325

Vegetative reproduction capacities of floodplain willows--cutting response to competition and biomass loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

While several studies on regeneration in Salicaceae have focused on seedling recruitment, little is known about factors controlling their vegetative reproduction. In two greenhouse experiments, we studied the response of floodplain willows (Salix fragilis, S. viminalis, S. triandra) to competition with Poa trivialis, and to shoot and root removal when planted as vegetative cuttings. In the first experiment, growth performance variables were analysed in relation to full competition, shoot competition, root competition and control, taking into account two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoots were removed and the resprouting capacity of the bare cuttings was recorded. In the second experiment, the cutting performance of the three floodplain and an additional two fen willow species (S. cinerea, S. aurita) was compared when grown in three different soil compositions and with two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoot and root biomass was removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to resprout. Cutting performance and secondary resprouting were negatively affected by full and shoot competition while root competition had no or weak effects. The floodplain species performed better than the fen species in all soil types and water levels. Secondary resprouting capacity was also higher in the floodplain species, which showed an additional strong positive response to the previous waterlogging treatment. The results contribute to understanding of the vegetative regeneration ecology of floodplain willows, and suggest that the use of vegetative plantings in restoration plantings could be an effective strategy for recovering floodplain forests. PMID:21972956

Radtke, A; Mosner, E; Leyer, I

2011-09-20

326

Plant ecology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

1976-01-01

327

Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called “Lower Churchill Area” by establishing new power plants at Gull Island and at Muskrat Falls with associated reservoirs. These new plants would use the discharged water of the plant from Churchill Falls and the additional water collected from some of the Churchill River Basin. The information provided by these papers could have relevance to the environmental evaluation of these new developments. The Churchill Falls Hydro Project (called the “Upper Churchill Development”) in Labrador, Canada, was initiated in the late 1960s and the 5428-MW hydro generating plant constructed was then among the largest in the world. At that time, in general, not much attention was paid to the impact of such development on the flooding of vegetation especially forest stands. Both forested and un-forested terrestrial vegetation types were flooded (244 915 ha). Some islands were created and in addition portions of existing areas were flooded to form islands (74 075 ha) in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir area. The flooded area of forest and un-forested land in the reservoir is 77% while the islands is 23 percent. The percentages of forested and un-forested areas lost to flooding are 64% and 36% respectively. The percent of commercial forests lost to flooding is approximately 1% and the non-commerci- al forests is 99% (with a total volume of approximately 10 million cubic meters of wood).

Denes Bajzak; Bruce A. Roberts

2011-01-01

328

Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

J. Arieira; D. Karssenberg; S. M. de Jong; E. A. Addink; E. G. Couto; C. Nunes da Cunha; J. O. Skøien

2011-01-01

329

Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental understanding of biogeochemical pathways in different ecosystems when attempting to predict the impacts of large-scale contamination.

Bell JN; Shaw G

2005-08-01

330

Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental understanding of biogeochemical pathways in different ecosystems when attempting to predict the impacts of large-scale contamination. (Author)

Bell, J.N.B.; Shaw, G. [Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental Science and Technology

2005-08-01

331

The Grassland vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Platberg is an inselberg that presents a refuge for indigenous plants and animals. Uncontrolled human access to this area threatens this sensitive ecosystem. The vegetation of Platberg was investigated to obtain an inventory of the different plant species and communities present in this area. A hierarchical classification, a description and an ecological interpretation of the grassland communities of Platberg are presented. A total of 169 sample plots were placed on a stratified random basis within the study area. From a TWINSPAN classification a total of 27 different plant communities, which can be grouped into two major community types, nine communities, 18 sub-communities and six variants, were identified. A significant difference in species richness was found between the two major communities, with the higher-altitude communities having a higher species richness than the communities on the lower-lying slopes. A total of 26 endemic or near endemic Drakensberg Alpine Centre species were recorded. Conservation implications: Anthropogenic influences are felt globally on ecosystems. High-altitude habitats and organisms will be affected first. Inselbergs have high levels of endemic organisms and are reservoirs and refugia for unique genetic material. This grassland plant community survey of Platberg provides valuable information on inselberg ecology for conservation planning.How to cite this article: Brand, R.F., Brown, L.R. & Du Preez, P.J., 2011, ‘The Grassland vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa’, Koedoe 53(1), Art. #1027, 13 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v53i1.1027

Robert F. Brand; Leslie R. Brown; Pieter J. du Preez

2011-01-01

332

Ecologia da paisagem: mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brasil Landscape ecology: vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi realizado o mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica (REBIO) Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, por meio de fotointerpretação analógica, em escala 1:30.000. O mapa foi digitalizado e transferido para computador pelo sistema de informação geográfica (Idrisi) e posteriormente para o programa Corel Draw. Foram identificadas, mapeadas e descritas oito unidades de paisagem (UP) sendo três antrópicas (solo exposto, campo antrópico e reflorestamento homogêneo) e cinco naturais (floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - microfanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - mesofanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel emergente; floresta estacional semidecidual aluvial dossel emergente e refúgio montano arbustivo). As unidades naturais somaram 98,46% do total dos 2.071,20 ha da área, indicando que a Reserva vem cumprindo seu papel na preservação do ecossistema em questão. No entanto, como algumas unidades não tem expressiva representatividade na área, e como existe grande extensão de floresta no entorno da Reserva, sugere-se a ampliação e a transformação da mesma em uma unidade que contemple inclusive a visitação pública como forma de auxiliar no processo de conservação. Sugere-se que a área seja transformada em parque estadual, cujo nome poderia ser Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.It was realized the vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, at Jundiaí, São Paulo State, by analogical photointerpretation, on the scale 1:30.000. The map was digitized and changed to computer by the geographical information system - Idrisi, and then to the Corel Draw program. Eight landscape units, three anthropic - bare earth, anthropic prairie, homogeneous reforestation, and five natural units - mountainseasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and microphanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and mesophanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, alluvial seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, and shrubby mountain refuges, were identified, mapped, and described. The natural units added 98,46% of the total area, showing that the Reserve is carrying out this role in the ecosystem conservation, but as some units are not significantly represented, and since of the large forest extension outside Reserve, it was offered the suggestion that the Reserve with the enlarged area be changed to another conservation unit-category and that contemplate the public visitation, to help in the conservation process. The conservation unit more appropriated is a Park, and could be denominated Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.

Eliana Cardoso-Leite; Maria Inez Pagani; Reinaldo Monteiro; Diana Sarita Hamburger

2005-01-01

333

Fruits and vegetables (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

334

[American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities in the northwestern region of Parana State: use of remote sensing for analysis of vegetation types and places with disease occurrence].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil, is transmitted by phlebotomines to man and animals like dogs, armadillos, opossums and wild rodents. This disease has been occurring in places where forests have been felled and on the banks of rivers and lakes with arboreal vegetation, where man comes into contact with infected insects. This disease is a public health problem because of the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks throughout Paraná. Because of the importance of finding out about endemic areas, this study used epidemiological file data on patients attended between 1999 and 2004. These data were correlated with areas of forest felling that were identified by means of satellite remote sensing techniques and products. The results showed that the occurrences of cases in the municipalities of this region coincided with the presumed likely areas for patient infection.

Arraes SM; Veit RT; Bernal MV; Becker TC; Nanni MR

2008-11-01

335

Vegetable oil refining  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to improved methods for refining vegetable oils. Vegetable oil is combined with organic acid and subjected to high shear to finely disperse the acid solution in the oil. The resulting acid-and-oil mixture is mixed at low shear for a time sufficient to sequester contaminants into a hydrated impurities phase, producing a purified vegetable oil phase.

COPELAND DICK; BELCHER W. MAURICE

336

Precooked Fruits and Vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precooked fruits and vegetables are prepared by a process wherein the fruits and vegetables are cooked to their centers at a temperature below the temperature at which sloughing of the surface tissue would occur if the fruits or vegetables were cooked to ...

M. L. Weaver K. C. Ng

1978-01-01

337

Influence of Watering with an enriched solution of surfactants on the soil properties and vegetation growth. Experimental model with two types of soils: district cambisol and calcaricum cambisol; Influencia del riego con solucion enriquecida en tensoactivos sobre las propiedades del suelo y el desarrollo vigetal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study done on the the influence of watering with an enriched solution of surfactants on the soil properties and vegetation growth using an experimental model with two types of soils, each one with different characteristic: district Cambisol and calcaricum Cambisol. The results show significant differences in conductivity, organic carbon content, clay content and in phosphates. As well, the sodium enrichment of the adjuvants components of the detergent employed significantly influence the content of free clay and the SAR values. The chosen vegetation was seen to be affected in these areas: sprouting, vegetal mass and principally in the amount of calcium foliage. (Author) 18 refs.

Cruz Caravaca, M. T.; Crespo Alia, M. A. [Universidad Complutense. Madrid (Spain)

2000-07-01

338

Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brasil Spiders diversity and richness estimates in four vegetations types of Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um inventário da fauna de aranhas foi realizado na Serra do Cachimbo, no Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso, município de Novo Progresso, Pará. As coletas ocorreram em duas expedições, uma na estação seca (agosto e setembro de 2003) e outra na chuvosa (março e abril de 2004). Cada expedição contou com a participação de três coletores. O esforço de amostragem foi de 240 amostras, sendo 96 através de guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura, 96 através de coleta manual noturna e 48 por triagem manual e extratores de Winkler. Foi comparada a diversidade de aranhas de quatro tipos de vegetação, Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, mata de galeria, áreas de Cerrado (Savana Arbórea) e de Campina. As coletas resultaram em um total de 4.990 indivíduos, dos quais 2.750 adultos. Foram identificadas 427 morfoespécies em 37 famílias, sendo as mais abundantes Theridiidae, Salticidae e Araneidae e as mais ricas em espécies Araneidae, Salticidae e Theridiidae. As espécies representadas por apenas um indivíduo somaram 40% do total e apenas duas ultrapassaram cem indivíduos. A curva de riqueza específica estimada (ACE) atingiu 614 espécies. A maior diversidade alfa (índice de Shannon-Wiener) foi encontrada em Floresta Ombrófila, seguida pela mata de galeria, Campina e Cerrado. Tais diferenças entre as vegetações podem ser explicadas devido a variações na complexidade da vegetação e na disponibilidade de microhábitats em cada fitofisionomia.An inventory of the spider fauna was carried out at Serra do Cachimbo, inside the "Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso", municipality of Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil. Two expeditions were made, during both dry (August and September, 2003) and wet (March and April, 2004) seasons. Three collectors participated in each expedition. The sampling effort, represented by 240 samples, was divided into the following methods: beating tray and sweeping net (96 samples); nocturnal hand search (96 samples) and concentrated litter sorted by a combination of hand search and Winkler extractors (48 samples). The spiders assemblages from four vegetation types (open rainforest, riparian forest, arboreal savanna and white sand vegetation) were compared. A total of 4,990 spiders were obtained, from which 2,750 adults, resulting in 427 morphospecies of 37 families. The most abundant families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae and the ones with more species were Salticidae, Araneidae, and Theridiidae. Singletons represented 40% of the total species richness and only two species presented more than 100 individuals. The estimated species richness curve produced by ACE reached 614 species. The highest alpha-diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) was observed in open rainforest, followed by riparian forest, white sand vegetation and arboreal savanna. These differences among the various vegetations can be explained by variations in vegetation complexity and micro-habitat availability in each vegetation type.

Janael Ricetti; Alexandre B. Bonaldo

2008-01-01

339

Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brasil/ Spiders diversity and richness estimates in four vegetations types of Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um inventário da fauna de aranhas foi realizado na Serra do Cachimbo, no Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso, município de Novo Progresso, Pará. As coletas ocorreram em duas expedições, uma na estação seca (agosto e setembro de 2003) e outra na chuvosa (março e abril de 2004). Cada expedição contou com a participação de três coletores. O esforço de amostragem foi de 240 amostras, sendo 96 através de guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura, 96 através (more) de coleta manual noturna e 48 por triagem manual e extratores de Winkler. Foi comparada a diversidade de aranhas de quatro tipos de vegetação, Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, mata de galeria, áreas de Cerrado (Savana Arbórea) e de Campina. As coletas resultaram em um total de 4.990 indivíduos, dos quais 2.750 adultos. Foram identificadas 427 morfoespécies em 37 famílias, sendo as mais abundantes Theridiidae, Salticidae e Araneidae e as mais ricas em espécies Araneidae, Salticidae e Theridiidae. As espécies representadas por apenas um indivíduo somaram 40% do total e apenas duas ultrapassaram cem indivíduos. A curva de riqueza específica estimada (ACE) atingiu 614 espécies. A maior diversidade alfa (índice de Shannon-Wiener) foi encontrada em Floresta Ombrófila, seguida pela mata de galeria, Campina e Cerrado. Tais diferenças entre as vegetações podem ser explicadas devido a variações na complexidade da vegetação e na disponibilidade de microhábitats em cada fitofisionomia. Abstract in english An inventory of the spider fauna was carried out at Serra do Cachimbo, inside the "Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso", municipality of Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil. Two expeditions were made, during both dry (August and September, 2003) and wet (March and April, 2004) seasons. Three collectors participated in each expedition. The sampling effort, represented by 240 samples, was divided into the following methods: beating tray and sweeping net (96 samples); noct (more) urnal hand search (96 samples) and concentrated litter sorted by a combination of hand search and Winkler extractors (48 samples). The spiders assemblages from four vegetation types (open rainforest, riparian forest, arboreal savanna and white sand vegetation) were compared. A total of 4,990 spiders were obtained, from which 2,750 adults, resulting in 427 morphospecies of 37 families. The most abundant families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae and the ones with more species were Salticidae, Araneidae, and Theridiidae. Singletons represented 40% of the total species richness and only two species presented more than 100 individuals. The estimated species richness curve produced by ACE reached 614 species. The highest alpha-diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) was observed in open rainforest, followed by riparian forest, white sand vegetation and arboreal savanna. These differences among the various vegetations can be explained by variations in vegetation complexity and micro-habitat availability in each vegetation type.

Ricetti, Janael; Bonaldo, Alexandre B.

2008-03-01

340

Sound Ecologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

Michelle Duffy

2010-01-01