WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetation types ecological

  1. [Ecological stoichiometric characteristics in leaf and litter under different vegetation types of Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zeng, Ouan-chao; An, Shao-Shan; Dong, Yang-Hong; Li, Ya-Yun

    2015-03-01

    The purpose was to characterize the effects of vegetation types on plant leaf and litter carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and C: N: P: K ecological stoichiometric characteristics in seven dominant plant species, including Robinia pseudoacacia, Syringa, Sophora viciifolia, Hippophae rhamnoides, Rosa xanthina, Artemisia sacrorum, Artemisia giraldii, of Zhifanggou Watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. This paper indicated the differences between the contents of C, N, P and K and the characteristics of ecological stoichiometric in the different vegetation types, including forest type, shrub type and grass type. Concentrations of C, N, P and K were measured, and C: N: P: K was estimated for different vegetation types. There were no significant differences in leaf C, N and P concentrations among the three vegetation types. But significant differences in leaf K concentration existed, and the K concentration in leaf was the highest in grass type, and the lowest in shrub type. The contents of C, N, P and K in leaf were much higher than those in litter, especially in shrub and grass types. The resorption efficiencies of C, N, P and K were different, and their ranges varied 6.16%-22.84%, 24.38%-65.18%, 22.38%-77.16% and 60.99%- 89.35%, respectively. Grass type had the highest C, P and K resorption efficiencies, and the lowest N resorption efficiency. Values of the N: P ratio in leaf varied in the range of 12.14-19.17, and varied in the range of 12.84-30.67 in litter. Values of the N: P ratio in leaf were the highest in shrub type (19. 17), and the lowest in grass (12. 14), indicating that the growth of shrub plants was limited by P, while the growth of grass plants was limited by N. The K concentration in leaf was significantly negatively correlated with values of the N: P ratio in leaf, and the K concentration in litter was significantly negatively correlated with values of the C: P ratio in leaf. Findings in this study highlighted the characteristics of accumulation and and return of leaf and litters nutrients during the different vegetation succession on the Loess Plateau. PMID:25929080

  2. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  3. Between Design and Ecology. Innovative herbaceous vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrn, Mona Chor

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space offers more than recreation - it is a resource and a habitat for flora and wildlife. Since 2000 numerous articles have documented an increased public awareness of urban nature and biodiversity. As a result there has been increased interest in new vegetation types in urban and suburban environments. Colourful species-rich forb vegetation may be one possible way to link recreational values, aesthetical preferences and herbaceous vegetation with habitat requirements for diverse flora and fauna in urban and suburban environments. The overall aim of this thesis is to improve our current understanding, both theoretical and practical, of the design and dynamical changes in low resource requiring, colourful forb vegetation. Through literature and an experimental field study, this thesis contributes to new perspectives on the possibilities for and limitations of creating and managing such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on localforbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three years, bare soil re-vegetates to become grass-dominated herbaceous vegetation with plant density and standing biomass similar to that of experimental species-rich forb vegetation. Standing biomass can be used as a measure to predict community development after disturbance. For a given biomass production, however, species-richness may be low or high. Some perennial forb species show good persistence in the face of competition from grasses and other weeds, while other species disappear quickly. Unexpected longevity of some monocarpic and polycarpic species may explain forb survivorship and a negative response to mowing during the summer. Predicting the growth of herbaceous plant communities is challenging. Our results show that, when grown at the same density, the biomass production of forbs is highly variable andspecies specific. Plants are dynamic organisms, which respond physically to changes in the environment. There is a need to investigate the use of strategic interventions to secure persistence and regeneration of species-rich colourful forb vegetation. Disturbance is important to facilitate recruitment from seed as well as vegetative spread. Without some disturbance, forb vegetation will become colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology.

  4. Between Design and Ecology : Innovative Herbaceous Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BjØrn, Mona Chor

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space offers more than recreation – it is a resource and a habitat for flora and wildlife. Since 2000 numerous articles have documented an increased public awareness of urban nature and biodiversity. As a result there has been increased interest in new vegetation types in urban and suburban environments. Colourful species-rich forb vegetation may be one possible way to link recreational values, aesthetical preferences and herbaceous vegetation with habitat requirements for diverse flora and fauna in urban and suburban environments. The overall aim of this thesis is to improve our current understanding, both theoretical and practical, of the design and dynamical changes in low resource requiring, colourful forb vegetation. Through literature and an experimental field study, this thesis contributes to new perspectives on the possibilities for and limitations of creating and managing such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three years, bare soil re-vegetates to become grass-dominated herbaceous vegetation with plant density and standing biomass similar to that of experimental species-rich forb vegetation. Standing biomass can be used as a measure to predict community development after disturbance. For a given biomass production, however, species-richness may be low or high. Some perennial forb species show good persistence in the face of competition from grasses and other weeds, while other species disappear quickly. Unexpected longevity of some monocarpic and polycarpic species may explain forb survivorship and a negative response to mowing during the summer. Predicting the growth of herbaceous plant communities is challenging. Our results show that, when grown at the same density, the biomass production of forbs is highly variable and species specific. Plants are dynamic organisms, which respond physically to changes in the environment. There is a need to investigate the use of strategic interventions to secure persistence and regeneration of species-rich colourful forb vegetation. Disturbance is important to facilitate recruitment from seed as well as vegetative spread. Without some disturbance, forb vegetation will become colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology.

  5. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hrivnák

    2005-01-01

    The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi) and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen co...

  6. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven; Langan, Liam

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project the past, current and future distribution of vegetation and associated water and carbon fluxes. However, most models are limited by how they define vegetation and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve vegetation models. We further present a new trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model (the aDGVM2) that allows each individual plant to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how each individual plant grows and competes with other plants under given environmental conditions. The performance of individual plants in turn drives the assembly of a plant community. A genetic optimisation algorithm is used to simulate the inheritance of traits and different levels of reproductive isolation between individuals. Together these model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are well adapted to a site's biotic and abiotic conditions. Simulated communities can be classified into different plant functional types or biome types by using trait data bases. We illustrate that the aDGVM2 can simulate (1) how environmental conditions and changes in these conditions influence the trait spectra of assembled plant communities, (2) that fire selects for traits that enhance fire protection and reduces trait diversity, and (3) the emergence of communities dominated by life history strategies that are suggestive of colonisation-competition trade-offs. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current dynamic vegetation models. We argue that this approach will yield novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change and we believe that it could foster fruitful collaborations between research communities that focus on plant functional traits, plant competition, plant physiology, systems ecology and earth system science.

  7. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes. Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

  8. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  9. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  10. Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

  11. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, J. J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological and 2) an agro-ecological vision. The technological vision aims at excluding and predicting external influences with the focus on control. Variants of this vision are production systems with fertig...

  12. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal.

  13. [The meaning of vegetation classification for modern ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, B M; Martynenko, V B; Naumova, L G

    2004-01-01

    Eco-floristic classification (Brawn-Blanquet system) is useful since in similar manner it can establish ecological units of different level (syntaxons) that have high indicative value. Syntaxons can be used as markers of terrestrial ecosystems of different range. Although this system was proposed by analogy with plant taxonomy it reflects vegetation continuum. The application of this approach is based on certain standards and supported by developed software. The elements of arbitrariness in Brawn-Blanquet method are constrained by rules of strict recommendations. The method is considered as necessary in studies of biodiversity in protected areas. PMID:15125210

  14. Vegetation types and surface soils of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1956 the newly formed Ecology Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), now called the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under the Department of Energy, initiated a project, using aerial photos taken in 1949, 1953, and 1954 to prepare a vegetation map of the site. This area was designated a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in 1975. The first map prepared by N. R. French and Ray McBride was produced in 1958, and differentiated vegetation types on the basis of the two most prominent species of plants occurring in each type. This map gave adequate resolution between major vegetation types only in the complex mosaic of types at the northern end of the site, designating everything else as one homogeneous vegetation classification: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) and Chrysothamnus viscidifluorus (green rabbitbrush). To improve the resolution of the vegetation map and thereby make it more useful in distinguishing habitats in all parts of the site, efforts were immediately begun to reclassify the vegetation types on the basis of the three (instead of two) most prominent species of plants representative of each type. This effort was continued on a low-priority basis for several years. In 1965 a vegetation map, according to the three species designation, was prepared by Ray McBride. The map was never documented in a formal report, but was reproduced in a thesis by Harniss (1968) and was referenced by Harniss and West (1973a) in their outline of the vegetation types of the NRTS. It is the purpose of this report to document the original vegetation type map prepared by the late Ray McBride and to provide general descriptions of the different vegetation types. The map has been revised and redrawn, and is appended to this report. Because vegetation is intimately related to soil development, a preliminary soil type map prepared and discussed by Adrian H. Dahl is included in this report

  15. NatureServe International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications of Vegetation Alliances and Associations at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This subset of the International Ecological Classification Standard represents the National Vegetation Classification Standard NVCS and covers vegetation alliances...

  16. Ecological characteristics of plankton and aquatic vegetation in Lake Qiluhu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingming, Hu; Huaidong, Zhou; Yuchun, Wang; Yingcai, Wang; Zhen, Wang; Weiju, Wu; Gaofeng, Zhao; Yao, Cheng; Yongding, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and aquatic vegetation in Lake Qiluhu were carried out in February, 2009. Over the whole lake, 13 sampling sites were set up for the analysis of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and 22 profiles for the collection of macrophytes and zoobenthos. In the survey, 7 phyla, 65 algae species were identified. The average abundance of phytoplankton was 7.16 × 10(8) cells/L, and the dominant specie was Limnothrix redekei. No obvious surface accumulation of algae was detected. The concentration of Chlorophyll a ranged from 85 to 101 ?g/L, and the average value was 93 ?g/L. Nineteen species of zooplankton were observed, including 4 species of rotifers, 6 species of cladocerans and 9 species of copepods. Copepods were the dominant species, their abundance reaching 68%, whilst Cladocerans took second place with an abundance proportion of 28%. Six species of submerged vegetation were identified: Potamogeton Pectinatus, Myriophyllum, Elodea Canadensis, Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton crispus. Amongst them, the dominant vegetation was P. Pectinatus, the biomass of which was up to 63% of the total biomass. Emerged macrophytes were cluster distributed across the whole lake, mainly consisting of Scirpus tabernaemontani, phragmites communis and cane shoots. Unfortunately, no living zoobenthos were found at the sites. The results indicated that, in Lake Qiluhu, the abundance of phytoplankton was maintained at a high level. The ecological function of submerged vegetation was gradually being lost because of its low standing crop and coverage, and the benthic animal habitat was severely damaged. PMID:24759520

  17. Global Vegetation Types, 1971-1982 (Matthews)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A global digital data base of vegetation was compiled at 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude resolution, drawing on approximately 100 published sources....

  18. Global Vegetation Types, 1971-1982 (Matthews)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A global digital data base of vegetation was compiled at 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude resolution, drawing on approximately 100 published...

  19. Effects of aquatic vegetation type on denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Veraart, A.J.; Bruijne, W.J.J., de; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; de Klein, J.J.M; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a microcosm 15N enrichment experiment we tested the effect of floating vegetation (Lemna sp.) and submerged vegetation (Elodea nuttallii) on denitrification rates, and compared it to systems without macrophytes. Oxygen concentration, and thus photosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating denitrification rates and therefore the experiments were performed under dark as well as under light conditions. Denitrification rates differed widely between treatments, ranging from 2.8 to 20.9 ?...

  20. Vegetation Classification, Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA), Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment at Camas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project includes a pilot study to map the vegetation of Camas National Wildlife Refuge and a report on the overall ecological integrity of the refuge, how it...

  1. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-10-01

    We critically reassess a conceptual model here, dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and we provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past 2 decades using a wide range of model and palaeo-proxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. In the light of recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, the conceptual model by Claussen et al. (2013) reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate, but it does not capture the reconstructed diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. With a new model version adjusted to AHP vegetation, we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as reconstructed from pollen, and we observe a stabilizing effect of high functional diversity on vegetation cover and precipitation. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single plant type may inherit. The model's simplicity limits its application; however, it provides a useful tool to study the roles of real plant types in an ecosystem and their combined climate-vegetation feedback under changing precipitation regimes.

  2. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  3. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Rutter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw movement recording allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

  4. The integration of GPS, vegetation mapping and GIS in ecological and behavioural studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven Mark, Rutter.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite navigation receivers are increasingly being used in ecological and behavioural studies to track the movements of animals in relation to the environments in which they live and forage. Concurrent recording of the animal's foraging behaviour (e.g. from jaw mov [...] ement recording) allows foraging locations to be determined. By combining the animal GPS movement and foraging data with habitat and vegetation maps using a Geographical Information System (GIS) it is possible to relate animal movement and foraging location to landscape and habitat features and vegetation types. This powerful approach is opening up new opportunities to study the spatial aspects of animal behaviour, especially foraging behaviour, with far greater precision and objectivity than before. Advances in GPS technology now mean that sub-metre precision systems can be used to track animals, extending the range of application of this technology from landscape and habitat scale to paddock and patch scale studies. As well as allowing ecological hypotheses to be empirically tested at the patch scale, the improvements in precision are also leading to the approach being increasing extended from large scale ecological studies to smaller (paddock) scale agricultural studies. The use of sub-metre systems brings both new scientific opportunities and new technological challenges. For example, fitting all of the animals in a group with sub-metre precision GPS receivers allows their relative inter-individual distances to be precisely calculated, and their relative orientations can be derived from data from a digital compass fitted to each receiver. These data, analyzed using GIS, could give new insights into the social behaviour of animals. However, the improvements in precision with which the animals are being tracked also needs equivalent improvements in the precision with which habitat and vegetation are mapped. This needs some degree of automation, as vegetation mapping at a fine spatial scale using the traditional manual approach is far too time consuming. This paper explores these issues, discussing new applications as well as approaches to overcoming some of the associated problems.

  5. Classification of simple vegetation types using POLSAR image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mapping basic vegetation or land cover types is a fairly common problem in remote sensing. Knowledge of the land cover type is a key input to algorithms which estimate geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture, surface roughness, leaf area index or biomass from remotely sensed data. In an earlier paper, an algorithm for fitting a simple three-component scattering model to POLSAR data was presented. The algorithm yielded estimates for surface scatter, double-bounce scatter and volume scatter for each pixel in a POLSAR image data set. In this paper, we show how the relative levels of each of the three components can be used as inputs to simple classifier for vegetation type. Vegetation classes include no vegetation cover (e.g. bare soil or desert), low vegetation cover (e.g. grassland), moderate vegetation cover (e.g. fully developed crops), forest and urban areas. Implementation of the approach requires estimates for the three components from all three frequencies available using the NASA/JPL AIRSAR, i.e. C-, L- and P-bands. The research described in this paper was carried out by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. Characterizing the Seasonal Dynamics of Plant Community Photosynthesis Across a Range of Vegetation Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Black, Andy [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Suyker, A.E., [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Vesala, Timo [University of Helsinki; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of plant community photosynthesis is one of the most important biotic oscillations to mankind. This study built upon previous efforts to develop a comprehensive framework to studying this cycle systematically with eddy covariance flux measurements. We proposed a new function to represent the cycle and generalized a set of phenological indices to quantify its dynamic characteristics. We suggest that the seasonal variation of plant community photosynthesis generally consists of five distinctive phases in sequence each of which results from the interaction between the inherent biological and ecological processes and the progression of climatic conditions and reflects the unique functioning of plant community at different stages of the growing season. We applied the improved methodology to seven vegetation sites ranging from evergreen and deciduous forests to crop to grasslands and covering both cool-season (vegetation active during cool months, e.g. Mediterranean climate grasslands) and warm-season (vegetation active during warm months, e.g. temperate and boreal forests) vegetation types. Our application revealed interesting phenomena that had not been reported before and pointed to new research directions. We found that for the warm-season vegetation type, the recovery of plant community photosynthesis at the beginning of the growing season was faster than the senescence at the end of the growing season while for the coolseason vegetation type, the opposite was true. Furthermore, for the warm-season vegetation type, the recovery was closely correlated with the senescence such that a faster photosynthetic recovery implied a speedier photosynthetic senescence and vice versa. There was evidence that a similar close correlation could also exist for the cool-season vegetation type, and furthermore, the recovery-senescence relationship may be invariant between the warm-season and cool-season vegetation types up to an offset in the intercept. We also found that while the growing season length affected how much carbon dioxide could be potentially assimilated by a plant community over the course of a growing season, other factors that affect canopy photosynthetic capacity (e.g. nutrients, water) could be more important at this time scale. These results and insights demonstrate that the proposed method of analysis and system of terminology can serve as a foundation for studying the dynamics of plant community photosynthesis and such studies can be fruitful.

  7. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-07-01

    We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, we evaluate the representation of climate-vegetation feedback in this conceptual approach, and put the suggested conclusions into an ecological context. In principle, the original model reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate although vegetation determinants other than precipitation are neglected. However, the model cannot capture the diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. In order to fill the gaps in the description of plant types regarding AHP diversity, we modify the original model in four main aspects. First, the growth ranges in terms of moisture requirements are extended by upper limits to represent full environmental envelopes. Second, data-based AHP plant types replace the hypothetical plant types. Third, the tropical gallery forest type follows the gradual insolation forcing with a linear approximation because it relies more on large scale climate than on regional precipitation amounts. Fourth, we replace the dimensionless vegetation cover fractions with individual effective leaf areas to capture different contributions to climate-vegetation feedback. These adjustments allow for the consideration of a broader spectrum of plant types, plant-climate feedbacks, and implicitly for plant-plant interactions. With the consideration of full environmental envelopes and the prescribed retreat of the tropical gallery forest type we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as it was reconstructed from pollen. Transient simulations of this diverse environment support the buffering effect of high functional diversity on ecosystem performance and precipitation, concluded by Claussen et al. (2013) from the simple approach. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single functional type may inherit. In a broader view, the adjusted model provides a useful tool to study the roles of real plant types in an ecosystem and their combined climate-vegetation feedback under changing precipitation regimes.

  8. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa – ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate–vegetation interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Groner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate–vegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP. Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013 introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate–vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, we evaluate the representation of climate–vegetation feedback in this conceptual approach, and put the suggested conclusions into an ecological context. In principle, the original model reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate although vegetation determinants other than precipitation are neglected. However, the model cannot capture the diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. In order to fill the gaps in the description of plant types regarding AHP diversity, we modify the original model in four main aspects. First, the growth ranges in terms of moisture requirements are extended by upper limits to represent full environmental envelopes. Second, data-based AHP plant types replace the hypothetical plant types. Third, the tropical gallery forest type follows the gradual insolation forcing with a linear approximation because it relies more on large scale climate than on regional precipitation amounts. Fourth, we replace the dimensionless vegetation cover fractions with individual effective leaf areas to capture different contributions to climate–vegetation feedback. These adjustments allow for the consideration of a broader spectrum of plant types, plant-climate feedbacks, and implicitly for plant-plant interactions. With the consideration of full environmental envelopes and the prescribed retreat of the tropical gallery forest type we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as it was reconstructed from pollen. Transient simulations of this diverse environment support the buffering effect of high functional diversity on ecosystem performance and precipitation, concluded by Claussen et al. (2013 from the simple approach. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single functional type may inherit. In a broader view, the adjusted model provides a useful tool to study the roles of real plant types in an ecosystem and their combined climate–vegetation feedback under changing precipitation regimes.

  9. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo.

  10. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edcarlos, Mannfredini; Deonisio, Destro; Martin, Homechin; Gustavo, Sachsida; Édison, Miglioranza.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visand [...] o a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V) igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo. Abstract in english Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soy [...] bean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.

  11. ECOLOGICAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERWATER VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TITINSCHNEIDER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The excess of aquatic submerse vegetation development carries to the reduction of the real rearing area for the piscicultural material from the production farms and allow nestling of the ichthyophages bird species that decrease the fish production. Aquatic submerse vegetation stumble the utilization of aquatic zones for recreation and also wright function of basins utilized for the electric energy production, of micro electricity works through obstruction of the dams grid. The control of the aquatic submerse vegetation development, for Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ceratophyllum submersum, Urticularia vulgaris, Potamogeton natans, Nimphoides peltata species it is accomplish through the removing of some parts of these, preferably with all the stump system. Usually, these its accomplish with the floating equipments fit up with the thermic engines and the propulsion and governating elements who have harm over the fish and some others aquatic organisms through the noise, the displacing a large quality of water caused of propulsion systems and through the noxes elimination (flue, carburant trails, etc.. These technologies reside from the evacuation of the aquatic submerse vegetation and the stump systems of these with the help of an adjustable rake, hang up from the coast by a rope, wrapped to a drummer, who is trained by a motto-propeller group with a small installed power.

  12. Vegetation change: a reunifying concept in plant ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davis, M. A.; Pergl, Jan; Truscott, A.; Kollmann, J.; Bakker, J. P.; Domenech, R.; Prach, Karel; Prieur-Richard, A.; Veeneklaas, R. M.; Pyšek, Petr; del Moral, R.; Hobbs, R. J.; Collins, S. L.; Pickett, S. T. A.; Reich, P. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 7, - (2005), s. 69-76. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/02/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation succession * climate change * plant invasions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.053, year: 2005

  13. Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types on Mountain Han.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Qu, Laiye; Ma, Keming; Yuan, Xiu

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the influence of broadleaf and conifer vegetation on soil microbial communities in a distinct vertical distribution belt in Northeast China. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths from four vegetation types at different altitudes, which were characterized by poplar (Populus davidiana) (1250-1300 m), poplar (P. davidiana) mixed with birch (Betula platyphylla) (1370-1550 m), birch (B. platyphylla) (1550-1720 m), and larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii) (1840-1890 m). Microbial biomass and community structure were determined using the fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, and soil fungal community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were characterized using Biolog FF Microplates. It was found that soil properties, especially soil organic carbon and water content, contributed significantly to the variations in soil microbes. With increasing soil depth, the soil microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and fungal catabolic ability diminished; however, the ratio of fungi to bacteria increased. The fungal ratio was higher under larch forests compared to that under poplar, birch, and their mixed forests, although the soil microbial biomass was lower. The direct contribution of vegetation types to the soil microbial community variation was 12%. If the indirect contribution through soil organic carbon was included, variations in the vegetation type had substantial influences on soil microbial composition and diversity. PMID:23737003

  14. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  15. Community Composition of Major Vegetations in the Coastal Area of Al-Uqair, Saudi Arabia in Response to Ecological Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Youssef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation characteristics of Al-Uqair coastal area is the major focus of the present study. The studied area is located 55 miles dues south of Dhahran in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Three different localities in the study area were ecologically described. The vegetation parameters of the recorded species including density, frequency and abundance with respect to climate and soil characteristics of each habitat were studied. Recorded species were 29 different species with definite community type representing each locality. The major plant species of the first locality representing Al-Uqair coastal strip are Halopeplis perfoliata, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum and Halocnemum strbilaceum. The second locality is dominated with Suaeda vermiculata while the third locality which represented the inland extension of the study area is dominated with Haloxylon persicum, Salsola maritima, Anabasis setifera and Zygophyllum sp.

  16. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime.

  17. LBA-ECO LC-15 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 1-km, Amazon Basin: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of woody vegetation, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over the Amazon...

  18. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrná?ová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  19. Ecological Land Type Associations of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the fourth level of the Ecological Classification System. Polygon boundaries were delineated at a scale of 1:100,000 with a...

  20. Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed (Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. aus...

  1. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Role?ek, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvon?ík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6163303; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  2. The ecological variations in thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation. [in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, G. K.; Phinney, D. E. (principal investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Through a series of contrasts, the statistical significance of differences in emissivity was determined for vegegation in dry and humid deserts, montane and deciduous rain forests, and the temperate region. No significant differences were found between the two types of desert vegetation or among the types of nondesert vegetation. However, the rain forest vegetation was significantly different from that of the temperate region. On a community-wide level, there is some physiological adaptation in plants to their radiational environment.

  3. Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kapusta-Duch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radical. Results.All these species of cruciferous vegetables contained similar total polyphenols amounts regardless of its origin. Only red cabbage from organic farms was characterized by significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to vegetables purchased from local retailers in Cracow and similar or those cultivated near the steelworks. In white cabbage from farms located in a former steelworks protection zone a higher antioxidant activity was found than in organically grown vegetables and similar to that in vegetables available in retail. Brussels sprouts was characterised by a similar antioxidant activity regardless of its origin. Conclusions. On the basis of the present study, it cannot be concluded that organically grown cruciferous vegetables generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones.

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, A J; Forouhi, N G; Ye, Z; Buijsse, B; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Beulens, J W J; Boeing, H; Büchner, F L; Dahm, C C; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Fagherazzi, G; Franks, P W; Gonzalez, C; Grioni, S; Kaaks, R; Key, T J; Masala, G; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Overvad, K; Panico, S; Ramón Quirós, J; Rolandsson, O; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, C; Sánchez, M-J; Slimani, N; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, A M W; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; Sharp, S J; Langenberg, C; Feskens, E J M; Riboli, E; Wareham, N J

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16?154 participants and 12?403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340...

  5. Koncept ekologických fenomén? v interpretaci st?edoevropské vegetace Ecological phenomena concept: the interpretation of the Central-European vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Ku?era

    2005-01-01

    A review of literature referring to floristic, vegetation and habitat diversity in Bohemian Massif has resulted to a revision and detailed classification of ecological phenomena. Each phenomenon represents an open nonhierarchical system of lithological, hydrological, topoclimatic and biotic aberrations, that differ from common features of surrounded “zonal“ environment. Two main groups of ecological phenomena have been distinguished: (i) large-scale ecological geo-phenomena originated by prom...

  6. Colored Noises-Induced Regime Shifts in a Vegetation Ecological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qing-Lin; Zeng, Jia-Kui; Yang, Tao; Zhang, Chun; Long, Fei; Fu, Yun-Chang; Zeng, Chun-Hua

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stationary probability distribution and mean first passage time in a vegetation ecological system, which is driven by cross-correlation between intrinsic and extrinsic colored noises as well as the nonzero cross-correlation in between. The impacts of the self-correlation time ?1 and ?2, the cross-correlation time ?3 and intensity k on the stationary probability distribution and mean first passage time are discussed, respectively. Our main results show that: (i) the self-correlation time ?1 can induce regime shifts from the desert state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the self-correlation time ?2, cross-correlation time ?3 and intensity k can induce regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the desert state; and (ii) the self-correlation time ?1 or ?2 can enhance the stability of the sustainable vegetation biomass, while the cross-correlation time ?3 or strength k weakens the stability of the sustainable vegetation biomass. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11305079, and the Introduction of Talent Capital Group Fund Project of Kunming University of Science and Technology under Grant No. KKZ3201407030

  7. The ecology of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana: abundance, productivity and survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Afrane Yaw A; Lawson Bernard W; Brenya Ruth; Kruppa Thomas; Yan Guiyun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Irrigated vegetable farms within the city of Kumasi, Ghana, create hotspots for the breeding of malaria vectors, which could lead to high transmission of malaria. This study investigated the abundance and productivity of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods Adult mosquito productivity was estimated five days in a week in different irrigated scheme types (dug-out wells, furrows and footprints) for 12 weeks using emergence traps. Larval samplin...

  8. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience strong upslope shifting of open grassland, chaparral and hardwood types, which may be initiated by increased fire frequencies, particularly where fires have not recently burned within normal fire recurrence interval departures (FRID). An evaluation of four fire management strategies (business as usual; resist change; foster orderly change; protect vital resources) across four combinations of future climate and fire frequency found that no single management strategy was uniformly successful in protecting critical resources across the range of future conditions examined. This limitation is somewhat driven by current management constraints on the amount of management available to resource managers, which suggests management will need to use a triage approach to application of proactive fire management strategies, wherein MOC landscape projections can be used in decision support.

  9. Effects of Mixing Interaction Types on Ecological Community Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, a remarkable theoretical effort has been made in order to understand stability and complexity in ecological communities. The non-random structures of real ecological interaction networks has been recognized as one key ingredient contributing to the coexistence between high complexity and stability in real ecosystems. However most of the theoretical studies have considered communities with only one interaction type (either antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic). Recently it has been proposed a theoretical analysis on multiple interaction types in ecological systems, concluding that: a) Mixture of antagonistic and mutualistic interactions stabilize the system with respect to the less realistic case of only one interaction type; b) Complexity, measured in terms of the number of interactions and the number of species, increases stability in systems with different types of interactions. By introducing new theoretical investigations and analyzing 21 empirical data sets representing mutualisti...

  10. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  11. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baudena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. Model outcomes, obtained including different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna occurrences in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings, and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  12. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  13. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  14. Syntaxonomy and ecology of forest vegetation in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation of deciduous forests in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia was studied using the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. The numerical classification and ordination technique were applied to determine the main forest vegetation types and to find the responsible environmental drivers related to their distribution patterns, respectively. The data set including 198 relevés collected by authors in 1997-2009 and 185 relevés excerpted from literature was used to analysis. Numerical classification resulted in delimitation of fourteen vegetation types representing eleven associations with two variants and two communities within the Quercetea robori-petraeae and Querco-Fagetea classes. The major environmental gradients in variation of forest species composition were associated with moisture and nutrient content following the average Ellenberg indicator values. Along the moisture gradient, vegetation types were ordered from subxerophilous oak forests turn mesophilous mixed oak-hornbeam, beech and ravine forests to hygrophilous riparian alder forest. The results confirmed important role of soil nutrients and moisture by determination of forest vegetation in subcontinental part of Central Europe. Special attention was given to the discussion of floristical characteristics, site conditions and syntaxonomy.

  15. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2013-03-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking. PMID:23682306

  16. The Role of Vegetation on the Ecosystem Radiative Entropy Budget and Trends Along Ecological Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem entropy production is predicted to increase along ecological succession and approach a state of maximum entropy production, but few studies have bridged the gap between theory and data. Here, we explore radiative entropy production in terrestrial ecosystems using measurements from 64 Free/Fair-Use sites in the FLUXNET database, including a successional chronosequence in the Duke Forest in the southeastern United States. Ecosystem radiative entropy production increased then decreased as succession progressed in the Duke Forest ecosystems, and did not exceed 95% of the calculated empirical maximum entropy production in the FLUXNET study sites. Forest vegetation, especially evergreen needleleaf forests characterized by low shortwave albedo and close coupling to the atmosphere, had a significantly higher ratio of radiative entropy production to the empirical maximum entropy production than did croplands and grasslands. Our results demonstrate that ecosystems approach, but do not reach, maximum entropy production and that the relationship between succession and entropy production depends on vegetation characteristics. Future studies should investigate how natural disturbances and anthropogenic management—especially the tendency to shift vegetation to an earlier successional state—alter energy flux and entropy production at the surface-atmosphere interface.

  17. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania) Tailing Pound. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Marian; Leonard M. Cozmuta; Camelia Varga; Anca M. Cozmuta; Eugen Nour

    2009-01-01

    The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodivers...

  18. Community Composition of Major Vegetations in the Coastal Area of Al-Uqair, Saudi Arabia in Response to Ecological Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf M. Youssef; Mohamed A Al-Fredan

    2008-01-01

    The vegetation characteristics of Al-Uqair coastal area is the major focus of the present study. The studied area is located 55 miles dues south of Dhahran in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Three different localities in the study area were ecologically described. The vegetation parameters of the recorded species including density, frequency and abundance with respect to climate and soil characteristics of each habitat were studied. Recorded species were 29 different species with ...

  19. Global simulations of carbon allocation coefficients for deciduous vegetation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangzhou Xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of photosynthate among the plant components plays an important role in regulating plant growth, competition and other ecosystem functions. Several process-based carbon allocation models have been developed and incorporated into ecosystem models; however, these models have used arbitrary model parameters and have never been sufficiently validated on a global scale. This study uses the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS model as a platform to integrate a carbon allocation model (resource availability model with satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI dataset, which allows us to inversely predict the allocation parameters for five deciduous vegetation types. Our results showed that the carbon allocation coefficients can be reliably constrained by the satellite LAI product, and the new parameters substantially improved model performance for simulating LAI and aboveground biomass globally. The spatial pattern of allocation coefficients among plant parts is supported by a number of studies. Compared with the standard version of the IBIS model using fixed allocation coefficients, the revised resource availability carbon allocation model tends to promote higher root carbon allocation. Our study provides a method for inverting the parameters of the carbon allocation model and improves the model performance in simulating the LAI and biomass.

  20. Effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Saeko; FUKUI, MICHIAKI; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate whether eating vegetables before carbohydrates could reduce the postprandial glucose, insulin, and improve long-term glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and glycemic control for 2.5 y in patients with type 2 diabetes. The postprandial glucose and insulin levels decreased significantly when the patients ate vegetables before car...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-15 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 1-km, Amazon Basin: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of woody vegetation, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over the Amazon Basin for...

  2. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  3. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bittern...

  4. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  5. Measurement and modelling of evapotranspiration in three fynbos vegetation types

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Dzikiti; NZ, Jovanovic; R, Bugan; S, Israel; DC, Le Maitre.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the water relations of indigenous plants in the fynbos shrublands of the Cape, South Africa. These have mainly focused on understanding the mechanisms by which individual plant species respond to droughts, the frequency and severity of which is expected to increase due [...] to climate change. However, comparatively little information exists on the dynamics of water use by indigenous plants in the region, and, in particular, how water use varies seasonally and between sites. In this study we determined water use by 3 fynbos vegetation types growing at 4 different sites, namely: (i) lowland Atlantis Sand Plain fynbos growing on deep sandy soils, (ii) Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing in a riparian zone on deep alluvial soils, (iii) dryland Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing on shallow sandy soils at a montane site, and (iv) alluvial Swartland fynbos growing in clayey soils. Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified at each site during specific periods using a boundary layer scintillometer and energy balance system. A simple dual source model in which the stand ET was calculated as the algebraic sum of outputs from soil evaporation and transpiration sub-models was used to scale up the ET measurements to annual values. The data showed large differences in ET depending on site characteristics and on plant attributes. Dense stands of riparian Sandstone Fynbos had an annual ET of 1 460 mm which exceeded the reference ET of 1 346 mm. Dryland Sandstone Fynbos used only 551 mm of water per year while the Sand Plain Fynbos' annual ET was 1 031 mm, which was similar to the reference ET of 1 059 mm. We conclude that some indigenous plant species use large volumes of water which should be accounted for in, e.g., groundwater recharge estimates, and calculations of incremental water gains after clearing alien invasive plants, among other applications

  6. Sexual differences in microhabitat selection of breeding little bustards Tetrax tetrax: Ecological segregation based on vegetation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M. B.; Traba, J.; Carriles, E.; Delgado, M. P.; de la Morena, E. L. García

    2008-11-01

    We examined sexual differences in patterns of vegetation structure selection in the sexually dimorphic little bustard. Differences in vegetation structure between male, female and non-used locations during reproduction were examined and used to build a presence/absence model for each sex. Ten variables were measured in each location, extracting two PCA factors (PC1: a visibility-shelter gradient; PC2: a gradient in food availability) used as response variables in GLM explanatory models. Both factors significantly differed between female, male and control locations. Neither study site nor phenology was significant. Logistic regression was used to model male and female presence/absence. Female presence was positively associated to cover of ground by vegetation litter, as well as overall vegetation cover, and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Male presence was positively related to litter cover and short vegetation and negatively to vegetation density over 30 cm above ground. Models showed good global performance and robustness. Female microhabitat selection and distribution seems to be related to the balance between shelter and visibility for surveillance. Male microhabitat selection would be related mainly to the need of conspicuousness for courtship. Accessibility to food resources seems to be equally important for both sexes. Differences suggest ecological sexual segregation resulting from different ecological constraints. These are the first detailed results on vegetation structure selection in both male and female little bustards, and are useful in designing management measures addressing vegetation structure irrespective of landscape composition. Similar microhabitat approaches can be applied to manage the habitat of many declining farmland birds.

  7. Linking variability in soil solution dissolved organic carbon to climate, soil type, and vegetation type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Gielen, Bert; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Vicca, Sara; Guenet, Bertrand; Vos, Bruno De; Cools, Nathalie; Ahrens, Bernhard; Altaf Arain, M.; Borken, Werner; Clarke, Nicholas; Clarkson, Beverley; Cummins, Thomas; Don, Axel; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Laudon, Hjalmar; Moore, Tim; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Peichl, Matthias; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Siemens, Jan; Janssens, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Lateral transport of carbon plays an important role in linking the carbon cycles of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. There is, however, a lack of information on the factors controlling one of the main C sources of this lateral flux, i.e., the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil solution across large spatial scales and under different soil, vegetation, and climate conditions. We compiled a database on DOC in soil solution down to 80 cm and analyzed it with the aim, first, to quantify the differences in DOC concentrations among terrestrial ecosystems, climate zones, soil, and vegetation types at global scale and second, to identify potential determinants of the site-to-site variability of DOC concentration in soil solution across European broadleaved and coniferous forests. We found that DOC concentrations were 75% lower in mineral than in organic soil, and temperate sites showed higher DOC concentrations than boreal and tropical sites. The majority of the variation (R2 = 0.67-0.99) in DOC concentrations in mineral European forest soils correlates with NH4+, C/N, Al, and Fe as the most important predictors. Overall, our results show that the magnitude (23% lower in broadleaved than in coniferous forests) and the controlling factors of DOC in soil solution differ between forest types, with site productivity being more important in broadleaved forests and water balance in coniferous stands.

  8. Response curves for plant species and vegetation types

    OpenAIRE

    Wamelink, W.; Goedhart, P.W.; Frissel, J.Y.; Wegman, R.M.A.; Slim, P.A.; Dobben, H.F., van

    2007-01-01

    Responses of plant species and phytosociological classes were estimated based on field measured abiotic conditions and vegetation relevés. The responses for the phytosociological classes is limited to pH for now, however responses for plant species are estimated for 18 different soil conditions, for instance soil pH, spring groundwater table, potassium content of the soil, total nitrogen content of the soil

  9. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

  10. The natural vegetation responses to the groundwater change resulting from ecological water conveyances to the lower Tarim River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailiang; Ye, Mao; Song, Yudong; Chen, Yaning

    2007-08-01

    This paper takes the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) that transfers water from the Bosten Lake, to Daxihaizi Reservoir, and finally to the Taitema Lake as a case study to analyze the dynamic change of the groundwater depth, the vegetation responses to the elevation of the groundwater depth as well as the relationship between the groundwater depth and the natural vegetation. The results from many years' monitoring in field indicate: (1) the groundwater depth has been elevating gradually with the increase in the times of watering and the elevation range has been expanding continuously in the lower reaches of Tarim River. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation has a favorable response to the elevation of the groundwater depth. The change of the natural vegetation has accordance with that of the groundwater depth. Such facts not only show that groundwater is a key factor to the growth of the native vegetation but also prove it is feasible that the degraded ecosystem can be restored and protected by the EWCP; (2) the results of analysis of the spatial-temporal response of the natural vegetation to watering reveals that the beneficial influence of the EWCP on the ecosystem in the lower Tarim River is a long-term process; (3) in terms of the function and structure of ecosystem after watering in the lower reaches of Tarim River, the EWCP does not still reach the goal of ecological restoration at a large spatial scale at present. Based on such monitoring results, some countermeasures and suggestions for the future restoration strategy are proposed so as to provide a theoretical basis for restoring and protecting the ecosystem in Tarim River, and meanwhile it can also provide some scientific references for implementing the similar ecological projects in other areas. PMID:17225962

  11. Koncept ekologických fenomén? v interpretaci st?edoevropské vegetace Ecological phenomena concept: the interpretation of the Central-European vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Ku?era

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature referring to floristic, vegetation and habitat diversity in Bohemian Massif has resulted to a revision and detailed classification of ecological phenomena. Each phenomenon represents an open nonhierarchical system of lithological, hydrological, topoclimatic and biotic aberrations, that differ from common features of surrounded “zonal“ environment. Two main groups of ecological phenomena have been distinguished: (i large-scale ecological geo-phenomena originated by prominent lithological factors, and (ii meso-scale ecological topo-phenomena produced by local action of hydrology, topoclimate, and air currents. With regard to the first group, the following geo-phenomena play a particular role in the Central European vegetation: (a sandstone, (b limestone and dolomite (karst phenomenon, (c marl (flysch and loess, (d neovolcanic, and (e serpentinite phenomena. With regard to the latter group, the following meso-scale phenomena contribute to the diversity of habitats in landscape scenery: (f river (or valley, (g summit, (h frost hollow, and (i scree (and glacial cirque phenomena. The “insular“ feature of the ecological phenomena in vegetation cover is expressed mainly by the occurrence of treeless ecosystems, such as swamps, bogs, marshes, steppes, rock faces and scree ecosystems, etc. Relatively higher species richness can indicate most of ecological phenomena (they should be detected by the distance from the regional species-area curve, and by the presence of rare plant species, especially by the relic and/or endemic species, which survive on extreme habitats due to the lower competition of prevailing dominant woody or graminoid species.

  12. Vegetation change and emerging research feedback for Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of theenvironmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetationdynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in fourKorean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was notobserved in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitudegradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change--convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Workshowed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes ofspecies richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas onespecies disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order: Mt. Nam(25.5%, Mt. Jeombong (24.3%, Mt. Worak (16.4% and Mt. Jiri (0.8%. In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows(in descending order: Mt. Nam (63.7%, Mt. Worak (12.9%, Mt. Jeombong (7.6% and Mt. Jiri (7.3%. The mortalityrate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002, and the recruitment rate andchange rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026. In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes wereattributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affectthese changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed.

  13. Vegetative Ecological Characteristics of Restored Reed ( Phragmites australis) Wetlands in the Yellow River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuehong; Yu, Junbao; Zhou, Di; Dong, Hongfang; Li, Yunzhao; Lin, Qianxin; Guan, Bo; Wang, Yongli

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we compared ecological characteristics of wetland vegetation in a series of restoration projects that were carried out in the wetlands of Yellow River Delta. The investigated characteristics include plant composition structure, species diversity and community similarity in three kinds of Phragmites australis wetlands, i.e. restored P. australis wetlands (R1, R2, R3 and R4: restored in 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively), natural P. australis wetland (N) and degraded P. australis wetland (D) to assess the process of wetlands restoration. The coverage of the R1 was 99%, which was similar to natural wetland. Among all studied wetlands, the highest and lowest stem density was observed in R1 and R2, respectively, Plant height and stem diameter show the same trend as N > R2 > R1 > R3 > D > R4. Species diversity of restored P. australis wetlands became closed to natural wetland. Both species richness and Shannon-Wiener index had similar tendency: increased first and then decreased with restored time. The highest species richness and species diversity were observed in R2, while the lowest values of those parameters were found in natural P. australis wetland. Similarity indexes between restored wetlands and natural wetland increased with the restoration time, but they were still less than 50%. The results indicate that the vegetation of P. australis wetlands has experienced a great improvement after several years' restoration, and it is feasible to restored degraded P. australis wetlands by pouring fresh water into those wetlands in the Yellow River Delta. However, it is notable that costal degraded P. australis wetland in this region may take years to decades to reach the status of natural wetland.

  14. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2015-10-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus (Cistus salviifolius) and ulex (Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (?F/Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  15. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Man; Adriana Paucean

    2013-01-01

    Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s ch...

  16. [Relationships between soil microbial ecological characteristics and physical-chemical properties of vegetable garden soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Li, Huaxing; Zhu, Fengjiao; Liu, Yuanjin; Kuang, Peirui

    2006-02-01

    The study on the 64 vegetable garden soil samples in the Baiyuan District of Guangzhou City showed that there were significantly positive correlations of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) with soil total N, alkali-hydrolygable N, available K, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter (OM), of soil microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) with soil total N, total P, CEC and OM, of soil basal respiration (SBR) with soil total N, alkali-hydrolygable N, available K, CEC and OM, of AWCD with soil total N and OM, and of Shannon diversity index with soil total N and CEC. Low alkali-hydrolygable N increased Cmic SBR, and metabolic quotient (qCO2), while high alkali-hydrolygable N decreased qCO2. High available P decreased Cmic, Nmic and microbial quotient, and a high ratio of available P to alkali-hydrolygable N was related to the decrease of Cmic, Nmic, Cmic/Nmic and SBR. It was suggested that there were significant correlations between soil microbial ecological characteristics and physico-chemical properties, and excessive available nutrients or inappropriate ratios of alkali-hydrolygable N to available P in soil were harmful to soil microbes. PMID:16706055

  17. Using Remote Sensing to Quantify Vegetation Change and Ecological Resilience in a Semi-Arid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Cui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research extends upon land cover change studies by incorporating methodological approaches, which are compatible with heterogeneous ecosystems, are able to link landscape changes to system processes, such as climate change, and provide potential linkages to concepts of ecological resilience. The study region in southern Africa experienced a significant climatic shift in the 1970s, resulting in drier conditions. The state of these ecosystems and their response to such climatic shock is quantified in terms of vegetation amount and heterogeneity. We monitor these characteristics pre- and post-disturbance using a Landsat image series and examine the utility of continuous characterizations of land cover for measuring ecosystem resilience. Land cover change is evaluated using a mean-variance analysis in concert with a spatial persistence analysis. This investigation indicates that although the impact of the decreased precipitation is evident in the 1980s, recovery occurred by the 1990s and 2000s. We found the continuous methodological approach used holds potential for studying heterogeneous landscapes within a resilience framework.

  18. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  19. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  20. Productive vegetation: relationships between net primary productivity, vegetation types and climate change in the Wet Tropics bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: There is now ample evidence demonstrating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and human society (Walther ef a/. 2002). Numerous studies have shown climate change is one of the most significant threats to tropical forests, such as the Wet Tropics Heritage Area, due to their high biodiversity and endemism (Pounds ef al. 1999; Hughes 2000; Parmesan and Yohe 2003). Williams ef al. (2003) suggested that small shifts in net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of climate change could lead to potentially massive follow-on effects for the extremely diverse and vulnerable rainforest flora and fauna. It is therefore crucial to explore the relationships between NPP and local biodiversity, especially to create models for different climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, NPP in the Wet Tropics has yet to be estimated. This is the first study to provide a general NPP estimate for the Wet Tropics bioregion using climate surrogates (Schuur 2003). This technique estimates NPP in an accurate, repeatable, and cost-effective way. NPP values were linked to vegetation types and examined under various climatic and environmental conditions. Results show a significant difference in productivity according to vegetation types and climatic variables, with temperature and rainfall seasonality as the most important determining variables. Additionally, lowland and upland vegetations showed a significant difference in productivity patterns throughout the year. Vegetation types located above 1000 metres in altitude had the lowest values of mean annual productivity due to their high rainfall and low temperatures; vegetation types located below 600 metres showed increased productivity values during the wet season (December-March). Net primary productivity will certainly be impacted by changes in temperature and rainfall, due to climate change. Although an increase in NPP values can be predicted for upland areas, the more widely distributed lowlands will drastically decrease their productivity values. Information regarding the variability of net primary productivity across the Wet Tropics bioregion and its possible modifications due to climate change is crucial for management of future scenarios. The results from this study will help management agencies and conservation groups to plan accordingly

  1. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of the six most abundant alien species at Theodore Roosevelt National Park had distributions unrelated to disturbance. We recommend that vegetation type be explicitly taken into account when designing monitoring plans for alien species in natural areas.

  2. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for the period...

  4. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  5. Ejin Oasis Land Use and Vegetation Change between 2000 and 2011: The Role of the Ecological Water Diversion Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ejin Oasis, located in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB, has experienced severe ecosystem decline between the 1960s and 1990s. In response, the Chinese Government implemented the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP in 2000. To evaluate the effects of the EWDP, this study monitored changes in land use and vegetation in the Ejin Oasis since 2000 and examined driving factors behind such changes. Results demonstrated that the Ejin Oasis ecosystem generally improved between 2000 and 2011. Water body area significantly increased. Lake area of once dried-up Sogo Nuur increased to 45 km2. Accordingly, vegetation cover restoration has also significantly increased. For example, the Seasonally Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (SINDVI has shown that 31.18% of the entire study area experienced an increase in vegetation area. On the other hand, even though the EWDP has been successful in driving vegetation recovery and lake restoration, farmland reclamation has counteracted such restoration initiatives. Farmland area almost doubled between 2000 and 2011. Thus, farmland expansion management is necessary for the full restoration of the Ejin Oasis ecosystems as well as HRB sustainable development. The results of this study can provide a reference for the management of the HRB.

  6. The impact of vegetation type on the shortwave radiation balance of the Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszak, Inge; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Profound changes in vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra have been observed and are predicted in a warmer future climate. Shrub expansion may positively feed back to climate warming by decreasing the shortwave albedo. On the other hand, permafrost protection through soil shading by shrubs has been discussed in literature. Several studies compared the average radiation balance across vegetation zones. However, variation within vegetation zones may be as important as differences between vegetation zones. The lowland tundra ecosystem at the Kytalyk research site (NE Siberia) is dominated by two vegetation types (dwarf shrub (Betula nana) and wet sedge (Eriophorum angustifolium)) organised in patches at a scale of about 10m. We investigated the shortwave radiation balance of both types separately and related it to the 11 year data set of the fluxtower with a mixed footprint. In addition to canopy albedo, we measured canopy transmittance below dwarf shrubs and wet sedges to quantify the often discussed effect of soil shading. Our results show that at our field site, wet sedge vegetation is shading the soil more efficiently than dwarf shrubs due to multi-year standing litter. While we measured an average transmission of 36% of the incoming shortwave radiation below dwarf shrubs, the transmission of wet sedge was 28%. Wet sedge summer albedo was on average 16% higher than dwarf shrub albedo. Additionally, the snow melted 10 days later in the sedge patches, leading to large albedo differences in the second half of May 2014. Our analysis shows, that cloud cover is the second most important control on albedo and transmittance of both vegetation types. Clouds reduced the summer albedo of both vegetation types across all zenith angles. On average, the growing season albedo was about 11% higher on clear sky days as compared to overcast days whereas the transmittance was about 23% lower. As cloud cover is expected to change with climate change, field studies of the cloud effects on the surface radiation balance are important to assess potential climate feedbacks. The results of our study reveal considerable variation of the shortwave energy balance at the local scale depending on vegetation type and cloud cover. Such detailed measurements at the local scale are important to complement satellite data in the parameterisation and validation of land-surface and climate models. They are contributing to a better understanding of the impact of vegetation type on the land surface and permafrost energy and carbon cycle in highly patterned tundra wetlands.

  7. Habitat choice by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.) on sandy soft bottoms with different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Å.; Pihl, L.; Wennhage, H.

    1997-08-01

    Habitat choice by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua L.) on sandy bottoms with different vegetation types was studied in laboratory. The experiment was conducted day and night in flow-through tanks on two different size-classes of cod (7-13 and 17-28 cm TL). Four habitats, typical of shallow soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Fucus vesiculosus, Zostera marina, Cladophora sp. and bare sand, were set up pair-wise in six combinations. The main difference between habitats in this study was vegetation structure, since all parameters except vegetation type was considered equal for both sides of the experimental tanks and natural prey was eliminated. The results showed a difference in habitat utilization by juvenile cod between day (light) and night (dark). During day time the fishes showed a significant preference for vegetation, while nocturnally no significant choice of habitat was made. Both size-classes preferred Fucus, considered the most complex habitat in this study, when this was available. The smaller size-class seemed to be able to utilize the other vegetation types as well, always preferring vegetation over sand. Larger juvenile cod, on the other hand, appeared to be restricted to Fucus. This difference in habitat choice by the two size-classes might be due to a greater dependence on shelter from predation by the smaller juveniles, causing them to associate more strongly with vegetation. The larger juveniles avoided Cladophora, since they might have difficulties in entering the compact structure of this filamentous algae. Availability of vegetation at day time, as a predation refuge, as well as of open sandy areas for feeding during night, thus seems to be important for juvenile cod. It is concluded that eutrophication-induced changes in habitat structure, such as increased dominance by filamentous algae, could alter the availability of predation refuges and foraging habitats for juvenile cod.

  8. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

  9. Ecología de la vegetación del desierto chihuahuense / Vegetation ecology of the chihuahuan desert

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diódoro, Granados-Sánchez; Arturo, Sánchez-González; Ro Linnx, Granados Victorino; Amparo, Borja de la Rosa.

    Full Text Available El desierto Chihuahuense (DC), el más grande del Continente Americano, está flanqueado por montañas que impiden el paso de los vientos húmedos: la Sierra Madre Oriental, la Faja Volcánica Trans-mexicana y la Sierra Madre Occidental (en México) y Las Rocallosas (en Estados Unidos); cubre una superfic [...] ie de 507,000 km², desde Nuevo México y Texas en Estados Unidos, hasta porciones de los estados de Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Zacatecas, en México. El trabajo en campo consistió en la caracterización cualitativa de los principales tipos de vegetación del DC, con base en su fisonomía y en la recolección de ejemplares vegetales para su posterior identificación. Con los datos de composición y fisonomía se elaboraron perfiles semirrealistas de las principales asociaciones vegetales y de las condiciones fisiográficas y edáficas donde se desarrollaban. Las asociaciones detectadas fueron: matorral micrófilo de Larrea tridentata, matorral rosetófilo de Agave lechuguilla, matorral rosetófilo de Dasylirion spp., pastizal, chaparral, nopalera, mezquital, izotal, vegetación de dunas y vegetación halófita. Abstract in english The Chihuahuan Desert (CD), the largest in the Americas, is flanked by mountains that prevent wet winds from blowing across it; those mountain ranges are the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, and the Rockies in the United States. The de [...] sert covers an area of 507,000 km2, stretching from New Mexico and Texas in the United States to parts of the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas and Zacatecas in Mexico. Field work consisted of the qualitative characterization of the main vegetation types in the CH, based on their physiognomy and the collection of plant specimens for later identification. With the composition and physiognomy data, semi-realistic profiles were made of the main plant associations and the physiographic and soil conditions where they thrive. The associations detected were: Larrea tridentata microphyll scrub, Agave lechuguilla rosette scrub, Dasylirion spp. rosette scrub, grassland, chaparral, nopalera (a patch of prickly pears), mesquite, yucca, dune vegetation and halophytic vegetation.

  10. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

  11. Ecological Studies on the Aquatic Vegetation in North East Nile Delta, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Abu Ziada; I.A. Mashaly; M. Torky

    2008-01-01

    The present research comprises an investigation of the vegetation analysis, a quantitative assessment of the soil and water characteristics and an evaluation of the relationship between the major identified vegetation groups and the environmental attributes of the canals, drains and their wet shorelines at four governorates in North East Nile Delta, namely: Damietta, El Dakahlya, El Sharkia and Al Qaliopia. Vegetation, soil and water were sampled in 65 representative stands. The florist...

  12. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S.C.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Cuesta, B. (Braulia); S.I. Higgins; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; M. Rietkerk; S. Scheiter; YIN, Z; M. A. Zavala; Brovkin, V.

    2014-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different ...

  13. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p gardens. We explain these vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  14. Improving the classification of plant functional types in dynamic vegetation modelling for the Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Eric; François, Louis; Utescher, Torsten; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Huang, Kangyou; Chedaddi, Rachid

    2010-05-01

    The simulation of paleovegetation with dynamic vegetation models requires an appropriate definition of plant functional types (PFTs). For several million year old time periods, such as the Miocene, analogue species must be defined and then classified into PFTs. Then, parameters for each plant type must be evaluated from the known present distribution of these analogue species. When the purpose is the validation of model results on available paleovegetation data, it is important that the same PFT classification is used both in the model and in the data. This allows to perform a detailed comparison at the PFT level, which is much more robust than the rough comparison at the biome level often used to validate vegetation model simulations. In this contribution, we present the latest version of the PFT classification developed in the CARAIB vegetation model for the Neogene vegetation. Several new geographic distributions have been added to the ones used in the previous version of the classification. This adapted classification with the addition of shrubs and the refinement of tropical and subtropical types is based on plant types currently present in Europe, on the distributions of analogue species in southeastern Asia and on a set of other species distributions from other regions around the world. The resulting classification involves 26 groups and allows a more precise modelling of the subtropical and tropical types present in Europe during early periods of the Neogene, such as for instance the Middle Miocene.

  15. Analysis of ecological context for identifying vegetation and animal conservation planning foci: An example from the arid South-western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, T.; Thompson, B.C.; Locke, B.A.; Boykin, K.G.

    2003-01-01

    In developing conservation strategies, it is important to maximize effects of conservation within a specified land tract and to maximize conservation effects on surrounding area (ecological context). The authors proposed two criteria to select biotic entities for conservation foci: (1) the relative occurrence of fauna or flora in a tract is greater than that of an ecological context region; and (2) occurrence of the fauna or flora is relatively limited in the ecological context region. Using extensive spatial data on vegetation and wildlife habitat distribution, the authors identified strategic vegetation and fauna conservation foci for the 400 000 ha Fort Bliss military reservation in New Mexico and Texas relative to a 164 km radius ecological context region intersecting seven ecological zones and the predicted habitat distribution of 616 animal species. The authors set two specific criteria: (1) predicted area of a species' occurrence is 5% (Fort Bliss is 4.2% of the region). These criteria selected one vegetation class and 40 animal species. Further, these vegetation and animal foci were primarily located in two areas of Fort Bliss. Sensitivity analyses with other analytical radii corroborated the context radius used. Conservation of the two areas and associated taxa will maximize the contribution of Fort Bliss's conservation efforts in its ecological proximity. This relatively simple but information-rich process represents economical and defensible preliminary contextual analysis for detailed conservation planning.

  16. Comparison of the Continuity of Vegetation Indices Derived from Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ Data among Different Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun She

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Landsat 8, the most recently launched satellite of the series, promises to maintain the continuity of Landsat 7. However, in addition to subtle differences in sensor characteristics and vegetation index (VI generation algorithms, VIs respond differently to the seasonality of the various types of vegetation cover. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of these variations on VIs between Operational Land Imager (OLI and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+. Ground spectral data for vegetation were used to simulate the Landsat at-senor broadband reflectance, with consideration of sensor band-pass differences. Three band-geometric VIs (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and two band-transformation VIs (Vegetation Index based on the Universal Pattern Decomposition method (VIUPD, Tasseled Cap Transformation Greenness (TCG were tested to evaluate the performance of various VI generation algorithms in relation to multi-sensor continuity. Six vegetation types were included to evaluate the continuity in different vegetation types. Four pairs of data during four seasons were selected to evaluate continuity with respect to seasonal variation. The simulated data showed that OLI largely inherits the band-pass characteristics of ETM+. Overall, the continuity of band-transformation derived VIs was higher than band-geometry derived VIs. VI continuity was higher in the three forest types and the shrubs in the relatively rapid growth periods of summer and autumn, but lower for the other two non-forest types (grassland and crops during the same periods.

  17. Vegetation Types Alter Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity at the Field Scale in an Estuary Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and...

  18. Vegetation Classification, Inventory, and Ecological Integrity Assessment of the Wet Meadow Habitats: Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project was funded through the Region 1 Inventory and Monitoring Initiative RFP in 2011. The primary objectives of this project were to develop a vegetation...

  19. Vegetation and Vertebrates of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Outline of Ecology and Annotated Lists 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an extensive list of vegetation and vertebrates at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center based on information gathered during the years 19361946.

  20. Use of High Resolution UAS Imagery to Classify Sub-Arctic Vegetation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C.; Palace, M. W.; Finnell, D. R.; Garnello, A.; Sullivan, F.; Anderson, S. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-arctic permafrost regions are now experiencing annual warming with a resulting thaw that induces changes to the vegetative landscape. This warming trend is directly correlated to increases in annual greenhouse gas emissions including methane (CH4). Vegetation species and composition are indirect indicators of CH4 flux, and may serve as a proxy for estimating changes in CH4emission over time. Three WorldView-2 images (2m2 spatial resolution, 8 multispectral bands) were acquired in Jul/Aug of 2012-2014 over the Abisko region in northern Sweden. Color infrared (CIR) sub-meter imagery was also collected over a 4km2 area in 2014 using both a multi-rotor helicopter and a fixed wing unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Fifty 1m2 ground sample plots were established; these plots cover 5 major ground cover vegetation classes and were used in classification efforts. Texture analysis was conducted on both UAS and WV-2 imagery. Both an unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm to predict vegetation classes and a supervised classification using both random forests and neural networks were conducted; similar texture analysis and clustering were also performed on the UAS imagery. Classifications of the two imagery types were compared with promising results, thus supporting the use of UAS and high resolution satellite image collection to provide landscape level characterization of vegetation.

  1. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  2. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  3. Noise- and delay-induced regime shifts in an ecological system of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the stationary probability distribution (SPD) and mean first passage time (MFPT) in a vegetation model with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation dynamics is assumed to be disturbed by both intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The impacts of the intrinsic noise strength ?, extrinsic noise strength D, time delay ? and cross-correlation strength q between two noises on the SPD and MFPT of the regime shifts between the sustainable vegetation and barren states are discussed, respectively. Our main results are as follows. (i) The increase of ? will cause regime shifts from the barren state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the increase of D or ? will cause regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the barren state. (ii) The MFPT as a function of the noise intensities (i.e., ? and D) exhibits one maximum value in the case of q 0.0), the presence of time delay can also cause the existence of extrinsic noise enhanced stability. (paper)

  4. Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed. Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

  5. Diversity in a complex ecological network with two interaction types.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melián, C. J.; Bascompte, J.; Jordano, P.; K?ivan, Vlastimil

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 118, ?. 1 (2009), s. 122-130. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100070601 Grant ostatní: University of California(US) DEB-0553768; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-04774; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-00273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : complex ecological network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2009

  6. Climate and vegetation study using environmental isotope types of stalactite at Seropan Cave, Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate and vegetation study using environmental isotopes (i.e., 13C, 14C and 18O) variations of stalactite has been conducted at Seropan cave, Gunung Kidul Karst area. The stalactite samples were collected from Seropan Cave at Semanu, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The objective of study is to understand the climate change, and vegetation types, temperature of atmosphere, age and stalactite growth rate through the interpretation of environmental isotopes (i.e., 13C, 14C and 18O) of stalactite samples. The environmental isotope content of stalactite samples were analysed through CaCO3 compound that was found at the stalactite samples. The 13C content of samples is important to understand climate undulation and also vegetation variation. On the other hand, the variation of 18O and 14C contents is important to predict past temperature of atmosphere, and the age as well as stalactite growth rate, respectively. The result of environmental 13C isotope analysis showed that Gunung Kidul area in general can be classified as dry climate. It is also indicated that almost 87.5 % of local vegetation can be classified as dry vegetation C4 as can be seen from the variation of ?13C content that is -6 ‰ to +2 ‰ vs PDB. This can also mean that only 12.5 % of the time that the vegetation in the area is wet in which the variation of ?13C content is in the range -14 ‰ to -6 ‰ vs PDB. The variations of 18O contents of the samples (carbonate stalactite, or drip water) showed that the average temperature since 1621 to 2011 was around 19.5 °C. On the other hand, the variations of 14C contents of the samples showed that stalactite growth rate was around 0.1 mm/year or one mm in ten years. The result shows that the stalactite growth is very slow as generally expected in tropical area such as Gunung Kidul. (author)

  7. Relationships between NDVI, canopy structure, and photosynthesis in three California vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a range of plant species from three Californian vegetation types, we examined the widely used ''normalized difference vegetation index'' (NDVI) and ''simple ratio'' (SR) as indicators of canopy structure, light absorption, and photosynthetic activity. These indices, which are derived from canopy reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavebands, highlighted phenological differences between evergreen and deciduous canopies. They were poor indicators of total canopy biomass due to the varying abundance of non-green standing biomass in these vegetation types. However, in sparse canopies (leaf area index (LAI) apprxeq 0-2), NDVI was a sensitive indicator of canopy structure and chemical content (green biomass, green leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen content). At higher canopy green LAI values ( gt 2; typical of dense shrubs and trees), NDVI was relatively insensitive to changes in canopy structure. Compared to SR, NDVI was better correlated with indicators of canopy structure and chemical content, but was equivalent to the logarithm of SR. In agreement with theoretical expectations, both NDVI and SR exhibited near-linear correlations with fractional PAR intercepted by green leaves over a wide range of canopy densities. Maximum daily photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with NDVI and SR in annual grassland and semideciduous shrubs where canopy development and photosynthetic activity were in synchrony. The indices were also correlated with peak springtime canopy photosynthetic rates in evergreens. However, over most of the year, these indices were poor predictors of photosynthetic performance in evergreen species due to seasonal reductions in photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency that occurred without substantial declines in canopy greenness. Our results support the use of these vegetation indices as remote indicators of PAR absorption, and thus potential photosynthetic activity, even in heterogeneous landscapes. To provide accurate estimates of vegetation atmosphere gas fluxes, remote NDVI and SR measurements need to be coupled with careful estimates of canopy photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency. (author)

  8. Classification of C3 and C4 Vegetation Types Using MODIS and ETM+ Blended High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and climate change. Knowledge of the distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation at a high spatial resolution over local or regional scales helps us to understand their ecological functions and climate dependencies. In this study, we classified C3 and C4 vegetation at a high resolution for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. First, we generated a high spatial and temporal land surface reflectance dataset by blending MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus data. The blended data exhibited a high correlation (R2 = 0.88 with the satellite derived ETM+ data. The time-series NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data were then generated using the blended high spatio-temporal resolution data to capture the phenological differences between the C3 and C4 vegetation. The time-series NDVI revealed that the C3 vegetation turns green earlier in spring than the C4 vegetation, and senesces later in autumn than the C4 vegetation. C4 vegetation has a higher NDVI value than the C3 vegetation during summer time. Based on the distinguished characteristics, the time-series NDVI was used to extract the C3 and C4 classification features. Five features were selected from the 18 classification features according to the ground investigation data, and subsequently used for the C3 and C4 classification. The overall accuracy of the C3 and C4 vegetation classification was 85.75% with a kappa of 0.725 in our study area.

  9. Bank vegetation of Rimavica River from the perspective of landscape ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of our study was 5.3 km long stretch of the river Rimavica with its adjacent ecosystems. The research results show that most of the observed vegetation fulfill its function well in the country. Only certain sections require more human care, in order to strengthen their positive impact on the flow of water and other components of the ecosystem. (authors)

  10. A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetati...

  11. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  12. Range vegetation type mapping and above-ground green biomass estimations using multispectral imagery. [Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (principal investigator); Gordon, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Range vegetation types have been successfully mapped on a portion of the 68,000 acre study site located west of Baggs, Wyoming, using ERTS-1 imagery. These types have been ascertained from field transects over a five year period. Comparable studies will be made with EREP imagery. Above-ground biomass estimation studies are being conducted utilizing double sampling techniques on two similar study sites. Information obtained will be correlated with percent relative reflectance measurements obtained on the ground which will be related to image brightness levels. This will provide an estimate of above-ground green biomass with multispectral imagery.

  13. Perceived Social Ecological Factors Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing, Preparation, and Consumption among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Dan J.; Pelletier, Jennifer; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa N

    2013-01-01

    Most young adults do not consume recommended levels of fruits and vegetables (FV), and interventions to increase FV-related behaviors among this understudied population are needed. Therefore, it is important to identify correlates of FV intake among young adults to guide intervention development. This cross-sectional study utilized data from an online survey to identify factors related to young adults’ FV purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and to explore between-factor relationships us...

  14. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Desirée; Mejías, Violeta; Jáuregui, Berta M.; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; López-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoi...

  15. Floristic analyses of the Corsican flora: distribution in ecological compartments (vegetation belts, habitats and substrates)

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüssel, André; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Gamisans, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes partial data published in the “Flora Corsica” in order to characterize the Corsican vascular flora. These analyses focus on different aspects of the flora such as species richness, taxonomic distribution, abundance and life-forms at different vegetation belts, habitats and substrates. The results are compared with other geographic regions, particularly from the European Mediterranean and adjacent areas. The decrease of species richness with an increase of altitude as wel...

  16. Tropical alpine treelines : how ecological processes control vegetation patterning and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, M

    2007-01-01

    The alpine treeline, defined as the transition between upper montane forest and alpine vegetation, can be a gradual transition, an abrupt boundary, or a patchy mosaic. The position of the treeline in the landscape also varies between regions. These different spatial patterns are caused by processes that also determine the dynamic properties of the treeline, such as its response to changes in climate or landuse. Spatial patterns may therefore serve to indicate the temporal dynamics that a tree...

  17. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  18. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photointerpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  19. Caribou occurrence on landsat vegetation types on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, May-June, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Caribou Rangifer tarandus granti occurred on LANDSAT vegetation types LVT f loaded tundra, intermediate wetmoist, and sedge tundra most often during precalving. It...

  20. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation across time, there is an evident temporal change in all test sites. The sensitivity of EVI to LAI is smaller in periods of high biomass production. The range of fluctuation is different across sites, and is related to biomass quantity and type. Higher fluctuation is noted in the winter season in Tamega, possibly due to cloud infected pixels that the QA and compositing algorithms did not successfully detect. Finally, there was no significant difference in the R2 and EVI factor when including in the analyses pixels indicated as "low and marginal quality" by the QA layers, thus suggesting that the use of low quality pixels can be justified when good quality pixels are not enough. Future work will study the transferability of these relations across scales and sensors. This study is supported by the Research Committee of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki project "Improvement of the estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) at basin scale using satellite images". MODIS data are provided by USGS.

  1. The response of vegetation dynamics of the different alpine grassland types to temperature and precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Qin, Xiaojing; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal variability of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of three vegetation types (alpine steppe, alpine meadow, and alpine desert steppe) across the Tibetan Plateau was analyzed from 1982 to 2013. In addition, the annual mean temperature (MAT) and annual mean precipitation (MAP) trends were quantified to define the spatiotemporal climate patterns. Meanwhile, the relationships between climate factors and NDVI were analyzed in order to understand the impact of climate change on vegetation dynamics. The results indicate that the maximum of NDVI increased by 0.3 and 0.2 % per 10 years in the entire regions of alpine steppe and alpine meadow, respectively. However, no significant change in the NDVI of the alpine desert steppe has been observed since 1982. A negative relationship between NDVI and MAT was found in all these alpine grassland types, while MAP positively impacted the vegetation dynamics of all grasslands. Also, the effects of temperature and precipitation on different vegetation types differed, and the correlation coefficient for MAP and NDVI in alpine meadow is larger than that for other vegetation types. We also explored the percentages of precipitation and temperature influence on NDVI variation, using redundancy analysis at the observation point scale. The results show that precipitation is a primary limiting factor for alpine vegetation dynamic, rather than temperature. Most importantly, the results can serve as a tool for grassland ecosystem management. PMID:26661956

  2. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry down from saturation to complete water stress were performed and is analyzed as far how ABL respond to soil moisture changes. This provides informations about ABL behavior on the transition states. Future studies will look on how this behavior will change with the new vegetation covers.

  3. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet floristic–sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT’s were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana–Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum–Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum–Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata–Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis–Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon–Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida–Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora–Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  4. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theo H.C., Mostert; George J., Bredenkamp; Hannes L., Klopper; Cornie, Verwey; Rachel E., Mostert; Norbert, Hahn.

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT) and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence [...] ANAlysis (DECORANA) and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT's were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana-Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum-Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum-Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata-Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis-Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon-Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida-Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora-Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  5. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots. PMID:17552181

  6. Invertebrate availability and vegetation characteristics explain use of nonnesting cover types by mature-forest songbirds during the postfledging period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Some species of mature-forest-nesting songbirds use regenerating clearcuts and forested wetlands during the postfledging period (between nesting and migration). Relatively dense vegetation structure and abundant food resources in non-mature-forest cover types have been hypothesized to explain this phenomenon. We examined the relative importance of vegetation structure and invertebrate availability on use of nonnesting cover types by adult and hatch-year Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and American Redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) during the postfledging period of 2009 in northern Minnesota. We used mist nets to sample bird use of forested wetlands and regenerating clearcuts of three age groups: 1-6, 7-12, and 16-19 yr after harvest. We modeled captures of birds using vegetation characteristics and invertebrate availability sampled around nets as explanatory variables. For all birds studied, captures were best explained by food availability and secondarily by vegetation characteristics including litter depth and woody debris for Ovenbirds and canopy height for American Redstarts. Shrub-level invertebrate availability received a cumulative weight of 0.74-0.99 in Akaike's information criterion corrected ranked models for adult and hatch-year birds of both species. Vegetation density and variation in vegetation density explained almost no variation in captures of either species. We conclude that both invertebrate availability and some vegetation characteristics influence use of nonnesting cover types by Ovenbirds and American Redstarts during the postfledging period, but that invertebrate availability is generally the stronger predictor of that use. ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  7. Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Scheila, Scherrer; Viviane G., Ferro; Marina N., Ramos; Ivone R., Diniz.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arctiinae moths include nearly 11,000 species worldwide, of which approximately 700 species occur in the Brazilian Cerrado. The aim of this study was to describe the species composition of Arctiinae, as well as the variation in annual and nightly moth activity, in two Cerrado vegetation types. We sa [...] mpled moths one night per month from September 2008 to June 2009, in the gallery forest and in the cerrado sensu stricto in the Jardim Botânico de Brasília. We collected 395 tiger moths belonging to 65 morphospecies; 74% of the species belonged to the tribe Arctiini and 26% to Lithosiini. Thirty-one species (47.7%) occurred only in the gallery forest, 13 (20%) occurred only in the cerrado sensu stricto, and 21 (32.3%) occurred in both vegetation types. Additionally, we found the greatest species richness between 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m., and these hours were associated with 21 and 22 species, respectively. Most species (51.8%) were active for up to three hours during the night. In general, the species composition differed between the dry and rainy seasons, and the similarity of the fauna also varied hourly. Based on our results, we suggest that rapid inventories of Arctiinae be performed in both rainy and dry seasons, and sampling should be carried out the entire night.

  8. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, there has been increasing scientific interest in investigating place effects on dietary and exercise behaviors. The two overall aims of this dissertation are designed to investigate at an area level and at an individual level, how food and physical activity resources are spatially distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study investigating the health and health behaviors of 11-to-15-year old school children. Outcome measures for these studies were infrequent less than daily intake of fruit and vegetables (Paper II) and frequent vigorous physical activity of one hour or more per day (Paper IV). The individual dataset was appended with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths). The neighborhood-based analyses uses validated and cross-referenced objective data about food and physical activity resources in each of the 400 neighborhoods in Copenhagen and combines them with area-level socioeconomic and demographic data derived from The National Statistics Bank of Denmark. Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In general, study findings indicate no clear socioeconomic patterning of food or physical activity resources by examining neighborhood units alone. For example, there was no association between areal income and supermarket exposure in Copenhagen, while low income areas were more likely to be exposed to fewer fast food outlets than high-income neighborhoods (RR = 0.66; CI: 0.46-0.97). Areas with a high proportion of residents lacking a high school diploma had greater exposure to physical activity resources such as, public open space (OR = 1.90; CI: 1.15-3.15), cycling and walking paths (OR = 3.46; CI: 1.86-6.42) and one or more sports facilities (OR = 2.05; CI: 1.36-3.10) than the referent. Areas with high proportions of children were less likely to have exposure to connected streets (OR = 0.51; 0.31-0.83) than areas with low proportions of children. Results from individual-level studies generally show that while socioeconomic status remains an important individual predictor for diet and exercise behavior, the exposure to resources in the neighborhood environment may differentially affect children according to social class background. Children from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to supermarkets had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.43

  9. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-11-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period. PMID:26468233

  10. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account. PMID:17846909

  11. Vegetation ecology meets ecosystem science: Permanent grasslands as a functional biogeography case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Cyrille; Choler, Philippe; Borgy, Benjamin; Garnier, Eric; Amiaud, Bernard; Debarros, Guilhem; Diquelou, Sylvain; Gachet, Sophie; Jolivet, Claudy; Kattge, Jens; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Loranger, Jessy; Mikolajczak, Alexis; Munoz, François; Olivier, Jean; Viovy, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has been widely acknowledged, and the importance of the functional roles of species, as well as their diversity, in the control of ecosystem processes has been emphasised recently. However, bridging biodiversity and ecosystem science to address issues at a biogeographic scale is still in its infancy. Bridging this gap is the primary goal of the emerging field of functional biogeography. While the rise of Big Data has catalysed functional biogeography studies in recent years, comprehensive evidence remains scarce. Here, we present the rationale and the first results of a country-wide initiative focused on the C3 permanent grasslands. We aimed to collate, integrate and process large databases of vegetation relevés, plant traits and environmental layers to provide a country-wide assessment of ecosystem properties and services which can be used to improve regional models of climate and land use changes. We outline the theoretical background, data availability, and ecoinformatics challenges associated with the approach and its feasibility. We provide a case study of upscaling of leaf dry matter content averaged at ecosystem level and country-wide predictions of forage digestibility. Our framework sets milestones for further hypothesis testing in functional biogeography and earth system modelling. PMID:25908020

  12. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638

  13. Inclusion of ecologically based trait variation in plant functional types reduces the projected land carbon sink in an earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-08-01

    Earth system models demonstrate large uncertainty in projected changes in terrestrial carbon budgets. The lack of inclusion of adaptive responses of vegetation communities to the environment has been suggested to hamper the ability of modeled vegetation to adequately respond to environmental change. In this study, variation in functional responses of vegetation has been added to an earth system model (ESM) based on ecological principles. The restriction of viable mean trait values of vegetation communities by the environment, called 'habitat filtering', is an important ecological assembly rule and allows for determination of global scale trait-environment relationships. These relationships were applied to model trait variation for different plant functional types (PFTs). For three leaf traits (specific leaf area, maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C, and maximum electron transport rate at 25 °C), relationships with multiple environmental drivers, such as precipitation, temperature, radiation, and CO2 , were determined for the PFTs within the Max Planck Institute ESM. With these relationships, spatiotemporal variation in these formerly fixed traits in PFTs was modeled in global change projections (IPCC RCP8.5 scenario). Inclusion of this environment-driven trait variation resulted in a strong reduction of the global carbon sink by at least 33% (2.1 Pg C yr(-1) ) from the 2nd quarter of the 21st century onward compared to the default model with fixed traits. In addition, the mid- and high latitudes became a stronger carbon sink and the tropics a stronger carbon source, caused by trait-induced differences in productivity and relative respirational costs. These results point toward a reduction of the global carbon sink when including a more realistic representation of functional vegetation responses, implying more carbon will stay airborne, which could fuel further climate change. PMID:25611824

  14. Present and Historical Climate Variability and its Ecological Impact on Vegetation in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Sasha) Kosanic, Aleksandra; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Turkington, Thea

    2014-05-01

    West Cornwall is the most south westerly part of the United Kingdom with a strong maritime climate. This study analyses the earliest archived instrumental meteorological records collected in West Cornwall (SW England). Records were obtained from the Met Office archive (Camborne 1957-2010; Culdrose 1985-2011), Trengwainton Garden (1940-2010), and from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, data for Falmouth (1880-1952) and Helston (1843-1888). Homogeneity tests were used (Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests) to exclude any trends not related to climate variability. The data exhibit trends in annual mean and maximum temperatures over the timescales analysed, and show a general temperature increase in the 20th and 21st century. Annual and seasonal temperature changes are found to vary locally with strongly positive trends in autumn, spring and summer seasons. Trends in precipitation are positive only for the 19th century and only for one station. Correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows negative results for precipitation data. However correlation with the NAO index is positive with temperature, especially in the winter season. Return period analysis showed a decrease in intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the post-1975 period (Camborne and Trengwainton Garden stations). Climate change in the 20th century, and future continued warming is likely to have major implications on biodiversity in this region. The second part of this research analyses changes in the geographical distribution of plant species over West Cornwall using herbarium and current vegetation records. Also we examine whether Ellenberg values could be used as an environmental change indicator. This research will clearly contribute to a better identification of the climate change impact in West Cornwall, but will also benefit policy developing strategies to identify areas at risk of climate impacts at the regional and local scale.

  15. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  16. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRAW MULCHES ON WEED-CONTROL IN VEGETABLES CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in 2010–2012. The effect of different kinds of straw and its dose applied to soil mulching on the amount and fresh mass of weeds and yield level of broccoli and tomato was investigated. The type of straw mulch applied to the soil mulching influenced number and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weed species. The most efficient for limiting infestation was mulch from buckwheat and rye straw. Soil mulching, regardless of its kind, causes a decrease in the number and mass of weeds at the beginning of growing period of vegetables. The application of straw at a dose of 20 t?ha-1 had higher weed-suppressing effect than at a dose of 10 t?ha-1. When assessing the infestation before harvest the influence of straw mulch was lower but still significant. The application in higher dose of rye and buckwheat straw in broccoli, corn and rape in tomato cultivation reduced a number of weeds compared to dose of 10 t?ha-1. The better yielding effect in both vegetable species had soil mulching with straw at a dose of 10 t?ha-1.

  17. Survey to determine the adequacy of existing conserved areas in relation to vegetation types. A preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Edwards

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The report is a broad survey of the conservation status of South African vegetation. Data and maps show the distribution and total areas of conserved lands by the various conservation agencies, the size structure of nature reserves, the areas and percentages of conserved areas in relation to the 70 veld types and seven main vegetation types into which South Africa was divided by Acocks (1953, and important conservation requirements in the Bantu Homelands. Major conservation deficiencies lie in the Karoo and Karroid Bushveld and Grassland Types of vegetation, where 42 veld types have none or virtually no conservation, and in the Tropical Bush and Savanna Types to which-belong nine of the 10 remaining veld types extremely lacking in conservation. Additional reserves are needed' to conserve certain important and local ecosystems and species in the remaining 18 veld types, especially the Sclerophyllous Bush (Macchia or Fynbos and Temperate and Transitional Forest and Scrub Types, and in certain Coastal Tropical Forest and Thornveld Types. Apart from minor deficiencies, the conservation status is outstanding for six of these 18 veld types (up to 47 per cent under conservation, and very good for another six veld types.

  18. Survey to determine the adequacy of existing conserved areas in relation to vegetation types. A preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Edwards

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The report is a broad survey of the conservation status of South African vegetation. Data and maps show the distribution and total areas of conserved lands by the various conservation agencies, the size structure of nature reserves, the areas and percentages of conserved areas in relation to the 70 veld types and seven main vegetation types into which South Africa was divided by Acocks (1953, and important conservation requirements in the Bantu Homelands. Major conservation deficiencies lie in the Karoo and Karroid Bushveld and Grassland Types of vegetation, where 42 veld types have none or virtually no conservation, and in the Tropical Bush and Savanna Types to which-belong nine of the 10 remaining veld types extremely lacking in conservation. Additional reserves are needed' to conserve certain important and local ecosystems and species in the remaining 18 veld types, especially the Sclerophyllous Bush (Macchia or Fynbos and Temperate and Transitional Forest and Scrub Types, and in certain Coastal Tropical Forest and Thornveld Types. Apart from minor deficiencies, the conservation status is outstanding for six of these 18 veld types (up to 47 per cent under conservation, and very good for another six veld types.

  19. Prioritydirections of development of jscrosneft: alternative types of fueland ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Pryadko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article possibility of an exit of Rosneft on the market of alternative types of fuel is considered. The attention is paid that, according to a large number of experts, there is a probability of that in the near future environmentally friendly and inexhaustible fuel will come to alternative to habitual motor fuel – hydrogen. In article all possible ways and cost of production of hydrogen, experience of use of hydrogen engines in automotive industry and possibility of the offer and advance in the hydrogen market, as alternative type of fuel, to clients of Rosneft are attentively analyzed.

  20. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtu?, Bronis?aw; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N) pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle). Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere. PMID:26376204

  1. Simulating fire-induced ecological succession with the dynamically coupled fire-vegetation model, ED-SPIFTIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessa, A.; Fisher, R.

    2009-04-01

    The simulation of fire-vegetation feedbacks is crucial for determining fire-induced changes to ecosystem structure and function, and emissions of trace gases and aerosols under future climate change. A new global fire model SPITFIRE (SPread and InTensity of FIRE) has been designed to overcome many of the limitations in existing fire models set within DGVM frameworks (Thonicke et al. 2008). SPITFIRE has been applied in coupled mode globally (Thonicke et al. 2008) and northern Australia (Spessa et al. unpubl.) as part of the LPJ DGVM. It has also been driven with MODIS burnt area data applied to sub-Saharan Africa (Lehsten et al. 2008) as part of the LPJ-GUESS vegetation model (Smith et al. 2001). Recently, Spessa & Fisher (unpubl.) completed the coupling of SPIFTIRE to the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model (Moorecroft et al. 2001), which has been globalised by Dr R. Fisher as part of the development of the new land surface scheme JULES (Joint UK Environment Simulator) within the QUEST Earth System Model (http://www.quest-esm.ac.uk/). In contrast to the LPJ DGVM, ED is a ‘size and age structured' approximation of an individual based gap model. The major innovation of the ED-SPITFIRE model compared with LPJ-SPITFIRE is the categorisation of each climatic grid cell into a series of non-spatially contiguous patches which are defined by a common ‘age since last disturbance'. In theory, the age-class structure of ED facilitates ecologically realistic processes of succession and re-growth to be represented. By contrast, LPJ DGVM adopts an ‘area-based approach' that implicitly averages individual and patch differences across a wider area and across ‘populations' of PFTs. This presentation provides an overview of SPITFIRE, and provides preliminary results from ED-SPITFIRE applied to northern Australian savanna ecosystems which, due to spatio-temporal variation in fire disturbance, comprise a patchwork of grasses and trees at different stages of post-fire succession. Comparisons with similar simulations undertaken with LPJ-SPITFIRE are also presented.

  2. Prioritydirections of development of jscrosneft: alternative types of fueland ecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Pryadko

    2013-01-01

    In this article possibility of an exit of Rosneft on the market of alternative types of fuel is considered. The attention is paid that, according to a large number of experts, there is a probability of that in the near future environmentally friendly and inexhaustible fuel will come to alternative to habitual motor fuel – hydrogen. In article all possible ways and cost of production of hydrogen, experience of use of hydrogen engines in automotive industry and possibility of the offer and adva...

  3. High intake of fruit and vegetables is related to low oxidative stress and inflammation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Åsgård, Rikard; Rytter, Elisabet; Basu, Samar; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Möller, Lennart; Vessby, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Background : Patients with type 2 diabetes have increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. A high fruit and vegetable intake may be beneficial. Objective : To study whether fruit and vegetable intake and levels of plasma antioxidants relate to markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes. Further, to investigate whether plasma antioxidants are good biomarkers for intake of fruit and vegetables. Design : Patients with type 2 diabetes were...

  4. Evaluating the Usefulness of High-Temporal Resolution Vegetation Indices to Identify Crop Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, K.; Lewis, D.; O'Hara, C. G.

    2006-12-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) jointly sponsored research covering the 2004 to 2006 South American crop seasons that focused on developing methods for the USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service's (FAS) Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) to identify crop types using MODIS-derived, hyper-temporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. NDVI images were composited in 8 day intervals from daily NDVI images and aggregated to create a hyper-termporal NDVI layerstack. This NDVI layerstack was used as input to image classification algorithms. Research results indicated that creating high-temporal resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites from NASA's MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products provides useful input to crop type classifications as well as potential useful input for regional crop productivity modeling efforts. A current NASA-sponsored Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment will assess the utility of simulated future Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) imagery for conducting NDVI-derived land cover and specific crop type classifications. In the experiment, methods will be considered to refine current MODIS data streams, reduce the noise content of the MODIS, and utilize the MODIS data as an input to the VIIRS simulation process. The effort also is being conducted in concert with an ISS project that will further evaluate, verify and validate the usefulness of specific data products to provide remote sensing-derived input for the Sinclair Model a semi-mechanistic model for estimating crop yield. The study area encompasses a large portion of the Pampas region of Argentina--a major world producer of crops such as corn, soybeans, and wheat which makes it a competitor to the US. ITD partnered with researchers at the Center for Surveying Agricultural and Natural Resources (CREAN) of the National University of Cordoba, Argentina, and CREAN personnel collected and continue to collect field-level, GIS-based in situ information. Current efforts involve both developing and optimizing software tools for the necessary data processing. The software includes the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), Leica's ERDAS Imagine, and Mississippi State University's Temporal Map Algebra computational tools.

  5. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ?3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants.Conclusion: Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.Keywords: red beans, cataract extraction, socioeconomic status, public health implications

  6. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  7. The effect of vegetation type and snow depth on annual CO2 efflux in a high arctic tundra region

    OpenAIRE

    Morgner, Elke

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of vegetation type and increased snow depth on soil temperature and annual CO2 efflux in an arctic tundra region. Snow fences were set up to manipulate snow accumulation in heath and meadow vegetation on Spitsbergen. Field campaigns lasted from July 2007 - July 2008. CO2 efflux, measured by means of a dark and closed-dynamic soil flux chamber, showed seasonal variation and was lowest in winter time. Soil temperature had a strong influence on efflux year-round,...

  8. Ecology of Nematodes Under Influence of Cucurbita spp. and Different Fertilizer Types

    OpenAIRE

    Porazinska, D.L.; Coleman, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    In a field study conducted in Georgia, cucurbit plants with high (Cucurbita andreana) and low (Cucurbita maxima) concentrations of cucurbitacins were used in combination with two types of fertilizers to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity, trophic group proportions, fungivore/bacterivore ratio, and modified maturity index were assessed and co...

  9. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  10. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm-1) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  11. Plant Traits Demonstrate That Temperate and Tropical Giant Eucalypt Forests Are Ecologically Convergent with Rainforest Not Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Tng, David Y. P.; Jordan, Greg J.; Bowman, David M.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the...

  12. Ecology.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lízal, Lubomír; Tošovská, Eva

    Praha : CERGE-EI, 2001 - (Hanousek, J.; Lízal, L.), s. 107-115 ISBN 80-86286-69-X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * ecology Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/pdf_01/VI.pdf

  13. Comparison of interception and initial retention of wet-deposited contaminants on leaves of different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen Hoffman, F.; Thiessen, Kathleen M.; Rael, Rolando M.

    Simulated rain containing both soluble radionuclides and insoluble particles labeled with a radionuclide was manually applied to several kinds of vegetation, including a conifer, a broad-leafed tree, and several herbaceous species. The fraction of each radioactive material intercepted and initially retained by the vegetation was determined for each plant type. This fraction was determined both as the mass interception factor, r/Y, and the leaf area interception fraction, LAIF. Mean values of r/Y ranged from 0.16 to 2.9 m 2 kg -1 and of the LAIF, from 0.011 to 0.16. There was a greater range in mean retention values among radionuclide types than among plant species; the range among plant types tended to be less with the LAIF than the r/Y. Significantly less interception and initial retention was measured for anions than for cations or the insoluble particles.

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Various Types of Vegetables and Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Atapoor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:: There is a possibility for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in vegetables due to their close contact with polluted water, soil and feces. Objectives:: This study was carried out to detect the presence of H. pylori in vegetables and salads in Iran. Materials and Methods:: In total, 460 vegetable and salad samples were collected and transferred immediately to the laboratory. All samples were cultured and tested for the presence of H. pylori using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. Results:: The results showed that 44 of 460 samples (9.56% were positive for H. pylori using the culture method. The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique showed that 50 of 460 samples (10.86% were positive for H. pylori. Un-washed leek, traditional salad, un-washed basil and un-washed lettuce were the most commonly contaminated samples. The presence of the bacteria in various vegetables was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions:: Vegetables are a new source of H. pylori and accurate washing of vegetables improves such contaminations. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Vegetables; Culture; Polymerase Chain Reaction

  15. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (psausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (psausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (psausages were significantly (psausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  16. VEGETATION TYPE AND THE INTERTIDAL MACROINVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF A BRACKISH MARSH: PHRAGMITES VS. SPARTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of tidal marsh macroinvertebrate assemblages to the conversion of Spartina alterniflora marshes to marshes dominated by the invasive reed, Phragmites australis, are poorly understood. Changes in edaphic, vegetative, hydrological, and detrital conditions that attend ...

  17. Vegetation Cover Types of St. Vincent Island N.W.R.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this vegetative study on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge were to: 1 identify and describe the major plant communities and associations on the...

  18. The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    J. Khairiah; M.K. Zalifah; Yin, Y.H.; A. Aminah

    2004-01-01

    A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum) and long beans (Vigna sinensis) from the soil. Heavy metals studied were Pb, Cd and Zn. Wet digestion method was used for heavy metals analysis in the vegetables. Heavy metals from soil samples were extracted by sequential extraction method, which extract ...

  19. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  20. Estado ecológico de ríos y vegetación ribereña en el contexto de la nueva Ley General de Aguas de México / Ecological status of rivers and riparian vegetation within the new General Mexican Water's Law context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra, MENDOZA CARIÑO; Abel, QUEVEDO NOLASCO; Ángel, BRAVO VINAJA; Héctor, FLORES MAGDALENO; María de Lourdes, DE LA ISLA DE BAUER; Francisco, GAVI REYES; Bertha Patricia, ZAMORA MORALES.

    Full Text Available Los ríos son unidades vitales en el funcionamiento de las cuencas que, debido al transporte y a la circulación cíclica del agua, permiten la existencia de los seres vivos. Poseen gran valor ecológico y ambiental dada su influencia sobre otros ecosistemas y los beneficios que proporcionan al hombre, [...] tanto para consumo como para riego y uso en los ámbitos agrícola e industrial. Sin embargo, casi todos los ríos de México presentan algún tipo de deterioro. Alrededor de 73 % de los sistemas acuáticos muestran contaminación, lo que empobrece la salud de estos ecosistemas. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer que en la formulación de la nueva ley general de aguas se considere la regulación de la vegetación ribereña, pues su influencia en el mantenimiento y en la rehabilitación del estado ecológico de los ríos es fundamental. Se sugiere que la nueva ley contenga una sección de protección ambiental en la que se incluya a la vegetación ribereña como elemento clave para proteger, conservar y restaurar los ríos. Asimismo, que la delimitación de dicha vegetación se apegue a las condiciones naturales de inundación del cauce, con una frecuencia de una vez cada ocho años, de acuerdo con la variabilidad del flujo. Además, su manejo debe tomar en cuenta la reforestación y el mantenimiento de especies vegetales nativas de cada región. Abstract in english Rives are vital units in the functioning of the watersheds that, due to the transportation and circulation of water, allow the existence of life. They are of great ecological and environmental value because of their influence on other ecosystems as well as the benefits they give to humankind, not on [...] ly in the consumption for irrigation but also in the use in the agricultural and industrial areas. However, almost all the rivers in Mexico show a certain type of deterioration. About 70 % of the aquatic systems shows contamination which diminishes the health of these ecosystems. The objective of this work is to propose that the riparian vegetation should be included in the making of the new general law of water because its influence on the maintenance and rehabilitation of the ecological state of rivers is fundamental. It has been suggested a new law that contains a section of environmental protection which includes the riparian vegetation as a key element to protect, preserve, and restore rivers. Likewise, the boundaries of this vegetation should be according to the natural conditions of flooding in the bed of the river, with a once-in-every eight years- frequency, according to the variability of flow. In addition, its handling must consider the reforestation and maintenance of native vegetation species in each region.

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  2. Ecological transcriptomics of lake-type and riverine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavey Scott A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a growing number of genomes sequenced with tentative functions assigned to a large proportion of the individual genes. Model organisms in laboratory settings form the basis for the assignment of gene function, and the ecological context of gene function is lacking. This work addresses this shortcoming by investigating expressed genes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka muscle tissue. We compared morphology and gene expression in natural juvenile sockeye populations related to river and lake habitats. Based on previously documented divergent morphology, feeding strategy, and predation in association with these distinct environments, we expect that burst swimming is favored in riverine population and continuous swimming is favored in lake-type population. In turn we predict that morphology and expressed genes promote burst swimming in riverine sockeye and continuous swimming in lake-type sockeye. Results We found the riverine sockeye population had deep, robust bodies and lake-type had shallow, streamlined bodies. Gene expression patterns were measured using a 16 k microarray, discovering 141 genes with significant differential expression. Overall, the identity and function of these genes was consistent with our hypothesis. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analyses with a larger set of differentially expressed genes found the "biosynthesis" category enriched for the riverine population and the "metabolism" category enriched for the lake-type population. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding sockeye life history from a transcriptomic perspective and a starting point for more extensive, targeted studies determining the ecological context of genes.

  3. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest with different vegetation types (Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea) in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 38,449 ha forested area in southern Spain. Sixty-eight sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed as soil control section with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and the major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The total SOCS in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park was higher in MEOW with olive grove (111,69 Mg ha-1) and lower in MEOW with Quercus faginea (93,57 Mg ha-1). However, when the top soil (superficial section control) was analyzed, the SOCS was the highest in MEOW with olive grove (70,12 Mg-1) and the lowest in MEOW with Pinus (47,82 Mg ha-1). This research is a preliminary assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Hontoria, C., Rodríguez-Murillo, J., and Saa, A.: Contenido de carbono orgánico en el suelo y factores de control en la España Peninsular, Edafología, 11, 149-155, 2004. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2231, 2013. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D.: Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113 (2014) 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B.: Management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean open rangelands -- treeless grasslands, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2269, 2015.

  4. Habitats and ecological niches of root-hemiparasitic plants: an assessment based on a large database of vegetation plots.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?šitel, J.; Fibich, P.; de Bello, Francesco; Chytrý, M.; Lepš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 87, ?. 2 (2015), s. 87-108. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ?R GB14-36079G Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/12/1390 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bartsia * beals index * Euphrasia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (BU-J) Impact factor: 4.104, year: 2014 http://www.sci.muni.cz/botany/chytry/Tesitel_etal2015_Preslia.pdf

  5. The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Sartori, Giacomo; Garlato, Adriano; Ungaro, Fabrizio; Zanella, Augusto; Jabiol, Bernard; Obber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of geology, climate, soil type and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study sites were compared by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Humus forms were described by the structure (micro-, meso-, or macro-aggregated) of the organo-mineral A horizon, by the thickness of litter horizons and by their nomenclature, which followed the morpho-functional classification recently proposed for inclusion in the WRB-FAO. The size of aggrega...

  6. Investigating mechanisms maintaining plant species diversity in fire prone Mediterranean-type vegetation using spatially-explicit simulation models

    OpenAIRE

    Esther, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Fire prone Mediterranean-type vegetation systems like those in the Mediterranean Basin and South-Western Australia are global hot spots for plant species diversity. To ensure management programs act to maintain these highly diverse plant communities, it is necessary to get a profound understanding of the crucial mechanisms of coexistence. In the current literature several mechanisms are discussed. The objective of my thesis is to systematically explore the importance of potential mechanisms f...

  7. NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Thomas U.; Johnson, Brian R.; Kuester, Michele; Keller, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ecological observation platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. NEON will operate for 30 years and gather long-term data on ecological response changes and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Local ecological measurements at sites distributed within 20 ecoclimatic domains across the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution, bridging scales from organisms and individual stands to satellite-based remote sensing. AOP instrumentation consists of a VIS/SWIR imaging spectrometer, a scanning small-footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. AOP data will be openly available to scientists and will provide quantitative information on land use change and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, and development status are presented including an overview of near-term risk-reduction and prototyping activities.

  8. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  10. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  11. Type D personality and cardiovascular reactivity to an ecologically valid multitasking stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Wetherell, Mark A; Smith, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Previous research investigating the influence of Type D personality on cardiovascular reactivity to stress in healthy young adults is somewhat mixed. The present study sought to investigate this question using an ecologically valid laboratory stressor. Beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 77 healthy young adults during exposure to multitasking stress. Mood and background stress were both associated with Type D personality when Type D was conceptualised as a dimensional construct, with less robust findings observed using the traditional dichotomous typological approach. However, the continuous Type D construct added limited predictive value of the self-report measures above that of its constituent components, negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). Further, an inverse relationship between the continuous Type D construct and blood pressure reactivity to multitasking stress was observed. In summary, our findings suggest that Type D personality is predictive of blunted cardiovascular reactivity to stress in healthy individuals when Type D is considered as a dimensional construct and the independent influence of NA and SI is controlled for. Further, our findings suggest that Type D does not predict additional variance in mood and background stress above that of NA and SI when these constituent factors are considered independently. PMID:24754252

  12. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

  13. Seed ecology in dry sandy grasslands - an approach to patterns and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Dry sandy grasslands occur throughout Central Europe and Southern Germany, and they host many rare and endangered plant species. To date, insufficient data on seed ecological aspects of this endangered vegetation type exist. Seed ecological studies attempt to develop ecological knowledge by identifying patterns and underlying mechanisms. To bring all results together, it can be pointed out that environmental factors strongly shape seed ecological patterns. Species with special mechanisms like...

  14. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; PAVLÍ?EK, TOMÁŠ; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Mat?j; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km2) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleist...

  15. Impact of soil type on vegetation response to prairie dog herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prairie dogs and their impact on vegetation have been the focus of numerous research projects. However, the effect of soil from this interaction has been less thoroughly documented. We evaluated prairie dog colonies (on-colony) and nearby sites without prairie dogs (off-colony) on Wayden, Cabba an...

  16. Vegetation types of East Ladakh: species and growth form composition along main environmental gradients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, Miroslav; Doležal, Ji?í; de Bello, Francesco; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 1 (2011), 132-147. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * Classification * Trans-Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  17. Plant seedlings in a species-rich meadow: effect of management, vegetation type and functional traits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ond?ej; Doležal, Ji?í; Hájek, M.; Dan?ák, M.; Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2013), s. 286-295. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bile Karpaty Mountains * Litter * Mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  18. Preliminary estimation of bryophyte biomass and carbon pool from three contrasting different vegetation types.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M.K.; Juhász, A.; Csintalan, Z.; Kaligaric, M.; Marek, Michal V.; Urban, Otmar; Tuba, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 1 (2005), s. 267-270. ISSN 0133-3720 Grant ostatní: EU(CZ) HPRI-CT-2002-00197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bryophyte * carbon pool * rain forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2005

  19. Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 4 (2001), s. 351-358. ISSN 1061-2971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil microfungi * frequency of species occurrence * post-mining dumps Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  20. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  1. Vegetation NDVI Linked to Temperature and Precipitation in the Upper Catchments of Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, F.; Zhang, X.; Ouyang, W.; A.K Skidmore; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation in the upper catchment of Yellow River is critical for the ecological stability of the whole watershed. The dominant vegetation cover types in this region are grassland and forest, which can strongly influence the eco-environmental status of the whole watershed. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for grassland and forest has been calculated and its daily correlation models were deduced by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer products on 12 dates in 2000, 200...

  2. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar...

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  5. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paredes; Luis Cayuela; Gurr, Geoff M.; Mercedes Campos

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two...

  6. Eddy covariance and scintillation measurements of atmospheric exchange processes over different types of vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Nieveen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction and objectivesGood comprehension of the energy and mass cycles and their effect on climate dynamics is crucial to understanding, predicting and anticipating ecological changes due to possible future climate perturbations. Here direct and long-term flux density measurements of greenhouse gases from various ecosystems provide means to supply such fundamental knowledge. For the global water vapour and carbon cycles, however, the interactions between different spatial scales become i...

  7. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological carrying capacity). The resulting proposal has been assessed on the basis of abiotic limits and it requires further modifications pursuing the biotic, abiotic and socio-economic limits. (authors

  8. Land Cover Types Differentiation through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in the Lowland Rainforests of Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of above ground biomass in the natural forests of Papua New Guinea is a key componentfor the successful implementation of the REDD policy in the country. Biomass densities in a lowland rainforestsite located at the northeast of the country were differentiated with Landsat digital images throughout normalizeddifference vegetation index (NDVI. Submaps of 4,377.69 ha of bands 3 and 4 were georeferenced with affinetransformation and a RMSE of 0.529. The calculated NDVI map was sliced to separate its pixel values into 5classes as they are distributed in the histogram with the assistance of ground truth points. The method is simple,fast and reliable, however swampy palm forest could not be discriminated from dense forests; and different bareland types had to be grouped into a single major class. Therefore other vegetation indexes and/or band ratiosare recommended to be tested using images of higher spatial resolution to accurately differentiate more classes.Keywords: land cover, biomass, normalized difference vegetation index, lowland rainforest, Papua New Guinea

  9. Ecological approaches in veterinary epidemiology: mapping the risk of bat-borne rabies using vegetation indices and night-time light satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Pape?, Monica; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Veronica; Restif, Olivier; Qiao, Huijie; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Rabies remains a disease of significant public health concern. In the Americas, bats are an important source of rabies for pets, livestock, and humans. For effective rabies control and prevention, identifying potential areas for disease occurrence is critical to guide future research, inform public health policies, and design interventions. To anticipate zoonotic infectious diseases distribution at coarse scale, veterinary epidemiology needs to advance via exploring current geographic ecology tools and data using a biological approach. We analyzed bat-borne rabies reports in Chile from 2002 to 2012 to establish associations between rabies occurrence and environmental factors to generate an ecological niche model (ENM). The main rabies reservoir in Chile is the bat species Tadarida brasiliensis; we mapped 726 occurrences of rabies virus variant AgV4 in this bat species and integrated them with contemporary Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The correct prediction of areas with rabies in bats and the reliable anticipation of human rabies in our study illustrate the usefulness of ENM for mapping rabies and other zoonotic pathogens. Additionally, we highlight critical issues with selection of environmental variables, methods for model validation, and consideration of sampling bias. Indeed, models with weak or incorrect validation approaches should be interpreted with caution. In conclusion, ecological niche modeling applications for mapping disease risk at coarse geographic scales have a promising future, especially with refinement and enrichment of models with additional information, such as night-time light data, which increased substantially the model's ability to anticipate human rabies. PMID:26338730

  10. The influence of slope and peatland vegetation type on riverine dissolved organic carbon and water colour at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, L E; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Wallage, Z E; Wynne, H; Holden, J

    2015-09-15

    Peatlands are important sources of fluvial carbon. Previous research has shown that riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are largely controlled by soil type. However, there has been little work to establish the controls of riverine DOC within blanket peatlands that have not undergone major disturbance from drainage or burning. A total of 119 peatland catchments were sampled for riverine DOC and water colour across three drainage basins during six repeated sampling campaigns. The topographic characteristics of each catchment were determined from digital elevation models. The dominant vegetation cover was mapped using 0.5m resolution colour infrared aerial images, with ground-truthed validation revealing 82% accuracy. Forward and backward stepwise regression modelling showed that mean slope was a strong (and negative) determinant of DOC and water colour in blanket peatland river waters. There was a weak role for plant functional type in determining DOC and water colour. At the basin scale, there were major differences between the models depending on the basin. The dominance of topographic predictors of DOC found in our study, combined with a weaker role of vegetation type, paves the way for developing improved planning tools for water companies operating in peatland catchments. Using topographic data and aerial imagery it will be possible to predict which tributaries will typically yield lower DOC concentrations and which are therefore more suitable and cost-effective as raw water intakes. PMID:26003614

  11. Forecasts of future terrain and vegetation types at Olkiluoto and implications for spatial and temporal aspects of biosphere modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, a nuclear repository site is situated on the western coast where the current land uplift rate is 6 mm/yr. A set of tools has been developed for predicting the future terrain and vegetation types, and for producing estimates of the site-specific parameter values for use in simplified radionuclide transport models. Although the landscape will change considerably within the next millennia, the likely changes are relatively predictable. By comparing the results to the site data, the effect of human activities can be at least partially quantified

  12. Avaliação nutricional da glicerina vegetal semipurificada para codornas de corte / Nutritional evaluation of vegetable semi-purified glycerin of meat type quail

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Batista; A.C., Furlan; A.P.S., Ton; T.J., Pasquetti; T.C.O., Quadros; D.O., Grieser; V., Zancanela.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores de energia metabolizável da glicerina vegetal semipurificada e verificar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de codornas de corte alimentadas com rações contendo níveis crescentes de glicerina. [...] No experimento 1, foram utilizadas 50 codornas, alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração referência e de uma ração teste contendo nível de substituição de 10% de glicerina, com cinco repetições de cinco codornas por repetição. O valor de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio da glicerina foi de 3.069kcal/kg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 640 codornas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (ração controle e níveis de glicerina = 4, 8, 12 e 16%) e quatro repetições com 32 aves em cada repetição. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) para consumo de ração e ganho de peso. A inclusão de glicerina, na fase de um a 14 dias de idade, piorou a conversão alimentar. No experimento 3, foram utilizadas 440 codornas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com 22 aves em cada repetição. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os mesmos do experimento 2. O consumo de ração aumentou linearmente (P Abstract in english Three experiments were carried out to determine the chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of vegetable semi-purified glycerin and verify the performance and carcass yeild of meat type quai, fed with diets containing increasing levels of glycerin. In the first experiment 50 quails were [...] used, housed in metabolism cages. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and a test diet containing the replacement level of 10% glycerin, with five replications of five quails per replication. The value of apparent metabolisable energy corrected by nitrogen balance of glycerin was 3.069 kcal/kg. In the second experiment 640 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (control diet and four levels = 4, 8, 12 and 16% of glycerin), four replications with 32 birds per replication. There were no differences (P>0.05) on feed intake and weight gain. The inclusion of glycerin (1 - 14 days of age) decrease feed:gain ratio. In the third experiment, 440 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, with four replications with 22 birds per repetition. The treatments used were the same as the second trial. The feed intake increased linearly (P

  13. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  14. Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiang-Min; Chen, Fu-Sheng; Wan, Song-Ze; Yang, Qing-Pei; Shi, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    The impact of reforestation on soil organic carbon (OC), especially in deep layer, is poorly understood and deep soil OC stabilization in relation with aggregation and vegetation type in afforested area is unknown. Here, we collected topsoil (0-15 cm) and deep soil (30-45 cm) from six paired coniferous forests (CF) and broad-leaved forests (BF) reforested in the early 1990s in subtropical China. Soil aggregates were separated by size by dry sieving and OC stability was measured by closed-jar alkali-absorption in 71 incubation days. Soil OC concentration and mean weight diameter were higher in BF than CF. The cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin, mg CO2-C kg-1 soil) varied with aggregate size in BF and CF topsoils, and in deep soil, it was higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates in BF, but not CF. The percentage of soil OC mineralized (SOCmin, % SOC) was in general higher in larger aggregates than in smaller aggregates. Meanwhile, SOCmin was greater in CF than in BF at topsoil and deep soil aggregates. In comparison to topsoil, deep soil aggregates generally exhibited a lower Cmin, and higher SOCmin. Total nitrogen (N) and the ratio of carbon to phosphorus (C/P) were generally higher in BF than in CF in topsoil and deep soil aggregates, while the same trend of N/P was only found in deep soil aggregates. Moreover, the SOCmin negatively correlated with OC, total N, C/P and N/P. This work suggests that reforested vegetation type might play an important role in soil OC storage through internal nutrient cycling. Soil depth and aggregate size influenced OC stability, and deep soil OC stability could be altered by vegetation reforested about 20 years. PMID:26418563

  15. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  16. Residues and potential ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics in manures and composts associated with protected vegetable farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Wu, Longhua; Huang, Yujuan; Christie, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants and enter into soil principally by agricultural application of organic fertilizer. A total of 33 solid animal manures and 17 compost samples from protected vegetable farms in nine areas of China were analyzed for the antibiotic classes of tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and macrolides (17 substances in total). Oxytetracycline was found as a dominant compound in the samples, and its highest concentration reached 416.8 mg kg(-1) in a chicken manure sample from Shouguang, Shandong Province. Among the samples, animal manures (especially pig manure) contained higher VA residues than composts. However, fluoroquinolones exhibited higher persistence in the compost samples than other antibiotic classes. This is particularly the case in the rice husk compost, which contained the highest level of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (1334.5 and 1717.4 ?g kg(-1) on average, respectively). The veterinary antibiotic profile in the risk husk compost had a good relationship with that in the corresponding manures. The refined commercial compost had the lowest VA residues among the compost samples in general. This implied that composting process might be important to reduce the antibiotic residue. High residue of antibiotics in soil was assumed to be a hazard to ecosystem. This is especially noticeable under current application rates (150 t ha(-1) a(-1)) in protected vegetable farming because over half of the samples exhibited a risk quotient (RQ) >1 for one or more antibiotics. PMID:25354434

  17. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Lata?owa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. PMID:25204435

  18. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  19. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

    2013-11-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  20. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

  1. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  2. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day. Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the use of the range area, activity level, and feed content in the crops were observed in relation to genotype, sex, age of broilers, and also the time of day. Foraging activity was positively correlated with age. Medium-growth broilers spent more time inside and closer to the broiler houses during the day with increased foraging activity during evenings, in contrast to the slow-growing broilers that showed a more uniform activity during the day. Based on the measurement of crop content it was estimated that the slow-growing genotype had a daily intake of 5 to 8 g of forage per day, whereas the medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.

  3. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Dario de O Lima-Filho; Anderson S Hokama; Caroline P Spanhol

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters...

  4. Série temporal de índice de vegetação sobre diferentes tipologias vegetais no Rio Grande do Sul / Time series of vegetation index for different vegetation types in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana M., Kuplich; Andreise, Moreira; Denise C., Fontana.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se identificar a dinâmica fenológica das principais tipologias vegetais do Rio Grande do Sul, para o período de 2000 a 2010, utilizando-se dados de Enhanced Vegetation Index, através da transformada de ondaleta. A identificação da fenologia em ciclos ou padrões sazonais e [...] m séries temporais de índices de vegetação, obtidos por sensores orbitais, permite a observação de anomalias e os efeitos de mudanças climáticas ou ambientais. Um perfil temporal do Enhanced Vegetation Index foi construído para o Rio Grande do Sul e retiradas amostras para quatro tipologias vegetais: campo nativo, floresta ombrófila mista, cultivo de soja e de arroz. Essas amostras foram submetidas à transformada de ondaleta, que permitiu a decomposição da série e apresentação dos dados em relação ao tempo e frequência com que os eventos fenológicos ocorreram. Os dados apresentaram regularidade na dinâmica das tipologias vegetais testadas, com ciclos anuais de maior vigor e crescimento vegetal nas estações de primavera e verão e menor no outono e inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the identification of the phenology dynamics of the main types of vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul state, for the period from 2000 to 2010, using Enhanced Vegetation Index data through the wavelet transform. The identification of cycles or seasonal patterns in time ser [...] ies of vegetation indices obtained by orbital sensors allows the observation of anomalies and effects of climate and environmental change. A temporal profile of Enhanced Vegetation Index was built for the Rio Grande do Sul region, where samples of the four main plant typologies were selected: native grassland, mixed ombrophilous forest, soybean and rice crop. These samples were submitted to the wavelet transform, which allowed the decomposition of the series and presentation of data in relation to time and frequency with which the phenological events have occurred. The data showed regularity in the dynamics of vegetation types tested, with annual cycles of plant growth and higher Enhanced Vegetation Index values in spring and summer and lower Enhanced Vegetation Index values in autumn and winter.

  5. Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; O'Connell, Jessica L.; Di Tommaso, Stefania; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to quantify large-scale plant productivity in coastal marshes to understand marsh resilience to sea level rise, to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits, and to monitor impacts from land use, eutrophication and contamination. Remote monitoring of aboveground biomass of emergent wetland vegetation will help address this need. Differences in sensor spatial resolution, bandwidth, temporal frequency and cost constrain the accuracy of biomass maps produced for management applications. In addition the use of vegetation indices to map biomass may not be effective in wetlands due to confounding effects of water inundation on spectral reflectance. To address these challenges, we used partial least squares regression to select optimal spectral features in situ and with satellite reflectance data to develop predictive models of aboveground biomass for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. We used field spectrometer data to test model errors associated with hyperspectral narrowbands and multispectral broadbands, the influence of water inundation on prediction accuracy, and the ability to develop species specific models. We used Hyperion data, Digital Globe World View-2 (WV-2) data, and Landsat 7 data to scale up the best statistical models of biomass. Field spectrometer-based models of the full dataset showed that narrowband reflectance data predicted biomass somewhat, though not significantly better than broadband reflectance data [R2 = 0.46 and percent normalized RMSE (%RMSE) = 16% for narrowband models]. However hyperspectral first derivative reflectance spectra best predicted biomass for plots where water levels were less than 15 cm (R2 = 0.69, %RMSE = 12.6%). In species-specific models, error rates differed by species (Typha spp.: %RMSE = 18.5%; S. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and deeper water habitat of S. acutus. The Landsat 7 dataset (7 images) predicted biomass slightly better than the WV-2 dataset (6 images) (R2 = 0.56, %RMSE = 20.9%, compared to R2 = 0.45, RMSE = 21.5%). The Hyperion dataset (one image) was least successful in predicting biomass (R2 = 0.27, %RMSE = 33.5%). Shortwave infrared bands on 30 m-resolution Hyperion and Landsat 7 sensors aided biomass estimation; however managers need to weigh tradeoffs between cost, additional spectral information, and high spatial resolution that will identify variability in small, fragmented marshes common to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and elsewhere in the Western U.S.

  6. Vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil reduce DNA strand breaks in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with increased oxidative stress, which may lead to increased DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a healthy diet on DNA oxidation in diabetics and nondiabetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-six diabetic and 21 nondiabetic individuals participated in this study. All subjects received information about the benefits of a healthy diet, while subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300 g of vegetables and 25 mL PUFA-rich plant oil per day. DNA damage in mononuclear cells (Comet Assay), urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7-hydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at baseline, after 4, 8 (end of intervention), and 16 weeks. The intervention with vegetables and PUFA-rich oil led to a significant increase in plasma antioxidant concentrations. Diabetic individuals of the intervention group showed a significant reduction inHbA1c and DNA strand breaks. Levels of HbA1c were also improved in diabetics of the information group, but oxidative damage to DNA was not altered. Urinary 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo excretion remained unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a healthy diet rich in antioxidants reduces levels of DNA strand breaks in diabetic individuals.

  7. In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

  8. Short-term trends in vegetation cover of Danish semi-natural ecosystems : a landscape-ecological assessment of main drivers indicated by traits of winner and loser species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Allan; Damgaard, Christian

    The landscapes in which many plant communities persist today are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities, especially in Denmark, where most communities are influenced by for example atmospheric deposition of Nitrogen, changes in soil moisture levels (e.g. ground water-table changes caused by drainage) and changes in management regimes (primarily reduced grazing-pressure). Such modifications of the environment are filtering the persistence of species into those that are adapted to these new conditions (winners) and those that are not (losers). Across the landscape, it is reasonable to expect species with similar traits to respond similarly to systematic shifts in habitat conditions and disturbance. Consequently, contrasting traits of winner and loser species could be a powerful tool in identifying mechanisms that might be driving community changes. In this study, we use a large dataset of vegetation surveys from 207 semi-natural non-forested sites in Denmark, identifying temporal short-term changes in vegetation cover, notably identifying those species that are winners and losers. A further goal is to identify environmental drivers of contemporary vegetation change in Danish semi-natural habitats by quantifying which functional traits makes species decline or increase. We therefore assess whether winners and losers differ with regard to key functional traits and ecological indicator values, and whether these results match our expectations given the current anthropogenic disturbance regime. Notably, do winner and loser species display distinct sets of traits of the ones related to: exotic species invasion, eutrophication by nitrogen deposition, management changes (decreasing grazing and associated encroachment by woody plants), soil moisture changes (due to excessive water extraction and drainage)? Preliminary results suggest that even during a relative short time span of just seven years, it is possible to identify winner and loser species, indicating that significant shifts in species compositionare currently taking place in Danish semi-natural ecosystems. The number of identified loser species was greater than the number of identified winner species, suggesting that homogenization of species composition across the landscape may be a concern. Today, management of semi-natural habitats is a common conservation measure. However, despite traditional management, habitats may still be vulnerable to compositional changes due to e.g. surrounding land-use and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The preliminary results from this study, are dichotomous in that it seems some factors as for example soil moisture and woody species encroachment are being managed in a way that opposites expectations from human disturbances, whereas management can not combat the effects of nitrogen deposition. Further analyses are still being developed to differentiate the landscape pattern of winners and losers into the specific habitat-types to induce differences between them in their responses to environmental drivers.

  9. History or ecology? Substrate type as a major driver of patial genetic structure in Alpine plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Nadir; Thiel-Egenter, Conny; Tribsch, Andreas; Holderegger, Rolf; Manel, Stéphanie; Schönswetter, Peter; Taberlet, Pierre; Brodbeck, Sabine; Gaudeul, Myriam; GIELLY, LUDOVIC; Küpfer, Philippe; Mansion, Guilhem; Negrini, Riccardo; Paun, Ovidiu; Pellecchia, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Climatic history and ecology are considered the most important factors moulding the spatial pattern of genetic diversity. With the advent of molecular markers, species' historical fates have been widely explored. However, it has remained speculative what role ecological factors have played in shaping spatial genetic structures within species. With an unprecedented, dense large-scale sampling and genome-screening, we tested how ecological factors have influenced the spatial genetic structures ...

  10. Perceived social-ecological factors associated with fruit and vegetable purchasing, preparation, and consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa N

    2013-10-01

    Most young adults do not consume recommended levels of fruits and vegetables (F/V), and interventions to increase F/V-related behaviors among this understudied population are needed. Therefore, it is important to identify correlates of F/V intake among young adults to guide intervention development. This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey to identify factors related to young adults' F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and to explore between-factor relationships using mediation analysis. In 2010, 1,201 college students in Minnesota completed questionnaires assessing F/V behaviors as well as perceptions of F/V-related individual, social, and environmental factors. Factor analysis identified questionnaire items assessing similar constructs. Seven factors were identified (personal barriers, F/V knowledge, family, friends, neighborhood, access barriers, and campus) and evaluated for relationships with F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption using linear regression. Results revealed that perceived personal barriers (eg, lacking cooking skills) were inversely related to all F/V outcomes. Perception that family and friends eat healthfully and neighborhood access to F/V were positively related to all outcomes. Individual-, social-, and environment-level perceptions were related to purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and the effects of these factors were similar when accounting for mediated effects. Factors at all three levels and the ways in which these various factors operate together may be important to consider in future efforts to improve F/V behaviors among young adults. PMID:23958116

  11. CONVERGING PATTERNS OF UPTAKE AND HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER IN CONTRASTING WOODY VEGETATION TYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used concurrent measurements of soil water content and soil water potential (Ysoil) to assess the effects of Ysoil on uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by roots during seasonal drought cycles in six sites characterized by different types and amounts of woo...

  12. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kooch; H. Jalilvand M.A. Bahmanyar; M.R. Pormajidian

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way ind...

  13. Variation in Protein Content and Amino Acids in the Leaves of Grain, Vegetable and Weedy Types of Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Ohsawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has affected almost 31% of pre-school children. This paper provides the information of nutritional values (leaf protein, 15 amino acids, biomass and leaf dry matter of grain, vegetable and weedy types of amaranths (n = 76 accessions; particularly those novel materials originated from the highland areas of Sumatra-Takengon. The highest values of leaf protein and total amino acids were found in many weedy species (A. viridis, A. blitum L. and A. dubius. The ranges of leaf protein and total amino acids in most of weedy types were 12–29 g 100 g?1 DM and 84–93 g 100 g?1 DW protein, respectively. The leaves of amaranths were found to be a good source for lysine which is the limiting essential amino acids in most of cereal plants. Their values were in the range of 6 g 100 g?1 DW protein which are close to that of good protein quality according to FAO/WHO’s standard. The leaves of underutilized weedy species of A. dubius, A. blitum, A. viridis and the dual purpose types of A. caudatus L., A. cruentus L. deserve to be further exploited as a low cost solution for solving malnutrition problems, especially in Indonesia.

  14. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  15. El uso del método de puntos de intercepción para cuantificar los tipos de vegetación y hábitats abióticos en los bofedales altoandinos / Using line-intercept methods to quantify vegetation types and abiotic habitats in high Andean wetlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kazuya, Naoki; Rosa Isela, Meneses; M. Isabel, Gómez; Carlos Miguel, Landivar.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bofedales son ecosistemas húmedos altoandinos de los Andes centrales con una importancia socioeconómica y ecológica crucial en la región. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es describir el método de puntos de intercepción para cuantificar la disponibilidad y la variabilidad de las asociaciones veget [...] ales, así que la cobertura no vegetativa en los bofedales, datos útiles para categorizarlos. En el contexto de nuestro proyecto, tomado en cuenta como ejemplo, se aplicó el método en 40 bofedales ubicados en la Cordillera Real (Bolivia) donde se establecieron aleatoriamente 10-20 líneas de intercepción de 50 m en cada bofedal. En cada línea de intercepción se registró la cobertura a intervalos de 1 m y se registraron 22 categorías de coberturas reconocibles a simple vista. Discutimos la relevancia del método para realizar evaluaciones rápidas en diferentes estudios en bofedales. Al estar enfocado en tipos de vegetación en lugar de las especies vegetales, permite su aplicación por investigadores que no tienen un conocimiento taxonómico profundo de la flora local. Abstract in english Bofedales are high Andean wetlands found in the central Andes, which provide crucial socio-economic and ecological resources in this region. The aim of our study is to describe the line-intercept methods to quantify the availability and variability of plant association and non-vegetative cover in hi [...] gh Andean bogs. Within the project BIOTHAW, taken as a methodological example, the method was applied in 40 bogs located in the Cordillera Real (Bolivia). In each bofedal, between 10 and 20 50-m intercept lines were randomly established. Along each intercept line, one of the 22 coverage types recognizable to the naked eye was recorded at 1-m interval. We discuss the relevance of this method for rapid assessments in different studies on highland bogs. Since the method focuses on simple vegetation types rather than on plant species, it can be used by researchers who do not have a deep taxonomic knowledge of the local flora.

  16. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel E. Mostert; Cornie Verwey; Hannes L. Klopper; Bredenkamp, George J.; Theo H.C. Mostert; Norbert Hahn

    2008-01-01

    The Major Megetation Types (MVT) and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA) and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun–Blanquet fl...

  17. Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.A., Edge; S.S., Cilliers; R.F., Terblanche.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence [...] of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at the BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

  18. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  19. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en 4 tipos de aceites vegetales / Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Piñero González; Pedro, Izquierdo Córser; María, Allara Cagnasso; Aiza, García Urdaneta.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos identificar y cuantificar residuos de los plaguicidas organoclorados (POC) hexaclorobenceno (HCB), lindano, cis-clordano, heptacloro, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín y o,p’-diclorodifeniltricloroetano (o,p’-DDT) en aceites de maíz, soya, girasol y mezclas de aceites, [...] que se expenden en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se analizaron 30 muestras de 4 tipos de aceites de 10 marcas comerciales. La extracción de residuos de POC se realizó según la técnica de la AOAC. Para la identificación y cuantificación se utilizó un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de captura electrónica (GC-ECD), y para la confirmación, un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas (GCMS). Todos los residuos de POC investigados fueron detectados en las muestras analizadas. Se detectaron en mayor concentración (mg/ g) aldrín (0,0088), lindano (0,0054) y o,p’-DDT (0,0035). El análisis estadístico demostró diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english The present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín and o,p’-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo [...] , Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC. A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p’-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (mg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P

  20. Ecological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on the ecological consequences of geothermal energy, oils, plutonium, uranium, radioactive effluents, and trace elements from coal utilization. Studies included vegetative stabilization, measurement of radiation exposures in rodents, measurement of radon-222 flux from inactive uranium mill tailings piles, chemical quality of effluents, and others

  1. Does sleep aggravate tension-type headache?: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki Gen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both insufficient sleep and oversleeping have been reported as precipitating and aggravating factors of tension-type headache (TTH. However, previous studies relied on recalled self-reports, and the relationship has not been confirmed prospectively and objectively in a daily life situation. Recently, ecological momentary assessment (EMA using electronic diaries, i.e., computerized EMA, is used to record subjective symptoms with the advantages of avoiding recall bias and faked compliance in daily settings. In addition, actigraphy has become an established method to assess sleep outside laboratories. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the within-individual effect of sleep on the following momentary headache intensity in TTH patients during their daily lives utilizing EMA and actigraphy. Methods Twenty-seven patients with TTH wore watch-type computers as electronic diaries for seven consecutive days and recorded their momentary headache intensity using a visual analog scale of 0-100 approximately every six hours, on waking up, when going to bed, and at the time of headache exacerbations. They also recorded their self-report of sleep quality, hours of sleep and number of awakenings with the computers when they woke up. Physical activity was continuously recorded by an actigraph inside the watch-type computers. Activity data were analyzed by Cole's algorithm to obtain total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake time after sleep onset and number of awakenings for each night. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effect of each subjective and objective sleep-related variable on momentary headache intensity on the following day. Results Objectively measured total sleep time was significantly positively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day, while self-reported sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day. Conclusions Using computerized EMA and actigraphy, longer sleep and worse sleep quality were shown to be related to more intense headache intensity on within-individual basis and they may be precipitating or aggravating factors of TTH.

  2. Nutrient release from combustion residues of two contrasting herbaceous vegetation types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Benjamin A; Inglett, Patrick W

    2012-08-01

    Fire is a critical regulator of biogeochemical cycles in approximately 40% of the earth's land surface. However, little is known about nutrient release from combustion residues (ash and char) from herbaceous or grassland fires of varying intensity. Much of our knowledge in this area is derived from muffle furnace temperature gradient experiments. Therefore, we used two approaches (muffle and flame burning) to combust herbaceous biomass from contrasting nutrient level sites to estimate the forms and availability of nutrients after fire. Clear differences were measured in total and extractable nutrient concentrations in combustion residues of different plant types, with most carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) being volatilized (>99%), while P remained in high concentrations in the residues. Different combustion methods yielded contrasting results, where temperatures greatly affected nutrient quantity and form in muffle furnace residues, while relatively similar residues resulted from flame combustion at varying intensities. It was also found that only 5% of N and 50% of P remaining in flame combustion residues were extractable. Flame residues appeared to be composed of mixtures of materials (ash and char) created at low (450 °C) muffle temperatures (pH, extractable potassium (K), and extractable NH(4)-N). We attribute dissimilar results of the combustion methods to heterogeneity of combustion (zones of low oxygen availability) and short duration (herbaceous, grassland systems. These results can be adapted to ecosystem level models to better predict nutrient changes that may occur after a fire event. PMID:22664533

  3. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. There still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 72 site-years for 58 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SR MAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This convergence is to be theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SR MAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it is sufficient to measure SR MAT for obtaining a highly constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution and interannual variation of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatio-temporal resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  4. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  5. Variation of combined heat-irradiation effects on cell inactivation in different types of vegetative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effects of irradiation and heating on cell inactivation were studied with E. coli K-12 derivatives of different DNA repair capacities and some thermophilic bacteria. With E. coli K-12 mutants log-phase cells of all four strains tested were sensitized to radiation by simultaneous heating. This means that the synergistic interaction between irradiation and heating is independent of pol, uvr and rec mutation. Simultaneous heating was more effective for radiosensitization than heating before or after irradiation. This combination effect was not or only weakly observed with stationary-phase cells. From recovery experiments and sedimentation analysis of DNA from E. coli cells the process of the synergistic interaction may involve the inhibition of the recovery from heat damage and the DNA repair, especially Type II repair. In respect of thermophilic bacteria, it was found that Streptococcus thermophilus becomes more sensitive to radiation under the combined treatment with heating, while other thermophilic strains do not, according to a comparison of the radiosensitivities in terms of the D10 value of the exponential slopes of the survival curves. The latter observation with thermophilic bacteria is in contrast to E. coli. The results of sedimentation analysis of DNA of thermophiles gave unique features. (author)

  6. Variation of Combined Heat-Irradiation Effects on Cell Inactivation in Different Types of Vegetative Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effects of irradiation and heating on cell inactivation were studied with E. coli K-12 derivatives of different DNA repair capacities and some thermophilic bacteria. With E. coli K-12 mutants log-phase cells of all four strains tested were sensitized to radiation by simultaneous heating. This means that the synergistic interaction between irradiation and heating is independent of pol, uvr and rec mutation. Simultaneous heating was more effective for radiosensitization than heating before or after irradiation. This combination effect was not or only weakly observed with stationary-phase cells. From recovery experiments and sedimentation analysis of DNA from E. coli cells the process of the synergistic interaction may involve the inhibition of the recovery from heat damage and the DNA repair, especially Type II repair. In respect of thermophilic bacteria, it was found that Streptococcus thermophilus becomes more sensitive to radiation under the combined treatment with heating, while other thermophilic strains do not, according to a comparison of the radiosensitivities in terms of the Dio value of the exponential slopes of the survival curves. The latter observation with thermophilic bacteria is in contrast to E. coli. The results of sedimentation analysis of DNA of thermophiles gave unique features. (author)

  7. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhegghen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT reflectances (1 km. Four zones (north, south and two central were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  8. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhegghen, A.; Mayaux, P.; de Wasseige, C.; Defourny, P.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m) and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) reflectances (1 km). Four zones (north, south and two central) were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas) was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  9. On variability of evapotranspiration : the role of surface type and vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is part of the long-term catchment-scale hydrological observatory, HOBE, situated in the Skjern River catchment covering 2500 km2 on the western coast of Denmark. To gain a more detailed knowledge of how evapotranspiration is controlled by the local surface and weather patterns, eddy-covariance systems was installed over the tree dominant surface types in the catchment; an agricultural field, a spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] plantation and a meadow site. Measurements started in late 2008, and the full evaporation and energy balances for the years 2009-2011 forms the basis for this study. At the spruce plantation additional separate measurements of transpiration, interception evaporation and forest floor evaporation was performed. Transpiration was measured in the growing season of 2010 using Granier type TDP sap flux probes, interception was measured using net precipitation gauges for the years of 2010 and 2011 and forest floor evaporation was measured on a campaign basis by weighing cut out sections for forest floor. The cumulative measured evapotranspiration from the three surfaces showed large differences. 2009 was an unusually dry year with much lower than normal rates of precipitation in April, May and June, while 2010 and 2011 where normal years in terms of precipitation. The meadow site and agricultural site had the largest evapotranspiration in dry year of 2009 at 512 and 470 mm respectively, while the normal years 2010 and 2011 saw 446 and 455 mm for the meadow and 406 and 400 mm for the agricultural site. The spruce plantation showed the opposite pattern. In 2009 the ET was 494 mm while in 2010 and 2011 the sum was 545 and 544 mm respectively. In all years the agricultural site had less evapotranspiration than the natural surfaces. In the dry year 2009 the meadow had slightly more evapotranspiration than spruce plantation, while in the normal years 2010 and 2011 the forest had considerably more evapotranspiration than either the Meadows or the Farm. At the agricultural site, transpiration was the most important component of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by crop development and by the available energy. At the meadow site soil evaporation and evaporation from free water surfaces was the most important parts of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by the water level in the Skjern River which influenced the ground water level in the meadows and by the available energy. At the spruce plantation transpiration and terception evaporation were both important. The rate of transpiration was heavily influenced by stomatal control in response to high vapor pressure deficits. In addition soil moisture stress had a limiting effect during prolonged dry periods. Interception evaporation was controlled by the amount and duration of precipitation. During rain, advection was found to comprise about half the energy balance of the spruce plantation in summer and the majority the energy balance in winter. On average, 19% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in summer, and 12% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in winter. Canopy structure in the forest were found to affect both transpiration and interception evaporation. Young stands with an open canopy structure transpired at about 30% higher rate than mature stands with a close canopy structure; the young stands had an interception evaporation of 31% of the gross precipitation, while the mature stands had an interception evaporation of 34% of the gross precipitation. Within the mature stands there was an edge effect with trees next to access roads and aisles being responsible for a disproportionally large part of the stand transpiration.

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  11. The ecological and evolutionary implications of merging different types of networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, C.; Guimaraes, P.R.; Kéfi, S.; Loeuille, N.; Memmott, J.; Putten, W. H. van der; Veen, F.J.; Thébault, E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions among species drive the ecological and evolutionary processes in ecological communities. These interactions are effectively key components of biodiversity. Studies that use a network approach to study the structure and dynamics of communities of interacting species have revealed many patterns and associated processes. Historically these studies were restricted to trophic interactions, although network approaches are now used to study a wide range of interactions, including for ex...

  12. Mapping the spectral variability in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation, soils, and shade using AVIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Smith, Milton O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to map as many spectrally distinct types of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), shade, and soil (endmembers) in an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene as is warranted by the spectral variability of the data. Once determined, a secondary objective was to interpret these endmembers and their abundances spatially and spectrally in an ecological context.

  13. Some Ecological Aspects of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F. and Type of Sugar Contents in Honey in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Onlamai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out at Khon Kaen and Maha Sarakham Provinces in northeastern region of Thailand. The work designed to investigate ecological locations and types of sugar in honey of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F.. The results showed that there were four types of ecological locations found, i.e. cropland and degradation forest, orchard farm, villages, and housing area of government?s official. Five types of sugar contents in honey were found with majority of fructose followed by glucose, lactose, maltose, and least with sucrose. The highest amounts of sugar in honey were highest in June followed by February, December, January, March, September, April, October and November. All types of sugar had no effect on egg rate, worker, and drone cells except fructose where it had highly significant effect on number of queen cells. A range of 1-1.05 (g ml-1 of total sugar had highly significant effect on number of queen cells, but with higher range number of queen cells was declined

  14. Involvement of Tcf/Lef in establishing cell types along the animal-vegetal axis of sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Li, X; El-Hodiri, H M; Dayal, S; Wikramanayake, A H; Klein, W H

    2000-02-01

    Members of the Tcf/Lef family interact with beta-catenin to activate programs of gene expression during development. Recently beta-catenin was shown to be essential for establishing cell fate along the animal-vegetal axis of the sea urchin embryo. To examine the role of Tcf/Lef in sea urchins we cloned a Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Tcf/Lef homolog. Expression of SpTcf/Lef was maximal when beta-catenin became localized to nuclei of vegetal blastomeres, consistent with its acting in combination with beta-catenin to specify vegetal cell fates. Expression of a dominant-negative SpTcf/Lef inhibited primary and secondary mesenchyma, endoderm, and aboral ectoderm formation in a manner similar to that observed when nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was prevented. Our results suggest that SpTcf/Lef functions by interacting with beta-catenin to specify cell fates along the sea urchin animal-vegetal axis. PMID:10664150

  15. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer

  16. Two centuries of vegetation succession in an inland sand dune area, central Netherlands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ujházy, K.; Fanta, J.; Prach, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 3 (2011), 316-325. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : primary succession * relief types * vegetation mapping Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  17. Real vegetation - southern part of the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland is one of the first territories where the real vegetation was mapped on the whole area at scale 1 : 25 000. The mapped units (43) were prepared relying on the accessible knowledge of vegetation of this territory, the proper research and aerial images. They were selected in a manner allowing for reflection of site conditions and human impact on vegetation. They are mostly at the level of vegetation associations (a complex of associations). The mapped units possess their physiognomy and groups of indicating species. The aim of mapping was not the syntaxonomic characteristics of vegetation, but the properties of sites reflected by the vegetation: the water soil regime, properties of soil and substratum and the way of use by man. This source material became part of the analyses, syntheses, interpretations, and proposals used in preparation of the Ecological optimisation of use of the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland by the LANDEP Methodology in 1986. The fragment represents a territory where the limiting factors of distribution of certain vegetation types are: the non calcareous sand and sand dunes with xerophilous grass, locust forests and vineyards, dead river arms and inter-dune depressions with water and swamp vegetation. Heavy clayey soils with extreme water regime represent the site of flooded and withering semi-natural meadows rich in species, and pastures. The mesophile meadows and pastures are on tillable (often meliorated) soils. They are intensively used, often sowed and of little significance from the point of view of biodiversity. (author)

  18. Minimal mechanisms for vegetation patterns in semiarid regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Hernandez-Garcia, E; Lopez, C

    2014-01-01

    The minimal ecological requirements for formation of regular vegetation patterns in semiarid systems have been recently questioned. Against the general belief that a combination of facilitative and competitive interactions is necessary, recent theoretical studies suggest that, under broad conditions, nonlocal competition among plants alone may induce patterns. In this paper, we review results along this line, presenting a series of models that yield spatial patterns when finite-range competition is the only driving force. A preliminary derivation of this type of model from a more detailed one that considers water-biomass dynamics is also presented. Keywords: Vegetation patterns, nonlocal interactions

  19. On the suitability of MODIS time series metrics to map vegetation types in dry savanna ecosystems: A case study in the Kalahari of NE Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dech; Christian Hüttich; Ben J. Strohbach; Manfred Keil; Michael Schmidt; Martin Herold; Ursula Gessner

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and evaluation of the recent status of biodiversity in Southern Africa’s Savannas is a major prerequisite for suitable and sustainable land management and conservation purposes. This paper presents an integrated concept for vegetation type mapping in a dry savanna ecosystem based on local scale in-situ botanical survey data with high resolution (Landsat) and coarse resolution (MODIS) satellite time series. In this context, a semi-automated training database generation pro...

  20. Ecological Transcriptomics of Lake-Type and Riverine Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavey, Scott; Sutherland, Ben; Leong, Jong; Robb, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are a growing number of genomes sequenced with tentative functions assigned to a largeproportion of the individual genes. Model organisms in laboratory settings form the basis for the assignment ofgene function, and the ecological context of gene function is lacking. This work addresses this shortcoming byinvestigating expressed genes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) muscle tissue. We compared morphologyand gene expression in natural juvenile sockeye populations relate...

  1. Ecological transcriptomics of lake-type and riverine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavey Scott A; Sutherland Ben JG; Leong Jong; Robb Adrienne; von Schalburg Kris; Hamon Troy R; Koop Ben F; Nielsen Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are a growing number of genomes sequenced with tentative functions assigned to a large proportion of the individual genes. Model organisms in laboratory settings form the basis for the assignment of gene function, and the ecological context of gene function is lacking. This work addresses this shortcoming by investigating expressed genes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) muscle tissue. We compared morphology and gene expression in natural juvenile sockeye popula...

  2. Reconstructing Past Vegetation Types During the Late Holocene Using Stable Carbon Isotopes of Leporids from Archaeological Sites in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.; Kemp, L.; Hard, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopes (?13C) from bone collagen in leporids provide high-resolution vegetation reconstruction. Leporids [e.g., cottontails (Sylvilagus sp.), jackrabbits (Lepus sp.)] die young (ca. 2 years) and use small home ranges (C4/CAM photosynthetic pathways. Leporids appear to focus on new growth as it becomes available throughout the year, perhaps as a function of water content. Their diet, and their bone collagen, provides a high-resolution view of the carbon isotopic values present in their local plant community. Here we provide an example of the use of leporid bone collagen for reconstruction of past vegetation types using data from several archaeological sites as well as modern collections. All samples are from a basin and range setting within the Chihuahuan Desert in far west Texas and southern New Mexico, USA. The sites span a period back to roughly 1350 BP. Isotopic patterns in leporid collagen show clear evidence of change in vegetation from around 775 BP to the modern period, with a dramatic shift of 4.2‰ in median ?13C values over this period in jackrabbit collagen and a 7.3‰ decrease in median carbon isotopic values in cottontail rabbits. These data suggest a significant increase in C3 plants in leporid diet, and by extension a relative increase in these plant types in the local environment sampled by leporids. This shift is consistent with historic accounts of more C3 mesquite, possibly because of historic land use and ranching practices in the 1800s. However, while this shift may have been accelerated by historic land use changes, our data suggest that the vegetation shift began several hundred years earlier during the prehistoric period. The prehistoric collagen isotopic record also shows increased sample variability through time in both species, suggesting that year-to-year variability in vegetation may have increased late in that sequence. Our results, then, clearly show the potential of leporids for high resolution tracking of vegetation shifts. As leporids are common in paleontological and archaeological sites throughout the temperate zones, their use as a vegetation and climate proxy has wide application.

  3. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference competition at intermediate intensity sometimes significantly increases the abundance of adult individuals and the population[U+05F3]s reproduction rate. We find that foraging and metabolic interference evolutionarily favor smaller maturation size when interference is weak and larger maturation size when interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size-structured communities. Like other types of trait-mediated competition, all four types of interference competition can induce disruptive selection and thus promote initial diversification. Even though foraging interference and reproductive interference are more potent in promoting initial diversification, they catalyze the formation of diverse communities with complex trophic structure only at high levels of interference intensity. By contrast, survival interference does so already at intermediate levels, while reproductive interference can only support relatively smaller communities with simpler trophic structure. Taken together, our results show how the type and intensity of interference competition jointly affect coexistence patterns in structured population models

  4. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; Wu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were significant differences among vegetation types in the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), excepting for that of microbial biomass carbon (MBC). The P. australis soil was with the highest content of both SOC (7.86 g kg-1) and DOC (306 mg kg-1), while the S. mariqueter soil was with the lowest content of SOC (6.83 g kg-1), and the bare mudflat was with the lowest content of DOC (270 mg kg-1). Soil enzyme activities were significantly different among vegetation types except for urease. The P. australis had the highest annual average activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (21.4 mg kg-1 h-1), and the S. alterniflora had the highest annual average activities of ?-glycosidase (4.10 mg kg-1 h-1) and invertase (9.81mg g-1 24h-1); however, the bare mudflat had the lowest activities of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (16.2 mg kg-1 h-1), ?-glycosidase (2.87 mg kg-1 h-1), and invertase (8.02 mg g-1 24h-1). Analysis also showed that the soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities had distinct seasonal dynamics. In addition, the soil MBC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease and ?-glucosidase. The DOC content was significantly correlated with the activities of urease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and invertase. The results indicated that vegetation type is an important factor influencing the spatial-temporal variation of soil enzyme activities and labile organic carbon in coastal wetlands. PMID:26560310

  5. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  6. Projected impacts of 21st century climate change on the distribution of potential habitat for vegetation, forest types and major conifer species across Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezda; Parfenova, Elena; Cantin, Alan; Shvetsov, Eugene; Soja, Amber; Conard, Susane

    2013-04-01

    Global simulations have demonstrated the potential for profound effects of GCM-projected climate change on the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems and individual species at all hierarchical levels. We modeled progressions of potential vegetation cover, forest cover and forest types in Russia in the warming climate during the 21st century. We used large-scale bioclimatic models to predict zonal vegetation (RuBCliM), and forest cover (ForCliM) and forest types. A forest type was defined as a combination of a dominant tree conifer and a ground layer. Distributions of vegetation zones (zonobiomes), conifer species and forest types were simulated based on three bioclimatic indices (1) growing degree-days above 5oC ; (2) negative degree-days below 0oC; and (3) an annual moisture index (ratio of growing degree days to annual precipitation). Additionally, the presence/absence of continuous permafrost, identified by active layer depth of 2 m, was explicitly included in the models as limiting the forests and tree species distribution in Siberia. All simulations to predict vegetation change across Russia were run by coupling our bioclimatic models with bioclimatic indices and the permafrost distribution for the baseline period 1971-2000 and for the future decades of 2011-2020, 2041-2050 and 2091-2100. To provide a range of warming we used three global climate models (CGCM3.1, HadCM3 and IPSLCM4) and three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). The CGCM model and the B1 scenario projected the smallest temperature increases, and the IPSL model and the A2 scenario projected the greatest temperature increases. We compared the modeled vegetation and the modeled tree species distributions in the contemporary climate to actual vegetation and forest maps using Kappa (K) statistics. RuBioCliM models of Russian zonal vegetation were fairly accurate (K= 0.40). Contemporary major conifer species (Pinus sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, Larix spp., Abies sibirica and Picea obovata) distributions also showed good match with the modeled ranges for the major conifer species from 41% to 78%. Those matches would be higher if only later seral stages were considered, because historically part of the primary conifer forests have been replaced by secondary birch and aspen forests after large disturbances (clearcuts and wildfire). With these projected climates, the zonobiomes would need to shift far to the north in order to reach equilibrium with the change in climate. Under the warmer and drier projected future climate climate, most of Russia would be suitable for the forest-steppe ecotone and grasslands rather than for forests. Water stress tolerant light-needled taiga (Pinus sylvestris and Larix spp.) would have an increased advantage over water-loving dark-needled taiga (Pinus sibica, Abies sibirica, Picea obovata) in a new climate. The permafrost-tolerant L. dahurica taiga would remain the dominant forest type in the many current permafrost areas. Accumulated surface fuel loads due to increased tree mortality from drought, insects and other factors, especially at the southern forest border and in interior Siberia (Yakutia), together with an increase in severe fire weather would also lead to increases in large, high-severity fires, which are expected to facilitate vegetation progression towards equilibrium with the climate.

  7. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  8. Field Evidence for Differences in Post-Fire Aeolian Transport Related to Vegetation Type in Semi-Arid Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilization of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a s...

  9. Composição da entomofauna da Floresta Nacional do Araripe em diferentes vegetações e estações do ano / Composition of entomofauna on the Araripe National Forest in different vegetation types and year seasons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Roberto de, Azevedo; Maria Andréia Rodrigues de, Moura; Maria Solidade Barbosa, Arrais; Daniel Rodrigues, Nere.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos tem grande significado ecológico e está relacionada com os fatores ambientais, disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo. Para avaliar a composição da entomofauna, em diferentes tipos de vegetação (Cerrado, Carrasco e Mata Úmida) e estações do ano na Floresta Nacional do Araripe, [...] Crato, Ceará, nordeste brasileiro, foram realizadas coletas semanais na estação seca (setembro a dezembro) e chuvosa (abril a julho), por meio de armadilhas McPhail, de solo e bandejas amarelas. Os insetos da ordem Coleoptera são numerosos, na estação seca, agindo como polinizadores, fitófagos e detritívoros, além de decompositores de matéria orgânica, na estação chuvosa. Os Diptera são numerosos na estação chuvosa, quando são encontradas moscas frugívoras, decompositoras de carcaças de animais, de matéria orgânica e predadoras; os da família Calliphoridae predominam no Cerrado; da família Tachinidae, no Carrasco, e da Tephritidae, na Mata Úmida. Os Orthoptera Gryllidae predominam na Mata Úmida e os Hymenoptera Formicidae, no Carrasco e Cerrado na estação seca. Portanto, cada grupo de insetos desempenha um papel ecológico sobre as vegetações, nas diferentes estações do ano. Abstract in english The occurrence of insects has great ecological significance and is related to environmental factors, food availability, and refuge. We assess the composition of the entomofauna in different vegetation types (cerrado, carrasco and humid forest), and seasons in the Araripe National Forest, Crato-CE, b [...] y weekly collections made in the dry season (September to December) and in the rainy season (April to July), through McPhail, pitfall and yellow tray traps. Many Coleoptera occur in the dry season, acting as pollinators, phytophagous, detritivore and decomposers of organic matter in the rainy season. Already, the Diptera is abundant in the rainy season, when fruit flies are found, decomposing animal carcasses, organic matter and predators. The Calliphoridae family predominate in the Cerrado, the Tachinidae in the Carrasco and Tephritidae in the Humid Forest. The Orthoptera Gryllidae predominate in the Humid Forest and the Hymenoptera Formicidae in the Carrasco and Cerrado in the dry season. Therefore, there is a satisfactory balance in the structure and functioning of the Araripe National Forest as each group plays an important ecological role on the vegetation, in the different seasons of the year.

  10. Vegetation growth monitoring under coal exploitation stress by remote sensing in the Bulianta coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lu; Zhen-qi Hu; Wei-jie Liu; Xiao-yan Huang [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Institute of Land Reclamation and Ecological Restoration

    2007-09-15

    Coal exploitation inevitably damages the natural ecological environment through large scale underground exploitation which exhausts the surrounding areas and is the cause of surface subsidence and cracks. These types of damage seriously lower the underground water table. Deterioration of the environment has certainly an impact on and limits growth of vegetation, which is a very important indicator of a healthy ecological system. Dynamically monitoring vegetation growth under coal exploitation stress by remote sensing technology provides advantages such as large scale coverage, high accuracy and abundant information. A scatter plot was built by a TM (Thematic Mapper) infrared and red bands. A detailed analysis of the distributional characteristics of vegetation pixels has been carried out. Results show that vegetation pixels are affected by soil background pixels, while the distribution of soil pixels presents a linear pattern. Soil line equations were obtained mainly by linear regression. A new band, reflecting vegetation growth, has been obtained based on the elimination of the soil background. A grading of vegetation images was extracted by means of a density slice method. Our analysis indicates that before the exploitation of the Bulianta coal mining area, vegetation growth had gradually reduced; especially intermediate growth vegetation had been transformed into low vegetation. It may have been caused by the deterioration of the brittle environment in the western part of the mining area. All the same, after the start of coal production, vegetation growth has gradually improved, probably due to large scale aerial seeding. Remote sensing interpretation results proved to be consistent with the actual situation on the ground. From our research results we can not conclude that coal exploitation stress has no impact on the growth of vegetation. More detailed research on vegetation growth needs to be analyzed. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in fora...

  12. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12)???endosulfan sulfate (10-11)?>?ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7)???pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6)?>??-endosulfan (8.3-9.3)?>?chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log?K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2) ?=?0.90, p?=?0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation. PMID:24975230

  13. Dinâmica espaço-temporal (1962-2006) das fitofisionomias em unidade de conservação do Cerrado no sudeste do Brasil / Spatial and temporal dynamics (1962-2006) of Cerrado vegetation types in a protected area, southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Da Silva, Pinheiro; Giselda, Durigan.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes indicam que em áreas de Cerrado protegidas das atividades antrópicas ocorre uma evolução estrutural de fitofisionomias abertas para outras mais fechadas, com tendência ao desaparecimento das primeiras. Analisou-se a dinâmica das fisionomias do Cerrado ao longo de 44 anos, na Estação [...] Ecológica de Assis, SP, uma das poucas unidades de conservação do bioma no sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar e quantificar possíveis tranformações fisionômicas no tempo e no espaço. Protegida de pressões antrópicas por longo tempo, observações de campo têm indicado um adensamento da vegetação em toda a área, rumo a um clímax de estrutura florestal. Para realizar este estudo foram utilizadas aerofotos (1962, 1984 e 1994), imagens "QuickBird" (2006) e reconhecimento de campo. Durante o período compreendido por este estudo, a área ocupada pelas fisionomias campestres foi reduzida de 23% para menos de 1% da área estudada, enquanto, no outro extremo do gradiente fisionômico, a proporção correspondente ao cerradão aumentou de 53% para 91%. O ritmo de adensamento da vegetação não foi o mesmo em toda a área, estando, aparentemente, correlacionado com a posição topográfica e diferenças edáficas. Acreditamos que as fisionomias campestres e savânicas inicialmente existentes eram mantidas em decorrência de pressões antrópicas, que impediam a evolução rumo a um clímax edafo-climático de maior fitomassa. Confirmando o que tem sido observado em outros locais, a proteção contra o fogo e a suspensão de atividades agropastoris possibilitaram uma evolução gradativa das formações abertas (campo, campo cerrado e cerrado típico) para outras mais fechadas (cerrado denso e cerradão), tendendo as primeiras ao desaparecimento, caso não ocorram novos distúrbios. As conseqüências dessas transformações, relacionadas com estratégias de manejo, conservação da biodiversidade e fixação de carbono são discutidas. Abstract in english Recent studies indicate that after protection from human pressures (fire, cattle grazing and agriculture), structural changes occur in the cerrado vegetation, changing open physiognomies into more closed savannas. We analyzed the dynamics of vegetation types along 44 years, at Assis Ecological Stati [...] on, one of the rare conservation units protecting the cerrado biome in the southeastern São Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of characterizing and quantifying those changes in space and time. Protected against human pressures since a long time, field observations have shown an upgrade of local cerrado physiognomies, through a successional process whose structural climax can be a forest physiognomy, with a continuous arboreal stratum. The dynamics of the vegetation types was analyzed by using aerial photographs (1962, 1984 and 1994), Quick Bird satellite images (2006) and field surveys. During this 44 years period, field physiognomies were reduced from 23% to less than 1% of the total area studied. In the other extreme, woodland savanna increased from 53% to 91% of the area. Changes did not happen at the same rhythm across the area, and that is apparently correlated to microclimate and edaphyc differences. We believe that field and savannic physiognomies initially existing were mostly maintained due to heavy human pressures, constraining the secondary succession towards an edapho-climatic climax of greater biomass. Confirming the observations of cerrado areas elsewhere, protection against fire, cattle grazing and agriculture allowed the evolution of open vegetation types into more closed ones, tending to be locally extinct the first if new disturbances do not occur. Consequences of these changes related to management strategies, biodiversity conservation and carbon sink are discussed.

  14. Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

  15. Diurnal variation of tension-type headache intensity and exacerbation: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Tension-type headache is a common psychosomatic disease. However, diurnal variation of headache is yet to be clarified, perhaps due to the lack of an appropriate method to investigate it. Like other painful diseases, it would be helpful to know if there is diurnal variation in tension-type headaches, both for managing headaches and understanding their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine if there is diurnal variation in the intensity and exacerbation of tension-type headache. Methods Patients (N?=?31 with tension-type headache recorded for one week their momentary headache intensity several times a day and their acute headache exacerbations using a watch-type computer as an electronic diary (computerized ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effects of time of day on momentary headache intensity and on the occurrence of acute exacerbations. Results A significant diurnal variation in momentary headache intensity was shown (P?=?0.0005, with the weakest headaches in the morning and a peak in the late afternoon. A between-individual difference in the diurnal pattern was suggested. On-demand medication use was associated with a different diurnal pattern (P?=?0.025, suggesting that headache intensity decreases earlier in the evening in subjects who used on-demand medication, while headache subtype, prophylactic medication use, and sex were not associated with the difference. The occurrence of acute headache exacerbation also showed a significant diurnal variation, with a peak after noon (P?=?0.0015. Conclusions Tension-type headache was shown to have a significant diurnal variation. The relation to pathophysiology and psychosocial aspects needs to be further explored.

  16. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated mineral group mapping products described in this study are ideal for application to mineral resource and mineral-environmental assessments at regional and national scales.

  17. Analyzing nonlinear variations in terrestrial vegetation in China during 1982-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxu; Liu, Xianfeng; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the long-term trends of changes in terrestrial vegetation on a large scale is an effective method for detecting the effects of global environmental change. In view of the trend towards overall restoration and local degradation of terrestrial vegetation in China, it is necessary to pay attention to the spatial processes of vegetative restoration or degradation, as well as to clarify the temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetative growth in greater geographical detail. However, traditional linear regression analysis has some drawbacks when describing ecological processes. Combining nonparametric linear regression analysis with high-order nonlinear fitting, the temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial vegetative growth in China during 1982-2012 were detected using the third generation of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset. The results showed that high-order curves could be effective. The region joining Ordos City and Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia on the Loess Plateau may have experienced restoration-degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth. In the Daloushan Mountains, degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth may have occurred, and the occurrence of several hidden vegetative growth processes was located in different regions of eastern China. Changes in cultivated vegetation were inconsistent with changes in other vegetation types. In southern China and some high-altitude areas, temperature was the primary driver of vegetative growth on an interannual scale, while in the north, the effect of rainfall was more significant. Nevertheless, the influence of climate on vegetation activity in large urban areas was weak. The trend types of degradation-restoration processes in several regions were inconsistent with the implements of regional land development and protection strategy. Thus, the role of human activity cannot be ignored. In future studies, it will be still necessary to quantify the effects of human management on spatial patterns, develop trend-fitting methods, and explore more refined methods of analyzing the driving forces affecting large-scale changes in vegetative growth. PMID:26514805

  18. Conhecimento ecológico tradicional da comunidade de Limpo Grande sobre a vegetação, Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation in the community of Limpo Grande, Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de, Morais; Cintia Silva, Serrano; Fernando Ferreira de, Morais.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido na comunidade de Limpo Grande, localizada a 23 km do município de Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Para verificar a possibilidade de os informantes organizarem o conhecimento ecológico tradicional da vegetação de acordo com uso o trabalho, buscou-se os seguintes objetivos: i) conhe [...] cer as espécies de cada domínio cultural indicado pelos informantes; ii) verificar a existência de consenso cultural para cada domínio cultural; iii) analisar a similaridade das espécies dos domínios culturais. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada para obtenção dos dados da lista livre e dados socioeconômicos. A lista livre foi analisada por meio do índice de Smith, consenso cultural e escalonamento multidimensional. Os informantes definiram três domínios culturais com base no uso da vegetação: plantas (utilizadas para o cultivo), mato (vegetação nativa que apresenta diversos usos) e plantas medicinais (utilizadas para tratamento de enfermidades). O domínio cultural de plantas foi representado por 107 espécies; mato, por 96; e plantas medicinais, por 99 espécies. Para os três domínios, pode-se verificar a existência de consenso cultural. Verificou-se baixa similaridade entre as espécies dos domínios. Os critérios utilizados pelas comunidades tradicionais para uso e manejo da vegetação podem contribuir para elaboração de políticas públicas destinadas à conservação da biodiversidade ecológica e cultural. Abstract in english This study was conducted in the community of Limpo Grande, located 23 km from the city of Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In order to investigate the way informants organize traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation according to its use, our research had the following objectives: i) to iden [...] tify the species of each cultural domain indicated by the informants; ii) check for cultural consensus within each cultural domain; iii) to analyze the similarity of the species of the cultural domains. We used structured interviews to obtain socioeconomic data and data from the free list. The free list was analyzed by means of the Smith index, cultural consensus and multidimensional scaling. Informants defined three cultural domains based on the use of vegetation, whether the plants are those used for cultivation, are medicinal plants used to treat diseases, or are considered native vegetation with several different uses. The domain of cultural plants is represented by 107 species, weeds by 96 species and medicinal plants by 99 species. For the three domains, the existence of cultural consensus can be verified. There was little similarity between species from different domains. The criteria used by traditional communities for vegetation management and use may contribute to the development of public policies for the conservation of ecological and cultural biodiversity.

  19. Establishment of experimental catchments to quantify water use by different vegetation types / Estabelecimento de microbacias experimentais para quantificar uso de água por diferentes tipos de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Auro Campi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper describes the procedure developed to select representative experimental catchments to quantify water use and water use efficiency of different vegetation types. We combined freely available information such as LANDSAT satellite images, digital elevation model, Google Earth images, streamflow and rainfall historical data, and soils and vegetation data to select the experimental catchments. Once these catchments were indentified, sub-catchments with different vegetation were delineated, which were used to define the distribution and installation of the instrumentation. Forty eight catchments and respective sub-catchments of Tasmania in Australia were analyzed and only two catchments were identified as ideal for the purposes of quantifying and comparing the historic and current water use by Eucalyptus plantation, native forest and pasture. We choose one catchment and created four experimental and instrumented sub-catchments with the following predominant land use: Eucalyptus nitens, native forest and pasture. ResumoO presente artigo descreve o procedimento desenvolvido para selecionar microbacias representativas para quantificar o uso de água e a eficiência do uso de água de diferentes tipos de vegetação. Foram combinadas informações disponíveis sem custo tais como: imagens de satélite LANDSAT, modelo digital do terreno, imagens de Google Earth, escoamento superficial e dados históricos de precipitação pluviométrica, tipos de solos e cobertura vegetal para a seleção de microbacias experimentais. Uma vez identificadas as microbacias, sub-microbacias com diferente tipos de vegetação foram delineadas, as quais foram usadas para definir a distribuição e instalação de instrumentação. Foram analisadas quarenta e oito microbacias e respectivas sub-microbacias na Tasmânia na Austrália e somente duas microbacias foram identificadas como ideais para o propósito de quantificar e comparar o histórico e atual uso de água por plantações de eucalipto, floresta nativa e pastagem. Ao final foi escolhida uma microbacia e quatro sub-microbacias experimentais instrumentadas com o uso de solo predominantemente de Eucalyptus nitens, floresta nativa e pastagem.

  20. Zinc and Other Metals Deficiencies and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: An Ecological Study in the High Risk Sardinia Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Alessandro; Pretti, Salvatore; Marcello, Alberto; Mannu, Carla; Targhetta, Clara; Bruno, Graziella; Songini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes incidence presents a decreasing gradient in Europe from the Nordic countries to the Mediterranean ones. Exception to this gradient is represented by Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island whose population shows the highest incidence in Europe, after Finland. The genetic features of this population have created a fertile ground for the epidemic of the disease, however, as well as being strikingly high, the incidence rate has suddenly presented a continuous increase from the ‘50s, not explainable by accumulation of new genetic variants. Several environmental factors have been taken into account, possibly interacting with the genetic/epigenetic scenario, but there are no strong evidences to date. Methods The present study investigated the hypothesis that geochemical elements could create permissive environmental conditions for autoimmune diabetes. An ecological analysis was performed to test possible correlations between the values of eight elements in stream sediments and type 1 diabetes incidence rate in Sardinia. Results Analyses revealed negative associations between elements, such as Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, and type 1 diabetes incidence. Conclusions The results suggest a possible protective role of some elements against the onset of the disease. PMID:26559814

  1. Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Pinilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain were established. Three treatments were applied: in some of the plots, the original ash layer was kept on the ground; in a second group, the ash layer was removed for simulating the effects of erosion; finally, in a third group, percolating irrigation was conducted to simulate a possible good input of water into the soil profile after burning, that could occur if the first rains were with high quantity but low intensity. During the dry season, soil moisture content was significantly lower in burned plots due to fire-induced water repellency and reduced vegetation cover. During the wet season, soil moisture decreased in the control unburnt plots due to direct evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation and consumption by roots. Fire increased soil water repellency only in plots under pine. Water repellency decreased during the wet season, disappearing in January and reappearing after declining rainfalls. This baseline recovery of soil water repellency was lower where ash removal was simulated. In unburned plots, seasonal fluctuations were less important. In general, ash removal promotes a rapid reduction of water repellency, since it can induce washing of hydrophobic compounds. Irrigation performed immediately after the fire also contributed to decreased water repellency.

  2. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  3. Cobertura vegetal do estado de São Paulo: I - Levantamento por fotointerpretação das áreas cobertas com cerrado, cerradão e campo, em 1962 Vegetation covering the state of São Paulo: I - Survey in 1962 by means of photo-interpretation of the areas covered by various types of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Borgonovi

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado, com base em fotografias aéreas, o levantamento da cobertura vegetal de cerrado no Estado de São Paulo, em 1962. Separaram-se as áreas com o cerrado pròpriamente dito (tipo da savana brasileira, cerradão (tipo de cerrado mais alto e mais denso e de campo (tipo de vegetação herbácea. Na caracterização dessas coberturas, levaram-se em conta apenas as áreas ainda sem utilização agrícola e com a vegetação pouco alterada pelo homem. A fotointerpretação foi feita com base na caracterização das texturas por amostragem de campo. O trabalho mostrou a situação seguinte: cerradão. 724.900, cerrado 2.668.000, e campo, 458.600 ha, representando, respectivamente, 2,9, 10,8 e 1,7% da área do Estado.A survey was achieved in 1962 based on aerial photographs covering the whole area of the state of São Paulo and areas were separated, by photo-interpretation, according to the type of vegetation, as follows: the «cerrado» which is a type of Brazilian savanna, the «cerradão», a type of shrubbery, mostly tall and rather dense, and grasslands, a type of herbaceous vegetation. In the characterization of the latter were considered just those areas that had not been under cultivation as yet or with but a little interference by man, altering somewhat their texture. Photo-interpretation was performed on a basis of characterization of texture by field sampling. This paper shows the situation with regard to the various types of plants covering the areas: «cerrado» covered 724,900 ha, «cerradão» 2,668,000 and grasslands 458,600 ha, these figures representing 2.9, 10.8 and 1.8% of the total area of the state.

  4. Estimating Hydrologic and Ecological Responses to Increased Climate Variability using Water Year Type Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Water management frameworks that were designed assuming stationary climate conditions will be increasingly difficult to implement in non-stationary climates, presenting a barrier to climate change adaptation and efficient water management for people and ecosystems. Hydrologic indices, or water year classification systems as they are also called, categorize streamflow by year type, such as wet, dry, or normal, compared to historical averages. Numerical thresholds separate water year types, often set by weighted winter and spring runoff volume for rivers. Year type classification is tied to water resources planning, helping to answer the question of whether there is 'enough' water, and water allocations to competing water uses are typically adjusted based on water year type. Hydrologic indices were developed for Utah's Bear, Weber, and Jordan-Provo rivers using long-term reconstructed streamflow from tree-ring data (~1500 to present). Tree-ring data have considerably more variability than measured streamflow from the 20th Century, indicating droughts and wet periods could be longer, more intense, and of greater magnitude than more recent records suggest. Tree-ring reconstructed streamflow is also a promising surrogate to represent increasing future hydroclimatic variability. The Bear, Weber, and Jordan-Provo rivers make up approximately 95% of the streamflow to the Great Salt Lake and supply water to the Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Logan metropolitan areas. The frequency of water year types changes with increased hydroclimatic variability represented in tree-ring reconstructed streamflow when historical year type thresholds or historical year type distributions are maintained. In turn, this affects allocations to urban, agricultural, and environmental water uses, and highlights potential adaptation strategies for watershed-scale water resources management with increased climate variability from climate change.

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gateway National Recreation Area provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation Classification System...

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Johnstown Flood National Memorial Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Johnstown Flood National Memorial provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation...

  7. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  8. Effects of soil type and farm management on soil ecological functional genes and microbial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Kang, S. [University of Oklahoma; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reganold, John P. [Washington State University

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between soil microbial diversity and soil function are the subject of much debate. Process-level analyses have shown that microbial function varies with soil type and responds to soil management. However, such measurements cannot determine the role of community structure and diversity in soil function. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of gene frequency and diversity, measured by microarray analysis, on soil processes. The study was conducted in an agro-ecosystem characterized by contrasting management practices and soil types. Eight pairs of adjacent commercial organic and conventional strawberry fields were matched for soil type, strawberry variety, and all other environmental conditions. Soil physical, chemical and biological analyses were conducted including functional gene microarrays (FGA). Soil physical and chemical characteristics were primarily determined by soil textural type (coarse vs fine-textured), but biological and FGA measures were more influenced by management (organic vs conventional). Organically managed soils consistently showed greater functional activity as well as FGA signal intensity (SI) and diversity. Overall FGA SI and diversity were correlated to total soil microbial biomass. Functional gene group SI and/or diversity were correlated to related soil chemical and biological measures such as microbial biomass, cellulose, dehydrogenase, ammonium and sulfur. Management was the dominant determinant of soil biology as measured by microbial gene frequency and diversity, which paralleled measured microbial processes.

  9. Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; Frescura, Viviane; Fiel, Luana; Coradini, Karine; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Quatrin, Andréia; Tedesco, Solange; Silva, Cristiane B da; Guterres, Silvia Staniçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-11-01

    The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230? nm, polydispersity index Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168? h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36 ?mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40? mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45 ?mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs. PMID:23978050

  10. Geophysical Applications of Vegetation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and selected applications of a global vegetation model, BIOME4. The model is applied to problems in high-latitude vegetation distribution and climate, trace gas production, and isotope biogeochemistry. It demonstrates how a modeling approach, based on principles of plant physiology and ecology, can be applied to interdisciplinary problems that cannot be adequately addressed by direct observations or experiments. The work is relevant to understanding the p...

  11. A change detection strategy for monitoring vegetative and land-use cover types using remotely-sensed, satellite-based data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes to the environment are of critical concern in the world today; consequently, monitoring such changes and assessing their impacts are tasks demanding considerably higher priority. The ecological impacts of the natural global cycles of gases and particulates in the earth's atmosphere are highly influenced by the extent of changes to vegetative canopy characteristics which dictates the need for capability to detect and assess the magnitude of such changes. The primary emphasis of this paper is on the determination of the size and configuration of the sampling unit that maximizes the probability of its intersection with a 'change' area. Assessment of the significance of the 'change' in a given locality is also addressed and relies on a statistical approach that compares the number of elemental units exceeding a reflectance threshold when compared to a previous point in time. Consideration is also given to a technical framework that supports quantifying the magnitude of the 'change' over large areas (i.e., the estimated area changing from forest to agricultural land-use). The latter entails a multistage approach which utilizes satellite-based and other related data sources

  12. Mediation of Fire-Climate Linkages by Vegetation Types in Alaskan Arctic Tundra Ecosystems: Impacts of Model Uncertainty on GCM-Based Forecasts of Future Fire Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Young, A. M.; Hu, F.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a powerful landscape scale disturbance agent in tundra ecosystems. Impacts on biophysical properties (e.g. albedo) and biogeochemical function (e.g. carbon flux) underscore the need to better quantify fire-climate linkages in tundra ecosystems as climate change accelerates at northern high latitudes. In this context, a critical question is "How does the functional linkage between climate and fire vary across spatial domains dominated by different vegetation types?" We address this question with BLM-Alaska Fire Service area burned data (http://fire.ak.blm.gov/predsvcs/maps.php) used in conjunction with downscaled historical climate data from the Scenarios Network for Alaska Planning (http://www.snap.uaf.edu/data.php) to develop gradient boosting models of annual area burned in Alaska tundra ecosystems. The sparse historical fire records in the Arctic necessitate explicit quantification of model uncertainty associated with the development of statistical analyses. In this work, model uncertainty is depicted through the construction of separate models depicting fire-climate relationships for regions defined by the graminoid, shrub, and wetland tundra vegetation classes (Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map: http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cavm/). Non-linear relationships between annual area burned and climate variables are depicted with partial dependence functions. Our results show that vegetation-specific models result in different non-linear relationships between climate and fire. Precipitation variables generally had higher relative influence scores than temperature; however, differences between the magnitude of the scores were greater when models were built with monthly (versus seasonal) explanatory variables. Key threshold values for climate variables are identified. The impact of model uncertainty on forecasts of future fire activity was quantified using output from five different AR5/CMIP5 General Circulation Models. Model uncertainty corresponding to vegetation-specific functional linkages between climate and fire has a magnitude similar to that of GCM-based model uncertainty. Results of this work strongly suggest that future forecasts of fire activity must account for and quantify sources of uncertainty in order to provide useful information.

  13. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga.A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or carcasses of beetles or ants or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

  14. The ecology of dark matter haloes I: The rates and types of halo interactions

    OpenAIRE

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom(School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Heogiro 85, Seoul, 130-722, Republic of Korea); Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast $\\delta \\approx 20$, regardless of the redshift, corresponding to g...

  15. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 ? C4 ? CAM with commute possibilities: C3 ? CAM; C4 ? CAM.

  16. The influence of soil type, vegetation cover and soil moisture on spin up behaviour of a land surface model in a monsoonal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anwesha; Mandal, Manabottam

    2015-04-01

    Model spin-up is the process through which the model is adequately equilibrated to ensure balance between the mass fields and velocity fields. In this study, an offline one dimensional Noah land surface model is integrated recursively for three years to assess its spin-up behavior at different sites over the Indian Monsoon domain. Several numerical experiments are performed to investigate the impact of soil category, vegetation cover, initial soil moisture and subsequent dry or wet condition on model spin-up. These include simulations with the dominant soil and vegetation covers of this region, different initial soil moisture content (observed soil moisture; dry soil; moderately wet soil; saturated soil), simulations initialized at different rain conditions (no rain; infrequent rain; continuous rain) and different seasons (Winter, Spring, Summer/Pre-Monsoon, Monsoon and Autumn). It is seen that the spin-up behavior of the model depends on the soil type and vegetation cover with soil characteristics having the larger influence. Over India, the model has the longest spin-up in the case of simulations with loamy soil covered with mixed-shrub. It is noted that the model has a significantly longer spin-up when initialized with very low initial soil moisture content than with higher soil moisture content. It is also seen that in general, simulations initialized just before a continuous rainfall event have the least spin-up time. This observation is reinforced by the results from the simulations initialized in different seasons. It is seen that for monsoonal region, the model spin-up time is least for simulations initialized just before the Monsoon. Model initialized during the Monsoon rain episodes has a longer spin-up than that initialized in any other season. Furthermore, it is seen that the model has a shorter spin-up if it reaches the equilibrium state predominantly via drying process and could be as low as two months under quasi-equilibrium condition depending on the time of initialization.

  17. Decreased Surface Albedo Driven By Denser Vegetation On the Tibetan Plateau Yangjian Zhang*, Li Tian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Tian, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has fundamental ecological and environmental significance to China and Asia through its influence on regional and continental climates. In recent years, climate warming has caused unprecedented changes to land surface processes on the TP, which would unavoidably undermine the ecological and environmental functions of the TP. Among the numerous land surface processes potentially impacted by climate warming, the effect of vegetation greenness on surface energy balance is one of the most critical, but has been long ignored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface albedo (LSA) on the TP and evaluated the vegetation greenness in relation to patterns of LSA. We found that LSA has been decreasing in most of the vegetated grasslands on the TP from 2000 to 2013, as compared to a flat trend for desert area. The regions where LSA has been decreasing were spatially correlated to areas of increased vegetation greenness. Along rising altitude, LSA decreasing rate exhibited an overall decreasing trend. Across the TP, elevated vegetation greenness in grasslands acted as a primary factor pulling down LSA. The driving effects of vegetation greenness on LSA vary with grassland types, as revealed by a more significant relationship between vegetation greenness and LSA for the sparsely vegetated zone (i.e. steppe) than the more densely vegetated zone (i.e. meadow). Furthermore, the driving effect of vegetation greenness on LSA exhibited an obvious dependence on altitude as effects with rising altitude were relatively strong up to 3,000m, then weakened from 3,500m to 5,000m, and then the effects again increased from 5,000 to 6,000m. The growing season LSA trend revealed in this study emphasizes the need to give greater attention to the growing season LSA flux in future surface energy balance studies.

  18. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes using HJ-1 and SPOT satellite data over Hulunbeier grassland, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Zhang; Ying Li; Sihan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Yanting Wu

    2014-03-01

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape patterns and ecological processes. With remote sensing technology, the relationships between landscape patterns and ecological processes were analyzed quantitatively from multi-scale, multitemporal and time series perspective. Firstly, the information about the current situation and change of landscape patterns and ecological processes are obtained from HJ-1 (Environmental and Disaster Small Satellite) and LANDSAT TM (Thermal Mapper) data. Secondly, SPOT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data during 2000–2008 are used to analyze the dynamic changes of ecological processes, and to simulate its inter-annual variety at pixel scale. Finally, the dynamic change trends of ecological processes of grassland vegetation are described. The results indicate that the unchanged ecosystem types account for most of the study area, unused land in the central part expands continuously which results in the increase of desertification, and most ecosystem types in the eastern part are changed to grassland and woodland. Furthermore, the vegetation vulnerability is the highest in the grassland-dominated region, the second in grassland–farmland–woodland transition, and the smallest in the woodland-dominated region, where the stability is enhanced in turn. Due to the dynamic change of vegetation, it can be concluded that the study area underwent ecological processes of vegetation cover with a negative trend and a changed phenology.

  19. Water deficit affects wood vessels of Croton floribundus Spreng. in different vegetation types, São Paulo State, Brazil / Déficit hídrico interfere nos vasos do lenho de Croton floribundus Spreng. em diferentes tipos de vegetação, SP, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Luiz, Longui; Diego, Romeiro; Luana Naves, Testoni; Osny Tadeu de, Aguiar; Roque, Cielo Filho; Israel Luiz de, Lima; Sandra Monteiro Borges, Florsheim.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O déficit hídrico influenciou na formação dos vasos da madeira de Croton floribundus ocorrentes em cinco áreas com as seguintes vegetações: Floresta Ombrófila, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Cerradão. As variações dos vasos devem-se especialmente ao déficit hídrico e número de meses com déficit [...] hídrico. Vasos de maior diâmetro ocorreram em áreas com maior déficit hídrico, o que pode indicar uma estratégia para otimizar o transporte de água em épocas favoráveis. Vasos com menores diâmetros ocorreram em áreas com menor déficit hídrico, possivelmente influenciados pelas menores temperaturas mínimas e a ocorrência de geadas, que semelhante a seca, causa a embolia dos vasos. Na Estação Ecológica de Caetetus, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (área com maior déficit de água) observaram-se investimentos em eficiência e segurança, com a ocorrência de vasos de maior diâmetro associados a um dos menores índices de vulnerabilidade e maior proporção de vasos múltiplos de quatro ou mais elementos. Abstract in english In this paper we showed that water deficit affects the wood vessels of Croton floribundus in five areas with different vegetation types: Rain Forest, Semi-deciduous Forest and Woody Savanna. We concluded that variations in the vessels are due especially to water deficit and the number of months with [...] water deficit. Larger diameter vessels occurred in areas with higher water deficit, which may represent a strategy to optimize the water transport in favorable periods. Vessels with smaller diameters occur in areas with lower deficit, which may be related to lower minimum temperatures and frost occurrence, which like drought can cause vessel embolism. In Caetetus Ecological Station, a Semi-deciduous Forest (area of highest water deficit), we observed investments in efficiency and safety, with the occurrence of larger diameter vessels associated with one of the lowest vulnerability indexes and highest proportions of multiple vessels of four or more elements.

  20. PATRONES DE LA VEGETACIÓN Y TIPOS DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL VALLE DEL PATÍA / Vegetation patterns and land use types in the Patia valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernando, Vergara Varela.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación del ecosistema de bosque seco del Valle del río Patía en el departamento del Cauca ha sido alterada y sustituida por cultivos y pastizales. Los remanentes boscosos se caracterizaron en función de su estructura y composición florística en altitudes comprendidas entre 500 m y 800 m de al [...] titud. Se evaluaron los cambios de cobertura usando fotografías aéreas y una imagen satélite y se relacionaron con los tipos de uso. Los datos fueron analizados a través de procedimientos multivariados usando el programa TWINSPAN con el fin de producir una clasificación de la vegetación, determinando seis tipos estructurales y seis tipos florísticos. El gradiente florístico arrojado por el programa describe tipos estructurales que van desde bosques y arbustales hasta herbazales. Las comunidades vegetales reflejan estados sucesionales de los fragmentos, la comunidad de Citharexylum kunthianum contrasta con los bosques riparios determinados por la comunidad de Eugenia sp., especie dominante y abundante en áreas intervenidas. La comunidad de Handroanthus chrysanthus muestra una transición hacia la vegetación de matorrales xerofíticos del sur del país. Los tipos de uso de la tierra y las clases de cobertura han permanecido desde 1961, se destaca el incremento de la cobertura de pastizal. Los estratos identificados muestran que los bosques secos tropicales se encuentran reducidos en su estructura, atendiendo a que son bosques perturbados. En la larga historia de uso y de perturbaciones que lleva esta área, se evidencia una reducción de los fragmentos de bosque; los factores sociales y económicos son una fuerza de cambio de las comunidades vegetales en áreas rurales. Abstract in english Vegetation of dry forest ecosystem of the Patia valley located in the department of Cauca has been altered and replaced by crops and pastures. The forest remnants were characterized in terms of their structure and floristic composition at altitudes between 500 and 800 m. This study evaluated changes [...] in land cover using aerial photographs and satellite image as input to produce land cover maps in order to assess changes associated with land use types. Data were analyzed by multivariate methods using the TWINSPAN program to produce a vegetation classification, identifying six vegetation structure types and six floristic types. The floristic gradient thrown by the program describes structural types, ranging from forests to shrublands and grasslands. Successional plant communities reflect conditions of the fragments, Citharexylum kunthianum community contrasts with riparian forests determined by Eugenia sp the dominant specie in disturbed areas. Handroanthus chrysanthus community shows a transition to xerophyte vegetation of the south of Colombia. Land use types and land cover classes have remained since 1961, increasing pasture cover. Tropical dry forests are reduced in its structure, considering that forests are disturbed. In the long history of the land use and disturbance of this area, a reduction in forest fragments is evident, social and economic factors are a force for a change in plant communities in rural areas.

  1. An ecological type nonlinear model for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by introducing liquid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average temperature of our planet is increasing in past several decades due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere leading to undesirable environmental consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to find a mechanism by which a global warming gas can be removed from the regional atmosphere. In this paper, therefore, we proposed an ecological type nonlinear mathematical model for the removal of a global warming gas CO2 from the regional atmosphere by externally introduced liquid species, which may react with this gas and removed it by gravity. The model consists of three dependent variables namely; the concentration of carbon dioxide, the concentration of externally introduced liquid species and the concentration of particulate matters (secondary species formed due to interaction of carbon dioxide with liquid species. The local and global stability conditions are discussed using Routh-Hurwitz criteria and suitable Lyapunove's function respectively. It is shown, analytically and numerically, that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of externally introduced liquid species increases.

  2. Observations on the distribution and ecology of Clostridium botulinum type E in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L G

    1975-06-01

    Environmental samples collected along the coastline and from the interior of Alaska were examined for the presence of Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium botulinum type E was detected in soils from 5 of 12 beaches; in 7 of 115 non-coastal soil samples; in sediments from six of eight locales; in gills of salmon from two fishing areas; and in the feces of 1 of 44 colonic samples from marine mammals. The basic biochemical characteristics of the isolates were determined. Tube tests for demonstrating gelatin liquefaction proved insensitive with these strains, whereas a plate test detected gelatinase in all isolates. The presence of multiple nidi and the continual discharge of organic materials into the environment may contribute to the perpetuation of botulinum spores by which foods prepared form marine animals become contaminated. An emphasis should be placed upon the need for measures to reduce environmental contamination, to reduce contamination during food preparation, and to alert continually the population of the hazard wherever botulism is endemic. PMID:1097074

  3. The ecology of dark matter haloes I: The rates and types of halo interactions

    CERN Document Server

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast $\\delta \\approx 20$, regardless of the redshift, corresponding to groups and relatively dense part of filaments. However, the fraction of interacting target is maximum at $\\delta \\approx 1000$. We provide a new empirical fitting form for the interaction rate as a function of the halo mass, large-scale density, and redshift. We also report the existence of two modes of interactions from the distributions of mass ratio and relative distance, implying two different physical origins of the interaction. Satellite targets lose their mass as they proceed deeper into the host halo. The relative importance of thes...

  4. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  5. Forest vegetation management in Europe – Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Ba?a?, P.; Krej?í?, R.

    Brussels : COST Office, 2009 - (Willoughby, I.; Balandier, P.; Bentsen, N.; McCarthy, N.; Claridge, J.), s. 7-14 [Ecological forest vegetation management. Vejle (DK), 04.05.2009 -08.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest vegetation management * herbicides * alternative methods Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  6. Is childhood-onset type I diabetes a wealth-related disease? : An ecological analysis of European incidence rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patterson, C.C.; Dahlquist, G.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the epidemiology of childhood-onset Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group established prospective, geographically-defined registers of children diagnosed under 15 years of age. A total of 16,362 cases were registered by 44 centres during the period 1989-1994. The registers cover a population of approximately 28 million children with most European countries represented. METHODS: In most centres a primary and a secondary source of ascertainment were used so that the completeness of registration could be assessed by the capture-recapture method. Ecological correlation and regression analyses were used to study the relationship between incidence and various environmental, health and economic indicators. RESULTS: The standardised average annual incidence rate during the period 1989-94 ranged from 3.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia to 40.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in Finland. Indicators of national prosperity such as infant mortality (r = -0.64) and gross domestic product (r = 0.58) were most strongly and significantly correlated with incidence rate and previously-reported associations with milk consumption (r = 0.58), coffee consumption (r = 0.51) and latitude (r = 0.40) were also observed. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The wide variation in childhood Type I diabetes incidence rates within Europe could be partially explained by indicators of national prosperity. These indicators could reflect differences in environmental risk factors such as nutrition or lifestyle that are important in determining a country's incidence rate.

  7. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products. PMID:16842875

  8. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México / Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raciel, Cruz-Elizalde; Aurelio, Ramírez-Bautista.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zo [...] na sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM) presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP), con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE), con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo. Abstract in english The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The [...] field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF) has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF), with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF), with 12 species. The associations between the CF-PF and CF-POF showed the highest dissimilarity in species, and the lowest the POF-PF. This study shows the richness and distribution species of the reptiles in the different vegetation types from southeast of the state, presents new records of species from the state and provides the basis for future studies on the biology of some species of reptiles in the area. The knowledge of species richness by vegetation types from this study provides the basis on the biodiversity that help to raise studies directed to the conservation of this group.

  9. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles ? a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses ? to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  10. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

  11. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  12. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  13. Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e 20cm e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg. Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados.The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax® were tested. The experiment was in blocks randomly distributed in four replications and five cuttings for parcel. After thirty five days the percentage of rooting, the length of the bigger root (cm and the leaf and root dry weight (mg were analysed. The results indicated that the vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi by cuttings is viable, once its mean rooting was over 70%. It was not observed significative interaction within the adopted treatments. The cuttings with 20cm length presented larger leaf and root dry weight but the percentage of rooting and the length of the bigger root was not affected by the cutting lenght. The substrate types did not present effect on the development of the cuttings. The production of Ocimum selloi seedlings is recommended with 20cm length cuttings using any substrate tested.

  14. Relating variation in the annual catchment water budget to vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somor, A. J.; Troch, P. A.; Brooks, P. D.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the hydrologic system is a nonlinear one and that significant variation exists in the partitioning of annual precipitation input to catchments. This variation is a product of feedbacks between climate fluctuation and vegetation, soil moisture and soil nutrient dynamics. The complex relationship between these four factors requires an ecohydrological approach toward understanding water budget variability so that anticipated changes in any one factor may be used to predict streamflow response. Of these, vegetation stands out as the factor which both directly influences, and is influenced by, the other three and can be viewed as the major integrator of ecosystem conditions. We hypothesize that vegetation dynamics can provide significant insight into interannual variability in catchment hydrologic partitioning. Hydrological and ecological data has been analyzed across catchments within the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network of varied ecosystem type and disturbance history over multiples spatial scales. Remotely sensed measures of vegetative characteristics were compared with annual water budget data. Results indicate that distinct threshold behavior may exist in the vegetation-hydrologic partitioning relationship with respect to catchment climate and disturbance severity. Further, the vegetation-partitioning relationship observed at the biome scale differs from that observed within and between catchments of individual LTER sites.

  15. Physiolgical and ecological studies of the vegetation on ore deposits, 3; Radioecological symptoms of plants over uranium ore deposits in Koisan, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1975 to 1981, the survey was carried out to find out radioecological effects of uranium ore deposits on natural vegetation in Koisan, Korea. The symptoms of spotty and mosaic chlorosis, and necrosis were observed in flowering plants in the areas of uranium ore deposits at Deok-Peung-Ri A, B, and C in Koisan. Although 13 species were found to be chlorosis and necrosis, foliages observed are small and very rare. The features of these symptoms closely resemble those occured by the effects of heavy metals. The amount of transparent radiation throughout the depth of soils from uranium radiation sources decreases exponentially. The mean contents in leaves of spotty and mosaik chlorotic plants, and soils were 1.36?1.53 and 5.3?7.4ppm, respectively

  16. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

    2007-11-15

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  17. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  18. Habitat use of bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba: Selection of vegetation types for ranging, feeding, and night-sleeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Saeko; Nackoney, Janet; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Mulavwa, Mbangi Norbert; Yumoto, Takakazu; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of great apes is essential for effective conservation strategies. We examined annual habitat use of a bonobo group in the Wamba field site within the Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Using satellite imagery, we categorized the group's ranging area into three forest types: (1) primary and old secondary forest (P/OS), (2) young secondary forest and agriculture (YS/Ag), and (3) swamp forest (Sw). We tracked the group for 1 year (2007-2008) and compared usage of the three forest types for ranging, feeding, and night-sleeping. We also recorded what the bonobos ate and monitored monthly fruit availability in each forest type. The group ranged and fed more often in P/OS and less often in YS/Ag and Sw than expected based on habitat availability. Also, the group slept mostly in P/OS (94% of nights monitored), but also in YS/Ag (1%), and Sw (5%). Fruit availability in P/OS had no significant effect on habitat selection, but the group fed in YS/Ag most often during the two months when fruits in P/OS were least abundant. In June, when fruit of Uapaca spp. (selectively eaten by bonobos) was generally abundant in Sw, the group mostly ranged and slept there. The bonobos fed most often on herbaceous plants in all three forest types. In Sw, the bonobos frequently ate mushrooms. Our results show that semi-open forest with abundant herbaceous plants such as YS/Ag could be an important feeding habitat and may provide fallback food for bonobos when fruits are scarce. Furthermore, Sw can serve seasonally as a main habitat to complement P/OS if adequate food resources and tree nesting opportunities are available. We conclude that bonobos use diverse habitats depending on their needs and we highlight the importance of minor-use habitats for sustaining populations of target species in conservation planning. PMID:25809523

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  20. Preliminary Ecological Survey of Microflora Inhabitant Different Types of Hydrophytes in Fresh Water Systems at Middle Egypt Belt with Reference to Physico-chemical Parameters and Phytochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Abo El-lil

    2003-01-01

    Fungal as well as algal flora inhabiting different types of hydrophytes (floating, submerged and emerged) in case of healthy and unhealthy ones and from different habitats represent different aquatic ecotypes in middle Egypt area (River Nile, channels, drains and pools) were studied. The relations between fungal and algal flora were studied. Some in vivo experiments were done to analyze and confirm the in vitro observations. In addition to complete analysis of ecological parameters which may ...

  1. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  2. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  3. Avaliação dos índices de vegetação NDVI, SR e TVI na discriminação de fitofisionomias dos ambientes do Pantanal de Cáceres/MT / Evaluation of vegetation indexes NDVI, SR and TVI in the discrimination of vegetation types of environments of 'Pantanal' in Cáceres, Mato Grosso State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos, Galvanin; Sandra Mara Alves da Silva, Neves; Carla Bernadete Madureira, Cruz; Ronaldo José, Neves; Paulo Henrique Hack de, Jesus; Jesã Pereira, Kreitlow.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz uma comparação dos índices de vegetação Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) e Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), na discriminação das fitofisionomias de três ambientes do Pantanal de Cáceres, Mato Grosso, considerando a sazonalidade (períodos seco e úmid [...] o). As imagens utilizadas foram as do satélite Landsat TM 5, do ano de 2009 (período seco) e de 2010 (período úmido). As análises mostraram que o NDVI apresentou melhor desempenho em relação ao SR e TVI para os diferentes ambientes. Abstract in english This paper compares the performance of some vegetation indexes: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) e Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), applied in seasonal periods to verify which one best fits to discriminate the vegetation types of environments of 'Pantanal' in Cácer [...] es, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in Landsat TM 5 image of 2009 in the dry period and 2010 in the humid period. Result verification of indexes images showed that NDVI provide a better performance than the SR and TVI indexes for different environments.

  4. The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W. Powrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets, the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  5. The South African National Vegetation Database: history, development, applications, problems and future

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael C., Rutherford; Ladislav, Mucina; Leslie W., Powrie.

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD) of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental plann [...] ing and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés) sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets), the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  6. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn,.

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINNÉ (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from the...

  7. Mapping vegetation communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways: final technical report to the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Robert A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.; Stroh, Esther D.; He, Hong; Larsen, David R.; Nigh, Timothy A.; Drake, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation communities were mapped at two levels in Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) usign a hybrid combination of statistical methods and photointerpretation. The primary map includes 49 cover classes, including 24 cleasses that relate to vegetation associations currenly described by the United States National Vegetation Classification Standard (USNVC: The Nature Conservancy, 1994a). The remaining types include cultural features, ruderal communities on abandoned agricultural lands, and non-vegetated classes. Overall map classification accuarcy is 63 percent. The secondary mapping level aggregates communities with similar appearance and ecologically related associations into Community Types. The resultant 33-class Community Type map has an overall classification accuracy of 77 percent and identified groups of communities based on resource management goals within the park. Important additional products include 1) a general probability map for all vegetation associations, which can be used to assess final classification certainty, and 2) individual probability maps for each association, which can be used to identify areas that have a high likelihood of supporting a given type, beyond where that type was identified in the final map products. Other secondary map products include data layers derived from primary color-infrared imagery, secondary imagery data and digital elevation models. A field key and photo guide to associations and complete community descriptions were produced, along with a photo guide of fuel conditions. Wildland fuels data were used to generate a fuels map based upon Anderson's fuels models (1982).

  8. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  9. Macrofossil evidence for pre-settlement vegetation of Central Otago's basin floors and gorges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of pre-settlement vegetation communities in the semi-arid Central Otago lowlands has been one of New Zealand's long-standing ecological puzzles. Uncertainty is due largely to a paucity of fossil data. Here, we provide new evidence for pre-settlement vegetation in the region based on analyses of plant macrofossils from 15 late Pleistocene and Holocene lowland sites. The assemblages represent two habitat types: wooded or partially wooded intermontane basin-floor wetlands, and low forest and/or shrubland habitats in the Kawarau and Clutha River gorges. In both habitat types, plant communities appear to have been predominantly woody, with significant components of herbaceous dicotyledons but few grasses. Both habitats seem to have undergone major post-settlement vegetation transformation. Several presently common taxa were rare or absent before human settlement, but others (including threatened spring annuals), now rare or extinct in the region, were formerly more common. (author). 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  11. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  12. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  13. Studies of vegetation?environment relationships and vegetation dynamics in Chinese subtropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-ying

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The principal aim of this study was to investigate vegetation-environment relationships and examine patterns of changes in forest understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests. Furthermore, an Ecological Field Theory (EFT) model for single-tree influence on understorey vegetation was applied to assess the relative contributions of tree influence to variation in understorey species composition. In focus are five study areas, located in the southern and southwestern part...

  14. Desempenho de um trator operando em solo com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal / Tractor performance in soil with different types of plants covering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Gabriel Filho; Suedêmio de L., Silva; Alcir J., Modolo; João C. M. da, Silveira.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de um trator para desenvolver esforço tratório depende da interação entre o rodado e o solo, envolvendo um complexo conjunto de fatores: característica do rodado, patinagem, transferência de peso do trator, tipo de solo, umidade, estado de compactação, tipo de cobertura do solo, entre o [...] utros, que proporcionam diferentes condições de trabalho e interferem no desempenho do trator. Assim, conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o propósito de avaliar alguns desses fatores no desempenho de um trator agrícola, em área coberta com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (aveia, ervilhaca, nabo, aveia e nabo e sem cobertura). O trator foi submetido a cargas por meio do acoplamento a um escarificador de arrasto e instrumentado para a obtenção da força de tração, velocidade de deslocamento, patinagem e consumo de combustível sendo os dados armazenados por meio de um sistema de aquisição de dados. A patinagem foi maior onde a massa de matéria seca era maior, porém não influenciou na potência requerida na barra de tração. A melhor eficiência de tração foi obtida nas parcelas sem cobertura. O coeficiente de tração foi maior nos tratamentos com cobertura de aveia, ervilhaca e nabo comparados com a área sem cobertura. Conclui-se que a cobertura do solo interfere na capacidade do trator em desenvolver esforço para tracionar máquinas e implementos e que o tipo de cobertura pode causar mudanças na patinagem e na eficiência tratória. Abstract in english The efficiency of a tractor to draft development depends on the interaction among the wheeled and the soil where it moves and it involves a complex group of factors, such as: characteristic of the tire, slip, the tractor weight transfer, soil type, water texture and soil compactation, type of soil c [...] overing, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acting of an agricultural tractor in an area covered with different types of plants. It was used five types of soil covering (oat, Vicia sativa, turnip, oat and V. sativa together and without cover). A load cell, pulse sensor, flow meters and a system of data acquisition, was used. The slip was larger where the mass of dry matter was larger, even so it didn't influence in the potency requested in the drawbar and in the consumption of fuel. The best traction efficiency was obtained in the portions without covering. The traction coefficient was larger in the treatments with covering of oat, Vicia sativa and turnip, when compared with the area without covering. It is ended that the covering of the soil interferes in the capacity of the tractor in developing effort for pull machines and the covering type can intervene in the slip and tractor efficiency.

  15. Desempenho de um trator operando em solo com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal Tractor performance in soil with different types of plants covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de um trator para desenvolver esforço tratório depende da interação entre o rodado e o solo, envolvendo um complexo conjunto de fatores: característica do rodado, patinagem, transferência de peso do trator, tipo de solo, umidade, estado de compactação, tipo de cobertura do solo, entre outros, que proporcionam diferentes condições de trabalho e interferem no desempenho do trator. Assim, conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o propósito de avaliar alguns desses fatores no desempenho de um trator agrícola, em área coberta com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (aveia, ervilhaca, nabo, aveia e nabo e sem cobertura. O trator foi submetido a cargas por meio do acoplamento a um escarificador de arrasto e instrumentado para a obtenção da força de tração, velocidade de deslocamento, patinagem e consumo de combustível sendo os dados armazenados por meio de um sistema de aquisição de dados. A patinagem foi maior onde a massa de matéria seca era maior, porém não influenciou na potência requerida na barra de tração. A melhor eficiência de tração foi obtida nas parcelas sem cobertura. O coeficiente de tração foi maior nos tratamentos com cobertura de aveia, ervilhaca e nabo comparados com a área sem cobertura. Conclui-se que a cobertura do solo interfere na capacidade do trator em desenvolver esforço para tracionar máquinas e implementos e que o tipo de cobertura pode causar mudanças na patinagem e na eficiência tratória.The efficiency of a tractor to draft development depends on the interaction among the wheeled and the soil where it moves and it involves a complex group of factors, such as: characteristic of the tire, slip, the tractor weight transfer, soil type, water texture and soil compactation, type of soil covering, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acting of an agricultural tractor in an area covered with different types of plants. It was used five types of soil covering (oat, Vicia sativa, turnip, oat and V. sativa together and without cover. A load cell, pulse sensor, flow meters and a system of data acquisition, was used. The slip was larger where the mass of dry matter was larger, even so it didn't influence in the potency requested in the drawbar and in the consumption of fuel. The best traction efficiency was obtained in the portions without covering. The traction coefficient was larger in the treatments with covering of oat, Vicia sativa and turnip, when compared with the area without covering. It is ended that the covering of the soil interferes in the capacity of the tractor in developing effort for pull machines and the covering type can intervene in the slip and tractor efficiency.

  16. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated corn, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of [CO2] corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated corn and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for corn, from 2000 to 2050 (–18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (–30 mm y?1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  17. Vegetation of the rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plan Endemism, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the ultramafic rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 100 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 17 plant communities, which are classified into 13 associations belonging to four proposed alliances. Many new syntaxa are ecologically interpreted and described. For each syntaxon, the species richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to specific habitat preference. The floristic and habitat information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key are provided to aid future identification of conservation areas, land use planning and research. An ordination (DECORANA based on floristic data confirmed potential relationships that could exist between the plant communities and associated habitats and environmental gradients.

  18. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil / Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dario de O, Lima-Filho; Anderson S, Hokama; Caroline P, Spanhol.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS): uma mercearia (quitanda), um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, res [...] ponsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra. Abstract in english The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was [...] conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.

  19. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de O Lima-Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda", a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS: uma mercearia (quitanda, um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra.

  20. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    2015-01-01

    Urban green space offers more than recreation – it is a resource and a habitat for flora and wildlife. Since 2000 numerous articles have documented an increased public awareness of urban nature and biodiversity. As a result there has been increased interest in new vegetation types in urban and suburban environments. Colourful species-rich forb vegetation may be one possible way to link recreational values, aesthetical preferences and herbaceous vegetation with habitat requirements for diverse fl...

  1. Alien plants invade more phylogenetically clustered community types and cause even stronger clustering.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losová, Z.; de Bello, Francesco; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.; Pyšek, Petr; Sádlo, Ji?í; Winter, M.; Zelený, D.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 7 (2015), 786-794. ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP505/12/1296; GA ?R GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * phylogenetic diversity * vegetation type Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.531, year: 2014

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  3. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as...

  5. Assessment of regional biomass-soil relationships using vegetation indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Johannsen, Chris J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of photosynthetic active biomass in different ecological conditions, as indicated by normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs) is compared by performing a stratified sampling (based on soil assocations) on data acquired over Indiana. Data from the NOAA-10 AVHRR were collected for the 1987 and 1988 growing seasons. An NDVI transformation was performed using the two optical bands of the sensor (0.58-0.68 microns and 0.72-1.10 microns). The NDVI is related to the amount of active photosynthetic biomass present on the ground. Samples of NDVI values over 45 fields representing eight soil associations throughout Indiana were collected to assess the effect of soil conditions and acquisition date on the spectral response of the vegetation, as shown by the NDVIs. Statistical analysis of results indicate that land-cover types (forest, forest/pasture, and crops), soil texture, and soil water-holding capacity have an important effect on vegetation biomass changes as measured by AVHRR data. Acquisition dates should be selected with condideration of the phenological stages of vegetation. Sampling of AVHRR data over extended areas should be stratified according to physiographic units rather than man-made boundaries. This will provide more homogeneous samples for statistical analysis.

  6. Inventory of native vegetation and related resources from space photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.

    1970-01-01

    The application of space and high flight photography to vegetational resources in Arizona is discussed. Ecologically based vegetation-landform and land use maps are prepared. The use of material from the Apollo 9 flight and high flight aerial photography are discussed. Land uses that result in a conversion or strong modification of the natural vegetation are presented. The vegetation-landform units have an ecological basis and are meaningful from a land use point of view because they identify areas with unique potentials or limitations for use or development under various land uses. Examples of these relationships are given.

  7. Diversity of subalpine and alpine vegetation of the eastern part of the Nízke Tatry Mts in Slovakia: major types and environmental gradients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekulová, L.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 5 (2009), s. 908-918. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * gradients * phytosociology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  8. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  9. Vegetative propagation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka

    Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, 2011 - (Simberloff, D.; Rejmánek, M.), 678-679 ISBN 978-0-520-26421-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth * vegetative regeneration * mechanical control Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Vegetation, soil and hydrology management influence denitrification activity and the composition of nirK-type denitrifier communities in a newly afforested riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Bruno; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Bottegal, Mariangela; Basaglia, Marina; Squartini, Andrea; Gumiero, Bruna; Casella, Sergio

    2013-09-25

    Soil microbial community composition and activity could be affected by suitable manipulation of the environment they live in. If correctly applied such an approach could become a very effective way to remediate excess of chemicals. The concentration of nitrogen, especially nitrate deriving from agricultural managements, is generally found to increase in water flow. Therefore, by forcing the water flow through a buffer strip specifically designed and possibly afforested with suitable plant species, may result effective in reducing high nitrogen contents. The management of a riparian buffer may definitely affect the soil microbial activities, including denitrification, as well as the composition of the community. The present study reports on the changes occurred in terms of denitrifying microbial community composition, as compared to that of a neighbouring agricultural area, as a consequence of hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and to the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation. With this aim, denitrification was repeatedly measured and the data obtained were related to those deriving from a specific analysis of bacterial groups involved in denitrification. nirK, encoding for nitrite reductase, an enzyme essential for the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide and considered the key step in the denitrification process, was chosen as the target gene. The main results obtained indicated that denitrification activity changes in riparian buffer as compared to agricultural soil and it is strongly influenced by carbon availability and soil depth. Although no significant differences on the community composition between superficial (0-15 cm) and medium (40-55 cm) layers were observed, the nirK-type denitrifier community was shown to significantly differ between riparian and agricultural soils in both surface and medium layers. PMID:23567981

  11. Are tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationship independent of vegetation formation type? A case study with Cordia oncocalyx in the Brazilian caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Andréa P.; Martins, Fernando R.; Araújo, Francisca S.

    2012-08-01

    In temperate and tropical rainforests, ontogenetic structure and allometry during tree ontogeny are often associated with light gradients. Light is not considered a limiting resource in deciduous thorny woodland (DTW), but establishment and growth occur during a short rainy period, when the canopy is fully leaved and light in the understory may be modified. Our aim was to investigate whether the light gradient in DTW and the biomechanical limitations of tree growth would be enough to produce an ontogenetic structure and allometric growth similar to rainforest canopy trees. We investigated the ontogenetic stages and diameter-height relationship of Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), a dominant canopy tree of the DTW of semiarid northeastern Brazil. We tagged, measured and classified the ontogenetic stages of 2.895 individuals in a 1 ha area (5°6'58.1?S and 40°52'19.4?W). In the rainy season only 4.7% of the light falling on the canopy reached the ground. Initial ontogenetic stages, mainly infant (50.9%) and seedling (42.1%), were predominant in the population, with the remaining 7% distributed among juvenile, immature, virginile and reproductive. The ontogenetic structure was similar to that of rainforest tree species, but the population formed both permanent seed and infant banks in response to long dry periods and erratic rainy spells. Like many other Boraginaceae tree species in tropical rainforests, C. oncocalyx has a Prévost architectural model, but allometric growth was quite different from rainforest trees. C. oncocalyx invested slightly more in diameter at first, then in height and finally invested greatly in diameter and attained an asymptotic height. The continued high investment in diameter growth at late stages and the asymptotic height point to low tree density and more frequent xylem embolism as the main drivers of tree allometric shape in DTW. This indicates that tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationships depend on vegetation formation type.

  12. Studying the effect of elevation and edaphic variables on vegetation composition in Khezrabad rangelands using principal component analysis (PCA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhollah TAGHIZADEH MEHRJARDI; Akbarzadeh, Ali; Mehdi BINIYAZ; Shahla MAHMOODI; Mohammad Ali ZARE CHAHOUKI

    2009-01-01

    A major scientific challenge in plant ecology is to identify and quantify the strength of environmental factors that are responsible for the distribution and abundance of plant species within and among ecosystems. Hence, this study is focused on relation between plant communities and environmental variables in Khezrabad region of Iran. Based on field surveys, eight vegetation types including Artemisia sieberi-Acantholimon erinaceum, Artemisia sieberi-Hertia angustifolia, Artemisia sieberi-Lau...

  13. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased

  14. Applications of ERTS data to coastal wetland ecology with special reference to plant community mapping and typing and impact of man. [Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. P.; Mcginness, J.

    1974-01-01

    Complete seasonal ERTS-1 coverage of Atlantic coastal wetlands from Delaware Bay to Georgia provides a basis for assessment of temporal data for wetland mapping, evaluation, and monitoring. Both MSS imagery and digital data have proved useful for gross wetland species delineation and determination of the upper wetland boundary. Tidal effects and (band to band or seasonal) spectral reflectance differences make it possible to type vegetatively coastal wetlands in salinity related categories. Management areas, spoil disposal sites, drainage ditches, lagoon-type developments and highway construction can be detected indicating a monitoring potential for the future. A northern test site (Maryland-Virginia) and a southern test site (Georgia-South Carolina), representing a range of coastal marshes from saline to fresh, were chosen for intensive study. Wetland maps were produced at various scales using both ERTS imagery (bands 5 and 7) and digital data (bands 4, 5 and 7).

  15. Tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação vegetativa da menta (Mentha arvensis L.) / Types of cuttings and substrates in the vegetative propagation of mint (Mentha arvensis L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.T.R, Amaro; J.R, Silveira; A.M.S de S, David; M.A.V de, Resende; J.A.S., Andrade.

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa da menta utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos. O experimento foi conduzido no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, campus Janaúba - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema f [...] atorial 2 x 4 (dois tipos de estacas e quatro diferentes substratos) com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela representada por seis estacas. Foram analisadas as variáveis comprimento de parte aérea e de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes e número total de brotações formadas por planta. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A interação entre os fatores estacas e substratos não foi significativa para as variáveis estudadas, passando-se a estudar o efeito isolado de cada fator. A propagação de Mentha arvensis L. pode ser realizada tanto por estacas apicais como medianas, utilizando o substrato solo + areia + esterco bovino (2:1:1) para a produção de mudas de qualidade. Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to evaluate the vegetative propagation using different types of mint cuttings and substrates. The experiment was conducted in the Garden of Medicinal Plants of Unimontes, in Janaúba - MG. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD) in 2 x 4 factorial schemes [...] (two types of poles and four different substrates) with four replications and each plot was represented by six cuttings. The variables analyzed were the length of the shoots and roots, the dry matter of the shoots and roots and the total number of shoots per plant. The data were subject to ANOVA and the means were compared by Scott-Knott's test at 5% of probability. The interaction among stem cuttings and substrates was not significant for the variables studied, thus, the isolated effect of each factor was studied. The propagation of Mentha arvensis L. can be performed either by apical cuttings as medians, using the substrate soil + sand + manure bovine (2:1:1) for the production of quality seedlings.

  16. Structure and condition of soil-vegetation cover in the Klyazma river basin applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Repkin, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial-temporal peculiarities of soil-vegetation structure formation in the Klyazma basin as a whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images Landsat. Research methods: Remote data analysis for assessing land utilization structure and soil-vegetation condition according to NDVI. Laying soil-geobotanic landscape profiles river valleys slopes. Phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics assessment. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located in the area of grey forest soil. Besides here the maximum value of vegetation index for all phytocenosis was detected. In the research the most dynamically changing parts of the Klyazma basin have been determined according to NDVI dynamics analysis. Analyzing the reasons for such changes of NDVI the most significant ecologic processes in the region connected to the changes of vegetation cover condition have been revealed. Fields overgrowing and agricultural crops replacement are the most important of them. Soil-geobotanic profiles, laid in minor river basin of the Sudogda, allowed to reveal various vegetation association and to describe the confined soil profile. It is shown that well drained landscape forms correspond to arboreal vegetation type, more humidified elements of the landscape are occupied with gramineous meadow vegetation. There is sand and clay sand under mixed forest humus horizon. In pinewood forests light loam prevails in surface horizons. The results can be used for environmental monitoring of the river basins and for rational agricultural structuring.

  17. Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Roberts; Denes Bajzak

    2011-01-01

    This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called “Lower Churchill Area” by establishing new power plants at Gull Island and at Muskrat Falls with associated reservoirs. These new plants would use the discharged water of the plant from Churchill F...

  18. Effect of vegetation switch on soil chemical properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwashima, N.; Masunaga, T.; Fujimaki, R.; Toyota, Ayu; Tayasu, I.; Hiura, T.; Kaneko, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 6 (2012), s. 783-792. ISSN 0038-0768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm * litter * nutrient cycling * soil chemical properties * vegetation switch Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2012

  19. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  20. The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Bezuidenhout.

    Full Text Available The need for a scientifically-based wildlife management plan and for more knowledge on vegetation led to an investigation into the plant ecology of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve. The main aim of this study was therefore to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the reserve. The floristic data w [...] ere analysed according to the Braun-Blanquet procedure using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of 15 communities that can be grouped into ten major community types. This resulted in five ecology-based management units, which could assist with the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the reserve in order to achieve sustainable utilisation of the natural resources. The Rooipoort Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and as such deserves to be conserved and protected. The riverine and pan vegetation communities are considered to be endangered and are in need of special conservation and protection. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION: The results suggest five management units, which will assist in the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the RNR, in order to allow sustainable utilization of natural resources.

  1. Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology in fire degraded tropical peat swamp forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wösten, J.H.M.; Berg, J.; Eijk, P; Gevers, G.J.M.; Giesen, W.B.J.T.; Hooijer, A.; Aswandi Idris; Leenman, P.H.; Dipa Satriadi Rais; Siderius, C.; Silvius, M.J.; Suryadiputra, N.; Iwan Tricahyo Wibisono

    2006-01-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology are established for the Air Hitam Laut watershed in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The developed relational diagram shows how modelled regional groundwater levels and flooding patterns are related to the occurrence of different vegetation types in this endangered peatland watershed. In dry conditions when groundwater levels are deeper than 1 m below soil surface, fire disasters are unavoidable. When areas susceptible to fire actually burn ...

  2. Ecological Characteristics of a Gonystylus bancanus-rich Area in Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah, Khali Aziz; Ismail, Parlan; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Hassan, Che Hashim; Akeng, Grippin; Said, Nizam Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Tropical peat swamp forest (PSF) is a unique wetland ecosystem with distinct vegetation types. Due to the waterlogged environment, the stand characteristics in this ecosystem are different from those of other inland forests. This paper highlights stand characteristics of a PSF based on our investigation of a 1 ha ecological plot established in a Virgin Jungle Reserve (VJR) at Compartment 100, Pekan Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. This site is considered a Gonystylus bancanus-rich area. From...

  3. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then analysed for some selected areas and a regression model of post-fire recovery was fitted to the recorded values of NDVI. The model allowed characterising the dynamics of the regeneration process. It was found that recovery rates depend on geographical location, fire intensity/severity and type of vegetation cover. Díaz-Delgado, R., Salvador, R. and Pons, X., 1998: Monitoring of plant community regeneration after fire by remote sensing. In L. Traboud (Ed.), Fire management and landscape ecology (pp. 315-324). International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, WA. Pausas, G.J. and Vallejo, V.R., 1999: The role of fire in European Mediterranean Ecosystems. In: E. Chuvieco (Ed.), Remote sensing of large wildfires in the European Mediterranean basin (pp. 3-16). Springer-Verlag. Trigo R.M., Pereira J.M.C., Pereira M.G., Mota B., Calado M.T., DaCamara C.C., Santo F.E., 2006: Atmospheric conditions associated with the exceptional fire season of 2003 in Portugal. International Journal of Climatology 26 (13): 1741-1757 NOV 15 2006.

  4. Studying the effect of elevation and edaphic variables on vegetation composition in Khezrabad rangelands using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah TAGHIZADEH MEHRJARDI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A major scientific challenge in plant ecology is to identify and quantify the strength of environmental factors that are responsible for the distribution and abundance of plant species within and among ecosystems. Hence, this study is focused on relation between plant communities and environmental variables in Khezrabad region of Iran. Based on field surveys, eight vegetation types including Artemisia sieberi-Acantholimon erinaceum, Artemisia sieberi-Hertia angustifolia, Artemisia sieberi-Launea acanthodes, Artemisia sieberi-Salsola tomentosa, Artemisia sieberi-Zygophyllum atriplicoides, Artemisia aucheri-Astrgalus albispinus, Artemisia sieberi-Fortuynia bungei, Haloxylon aphyllum were identified. With respecting to the present variance between vegetation and environmental factors, four samples were established in each vegetation type in 0–30 cm depth. The studied soil variables affecting plant communities were texture, EC, pH, Na+, k+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SP, O.M, CaCO3, HCO3 - and CEC. Among the topographic conditions, elevation was recorded in sampling regions as well. Data matrix of environmental factors and vegetation type was made using the windows (ver. 4.17 of PC-ORD. Results according to PCA showed that in the study area, among different environmental factors, the distribution of vegetation types was most strongly correlated with some agents such as soil texture, salinity and sodicity. In fact, soil texture controls distribution of plant species by affecting moisture availability, ventilation and distribution of plant roots. Beside, soil salinity and sodicity because of habitat condition, plant ecological needs and tolerance range can have negative affect on plant diversity. In addition, results indicated that increasing of elevation had negative effect on plant distribution. However, soil characteristics have more influence on vegetation separation than to the elevation in this study.

  5. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

  6. A territorial classification for the ecological strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a territorial classification including at the sun, the water, the atmosphere, the vegetable earth and the vegetation of green leaf, describes each one of the elements, he refers to the micro-climates and he gives a territorial organization for the ecological emergency

  7. Vegetative propagation in Piperaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio de Souza; Ismar Sebastião Moscheta; Káthia Socorro Mathias Mourão; Adriana Lenita Meyer Albiero; Maísa de Carvalho Iwazaki; Jonathas Henrique Georg de Oliveira; Sônia Maciel da Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Piperaceae species of forest remnants of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil present vegetative propagation through root or stem (stolon). This reproduction type was verified in Piper amalago L., P. arboreum Aublet, P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud., Peperomia parnassifolia Miq. and Ottonia martiana Miq. Root and stem branches of these species were analyzed anatomically. Results indicated that the vegetative propagation in Piperaceae should be studied in other forests. New and additional studies should be m...

  8. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  9. Vegetation in the Gravettian Period – an Overview.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr

    Brno : Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Archaeology at Brno, 2009 - ( Šída , P.), s. 30-37 ISBN 978-80-86023-86-1. - (Dolnov?stonické studie. 17) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : palaeolithic * vegetation * palaeoecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  11. Social-ecological feedbacks between climate, reindeer and people - contributions to climate change adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Kivinen, Sonja; Johansen, Bernt

    2015-04-01

    The circumpolar tundra is experiencing significant transformations as a consequence of climate change. The anticipated changes include greening of the tundra due to a latitudinal and altitudinal progression of the tree line and range expansion of shrubs. In Northern Fennoscandia, reindeer husbandry by the indigenous Sámi people depends on large, seasonally variable grazing grounds, including the tundra. We demonstrate relationships between different vegetation types and climate conditions in Northern Fennoscandia. A generalized, seamless vegetation type map with 100 m grid, based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and various ancillary data, allows examination of vegetation types in relation to current climate conditions (1950-2000). Downscaled GCMs with different RCPs for 2050 and 2070 allow estimating future vegetation changes. Recently, the potential of herbivores has been recognized in slowing down this regime shift of vegetation composition with its feedbacks e.g. on the atmospheric energy balance, biodiversity and local livelihoods that depend on the tundra ecosystem. However, ecology alone is not the answer. We need comprehensive scenarios for adaptive ecosystem management for this social-ecological system to slow down the unfavourable impacts of climate change and excessive grazing pressure by reindeer in space and time, as well as across country borders. Possible adaptations could encourage the design of new institutional structures, and thus contest the legal background governing reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries today. Designing such policy options for socially desirable and ecologically reasonable decision making, as well as navigating trade-offs inherent in flexible grazing patterns, require careful scenario analysis and acceptance by a variety of land users. A clear understanding of which values should be prioritized in relation to what ecosystem dynamics over what time scales is essential.

  12. Efectos del cambio climático en la diversidad vegetal del corredor de conservación comunitaria Reserva Ecológica El Ángel- Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador / The effects of climate change on vegetative diversity in the El Angel Ecological Reserve-Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor in northern Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Delgado; David, Suárez-Duque.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el impacto del cambio climático en el corredor de conservación comunitaria Reserva Ecológica El Ángel - Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador se utilizó modelos de distribución potencial generados con MARS de 413 especies vegetales, usando 19 variables bioclimáticas de Wo [...] rldclim con el clima actual y para el 2080 estas mismas variables fueron estimadas de acuerdo al modelo HadCM3-A2. En base a esta información se generaron mapas de riqueza tanto para el presente como para el 2080. Para el área del corredor se han identificado zonas donde se estima que haya cambios de riqueza y donde potencialmente las especies podrían colonizar nuevas áreas o donde se extinguirán. Esto permite determinar el grado de perturbación que sufrirán los ecosistemas por efecto del cambio climático. La tendencia general de las especies estudiadas muestra que colonizarán altitudes más elevadas, cambiando la estructura de los ecosistemas naturales actuales. Toda esta información muestra que para afrontar potenciales impactos en la flora de los ecosistemas de montaña es necesario formar corredores que conecten altitudinalmente áreas naturales protegidas, que permitan la migración de especies y por ende la conservación de la biodiversidad. Abstract in english In order to estimate the impact of climate change on the El Angel Ecological Reserve - Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor, potential distribution models generated using MARS of 413 vegetative species were applied using 19 Worldclim bioclimatic variables for current climate, [...] and for the year 2080, these same variables were estimated according to the HadCM3-A2 general circulation model. Based on this information, richness maps were developed for the present and for 2080. In the area of the corridor, zones were identified where changes in richness were predicted, where species could potentially colonize, or where species could become extinct. This allows the determination of the level of disturbance that the ecosystems will suffer with climate change. The general tendency of the species studied shows that they will colonize higher altitudes thus changing the structures of current natural ecosystems. All of this information demonstrates that to deal with potential impacts on the flora of mountain ecosystems it will be necessary to create corridors that will connect protected areas located at differing altitudes and thus permit species migration that will in turn conserve biodiversity.

  13. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the model was especially poor at distinguishing between the different ‘dry’ biomes, such as Tropical Dry Forest, Savanna, Grassland and Xeric Shrubland. There are several potential reasons why this might be so. The module which simulates fire in LPJ-GUESS is based on fire requirement for boreal and temperate regions. Fire was underestimated in those areas which were supposed to be Savannas, which is likely why those areas were dominated by a Dry Tropical Forest. Other potential factors include hydraulic redistribution, facilitation, photosynthetic pathway, and the described soil layer.

  14. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  15. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  16. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  17. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Y.; Bahmanyar, H. Jalilvand M. A.; Pormajidian, M. R.

    The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran). Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN). Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer) and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm). Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

  18. Ecological Distribution of Indicator Species and Effective Edaphical Factors on the Northern Iran Lowland Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kooch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to identify the ecological species groups and study the relationship between topographic and edaphic factors with plant species to determine the main factors affecting the separation of vegetation types in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province (North of Iran. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. Vegetation was classified into different groups. The topographic conditions were recorded in quadrate locations. Soil samples were taken from organic horizon (litter layer and mineral layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm. Soil acidity, bulk density, saturation moisture, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchangeable capacity, available phosphorous, soil texture, lime, biomass of earthworms, litter carbon and litter nitrogen were measured. Multivariate techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patters were mainly related to soil characteristics such as pH, bulk density, texture, phosphorous, organic carbon, nitrogen and CEC. Totally, considering the habitat conditions and ecological needs, each plant species has a significant relation with soil properties.

  19. Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 13a infection in Sweden linked to imported dried-vegetable spice mixes, December 2014 to July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, C; Hjertqvist, M; Sundborger, C; Castro, E; Lofdahl, M; Pääjärvi, A; Sundqvist, L; Löf, E

    2015-01-01

    From 24 December to 24 July 2015, 174 cases were reported in a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak in Sweden: 108 cases were connected to a single restaurant. A spice mix, containing dried vegetables from the restaurant tested positive for the outbreak strain. Additional spice mixes with similar content from different suppliers also tested positive. The outbreak investigation suggests there could be a risk of contaminated products being also on the market in other countries. PMID:26250070

  20. Biomass, composition and size structure of invertebrate communities associated to different types of aquatic vegetation during summer in Lago di Candia (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Morabito, Giuseppe; Galanti, Gaetano; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Antonia CATTANEO; Celine TESSIER

    2004-01-01

    We compared the biomass, taxonomic composition, and size distribution of invertebrates associated to emergent (Schoenoplectus lacustris), submerged (Myriophyllum spicatum), and floating leaved (Trapa natans) vegetation at two depths (surface and water column) during summer in Lago di Candia, Italy. Invertebrate biomass was positively related to epiphyton biomass (Chl-a). M. spicatum supported higher invertebrate biomass per unit of plant weight than S. lacustris whereas T. natans was somewhat...

  1. An Evaluation of the Romanian Fruits and Vegetables Producers Access to Different Types of Common Agricultural Policy Instruments. Is there Any Real Consistency with the Policy Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu MARCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables sectors are considered to be strategic in the European Union due to their contribution to a better human health. Among others positive effects, their intake increase reduce mortality and obesity, assuring in the same time harmonised development for young children. The present study thus focused to reveal the consistency of the measure implemented in the Common Agricultural Policy to support fruits and vegetables production in Romania in liaison with the policy objectives. The country is one of the main ten important European producers of horticultural products in terms of production volumes and acreage. Results showed that over the last seven years (2007-2014, the sectorial production drawbacks have not been ameliorated very much. Both sectors are dominated by small-size farms that can produce only seasonally and mainly for short-market chains. In the same time, the greenhouses area shrink to levels that made the country extremely dependent to imports especially for tomatoes. The analysis of the pillar one payments schemes revealed that the fruits and vegetables producers could have access to only one payment that was half from European averages. Moreover, almost half of the producers had low sizes that left them outside the eligible criteria. The measures designed for the second pillar also penalized producers through the selection criteria. These results showed that for Romania there was not a real consistency between the actual policy measures and the objectives assumed by policy makers. The future measures (2014-2020 seem to correct these negative findings being better tailored to the situation of the local fruits and vegetables producers.

  2. The Role of plant type and salinity in the selection for the denitrifying community structure in the rhizosphere of wetland vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Bañeras Vives, Lluís; Ruiz Rueda, Olaya; López i Flores, Rocío; Quintana Pou, Xavier; Hallin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Coastal wetlands, as transient links from terrestrial to marine environments, are important for nitrogen removal by denitrification. Denitrification strongly depends on both the presence of emergent plants and the denitrifier communities selected by different plant species. In this study, the effects of vegetation and habitat heterogeneity on the community of denitrifying bacteria were investigated in nine coastal wetlands in two preserved areas of Spain. Sampling locations were selected to c...

  3. An ecohydrological approach to predicting hillslope-scale vegetation patterns and dynamics in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Trenton; King, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Drylands are an important ecosystem, as they cover over 40% of the Earth's land surface and are know to exhibit threshold behavior in response to climatic change and anthropogenic disturbance. Where dryland vegetation supports pastoralist livestock production, catastrophic ecological shifts present a grave concern because of the direct coupling between the livestock forage available and human livelihoods. In this research we investigate the spatiotemporal organization of grazing resources on hillslopes by developing a relatively simple spatially explicit daily stochastic ecohydrological 1-layer bucket model with dynamic vegetation and grazing components. The model, MVUA MINGI (Mosaic Vegetation Using Agent-based Modeling Incorporating Non-linear Grazing Impacts), was constructed using a 2-year observational study in central Kenya combining in-situ sensors with near surface hydrogeophysical surveys. The data were used to derive an empirical patch water balance of three representative patch types, bare soil, grass, and tree. Visual and hydrogeophysical observations indicated the system is dominated by Hortonian runoff, overland flow, and vertical infiltration of water into vegetation patches. The patch-based water balances were next incorporated into a Cellular Automata model allowing us to simulate a range of surface flowpath convergence states across the hillslope during a rain event. The model also allows the root to canopy radius of the tree patches to vary affecting the length scale of water competition. By changing the length scales of facilitation and competition, we find the model demonstrates a range of most efficient static vegetation patterns from random to highly organized. In order simulate the vegetation dynamics we incorporated continuous transition probabilities for each patch type based on the frequency and duration of drought and grazing intensity. The modeled vegetation dynamics indicate various stable states and the timescales between the state transitions. The findings of this work support the mechanism of symmetry-breaking instabilities for pattern formation in drylands.

  4. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  5. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P. subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity. PMID:24703227

  6. Modeling vegetation controls on fluvial morphological trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Walter; Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-10-01

    The role of riparian vegetation in shaping river morphology is widely recognized. The interaction between vegetation growth and riverbed evolution is characterized by complex nonlinear feedbacks, which hinder direct estimates of the role of key elements on the morphological evolutionary trajectories of gravel bed rivers. Adopting a simple theoretical framework, we develop a numerical model which couples hydromorphodynamics with biomass dynamics. We perform a sensitivity analysis considering several parameters as flood intensity, type of vegetation, and groundwater level. We find that the inclusion of vegetation determines a threshold behavior, identifying two possible equilibrium configurations: unvegetated versus vegetated bars. Stable vegetation patterns can establish only under specific conditions, which depend on the different environmental and species-related characteristics. From a management point of view, model results show that relatively small changes in water availability or species composition may determine a sudden shift between dynamic unvegetated conditions to more stable, vegetated rivers.

  7. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  8. Some ecological implications of the broadening habitat and trophic niche of terrestrial vertebrates in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Nogales, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Two of the most important evolutionary tendencies of vertebrates in islands are the breadening habitat and trophic niche with regards to those relative species that live in continental ecosystems. Therefore, we present two cases related with these phenomenon and their ecological implications in the Canarian Archipelago. Common Raven (Corvus corax) is present in all environments of the Canary Islands where vegetation is highly structured according to altitude creating differnt types of macroha...

  9. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland-shrubland-woodland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D.; Moritz, Max A.

    2015-03-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland-shrubland-woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management.

  10. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting-down levels, timings and scales of the thinning, etc., by the Monte Carlo simulation of the model.

  11. Similarity of vegetation dynamics during interglacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheddadi, Rachid; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Jouzel, Jean; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Laurent, Jeanne-Marine; Reille, Maurice; Raynaud, Dominique; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The Velay sequence (France) provides a unique, continuous, palynological record spanning the last four climatic cycles. A pollen-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation displays marked climatic cycles. An analysis of the climate and vegetation changes during the interglacial periods reveals comparable features and identical major vegetation successions. Although Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11.3 and the Holocene had similar earth precessional variations, their correspondence in terms of vegetation dynamics is low. MIS 9.5, 7.5, and especially 5.5 display closer correlation to the Holocene than MIS 11.3. Ecological factors, such as the distribution and composition of glacial refugia or postglacial migration patterns, may explain these discrepancies. Comparison of ecosystem dynamics during the past five interglacials suggests that vegetation development in the current interglacial has no analogue from the past 500,000 years. PMID:16162676

  12. 77 FR 51511 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Processed Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...Contact: Dorian LaFond, AMS, Fruits and Vegetables Division, Stop...texts for all types of processed fruits and vegetables including but not limited to canned, dried and frozen products as well as fruit and vegetable juices and...

  13. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topog...

  14. Variación de la estructura y composición de comunidades de árboles y arbustos entre tipos de vegetación en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, Michoacán / Structural and composition variation of tree and shrub communities among vegetation types in the Cuitzeo Basin, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Maza-Villalobos; Franceli, Macedo-Santana; Jorge, Rodríguez-Velázquez; Ken, Oyama; Miguel, Martínez-Ramos.

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación estructural de comunidades de árboles y arbustos presentes en diferentes tipos de vegetación (matorral subtropical, bosque de encino, bosque mixto, bosque de pino y bosque de oyamel) a través de gradientes de altitud y profundidad del suelo en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, Michoacán. [...] La cuenca cubre 4,000 km² y un ámbito altitudinal de 1,700 a 3,420 m s.n.m. En toda la cuenca se muestrearon 50 sitios de 1,000 m² cada uno, se registró un total de 4,941 plantas con diámetro a la altura del pecho ? 1 cm, que representaron 164 especies, 88 géneros y 47 familias. Las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae (30; 18.4% del total de especies) y Fagaceae (16; 9.8%). Por arriba de los 2,500 m s.n.m. se encontraron los bosques de pino, oyamel y mixto (pino-encino); por debajo de 2,300 m s.n.m. se encontraron el bosque de encino y el matorral subtropical. La densidad de plantas fue semejante entre los tipos de vegetación, pero diferentes indicadores de la biomasa aumentaron con la altitud y la profundidad del suelo. El matorral subtropical y el bosque mixto fueron los más diversos en especies, mientras que el bosque de coníferas fue el menos diverso. Existió un elevado recambio de especies dentro y entre los tipos de vegetación (índice de similitud de Bray-Curtis, ámbito: 5.4-25.4%). La composición de especies varió notablemente asociada con la altitud y la profundidad del suelo. Se ofrecen lineamientos para la conservación del importante complejo vegetal presente en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo. Abstract in english This work analyzed the structural variation of tree and shrub communities present in different vegetation types (subtropical scrub, oak forest, mixed forest, pine and fir forest) across altitudinal gradients and soil depth at the Cuitzeo Basin, Michoacán. The basin covers 4,000 km² and altitudinal r [...] ange of 1,700 to 3,420 m a.s.l. In the entire basin we sampled 50 sites 1,000 m² each, recording a total of 4,941 plants with a diameter at breast height ? 1 cm, representing 164 species, 88 genera and 47 families. Families with more species were Asteraceae (30, 18.4% of total species) and Fagaceae (16, 9.8%). Above 2,500 m a.s.l. were found pine, fir and mixed (pine-oak) forests; below 2,300 m a.s.l. were found the oak forest and subtropical scrub. Plant density was similar among vegetation types but different indicators of community biomass increased with altitude and soil depth. The subtropical scrub and mixed forest were the most diverse in species and coniferous forest the less diverse. There was a high turnover of species within and among vegetation types (index of Bray-Curtis similarity, range: 5.4-25.4%). The vegetation composition varied significantly associated with altitude and soil depth. We offer some guidelines for the conservation of the important vegetation complex present in the Cuitzeo Basin.

  15. [Comparison of GIMMS and MODIS normalized vegetation index composite data for Qing-Hai-Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia-Qiang; Shu, Jian-Min; Wang, Yue-Hui; Li, Ying-Chang; Zhang, Lin-Bo; Guo, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Consistent NDVI time series are basic and prerequisite in long-term monitoring of land surface properties. Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) measurements provide the longest records of continuous global satellite measurements sensitive to live green vegetation, and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) is more recent typical with high spatial and temporal resolution. Understanding the relationship between the AVHRR-derived NDVI and MODIS NDVI is critical to continued long-term monitoring of ecological resources. NDVI time series acquired by the global inventory modeling and mapping studies (GIMMS) and Terra MODIS were compared over the same time periods from 2000 to 2006 at four scales of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (whole region, sub-region, biome and pixel) to assess the level of agreement in terms of absolute values and dynamic change by independently assessing the performance of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI and using 495 Landsat samples of 20 km x20 km covering major land cover type. High correlations existed between the two datasets at the four scales, indicating their mostly equal capability of capturing seasonal and monthly phenological variations (mostly at 0. 001 significance level). Simi- larities of the two datasets differed significantly among different vegetation types. The relative low correlation coefficients and large difference of NDVI value between the two datasets were found among dense vegetation types including broadleaf forest and needleleaf forest, yet the correlations were strong and the deviations were small in more homogeneous vegetation types, such as meadow, steppe and crop. 82% of study area was characterized by strong consistency between GIMMS and MODIS NDVI at pixel scale. In the Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS and MODIS NDVI comparison of absolute values, the MODIS NDVI performed slightly better than GIMMS NDVI, whereas in the comparison of temporal change values, the GIMMS data set performed best. Similar with comparison results of GIMMS and MODIS NDVI, the consistency across the three datasets was clearly different among various vegetation types. In dynamic changes, differences between Landsat and MODIS NDVI were smaller than Landsat NDVI vs. GIMMS NDVI for forest, but Landsat and GIMMS NDVI agreed better for grass and crop. The results suggested that spatial patterns and dynamic trends of GIMMS NDVI were found to be in overall acceptable agreement with MODIS NDVI. It might be feasible to successfully integrate historical GIMMS and more recent MODIS NDVI to provide continuity of NDVI products. The accuracy of merging AVHRR historical data recorded with more modern MODIS NDVI data strongly depends on vegetation type, season and phenological period, and spatial scale. The integration of the two datasets for needleleaf forest, broadleaf forest, and for all vegetation types in the phenological transition periods in spring and autumn should be treated with caution. PMID:24830255

  16. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  17. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

  18. ASSESMENT OF ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF DANUBE DELTA LAKES USING INDICATOR MACROPHYTES SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. HANGANU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD legislation requires valuation of chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies. One of the biological indicators prescribes for such assessment is aquatic macrophytes taxonomic composition and abundance. In many member states the trophic status of the lakes is asses by calculating trophic index. This paper show the results of applying Schaumburg reference index for 39 water bodies in Danube Delta . Total P, secchi depth, connectivity and substrate type were the main environmental variables calculated versus index values. As lakes differs little in tot. P content, distribution of aquatic vegetation seems to be mainly determined by connectivity type, substrate and lake morphology.

  19. Vegetation dynamics prior to wildlife reintroductions in southern umfurudzi park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Muposhi, V.; Ndlovu, N.; Gandiwa, E.; Muvengwi, J.; Muboko, N.

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation assessments are critical in the status and success of reintroduction programs and are an important aspect in ecological restoration. Vegetation structure and composition influences the suitability and availability of unique habitats for different wildlife species. The objectives of this study were to (1) establish the vegetation structure and composition, and (2) determine the soil-vegetation associations in southern Umfurudzi Park, Zimbabwe, prior to the reintroduction of wildlife...

  20. How to account for flexible aquatic vegetation in large-scale morphodynamic models:

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, aquatic vegetation is important for the physical and ecological condition of coastal areas. Unfortunately, this vegetation (e.g. seagrasses) is also under pressure due to human activities. Protection and restoration are cumbersome, particularly because the complex relations between vegetation and its environment are not yet well understood. One of the key characteristics of aquatic vegetation is its flexibility, causing the plants position and drag to vary in time. The model presen...

  1. Biomass-the task of ecology and factor in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly decreasing primary energy sources and environmental issues are part of the reason to seek alternatives by developing new technologies. Biomass as organic matter of vegetable origin and animals can be recycled, processed and used for the extraction of energy. In the presented work looking at the different types of biomass as a potential source for energy. A rating of the energy potential of different types of biomass. Furthermore, an overview of the main methods for processing and to generate energy. The final result of the work is a classification of different types of biomass and grouping in terms of their efficient processing to produce energy on a particular method. Key words: biomass energy, bioenergy, potential, ecology, bio-product, processing, gasification, pyrolysis, fermentation., burning

  2. Contribution to the Ecology of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Mashaly

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the western section of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt provides a quantitative assessment of the vegetation structure, the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the recognized vegetation groups and environmental attributes. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 75 stands representing the physiographic variation and/or different habitat types in the study area. Relative values of frequency, density and cover for each perennial and the annuals were also recorded. The soil characteristics of collected samples were determined for each stand. 75 sampled stands were classified according to multivariate analysis (classification & ordination into nine defined vegetational groups, namely: group A dominated by Alhagi graecorum Boiss., group B codominated by Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. and Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pallas M. Bieb, group C dominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric. Moris et Delponte, group D dominated by Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl Kunth, groups E & F dominated by Sporobolus viriginicus (L. Kunth, group G dominated by Stipagrostis scoparia (Trin. & Rupr. De Winter, group H dominated by Echium sericeum Vahl and group I dominated by Lotus creticus L. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used to evaluate vegetation-environment relationships. Moisture content, soil texture (coarse & fine sand, soil reaction (pH, calcium carbonate content, sodium adsorption ratio, extractable cations (calcium and potassium and electrical conductivity were highly correlated with the first and second ordination axes. Thus, these soil variables seem to be the main important environmental factors affecting the distribution of vegetation in the study area.

  3. Modelling the ecological vulnerability to forest fires in mediterranean ecosystems using geographic information technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguy, Beatriz; Alloza, José Antonio; Baeza, M Jaime; De la Riva, Juan; Echeverría, Maite; Ibarra, Paloma; Llovet, Juan; Cabello, Fernando Pérez; Rovira, Pere; Vallejo, Ramon V

    2012-12-01

    Forest fires represent a major driver of change at the ecosystem and landscape levels in the Mediterranean region. Environmental features and vegetation are key factors to estimate the ecological vulnerability to fire; defined as the degree to which an ecosystem is susceptible to, and unable to cope with, adverse effects of fire (provided a fire occurs). Given the predicted climatic changes for the region, it is urgent to validate spatially explicit tools for assessing this vulnerability in order to support the design of new fire prevention and restoration strategies. This work presents an innovative GIS-based modelling approach to evaluate the ecological vulnerability to fire of an ecosystem, considering its main components (soil and vegetation) and different time scales. The evaluation was structured in three stages: short-term (focussed on soil degradation risk), medium-term (focussed on changes in vegetation), and coupling of the short- and medium-term vulnerabilities. The model was implemented in two regions: Aragón (inland North-eastern Spain) and Valencia (eastern Spain). Maps of the ecological vulnerability to fire were produced at a regional scale. We partially validated the model in a study site combining two complementary approaches that focused on testing the adequacy of model's predictions in three ecosystems, all very common in fire-prone landscapes of eastern Spain: two shrublands and a pine forest. Both approaches were based on the comparison of model's predictions with values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), which is considered a good proxy for green biomass. Both methods showed that the model's performance is satisfactory when applied to the three selected vegetation types. PMID:23052472

  4. Nutrient-poor grasslands on siliceous soil in the lower Aar valley (Middle Hesse, Germany) – neglected vegetation types in the intersection range of four classes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Thomas; Schmiege, Christine; Bergmeier, Erwin; Dengler, Jürgen; Nowak, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In the lower siliceous uplands of Central Europe, various types of nutrient-poor grasslands are widespread and grow intermingled. These species-rich grasslands, often dominated by taxa of the Festuca ovina aggregate, comprise various phytosociological classes. They are remnants of a historic rural lands - cape and are of conservation importance. Few studies on such grasslands are available and there has been disagreement in assigning them to appropriate habitat types or syntaxa. We investigat...

  5. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans. It forms...

  6. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  7. Metabolic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

    2014-01-01

    Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

  8. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  9. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  10. An ecological analysis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence in Latin America Análisis ecológico de la incidencia y prevalencia en América Latina de diabetes tipo 1 con inicio en la niñez

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Collado-Mesa; Alberto Barceló; Arheart, Kristopher L; Sarah E. Messiah

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore, for Latin America, by means of an ecological correlation analysis, the possible relationships between both the incidence and prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes and selected hypothesized etiological factors, including race/ethnicity, geographical latitude, breast-feeding rates, per capita milk supply and coffee consumption, and wealth-related indicators such as infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, and national human development index. METHODS: Recently p...

  11. Effects of Wave Nonlinearity on Wave Attenuation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. C.; Cox, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The need to explore sustainable approaches to maintain coastal ecological systems has been widely recognized for decades and is increasingly important due to global climate change and patterns in coastal population growth. Submerged aquatic vegetation and emergent vegetation in estuaries and shorelines can provide ecosystem services, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control. Idealized models of wave-vegetation interaction often assume rigid, vertically uniform vegetation under the action of waves described by linear wave theory. A physical model experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wave nonlinearity on the attenuation of random waves propagating through a stand of uniform, emergent vegetation in constant water depth. The experimental conditions spanned a relative water depth from near shallow to near deep water waves (0.45 theory as the characteristic velocity scale. Alternatively, the Ursell parameter can be used to parameterize CD to account for the effect of wave nonlinearity, particularly in shallow water, for vegetation of single stem diameter.

  12. Discrepancies among ecological, household, and individual data on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil Discrepância entre dados ecológicos, domiciliares e individuais sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Moreira Claro; Patricia Constante Jaime; Karen Lock; Regina Mara Fisberg; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    Information on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil in the three levels of dietary data was analyzed and compared. Data about national supply came from Food Balance Sheets compiled by the FAO; household availability information was obtained from the Brazilian National Household Budget Survey (HBS); and actual intake information came from a large individual dietary intake survey that was representative of the adult population of São Paulo city. All sources of information were collected ...

  13. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas) ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. ...

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul / Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in vegetation types in the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Plínio Henrique Oliveira, Gomide; Marx Leandro Naves, Silva; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa, Soares; Evaldo Luis, Cardoso; Fernanda de, Carvalho; Patrícia Lopes, Leal; Rodrigo Magalhães, Marques; Sidney Luiz, Stürmer.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Pantanal é reconhecido como uma das maiores extensões úmidas contínua do planeta, com fauna e flora de rara beleza e abundância. Estudos para acessar a diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) nesse ambiente são inexistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de [...] FMA nas diferentes fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo no período seco e chuvoso em um Neossolo Quartzarênico, em fitofisionomias sujeitas a distintos regimes de inundação: livres de inundação - Floresta Semidecídua (FS) e Cerradão (CE); sujeitos à inundação ocasional - Campo limpo, predominando Elyonorus muticus (CLE) e Cerrado (CC); e sujeitos à inundação sazonal - Campo limpo, predominando Andropogon spp. (CLA), borda de baias (BB) e vazante/baixadas (VB). Culturas armadilhas foram estabelecidas com Brachiaria brizantha para recuperar espécies crípticas de FMA. De cada amostra de solo, foram realizadas a caracterização química do solo e extração dos esporos de FMA para determinar abundância, riqueza e identificação das espécies. Um total de 37 espécies de FMA, pertencentes a 10 gêneros e seis famílias foram detectadas nas duas estações de coleta. O número de esporos variou significativamente entre as fitofisionomias, e os maiores valores foram encontrados em CE e CLA. A maior riqueza específica foi detectada em CC (25 espécies) seguida de VB e CE com 22 e 21 espécies, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo sugeriram que a diversidade dos FMA está relacionada com a heterogeneidade existente entre as fitofisionomias, e que características químicas do solo têm influência na estruturação das comunidades desses fungos. Considerando que o bioma Pantanal é um dos ecossistemas mais conservado do planeta, o levantamento de ocorrência de FMA realizado neste trabalho forneceu informações importantes para melhor conhecimento da biodiversidade das fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia. Abstract in english The Pantanal (tropical wetland) biome is recognized as one of the largest continuous areas of natural wetlands, harboring a flora and fauna of rare beauty and abundance. Studies to assess the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are nonexistent for this environment. The goal of this study [...] was to evaluate the occurrence of AMF in different vegetation types of the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and wet season in a Neossolo Quartzarênico (Entisol) in vegetation types subject to different flooding regimes: flood-free - semi-deciduous forest (FS) and "Cerradão" (CE); subject to occasional flooding - grassland dominated by Elyonurus muticus (CLE) and "Cerrado" (CC); and subject to seasonal flooding - grasslands dominated by Andropogon spp. (CLA), the edge of bays (BB), and areas exposed at low water/lowlands (VB). Trap crops were established with Brachiaria brizantha to recover cryptic AMF species. Chemical analyses and spore extraction were carried for each soil sample to identify AMF species and determine their abundance and richness. A total of 37 AMF species, belonging to 10 genera and six families, were detected for both seasons. Spore numbers varied significantly among vegetation types, and the highest values were found in CE and CLA. The greatest richness of species was detected in CC (25 species), followed by VB, with 22 species, and CE, with 21 species. This is the first report on AMF diversity from the Pantanal biome. Results of this study suggest that AMF diversity is related to the heterogeneity among vegetation types and that soil chemical characteristics influence the structure of these fungi communities. Considering that the Pantanal is one of the most conserved biomes in the world, the survey of the occurrence of AMF in this study provides important information for better understanding the biodiversity of the phytophysiognomies of this biome.

  15. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of the Cristalino river (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. Sampling was by the Rapid Survey method. Eight vegetation types were identified: Mata Inundável (swamp forest, Caapão (also swamp forest, Babaçual (Attalea speciosa forest, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu (savanna types, closed canopy woodland and savanna grassland, respectively, Campo de Murunduns (grassland with scattered mounds bearing termites, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana (grassland dominated by B. orbignyana and Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa (grassland with scattered trees of V. rufa. A total of 248 species of trees, shrubs and lianas were recorded, distributed in 158 genera and 62 families. The vegetation types were heterogeneous; none of the species occurred at all sites, but Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., and others, were found at six sites. The families richest in species were Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae and Myrtaceae. The flora apparently was similar to that of the Pantanal of Paraguai river, however, further studies are needed to confirm. This Heterogeneous vegetation patterns in the study area indicate the need to protect the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers.

  16. Composição florística das formações vegetais sobre uma turfeira topotrófica da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Floristic composition of the vegetation types of a fen on the southern Brazil coastal plain in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César S. B., Costa; Bruno E., Irgang; Aline R., Peixoto; Juliano C., Marangoni.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Turfeiras topotróficas caracterizam-se como corpos de águas rasas, permanente ou periodicamente alagados por água do lençol freático, percolada através do solo inorgânico das terras altas adjacentes à depressão central da turfeira. Possuem solos orgânicos e a cobertura vegetal é dominanda por faneró [...] gamas aquáticas emergentes. Este estudo visou o levantamento da diversidade específica e caracterização das principais formações vegetais ao longo de duas transecções de 200m em uma turfeira topotrófica na localidade de Domingos Petrolini (Rio Grande, RS). Em março/1998, o total de 48 espécies vegetais (30 famílias) foram encontradas nas 40 parcelas de 5m × 2m observadas nas duas transecções efetuadas. Cerca de 56% das espécies eram plantas aquáticas herbáceas (submersas, flutuantes ou emergentes) e apenas 10% arbustos ou árvores. Sete espécies dominaram a cobertura vegetal (Eupatorium tremulum, Eryngium pandanifolium, Blechnum brasiliense, Rhynchospora sp., Xyris jupicai, Utricularia gibba e Cladium jamaicense). Quatro formações vegetais tipicamente distribuídas em relação à topografia e à distância do lençol freático foram caracterizadas: (1) banhados do capim-navalha Cladium jamaicense, drenados apenas no verão, ocupam a depressão central da turfeira (DCT); (2) planos médios de Gravatás/Caraguatás (Eryngium pandanifolium) associados a samambaia Blechnum brasiliense (+0,5 a +1,5m da DCT); (3) bosques marginais de arbustos palustres (+1 a +3m da DCT) são dominados por Eupatorium tremulum; e (4) campos de turfa recobertos por ciperáceas de pequeno porte, gramas boiadeiras e botões-de-ouro (Xyris jupicai) ocupam a borda do afloramento da turfa (+3 a +4m da DCT). Abstract in english Fens are characterized as shallow water bodies permanently or periodically flooded by ground-water table, originating from the percolation of rain water through mineral soils of uplands adjacent to the fen central basin. Fens have organic soil and their plant cover is dominat by emergent phanerophyt [...] es. This study aims to survey the specific diversity and characterize the main vegetation types along two 200m transects positioned in a fen of the southern Brazilian county of Domingos Petrolini (32° 02' S; 52° 17' W; Rio Grande, RS). In March/1998, 48 plant species (30 families) were recorded in forty 5m × 2m plots along the two transects. Herbaceous aquatic macrophytes (submersed, flooting or emergent) represented 56% of species, but 10% were shrubs or trees. Seven species dominate the vegetation (Eupatorium tremulum, Eryngium pandanifolium, Blechnum brasiliense, Rhynchospora sp., Xyris jupicai, Utricularia gibba, and Cladium jamaicense). The vegetation types include (1) summer exposed swampsdominated by Cladium jamaicense (placed in the fen central basin; FCB), (2) intermediate level of Gravatás/Caraguatás (Eryngium pandanifolium) associated with the fern Blechnum brasiliense (+0.5 to +1.5m from the FCB), (3) marginal palustrine shrubs (+1 to +3m from the FCB) dominated by Eupatorium tremulum and (4) turf fields covered by small sedges, soft-leaved grasses with the yellow-eyed grass (Xyris jupicai) occupying the upper border of the fen (+3 to +4m from the FCB).

  17. [Occurrence of nitrates and nitrites in certain frozen fruits, jams, stewed fruit and fruit-vegetable juices for children and in certain types of bee honey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, R; Nabrzyski, M; Szajek, L

    1989-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the method of Griess reaction, with previous reduction of nitrates to nitrites in a column filled with cadmium dust. The content of nitrates in frozen fruit (strawberries, black and red currant and plums) ranged from 2.50 to 57.38 mg KNO3/kg, with the highest content in garden strawberries. In cherry, strawberry, black and red currant jams the concentrations were from 6.30 to 97.38 mg KNO3/kg, the highest content was in cherry jam. In plum jam nitrates were found in low amounts from 11.65 to 12.09 mg/kg. In "Bobofrut" juices the nitrate content was higher than in the above products, ranging from 26.37 to 182.75 mg KNO3/kg. Nitrite content in all these groups of products was low, not exceeding 1 mg NaNO2/kg, with the exception of plum jam where the maximal value was found 1.65 mg NaNO2/kg. In stewed fruit and herb syrups and in honey nitrates ranged from 1.0 to 94.5 mg KNO3/kg. Nitrite content ranged from 0.17 to 1.92 mg/kg in herb syrups, from 0.0 to 1.20 mg/kg in stewed fruit, and from 0.0 to 0.40 mg NaNO2/kg in honey. The study showed that higher levels of nitrates were present as a rule in vegetable juices. However, the found concentrations were not harmful to the health of children, although this is possible in the case of carrot juice, especially when kept at room temperature for 24 hours. PMID:2637478

  18. Evaluation of Three MODIS-Derived Vegetation Index Time Series for Dryland Vegetation Dynamics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation is essential in drylands. In this paper, we evaluated three vegetation indices, namely the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Surface-Reflectance Product in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China (XUAR, to assess index time series’ suitability for monitoring vegetation dynamics in a dryland environment. The mean annual VI and its variability were generated and analyzed from the three VI time series for the period 2001–2012 across XUAR. Two phenological metrics, start of the season (SOS and end of the season (EOS, were detected and compared for each vegetation type. The mean annual VI images showed similar spatial patterns of vegetation conditions with varying magnitudes. The EVI exhibited high uncertainties in sparsely vegetated lands and forests. The phenological metrics derived from the three VIs are consistent for most vegetation types, with SOS and EOS generated from NDVI showing the largest deviation.

  19. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  20. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieira, J.; Karssenberg, D.; de Jong, S. M.; Addink, E. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nunes da Cunha, C.; Skøien, J. O.

    2011-03-01

    Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  1. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  2. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in...

  3. Seasonal dynamics of vegetation after timber production in forest Babske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution we have summarized the results of research a season dynamic of vegetation which was realized in the locality of the Bab forest (village Velky Bab, Nitra loess upland) in the vegetative period of 2013. The Bab forest is a lowland oak-hornbeam forest in an intensively exploited agricultural country. This forest is the remnant of formerly larger indigenous forest complexes. The Bab forest represents a type of indigenous vegetation in this area. Specifically, this contribution is focused on the evaluation and comparison season dynamic of vegetation on two types of outposts - clear-cuts and forest vegetation. (author)

  4. Terrestrial vegetation redistribution and carbon balance under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Erbrecht Tim; Schaphoff Sibyll; Lucht Wolfgang; Heyder Ursula; Cramer Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) compute the terrestrial carbon balance as well as the transient spatial distribution of vegetation. We study two scenarios of moderate and strong climate change (2.9 K and 5.3 K temperature increase over present) to investigate the spatial redistribution of major vegetation types and their carbon balance in the year 2100. Results The world's land vegetation will be more deciduous than at present, and contain about 125 billion tons o...

  5. Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANG Petra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites have different demands on the sampling methods. Therefore, different monitoring designs (preferential, random, systematic, stratified random and transect sampling are discussed and tested for their use in different habitat types of the floodplain. A stratified random sampling is chosen for the alluvial forest stands, as it guarantees an equal distribution of the monitoring plots along the main driving factors, i.e. influence of water. The parameters distance to barrage, ecological flooding, height above thalweg and distance to the new floodplain river are used for stratifying and the plots are placed randomly into these strata, resulting in 117 permanent plots. Due to small changes at the semi-aquatic/aquatic sites a transect sampling was chosen. Further, a rough stratification (channel bed, river bank adjacent floodplain was implemented, which was only possible after the start of the restoration project. To capture the small-scale changes due to the restoration measures on the vegetation, 99 additional plots completed the transect sampling. We conclude that hetereogenous study areas need different monitoring approaches, but, later on, a joint analysis must be possible

  6. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean / Efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas de soja tipo hortaliça

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Cristina, Santana; Mercedes Concórdia, Carrão-Panizzi; José Marcos Gontijo, Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos, Leite; Josemeyre Bonifácio da, Silva; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas dos grãos de soja da cultivar tipo hortaliça BRS 267, colhidos no estádio R6 (desenvolvimento da semente), e comparar com os colhidos no estádio R8 (maturação). As vag [...] ens da cultivar BRS 267 foram colhidas no estádio de desenvolvimento R6 nos horários das 8, 12 e 18 horas e avaliadas a cor e os grãos analisados quanto à composição química, atividade do inibidor de tripsina, teor do ácido fítico, amido, açúcares, ácidos graxos e isoflavonas. O teor de isoflavonas não diferiu entre os diferentes horários de colheita no estádio R6. No estádio R8 foi encontrado maior teor das formas agliconas. Os diferentes horários de colheita não influenciaram na cor das vagens e nos constituintes químicos dos grãos da cultivar BRS 267 colhida no estádio R6. Os grãos colhidos no estádio R6, quando comparados com os colhidos no estádio R8, apresentaram menor teor de proteínas, ácido fítico e sacarose e maior teor de lipídios, carboidratos, amido, glicose, frutose, estaquiose e ácido linolênico. A qualidade da soja tipo hortaliça BRS 267 no estádio R6 não diferiu com os diferentes horários de colheita, contudo, como produto tipo hortaliça, recomenda-se que a colheita seja realizada no período da manhã, cuja temperatura é mais amena, para facilitar a rápida comercialização e consumo como alimento in natura. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development) and to compare it with that on the grains harvested at the R8 stage (matur [...] ation). The pods of the BRS 267 cultivar were harvested at the R6 stage (at 8:00 AM, 12:00 AM, and 6:00 PM), the color parameters were evaluated, and the grains were analyzed for chemical composition, activity inhibitor trypsin, phytic acid content, starch, sugars, fatty acids, and isoflavones. No differences were observed among the different harvest times in terms of the chemical constituents of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at the R6 stage. Isoflavones content did not change with different harvest times, and the aglycone forms (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein) were found in smaller quantities at the R6 stage compared to the R8 stage. The color of the pods of soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage did not change with different harvest times. The grains harvested at the R6 stage had lower protein content, phytic acid, and sucrose and higher levels of lipids, carbohydrates, starch, glucose, fructose, stachyose, and linolenic acids than those collected at the R8 stage. The different times of harvest did not affect the quality of the vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at stage R6. Nevertheless, it is recommended to harvest in the morning, when the temperature is milder, like other vegetables, to facilitate and optimize its marketing and in natura consumption.

  7. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  8. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  9. The Grassland vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert F., Brand; Leslie R., Brown; Pieter J., du Preez.

    Full Text Available Platberg is an inselberg that presents a refuge for indigenous plants and animals. Uncontrolled human access to this area threatens this sensitive ecosystem. The vegetation of Platberg was investigated to obtain an inventory of the different plant species and communities present in this area. A hier [...] archical classification, a description and an ecological interpretation of the grassland communities of Platberg are presented. A total of 169 sample plots were placed on a stratified random basis within the study area. From a TWINSPAN classification a total of 27 different plant communities, which can be grouped into two major community types, nine communities, 18 sub-communities and six variants, were identified. A significant difference in species richness was found between the two major communities, with the higher-altitude communities having a higher species richness than the communities on the lower-lying slopes. A total of 26 endemic or near endemic Drakensberg Alpine Centre species were recorded. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Anthropogenic influences are felt globally on ecosystems. Highaltitude habitats and organisms will be affected first. Inselbergs have high levels of endemic organisms and are reservoirs and refugia for unique genetic material. This grassland plant community survey of Platberg provides valuable information on inselberg ecology for conservation planning.

  10. The Grassland vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Platberg is an inselberg that presents a refuge for indigenous plants and animals. Uncontrolled human access to this area threatens this sensitive ecosystem. The vegetation of Platberg was investigated to obtain an inventory of the different plant species and communities present in this area. A hierarchical classification, a description and an ecological interpretation of the grassland communities of Platberg are presented. A total of 169 sample plots were placed on a stratified random basis within the study area. From a TWINSPAN classification a total of 27 different plant communities, which can be grouped into two major community types, nine communities, 18 sub-communities and six variants, were identified. A significant difference in species richness was found between the two major communities, with the higher-altitude communities having a higher species richness than the communities on the lower-lying slopes. A total of 26 endemic or near endemic Drakensberg Alpine Centre species were recorded. Conservation implications: Anthropogenic influences are felt globally on ecosystems. High-altitude habitats and organisms will be affected first. Inselbergs have high levels of endemic organisms and are reservoirs and refugia for unique genetic material. This grassland plant community survey of Platberg provides valuable information on inselberg ecology for conservation planning.

  11. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  12. The use of vegetation structure measures to improve habitat classification.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinta-Nova, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    The methods used to determine habitat classifications are important to planning and management. Therefore, the use of wildlife communities to improve habitat classification is crucial in Landscape Ecology. The importance of vegetation in the habitat use characteristics of breeding bird communities occurring in Évora (Portugal) was studied. Two transects were censured to provide distributional records of all species in order to investigate the relationship between vegetation structure and ...

  13. Relationship between vegetation growth rates at the onset of the wet season and soil type in the Sahel of Burkina Faso: implications for resource utilisation at large scales.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, L.; M. Rietkerk; Langevelde van, F.; Koppel, J; Andel, J., van; Hearne, J; De Ridder, N.; Stroosnijder, L.; A.K Skidmore; Prins, H.H.T

    2002-01-01

    In the Sahel, poor soil quality and rainfall levels have a great influence on pasture production and hence on secondary output. In areas where rainfall is the limiting factor for primary production, recovery of primary and secondary production after the dry season depends on soil type. On sandy soils a large fraction of rainfall infiltrates and becomes available for plant growth, stimulating fast herbage growth, while on clayey and loamy soils low infiltration rates generate runoff, leading t...

  14. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  15. Vegetation patterns and dynamics on a rock glacier in the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaselli, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation colonizing a rock glacier in the north-western cirque of M. Giovo (Northern Apennines was recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Numerical methods were employed both to classify and to order the phytosociological relevés. Relevés were classified by average linkage based on the similarity ratio. Four main vegetation types were so identified. They were ecologically characterized by an indirect gradient analysis based on correspondence analysis. Furthermore, dynamic connections between vegetation types were hypothesized by principal component analysis.

    [es] Modelos de vegetación y dinámica en un glaciar rocoso de los Apeninos del Norte (Norte de Italia. Se ha muestreado, según el método fitosociológico de Braun-Blanquet, la colonización vegetal de un glaciar rocoso en el circo glaciar noroeste del M. Giovo (Norte de los Apeninos. Los muestreos han sido clasificados por métodos de análisis numérico. Se definen cuatro modelos de vegetación con la ayuda de la clasificación numérica. El estudio ecológico de los modelos de vegetación se ha realizado con la ayuda del análisis de correspondencias y se ha verificado con el empleo de los valores indicadores ecológicos de LANDOLT (1977. Las tendencias dinámicas de la vegetación se definen con el análisis de componentes principales.
    [fr] Groupements végétaux et dynamique de la végétation sur un glacier rocheux dans les Apennins du Nord (Italie du Nord. La végétation colonisant un glacier rocheux dans le cirque glaciaire nord-ouest du M. Giovo (Apennins du Nord à été relevé selon le méthode phytosociologique. Les relevés ont été classifies et ordonnés par des méthodes d'analyse numérique. 4 types de végétation ont été définis a l'aide de la classification numérique. L'étude écologique des types de végétation à été réalisée par l'analyse des correspondances et vérifié avec l'emploi des valeurs indicatrices écologiques du Landolt. Les tendances dynamiques de la végétation ont été définis à l'aide de l'analyse en composantes principales.

  16. Recent Trends in Satellite Vegetation Index Observations Indicate Decreasing Vegetation Biomass in the Southeastern Saline Everglades Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed trends in time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from multitemporal satellite imagery for 2001-2010 over the southeastern Everglades where major changes in vegetation structure and type have been associated with sea-level rise and reduced freshwater flow since the 1940s. Non-parametric trend analysis using the Theil-Sen slope revealed that 84.4% of statistically significant trends in NDVI were negative, mainly concentrated in scrub mangrove, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and spike rush (Eleocharis cellulosa) communities within 5 km of the shoreline. Observed trends were consistent with trends in sawgrass biomass measurements made from 1999-2010 in three Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites within our study area. A map of significant trends overlaid on a RapidEye high-resolution satellite image showed large patches of negative trends parallel to the shoreline in and around the 'white zone,' which corresponds to a low-productivity band that has moved inland over the past 70 years. Significantly positive trends were observed mainly in the halophytic prairie community where highly salt tolerant species are typically found. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that increased saline intrusion associated with sea-level rise continues to reduce the photosynthetic biomass within freshwater and oligohaline marsh communities of the southeastern Everglades. Trends in 2001-2010 NDVI in southern saline Everglades wetlands of South Florida. a) slope values; b) areas of significant slope; c) location of the study area.

  17. Propagação vegetativa da alfavaca-cravo utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos Vegetative propagation of the wild basil using different types of cuttings and substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Aparecida D. Ehlert

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa é considerada importante ferramenta para o melhoramento de espécies lenhosas e herbáceas e vem sendo amplamente utilizada, visando melhorar e manter variedades de importância econômica e medicinal. Neste contexto utilizou-se estacas de alfavaca-cravo de 15 cm para apicais e 25 cm para as medianas, sendo estas com e sem folhas. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células, utilizando-se 10 substratos. Após 35 dias, as estacas foram retiradas com cuidado, sendo as partes aéreas e radiculares separadas e acondicionadas em saco de papel e mantidas em estufa a 70ºC por 48 h para posterior avaliação da matéria seca. Analisou-se a percentagem de enraizamento, número de folhas na estaca, peso de matéria seca de folha e de raiz. Não houve interação significativa entre os diferentes tipos de substrato e estaca para percentagem de enraizamento, sendo que os substratos de modo geral diferiram pouco entre si. Entre os tipos de estaca destacaram-se para esta variável a mediana sem folha e a apical com folha. Para as demais variáveis houve interação significativa entre o tipo de estaca e o substrato. A melhor estaca foi a mediana sem folhas plantadas em substrato arisco + esterco + húmus e vermiculita nas seguintes proporções: 20%:40%:40%; 40%:20%:40% e 40%:40%.The vegetative propagation is an important tool for the improvement of woody and herbaceous species and could be an important tool to improve and to maintain varieties of economic and medicinal importance. In this experiment cuttings 15 cm long of the apical portion and also 25 cm long cuttings of the medial portion of the stems, were used both with and without leaves. The cuttings were planted on styrofoam trays with 72 cells, using 10 different substrata. After 35 days, cuttings were carefully removed, the aerial portion being separated from the roots and conditioned in paper bags and maintained in a stove at 70ºC for 48 h, for the dry weight evaluation. There were analyzed the percentage of rooting, number of leaves per cutting and leaf and root dry weight. There was no interaction among substrata and cuttings for the percentage of rooting. Were no significant differences in the rooting among the different substrata used in the experiment there. Better rooting was observed on cuttings from the medial portion of the stem without leaves and from the apical portion with leaves. For the other variables there was significant interaction between the cuttings and the substrata. The cutting that presented best results were those from the medial portion without leaves in the substrata with A+E sandy soil + humus + vermiculite in the following proportions: (20%: 40%:40%; (40%:20%:40% and (40%:40%:20% respectively.

  18. Nationwide classification of forest types of India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-12-01

    India, a mega-diverse country, possesses a wide range of climate and vegetation types along with a varied topography. The present study has classified forest types of India based on multi-season IRS Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data. The study has characterized 29 land use/land cover classes including 14 forest types and seven scrub types. Hybrid classification approach has been used for the classification of forest types. The classification of vegetation has been carried out based on the ecological rule bases followed by Champion and Seth's (1968) scheme of forest types in India. The present classification scheme has been compared with the available global and national level land cover products. The natural vegetation cover was estimated to be 29.36 % of total geographical area of India. The predominant forest types of India are tropical dry deciduous and tropical moist deciduous. Of the total forest cover, tropical dry deciduous forests occupy an area of 2,17,713 km(2) (34.80 %) followed by 2,07,649 km(2) (33.19 %) under tropical moist deciduous forests, 48,295 km(2) (7.72 %) under tropical semi-evergreen forests and 47,192 km(2) (7.54 %) under tropical wet evergreen forests. The study has brought out a comprehensive vegetation cover and forest type maps based on inputs critical in defining the various categories of vegetation and forest types. This spatially explicit database will be highly useful for the studies related to changes in various forest types, carbon stocks, climate-vegetation modeling and biogeochemical cycles. PMID:26615560

  19. Plant Functional Type Shifts in Big Sagebrush Ecosystems: Impacts on Dryland Ecosystem Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J. B.; Schlaepfer, D.; Lauenroth, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial vegetation influences hydrologic cycling. In water-limited, dryland ecosystems, altered ecohydrology as a consequence of vegetation change can impact vegetation structure, ecological functioning and ecosystem services. Shrub steppe ecosystems dominated by big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) are widespread across western North America but have been altered over the past century, and changes are likely to continue. The ecohydrological consequences of sagebrush removal and reestablishment remains unclear. To characterize the immediate and medium-term patterns of water cycling and availability following sagebrush plant community alteration, we applied the SOILWAT ecosystem water balance model to 898 sites across the distribution of sagebrush ecosystems, representing the three primary big sagebrush ecosystem types: sagebrush shrublands, sagebrush steppe and montane sagebrush. At each site we examined three vegetation conditions representing intact sagebrush, recently disturbed sagebrush and recovered but grass-dominated vegetation. Transition from shrub to grass dominance decreased precipitation interception and transpiration and increased soil evaporation and deep drainage. Relative to intact big sagebrush vegetation, simulated soils in the herbaceous vegetation phases typically had drier surface layers and wetter deep layers. Our simulations suggested that alterations in ecosystem water balance may be most pronounced in vegetation representing recently disturbed conditions (herbaceous vegetation with low biomass) and modest in conditions representing recovered, but still grass-dominated, vegetation. The ecohydrological impact of simulated big sagebrush removal depended on climate; while short-term changes in water balance were greatest in wet areas represented by the montane sagebrush ecosystem type, medium-term impacts were greatest in dry areas of sagebrush shrublands and sagebrush steppe.

  20. Predicciones de cambios en los principales tipos de vegetación de Chile bajo cambio climático basados en un estudio preliminar: Modelos, incertidumbres y adaptación de la investigación para un mundo de biodiversidad dinámica Changes in the main vegetation types of Chile predicted under climate change based on a preliminary study: Models, uncertainties and adapting research to a dynamic biodiversity world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Pliscoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos del cambio climático sobre la biodiversidad ocurren a diferentes niveles de organización (organismos, especies y ecosistemas. La vegetación se encuentra relacionada directamente con el clima, por lo que se espera que el calentamiento global altere la distribución de los tipos de vegetación para el futuro cercano. Usando un enfoque de envoltura bioclimática, los tipos de vegetación de Chile fueron modelados y proyectados usando escenarios del IPCC para el año 2080. Los resultados presentan diferentes transiciones entre los tipos de vegetación, en relación a su distribución latitudinal y altitudinal actual. Entre los cambios principales, se identifica el avance altitudinal de la vegetación alpina, la expansión hacia el sur del desierto absoluto y del matorral desértico sobre el bosque escleróflo. Se esperan cambios en la representación relativa de las áreas protegidas dentro de los diferentes tipos de vegetación de Chile. Las limitaciones del ejercicio de modelación son discutidas junto a la necesidad de mejorar el conocimiento científico sobre procesos biológicos claves como dispersión y polinización.Climate change effects on biodiversity occur at different level of organization (organisms, species and ecosystems. Vegetation type bears a close relationship with climate, such that global warming is ex-pected to alter the distribution of major vegetation types in the near future. Using a bioclimatic envelope modeling approach, the major vegetation types of Chile were modeled and projected using IPCC scenarios for year 2080. The results show transitions among vegetation types in relation to their current latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Major changes include an upward shift of the alpine vegetation and southward expansion of absolute desert and desert scrub into the present area of sclerophyllous forest. Changes in the relative representation of different vegetation types in Chile´s protected areas can be expected. The limitations of modeling exercises are discussed along with need for better scientific knowledge on key biological processes such as dispersal and pollination.

  1. Predicciones de cambios en los principales tipos de vegetación de Chile bajo cambio climático basados en un estudio preliminar: Modelos, incertidumbres y adaptación de la investigación para un mundo de biodiversidad dinámica / Changes in the main vegetation types of Chile predicted under climate change based on a preliminary study: Models, uncertainties and adapting research to a dynamic biodiversity world

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Pliscoff; Mary T. K, Arroyo; Lohengrin, Cavieres.

    Full Text Available Los efectos del cambio climático sobre la biodiversidad ocurren a diferentes niveles de organización (organismos, especies y ecosistemas). La vegetación se encuentra relacionada directamente con el clima, por lo que se espera que el calentamiento global altere la distribución de los tipos de vegetac [...] ión para el futuro cercano. Usando un enfoque de envoltura bioclimática, los tipos de vegetación de Chile fueron modelados y proyectados usando escenarios del IPCC para el año 2080. Los resultados presentan diferentes transiciones entre los tipos de vegetación, en relación a su distribución latitudinal y altitudinal actual. Entre los cambios principales, se identifica el avance altitudinal de la vegetación alpina, la expansión hacia el sur del desierto absoluto y del matorral desértico sobre el bosque escleróflo. Se esperan cambios en la representación relativa de las áreas protegidas dentro de los diferentes tipos de vegetación de Chile. Las limitaciones del ejercicio de modelación son discutidas junto a la necesidad de mejorar el conocimiento científico sobre procesos biológicos claves como dispersión y polinización. Abstract in english Climate change effects on biodiversity occur at different level of organization (organisms, species and ecosystems). Vegetation type bears a close relationship with climate, such that global warming is ex-pected to alter the distribution of major vegetation types in the near future. Using a bioclima [...] tic envelope modeling approach, the major vegetation types of Chile were modeled and projected using IPCC scenarios for year 2080. The results show transitions among vegetation types in relation to their current latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Major changes include an upward shift of the alpine vegetation and southward expansion of absolute desert and desert scrub into the present area of sclerophyllous forest. Changes in the relative representation of different vegetation types in Chile´s protected areas can be expected. The limitations of modeling exercises are discussed along with need for better scientific knowledge on key biological processes such as dispersal and pollination.

  2. Integrating field sampling, spatial statistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the protection of wetlands, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of their structuring elements and of the identification of efficient methods to describe and monitor them. This article uses sophisticated statistical classification, interpolation and error propagation techniques, in order to describe vegetation spatial patterns, map plant community distribution and evaluate the capability of statistical approaches to produce high-quality vegetation maps. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relations between remotely sensing data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were formalized mathematically in multiple linear regression models and used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the uncertainty in mapped communities. Universal kriging has shown to be a valuable interpolation technique because parts of vegetation variability not explained by the images could be modeled as spatially correlated residuals, increasing prediction accuracy. Differences in spatial dependence of the vegetation gradients evidenced the multi-scale nature of vegetation communities. Cross validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty resulted from Monte Carlo simulations displayed the spatial variation in classification accuracy, showing that the quality of classification varies spatially, even though the proportion and arrangement of communities observed in the original map is preserved to a great extent. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including new digital images as explanatory variables in the model. By comparing the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, we verified that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. We discuss our study in the context of developing a mapping approach that is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote sensing images, providing new basis to map wetland vegetation and allowing its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  3. Integrating field sampling, spatial statistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieira, J.; Karssenberg, D.; de Jong, S. M.; Addink, E. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nunes da Cunha, C.; Skøien, J. O.

    2010-09-01

    To improve the protection of wetlands, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of their structuring elements and of the identification of efficient methods to describe and monitor them. This article uses sophisticated statistical classification, interpolation and error propagation techniques, in order to describe vegetation spatial patterns, map plant community distribution and evaluate the capability of statistical approaches to produce high-quality vegetation maps. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relations between remotely sensing data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were formalized mathematically in multiple linear regression models and used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the uncertainty in mapped communities. Universal kriging has shown to be a valuable interpolation technique because parts of vegetation variability not explained by the images could be modeled as spatially correlated residuals, increasing prediction accuracy. Differences in spatial dependence of the vegetation gradients evidenced the multi-scale nature of vegetation communities. Cross validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty resulted from Monte Carlo simulations displayed the spatial variation in classification accuracy, showing that the quality of classification varies spatially, even though the proportion and arrangement of communities observed in the original map is preserved to a great extent. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including new digital images as explanatory variables in the model. By comparing the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, we verified that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. We discuss our study in the context of developing a mapping approach that is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote sensing images, providing new basis to map wetland vegetation and allowing its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  4. The influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of the rivers Lafnitz and Pinka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Formayer, Herbert; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Melcher, Andreas; Dossi, Florian

    2013-04-01

    In Central Europe freshwater ecosystems have to deal with a loss of habitat structures due to channelisation and standardisation. Unimpaired streams and rivers are very rare, which leads to a few, remaining populations of sensitive invertebrate species which are severely fragmented. This progress is mainly noticed in lowland rivers in agricultural intensely used areas, where habitat degradation and pollution affect the ecosystems. Additional pressures on the freshwater systems will be expected due to climate change effects. In the Austrian Lowlands, an increase of air temperature about 2-2.5 °C is predicted till 2040. This will in turn lead to the highest increase in water temperature in the lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains", Ecoregion 11 on which the impacts of climate change will most likely be highest in Austria. Global warming on its own may lead to severe changes in aquatic ecosystems. Human impacts increase the negative effects even more. Main factors for a sustainable survival of benthic invertebrates and fishes are closely connected with parameters like water temperature, the availability of oxygen and nutrients, or radiation and nutrients for primary production which are closely related to climate. Natural bank vegetation reduces the influx of solar radiation as well as it forms a microclimate of its own and could provide very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages. Riparian areas with trees provide direct shade for the water body and thus avoiding the corresponding increase in water temperature. Wide riparian wooded areas can even decrease evaporation and increase the relative air humidity, which contributes to reducing water temperature. Input of deadwood like trees or logs represents essential habitats for invertebrates and fish assemblages. Its presence is one essential drivers of bed-morphology creating heterogeneous instream habitat patterns. In the framework of the project BIO_CLIC the potential of riparian vegetation to mitigate effects of climate change on biological assemblages of small and medium sized running waters will be investigated. The results support river managers in implementing integrative guidelines for sustainable river restoration towards climate change adaptation, ecological services and socio-economic consequences. In this paper the influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of rivers will be highlighted. As a first step in field works habitat characteristics will be examined and described. First results show riparian vegetation datasets for different riparian vegetation types with 3D spatial distribution of vegetation, riparian vegetation composition and radiation attenuation coefficients for different vegetation types.

  5. Vegetation und Management seltener Pflanzenarten im Küstengrünland einer dänischen Ostseeinsel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimes, Christine; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Grazed coastal grassland in eastern Denmark - Managing plant communities to preserve rare plant species This study analyzes vegetation of coastal grassland in an embanked nature reserve (c. 2000 ha) south of Copenhagen on the island Amager. The focus is on grazing effects on abundance of Iris spuria, Selinum dubium and Cerastium subtetrandrum. The main objectives are to identify plant communities and site factors related to the target species. Considering the ecological requirements of the species it is possible to estimate their potential distribution in the study area. Based on these results, management on the rare plants is discussed. Vegetation data, consisting of 73 relevés collected in summer 2008, are classified using TWINSPAN analysis and ordination by DCA. Thus, the main vegetation units and underlying environmental gradients are identified and assigned to plant communities known from the literature. Recent vegetation changes are analysed by DCA using published data from 2004 and 2006. The main factors defining the grassland vegetation of Vestamager are salinity, moisture and grazing. Nutrientpoor, salt-affected and grazed communities of the Lolio-Cynosuretum are the most common vegetation type in the study area. This association can be divided into a subtype of moist grassland, including species of wetland meadows (Molinion), and drier grassland, with floristic affinities to Mesobromion. In the southwest of the study area, with slightly higher salinity, the Lolio-Cynosuretum is replaced by 243 Juncetum gerardii salt marshes. Within the salt marshes pioneer vegetation is developed on ant hills. The transition between geo- and hydrolitoral is colonized by brackish reeds. On intensely grazed, moist to wet sites the Lolio-Cynosuretum is replaced by the Ranunculo repentis-Alopecuretum geniculati. Tall grassland dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos develops under reduced grazing pressure. Iris spuria and Selinum dubium occur with one stand each in the north of the study area. The populations are associated with drier parts of the Lolio-Cynosuretum juncetosum gerardii. Smaller populations of Selinum dubium are found in Plantago major communities. Cerastium subtetrandrum is represented with several small populations on ant hills in salt-pioneer marsh. Iris spuria is sensitive to grazing, and thus the intensification of grazing on Vestamager has resulted in a decreasing population of this species in the past years. Selinum dubium is more tolerant, and vegetative individuals are able to persist in grazed areas. Cerastium subtetrandrum depends indirectly on grazing. Potential habitats of this species are maintained by grazing. Intensification of grazing and shrub clearance have reduced cover of woody species and tall grasses promoting less competitive species. Recently, a development towards open saltinfluenced grassland can be observed, albeit without increasing floristic diversity. Optimal conservation of the target species seems only feasible if a more diverse management is applied. For conservation of Iris spuria and Selinum dubium a local reduction of grazing is recommended including exclosures. Preservation of Cerastium subtetrandrum, however, depends on low vegetation, which calls for relatively intense grazing. In the long term, higher diversity will only be achieved by spatio-temporal variation of grazing intensity which would also accommodate the different demands of the target species.   Keywords: Cerastium subtetrandrum, conservation management, grazing variation, Iris spuria, salt marsh, Selinum dubium, target species.

  6. Vegetation succession in floodplain flats : inventarisation and modelling of measured data and expert judgement

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, B.S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Literature study and expert judgement are used to develop succession schemes per vegetation structure type of the Dutch floodplain flats. The occurrence of a vegetation type is said to be mainly related to flooding duration and frequency. The third factor taken into account is the management, for example mowing or grazing. Per vegetation structure type the relation between vegetation types and time span needed for developing from one into another is given.

  7. DUCKWEED – A PERSPECTIVE VEGETABLE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of use duckweed as green vegetable are considered in article. The structure of types of duckweeds, their biological features, distribution in the world and in the territory of the Krasnodar region is shown. Possibility of their use as biotesters and bioindicators of the water environment, as analytical system for the analysis is shown. Questions of use of duckweed in artificial conditions as well as requirements to the content of culture are considered

  8. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

  9. Flora y vegetación en la porción sur de la mixteca poblana / Flora and vegetation in the southern portion of the mixteca region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Guízar-Nolazco; D., Granados-Sánchez; A., Castañeda-Mendoza.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la vegetación en diez municipios del extremo meridional de la Mixteca poblana con una superficie aproximada de 1,668.74 km². Se efectuaron colectas botánicas y un muestreo ecológico cuantitativo para estimar los valores de importancia y área basal para las especies arbóreas en las áreas m [...] ejor conservadas, con el objetivo de determinar los tipos de vegetación existentes y las asociaciones vegetales aún presentes. Los resultados indican la existencia de cinco tipos de vegetación correspondientes a bosque tropical bajo caducifolio, bosque bajo palmatifoliado, bosque tropical bajo de durifolios, bosque mediano perennifolio ripario y bosque templado bajo de escuamifolios. Se identificaron 13 asociaciones vegetales, siete de las cuales pertenecen al bosque tropical bajo caducifolio, que es el tipo de vegetación más representativo. La lista florística preliminar incluye 360 especies, 225 géneros y 77 familias de plantas vasculares. Se discuten de manera general los patrones de la vegetación, sus posibles causas, la importancia de la flora a nivel regional y el estado actual de conservación de la cubierta vegetal. Abstract in english A vegetation sampling was carried out in ten municipalities of the southern Mixteca region of Puebla, with an area of approximately 1,668.74 km². Botanical samplings were made along with a quantitative ecological sampling to estimate the values of importance and basal area for the tree species of th [...] e most conserved areas. The objective was to determine the existing types of vegetation and the plant associations still present. Results indicate the existence of flve vegetation types corresponding to deciduous tropical forest, palm land, tropical oak forest, gallery forest and Juniperus forest. Thirteen plant associations were identified, including seven that belong to the tropical oak forest, the most representative vegetation type. The preliminary floristic list includes 360 species, 225 genera and 77 families of vascular plants. A general discussion is made of vegetation patterns, their possible causes, the importance of the flora at the regional level and the present conservation status of the vegetation.

  10. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Modeling vegetation diversity types in mexico based upon topographic features / Modelado da diversidade de tipos de vegetação no méxico baseado em atributos topográficos / Modelado de la diversidad de tipos de vegetación en méxico basado en atributos topográficos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Azucena, Pérez; Jean, François Mas; Alejandro, Velázquez; Lorenzo, Vázquez.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o papel da topografia como variável substituta para explicar padrões de diversidade de tipos de vegetação (DTV). Calculou-se o índice de diversidade de vegetação de Simpson para todo o território mexicano utilizando mapas de uso do solo e vegetação por meio de SIG. Determinou-se a correla [...] ção entre diversidade de vegetação e alguns atributos topográficos (altitude, faixa de elevação, inclinação, rugosidade e exposição), encontrando-se correlação significativa entre as variáveis topográficas e a diversidade de vegetação (Coeficiente de Spearman >0,4, p=0,01 com três variáveis: faixa e média de elevação, e inclinação) com uma ventana otima de 80×80km². Logo se modelou os DTV com base nos atributos topográficos usando um enfoque de redes neurais artificiais. A comparação entre os mapas de DTV modelados e reais mostrou que o modelo é uma boa estimação da diversidade de vegetação. A análise de erros sugere que os DTV não podem explicar-se totalmente por atributos topográficos, ainda que estes joguem um papel fundamental nos DTV a escala regional e continental. As coberturas do solo e a vegetação refletem os padrões de distribuição da biodiversidade, pelo que a modelação dos DTV é um enfoque prometedor para avaliar a biodiversidade. A conclusão principal é que as variáveis topográficas, disponíveis em diferentes escalas de resolução para a maior parte do mundo, podem ser utilizadas para representar padrões regionais de biodiversidade. Este aspecto é crucial em países tropicais, os quais apresentam alta biodiversidade mas, freqüentemente carecem de bases de dados sobre coberturas do solo confiáveis e atualizadas Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el papel de la topografía como variable sustituta para explicar patrones de diversidad de tipos de vegetación (DTV). Se calculó el índice de diversidad de vegetación de Simpson para todo el territorio mexicano utilizando mapas de uso del suelo y vegetación por medio de SIG. Se determinó la [...] correlación entre diversidad de vegetación y algunos atributos topográficos (altitud, rango de elevación, pendiente, rugosidad y exposición), encontrándose correlación significativa entre las variables topográficas y la diversidad de vegetación (Coeficiente de Spearman >0,4, p=0,01 con tres variables: rango y promedio de elevación, y pendiente) con una ventana óptima de 80×80km². Luego se modeló los DTV con base en los atributos topográficos usando un enfoque de redes neurales artificiales. La comparación entre los mapas de DTV modelados y reales mostró que el modelo es una buena estimación de la diversidad de vegetación. El análisis de errores sugiere que los DTV no pueden explicarse totalmente por atributos topográficos, aunque éstos juegan un papel fundamental en los DTV a escala regional y continental. Las coberturas del suelo y la vegetación reflejan los patrones de distribución de la biodiversidad, por lo que la modelación de los DTV es un enfoque prometedor para evaluar la biodiversidad. La conclusión principal es que las variables topográficas, disponibles en diferentes escalas de resolución para la mayor parte del mundo, pueden ser utilizadas para representar patrones regionales de biodiversidad. Este aspecto es crucial en países tropicales, los cuales presentan alta biodiversidad pero frecuentemente carecen de bases de datos sobre coberturas del suelo confiables y actualizadas Abstract in english The role played by topography as a surrogate variable to explain vegetation diversity types (VDT) was evaluated. Using GIS, a Simpson vegetation diversity index for the entire Mexican territory was computed based on land use and vegetation maps. Then, the correlation between VDT and topographical at [...] tributes (elevation, range of elevation, slope, roughness and diversity of aspect) was calculated using different sizes of analysis windows. A significant correlation between topographical variables and vegetation diversity was found (Spearman coefficient of

  12. Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and Composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for Biophysical Characterization and Discrimination of Crop Types Using Field Reflectance and Hyperion-EO-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mariotto, Isabella; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Landis, David R.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy approx. 70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using approx. 20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was approx. 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or "the curse of high dimensionality") in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysical characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI. Index Terms-Hyperion, field reflectance, imaging spectroscopy, HyspIRI, biophysical parameters, hyperspectral vegetation indices, hyperspectral narrowbands, broadbands.

  13. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products

    OpenAIRE

    Neus Bernat; Maite Cháfer; Amparo Chiralt; Chelo González-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The so-called vegetable milks are in the spotlight thanks to their lactose-free, animal protein-free and cholesterol-free features which fit well with the current demand for healthy food products. Nevertheless, and with the exception of soya, little information is available about these types of milks and their derivatives. The aims of this review, therefore, are to: highlight the main nutritional benefits of the nut and cereal vegetable milks available on the market, fermented or not; describ...

  14. Genetics of Vegetative Incompatibility in Cryphonectria parasitica

    OpenAIRE

    Cortesi, Paolo; Milgroom, Michael G

    1998-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in Europe is controlled by six unlinked vic loci, each with two alleles. Four previously identified vic loci (vic1, vic2, vic3, and vic4) were polymorphic in European vegetative compatibility (vc) types. Two new loci, vic6 and vic7, also were identified among European vc types. In one cross, vic genes segregated independently at five loci, and 194 progeny were assigned to 32 vc types; none of these loci were l...

  15. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, L. R.; Hölzer, N.; Marrs, R.; del Moral, R.; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 17, ?. 2 (2014), s. 187-192. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2014

  16. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  17. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE's need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies,...

  20. Road–side herbaceous vegetation: life history groups and habitat preferences.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 1 (2010), s. 69-79. ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 350.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : road-side vegetation * road ecology * life form * life history * habitat preference * alien species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  1. Variability of contemporary vegetation around Petuniabukta, central Spitsbergen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Klimešová, Jitka; Košnar, J.; Red?enko, O.; Hais, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 4 (2012), 383-394. ISSN 0138-0338 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation * ordination * diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2012

  2. Vegetation development in central European coal mining sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 38-52. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Estimating the Maximal Light Use Efficiency for Different Vegetation through the CASA Model Combined with Time-Series Remote Sensing Data and Ground Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximal light use efficiency (LUE is an important ecological index of a vegetation essential attribute, and a key parameter of the LUE-based model for estimating large-scale vegetation productivity by remote sensing technology. However, although currently used in different models there still exists extensive controversy. This paper takes the Zoige Plateau in China as a case area to develop a new approach for estimating the maximal LUEs for different vegetation. Based on an existing land cover map and MODIS NDVI product, the linear unmixing method with a moving window was adopted to estimate the time-series NDVI for different end members in a MODIS NDVI pixel; then Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO was applied to search for the optimization of LUE retrievals through the CASA (Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach model combined with time-series NDVI and ground measurements. The derived maximal LUEs present significant differences among various vegetation types. These are 0.669 gC·MJ?1, 0.450 gC·MJ?1 and 0.126 gC·MJ?1 for the xerophilous grasslands with high, moderate and low vegetation fraction respectively, 0.192 gC·MJ?1 for the hygrophilous grasslands, and 0.125 gC·MJ?1 for the helobious grasslands. The field validation shows that the estimated net primary productivity (NPP by the derived maximal LUE is closely related to the ground references, with R2 of 0.8698 and root-mean-square error (RMSE of 59.37 gC·m?2·a?1. This indicates that the default set in the CASA model is not suitable for NPP estimation for the regional mountain area. The derived maximal LUEs can significantly improve the capability of NPP mapping, and open up the perspective for long-term monitoring of vegetation ecological health and ecosystem productivity by combining the LUE-based model with remote sensing observations.

  4. A study of the relationship between vegetation growth and groundwater in the Yinchuan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X.; Wan, L.; Zhang, Y.K.; Xue, Z.Q.; Yin, Y

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between vegetation growth and groundwater in arid areas is one of the most active research topics in ecohydrology. Due to less precipitation, the vegetation growth has close relationship with groundwater in northwest arid inland areas of China. Research on the ecological effect of groundwater from large scale has important significance in eco-environment recovery and protection. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the vegetation growth and the depth to wat...

  5. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Ecophysiology of forest and savanna vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J.; Goulden, M. L.; Ometto, J. P.; Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Quesada, C. A.

    Ecophysiological characteristics of forest and savanna vegetation are compared in an attempt to understand how physiological differences within and between these vegetation types relate to their geographical distributions. A simple ordination first shows that although precipitation exerts a key effect on Amazonian vegetation distributions, soil characteristics are also important. In particular, it is found that under similar precipitation regimes, deciduous forests tend to occur on more fertile soils than do cerrado vegetation types. A high subsoil clay content is also important in allowing the existence of semievergreen forests at only moderate rainfall. Such observations are consistent with biome specific physiological characteristics. For example, deciduous trees have higher nutrient requirements than do evergreen ones which also tend to have characteristics associated with severe water deficits such as a low specific leaf area. Nutrient contents and photosynthetic rates are lower than for savanna than for forest species with several ecosystem characteristics suggesting a primary limitation of nitrogen on savanna productivity. By contrast, phosphorus seems to constrain the productivity of most Amazonian forest types. Differentiation is made between the fast-growing, high-nutrient-requiring forest types of western Amazonia and their counterparts in eastern Amazonia, which tend to occupy infertile but deeper soils of high water-holding ability. On the basis of observed physiological characteristics of the various vegetation forms, it is argued that, should Amazonian precipitation decline sharply in the future, the slower growing forests of eastern Amazonia will transform directly into an evergreen cerrado type vegetation but with the more fertile western Amazonian forests being replaced by some form of drought-deciduous vegetation.

  7. Shuttle imaging radar-A (SIR-A) data analysis. [geology of the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, land use in western Illinois, and vegetation types at Koonamore Station, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The utility of shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) data was evaluated in several geological and environmental contexts. For the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, SIR-A data were of little use in mapping structural features, because of generally uniform returns. For western Illinois, little was to be gained in terms of identifying land use categories by examining differences between overlapping passes. For southern Australia (Koonamore Station), information ion vegetation types that was not obtainable from LANDSAT MSS data alone was obtained. Specifically, high SIR-A returns in the Australian site were found to correlate with locations where shrubs increase surface roughness appreciably. The Australian study site results demonstrate the synergy of acquiring spectral reflectance and radar data over the same location and time. Such data are especially important in that region, since grazing animals have substantially altered and are continuing to alter the distribution of shrublands, grasslands, and soil exposures. Periodic, synoptic acquisition of MSS and SAR data would be of use in monitoring the dynamics of land-cover change in this environment.

  8. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations compared to inflow water, and calculated denitrification was statistically higher in the floating vegetation treatments compared to the other treatments. Greenhouse gas production, measured in CO2 equivalents for N2O and CH4, was highly variable and not statistically different between the treatments. Denitrification in the tarp covered mesocosms was similar to the no-cover treatment, indicating that biotic effects in the floating vegetation treatment may be important in lowering water column oxygen levels and increasing denitrification. Understanding how floating vegetation affects total nitrogen loss, denitrification, and greenhouse gas production can be used to weigh ecological costs and benefits of different vegetation types, especially in constructed and managed wetlands.

  9. Phytoplankton and suitability of derived metrics for assessing the ecological status in a limno-reservoir, a Water Framework Directive nondefined type of Mediterranean waterbody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Martinez-Perez, Silvia; Sastre-Merlin, Antonio; Verdugo-Althoefer, Maria; Padisak, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Limno-reservoirs are small waterbodies constructed in the riverine zone of large Mediterranean reservoirs to preserve a constant water level, with the goal of mitigating the undesirable effects of reservoir operation, including those related to water level fluctuations. The Pareja limno-reservoir was among the first limno-reservoirs, and its purposes are both environmental and recreational. Phytoplankton is one of the compulsory biological indicators used to estimate ecological status in lakes a...

  10. Phytoplankton and suitability of derived metrics for assessing the ecological status in a limno-reservoir, a Water Framework Directive nondefined type of Mediterranean waterbody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Martinez-Perez, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Limno-reservoirs are small waterbodies constructed in the riverine zone of large Mediterranean reservoirs to preserve a constant water level, with the goal of mitigating the undesirable effects of reservoir operation, including those related to water level fluctuations. The Pareja limno-reservoir was among the first limno-reservoirs, and its purposes are both environmental and recreational. Phytoplankton is one of the compulsory biological indicators used to estimate ecological status in lakes and reservoirs in accordance with the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and phytoplankton biovolume in the Pareja limno-reservoir were studied between spring 2008 and winter 2011. Phytoplankton composition was analyzed employing the functional group approach. The suitability of several phytoplankton metrics to assess the ecological status of the limno-reservoir was verified, including Chl-a, total biovolume, cyanobacteria contribution and absolute biovolume, IGA (index de grups algals), MedPTI (Mediterranean Phytoplankton Trophic Index), Assemblage (Q) Index, and PTI (Phytoplankton Trophic Index). Phytoplankton composition was dominated by centric diatoms from functional group B, although they were replaced by other groups in some periods as a response to environmental changes. Checking the response of the phytoplankton metrics to a trophic gradient in addition to Chl-a, we determined that total biovolume, Q Index, and especially PTI were the most appropriate metrics to assess the ecological status of the Pareja limno-reservoir. This approach has relevant management implications for Mediterranean limno-reservoirs. Ecological status assessment may not yet be mandatory in countries such as Spain, but considering environmental and recreational goals, performing such assessments is advisable.

  11. Selection of hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) and composition of hyperspectral twoband vegetation indices (HVIs) for biophysical characterization and discrimination of crop types using field reflectance and Hyperion/EO-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Mariotto, I.; Gumma, M.K.; Middleton, E.M.; Landis, D.R.; Huemmrich, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy ~70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using ~20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was ~ 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or “the curse of high dimensionality”) in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysi- al characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI.

  12. Successional Pattern, Stand Structure and Regeneration of Forest Vegetation According to Local Environmental Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay R. Dyakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attempted botanical and ecological studies so far, integrated picture of successional and regenerative pattern of the forest vegetation in the studied area have not been achieved. Moreover, stand composition and development of these forests have never been studied in the context of environmental gradients. This study aims to integrate and clarify the accumulated knowledge about the successional pattern, stand structure and regeneration in the studied territory. It has also attempted to test some classical viewpoints about the forest vegetation pattern, placed in the context of environmental gradients. We hypothesized that most forest stands will follow the normal diameter distribution. Gradient-transect sampling procedure was used. Accumulated field samples were classified using TWINSPAN clustering method. Obtained forest community types were tested for consistency. Distribution of stand stem number by diameter classes was tested with Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Stand successional distribution followed its own trajectory and no convergence has been found. All stands had normal diameter distribution and compromised seed regeneration, i.e. they were in “stagnant” condition. Dominant trees also had normal stem distribution except beech stands from the most xeric habitats, but this was due to their sprouting regeneration. We hypothesized that this regeneration pattern is due to erroneous management and lack of major natural disturbances in the area during the last decades, which could have drew the stands from “stagnancy” and restart the seed regeneration. If this tendency is maintained we suppose that it will lead to continuing degradation of local forest vegetation.

  13. Ecological modernization of sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    This article will examine how the contemporary development of sustainable buildings has been influenced by the concept of ecological modernisation. Ecological modernisation is a policy concept describing how environmental considerations are increasingly being integrated into modern society's institutions through e.g. new types of co-operation and new applications of economic and market dynamics. The article is based on recent examples from politics and practice in the construction sector in Denm...

  14. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  15. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  16. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  17. Role of vegetation on erosion processes: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Investigations on soil-system ecology are ever more oriented toward quantitative information based on the study of the linkages between physical processes and ecological response in rivers. As it is known, in presence of vegetation, the hydrodynamics characteristics of flow are principally determined by the mutual interrelation between the flow velocity field and the hydraulic behavior (completely submerged or emergent) of the vegetation elements. Much effort has been made toward identifying the theoretical law to interpret the vertical profile of flow longitudinal velocity in vegetated channels. Many theoretical and experimental studies in laboratory channels have been carried out and especially the case of submerged flexible vegetation has been examined (Termini, 2012). The effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion. Vegetation has a complex effect on walls roughness and the study of the hydrodynamic conditions of flow is difficult. Although most studies based on the "boundary layer" scheme so that the hydrodynamic conditions inside and above the vegetated layer are considered separately, some authors (Ghisalberti and Nepft, 2002; Carollo et al., 2008) claim that the "mixing layer" scheme is more appropriate to define the velocity profile both inside and outside the vegetated layer. Experimental program has been recently carried out in two laboratory flumes constructed at the laboratory of Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali - University of Palermo (Italy) with real and flexible vegetation on the bed. In this paper, attention is paid to the influence of vegetation on the erosion processes both on the bed and on the channel banks. The structure of the detailed flow velocity field is analyzed and compared with that obtained in absence of vegetation. Attention is then devoted to the analysis of soil erosion mechanism. Carollo F.G., Ferro V., Termini D. (2008). Flow velocity profile and turbulence characteristics in a vegetated straight flume. International Congress Riverflow 2008- Cesnme - Izmir (Turkey) 3-5 September Ghisalberti, M. & Nepf, H. M. 2002. Mixing layer and coherent structures in vegetated acquatic flows. Journal of Geophysical Reseach 107(2). Termini D. (2012). Experimental investigation on the role of vegetation on sediment transport mechanism: review of recent results - 9th ISE - International Symposium on Ecohydraulics - 2012, ISSN 0945-358X Vienna - CD proceedings-

  18. Hillslope soils and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun; Owen, Justine; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Dietrich, William E.

    2015-04-01

    Assessing how vegetation controls hillslope soil processes is a challenging problem, as few abiotic landscapes exist as observational controls. Here we identify five avenues to examine how actively eroding hillslope soils and processes would differ without vegetation, and we explore some potential feedbacks that may result in landscape resilience on vegetated hillslopes. The various approaches suggest that a plant-free world would be characterized by largely soil-free hillslopes, that plants may control the maximum thickness of soils on slopes, that vegetated landforms erode at rates about one order of magnitude faster than plant-free outcrops in comparable settings, and that vegetated hillslope soils generally maintain long residence times such that both N and P sufficiency for ecosystems is the norm. We conclude that quantitatively parameterizing biota within process-based hillslope models needs to be a priority in order to project how human activity may further impact the soil mantle.

  19. Mitonuclear Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Geoffrey E

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotes were born of a chimeric union between two prokaryotes--the progenitors of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Early in eukaryote evolution, most mitochondrial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus, but a core set of genes that code exclusively for products associated with the electron transport system remained in the mitochondrion. The products of these mitochondrial genes work in intimate association with the products of nuclear genes to enable oxidative phosphorylation and core energy production. The need for coadaptation, the challenge of cotransmission, and the possibility of genomic conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have profound consequences for the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic life. An emerging interdisciplinary field that I call "mitonuclear ecology" is reassessing core concepts in evolutionary ecology including sexual reproduction, two sexes, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation in light of the interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25931514

  20. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  1. Experimental investigation of the modification of the flow field, past instream vegetation elements, for distinct bedsurface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Yagci, Oral; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Koursari, Eftychia

    2015-04-01

    The presence of vegetation in rivers and estuaries has important implications for the modification of the flow field and sediment transport. In-stream vegetation has the potential to regulate the morphology and ecological health of a surface water body, and as such it finds a wide range of applications. Even though a number of controls influencing the local flow field past aquatic vegetation elements or patches of instream vegetation have been identified (such as shape, areal density, size and flexibility), conclusive evidence is lacking, particularly on how sediment transport processes are affected. Here, an experimental study is designed to identify how the flow field past different types of elements simulating in-stream emergent vegetation is modified. Two sets of experiments are conducted, each with a distinct value of high and low hydraulic roughness for the bed surface. In both experiments a rigid cylindrical element, a patch of rigid tubes and a plant shaped element (Cupressus Macrocarpa), simulating instream emergent vegetation are utilized. The flow field is measured at various locations downstream the element and average and turbulent flow statistics are obtained at near bed, mid-flow depth and near the water surface regions. It is found that different structural aspects of the elements, particularly the geometry, can significantly affect the flow field downstream the elements. Specifically, the average flow profiles are practically restored to near ambient flow conditions at about 5 diameters downstream the rigid element, while this happens at longer distances for the other elements. The flow structures shed past the elements are also very distinct, as confirmed via appropriately designed fluorescent dye flow visualizations. Potential ecosystem feedbacks and implications for formation of geospatial patterns are also discussed.

  2. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  3. Vegetation Dynamics and Community Assembly in Post-Agricultural Heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Summary This PhD study aims at understanding how biotic, abiotic and stochastic factors interact to structure a heathland vegetation community managed under different traditional land-use practices for centuries prior to abandonment ca. 120 years ago. This study is part of one of the longest spontaneous successional studies of heathland vegetation, where tree colonization and understory vegetation patterns were measured in successive vegetation surveys initiated in 1921. This data was complemented with an intensive survey of the current vegetation patterns and ecological factors. I found that land-use legacies are still present in the soil and were important determinants of vegetation dynamics and community assembly. However, the effects of land-use legacies were mostly mediated by the understory vegetation and differed according to the functional groups. The distance to the edge, a proxy for the proximity to external seed sources, was an important factor affecting different components of the structure of the vegetation, demonstrating the importance of dispersal in the development of the community. My results indicate that the effect of the biotic interactions varies along abiotic gradients (e.g. soil fertility) and interacts with the functional strategies of species to determine the establishment of colonizing species, species’ performances and diversity patterns in the local community. These results have implications for understanding the maintenance of biodiversity, the coexistence of species and the stability of heathland communities, which can be helpful when designing conservation and management actions.

  4. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level and to draw attention on the necessity of un ecological education.

  5. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from