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Sample records for vegetation types ecological

  1. [Ecological stoichiometric characteristics in leaf and litter under different vegetation types of zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zeng, Ouan-chao; An, Shao-Shan; Dong, Yang-Hong; Li, Ya-Yun

    2015-03-01

    The purpose was to characterize the effects of vegetation types on plant leaf and litter carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and C: N: P: K ecological stoichiometric characteristics in seven dominant plant species, including Robinia pseudoacacia, Syringa, Sophora viciifolia, Hippophae rhamnoides, Rosa xanthina, Artemisia sacrorum, Artemisia giraldii, of Zhifanggou Watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. This paper indicated the differences between the contents of C, N, P and K and the characteristics of ecological stoichiometric in the different vegetation types, including forest type, shrub type and grass type. Concentrations of C, N, P and K were measured, and C: N: P: K was estimated for different vegetation types. There were no significant differences in leaf C, N and P concentrations among the three vegetation types. But significant differences in leaf K concentration existed, and the K concentration in leaf was the highest in grass type, and the lowest in shrub type. The contents of C, N, P and K in leaf were much higher than those in litter, especially in shrub and grass types. The resorption efficiencies of C, N, P and K were different, and their ranges varied 6.16%-22.84%, 24.38%-65.18%, 22.38%-77.16% and 60.99%- 89.35%, respectively. Grass type had the highest C, P and K resorption efficiencies, and the lowest N resorption efficiency. Values of the N: P ratio in leaf varied in the range of 12.14-19.17, and varied in the range of 12.84-30.67 in litter. Values of the N: P ratio in leaf were the highest in shrub type (19. 17), and the lowest in grass (12. 14), indicating that the growth of shrub plants was limited by P, while the growth of grass plants was limited by N. The K concentration in leaf was significantly negatively correlated with values of the N: P ratio in leaf, and the K concentration in litter was significantly negatively correlated with values of the C: P ratio in leaf. Findings in this study highlighted the characteristics of accumulation and and return of leaf and litters nutrients during the different vegetation succession on the Loess Plateau. PMID:25929080

  2. Description of vegetation types

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the types of woody vegetation that are found in Iowa. This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa oak...

  3. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  4. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes. Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

  5. REPEATABILITY OF THE FRENCH HIGHER VEGETATION TYPES ACCORDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. GRANDJOUAN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher vegetation types are generally determined by successive approximations and defined by a common consent. Instead, they might be statistically determined and repeated, according to a numerical method called ‘socio-ecology’. This method deals only with floristical data, but gives them an ecological meaning by a previous calibration of the relations between plants, computed as ecological indices. It is applied to a pair of two homologous samples, each having 2.000 relevés and coming from the 60.000 relevés stored in the French data bank ‘Sophy’. Each sample covers the main ecological gradients of the bank, it defines a hierarchy of vegetation types and it explains half the peculiarity of a type with only 10 to 30 discriminant plants, out of the 5.000 plants observed in the relevés. Results : 1 The discriminant plants may characterize the vegetation types, including the higher ones, in a coherent and readable form. 2 In the two independent classifications, having different structures, the same vegetation types are repeated. They are the reciprocal nearest types, in the socio-ecological space. Though the two classifications have no one relevé in common, the repeated types have nearly the same discriminant plants. 3 At the highest level, two clear-cut main types show the difference between light and shadow. The same herbaceous discriminant plants, for a type, and the ligneous or sciaphilous ones, for the other, have similar fidelities and constancies in the two classifications. 4 Such a numerical agreement, instead of common consent, appears again in the sub-types, which remind the classical ones, but which are repeatable.

  6. NUTRITIONAL STATE OF ECOLOGICAL VEGETABLES IN DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Lungu; Lucian Stoian; Marcela F?lticeanu; Mihaela Monica Aldea; Rodica Doina Laz?r; Monica Dumitra?cu

    2008-01-01

    The contents of mineral nutritional elements in vegetables’ leaves were studied in an ecologically assessed field at the Research-Development Station for Vegetables (SCDL) Bac?u, on a Fluvisol, in 2006 and 2007. Soil texture is sandyloamy, pH 6.2-6.8, and the humus content 2.4-2.6%. Vegetables have been grown here for several tens of years. In the last years, in an ecological agriculture system, the soil has been fertilized only with farm-made compost and green manure. Organic fertilizati...

  7. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  8. Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

  9. PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

    So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

  10. Alternative Ecology of Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of illness due to human enteric pathogenic bacteria via fresh vegetables warrant intensive research on changing strategies of these bacteria in alterning their hosts for survival. The systemic infection of human pathogenic bacteria in plants and the plant growth stage at which they establish endophytic relationship is poorly understood. The issue is magnified in countries like India where the dietary habits are changing and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables as salad has become a part in the everyday menu of most people. Most of the human pathogenic enteric bacteria are generally characterized by broad host ranges and these pathogens seem to exploit almost any change in human ecology that provides new opportunities for transmission. Because plants are not traditionally considered as hosts for human enteric pathogens, recent produce-associated outbreaks highlight important deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of enteric pathogens outside of their human and animal hosts. This review focuses on understanding the human enteric pathogens that have developed abilities to colonize internal tissues of vegetables and fruits popularly consumed as salads, how and when do they enter plants and where do they localize in plant tissues. In addition, we have also highlighted the attempts made in detection and control of these bacteria in plant hosts. This understanding will help develop strategies towards vegetable food safety in a joint effort by agriculturalists, environmentalists, food processing agencies, whole salers and retailers, which will ultimately benefit every consumer.

  11. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, J. J.; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E. S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological and 2) an agro-ecological vision. The technological vision aims at excluding and predicting external influences with the focus on control. Variants of this vision are production systems with fertig...

  12. Community Structure of Skipper Butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) along Elevational Gradients in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Reflects Vegetation Type Rather than Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Fiedler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recor...

  13. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal.

  14. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

  15. NatureServe International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications of Vegetation Alliances and Associations at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This subset of the International Ecological Classification Standard represents the National Vegetation Classification Standard NVCS and covers vegetation alliances...

  16. NUTRITIONAL STATE OF ECOLOGICAL VEGETABLES IN DROUGHT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lungu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The contents of mineral nutritional elements in vegetables’ leaves were studied in an ecologically assessed field at the Research-Development Station for Vegetables (SCDL Bac?u, on a Fluvisol, in 2006 and 2007. Soil texture is sandyloamy, pH 6.2-6.8, and the humus content 2.4-2.6%. Vegetables have been grown here for several tens of years. In the last years, in an ecological agriculture system, the soil has been fertilized only with farm-made compost and green manure. Organic fertilization didn’t significantly improve the nutritive elements soil contents but it had the merit to preserve the soil fertility properties, along with the natural equilibrium between nutritional elements. Under these conditions, lower total nitrogen contents were determined in tomato leaves and higher in egg-plant leaves. Phosphorus contents proved to be relatively constant with egg-plants and a little lower with tomatoes; potassium and calcium contents were much lower with tomatoes; zinc and copper contents registered depletions, both for egg-plants and tomatoes, the iron contents slightly increased, while manganese contents remained relatively constant. In 2007 the potassium contents in tomatoes leaves shifted towards the critical domain, as compared to the lower limit of the excessive domain in 2006, in egg-plants leaves it remained under this domain limit, as in 2006; the calcium contents remained in the excessive domain, as in 2006, the magnesium contents shifted towards the critical domain, as compared to the normal one in 2006, iron contents remained excessive for tomatoes; the zinc remained in the normal content domain for tomatoes, as in 2006, and decreased to the critical domain for egg-plants; the copper remained in the excessive content domain, but at the inferior limit of it, unlike in 2006. Due to these modifications of ratios between the mineral nutritional elements absorbed in leaves in 2007 the cellular sap pH values were lower than in 2006.

  17. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus-Croton-Lepidotrichilia; and, finally, recent ash falls have produced immature alkaline soils with calcrete formation and short grass vegetation. All of these vegetation associations have been modified by human disturbance to greater or lesser degrees, and we have attempted to allow for this both by basing the associations on the least modified areas and by predicting how the associations, or parts of associations, have been altered by human action. Past land forms at Laetoli have been based on the geology and geomorphology of the area. Past vegetation patterns were estimated by superimposing present distributions of plant associations on equivalent landforms in the past, assuming similar climate to the present. This indicates the overall pattern of vegetation at Laetoli to have been a mosaic of low and tall deciduous woodlands and with riverine woodland and forest associations along water courses. Low woodlands would have been dominated by Acacia species, and tall woodlands by Combretum-Albizia species, with increasing increments of montane species, such as Croton species, to the east of the area. Riverine woodlands would have been dominated by Acacia-Euclea species, with wetter associations (downriver or linked with spring activity) supporting gallery forest with Ficus, Celtis, and Croton species. These are all species associations common in the area today, and with landforms little changed in the past, and assuming similar climate, there is every reason to predict that they would have been present in the past. Moreover, Pliocene environments lack the human disturbance that has destroyed much of the present day vegetation. Presence of woodlands is supported by fossil wood attributed to several of the tree species present in the area today and by similarities in the mammalian community structure between past and present. Having established the pattern for Pliocene vegetation based on climatic variables existing today, we then predict the effects of past variations in climate. PMID:17765945

  18. Vegetation types and surface soils of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1956 the newly formed Ecology Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), now called the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under the Department of Energy, initiated a project, using aerial photos taken in 1949, 1953, and 1954 to prepare a vegetation map of the site. This area was designated a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in 1975. The first map prepared by N. R. French and Ray McBride was produced in 1958, and differentiated vegetation types on the basis of the two most prominent species of plants occurring in each type. This map gave adequate resolution between major vegetation types only in the complex mosaic of types at the northern end of the site, designating everything else as one homogeneous vegetation classification: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) and Chrysothamnus viscidifluorus (green rabbitbrush). To improve the resolution of the vegetation map and thereby make it more useful in distinguishing habitats in all parts of the site, efforts were immediately begun to reclassify the vegetation types on the basis of the three (instead of two) most prominent species of plants representative of each type. This effort was continued on a low-priority basis for several years. In 1965 a vegetation map, according to the three species designation, was prepared by Ray McBride. The map was never documented in a formal report, but was reproduced in a thesis by Harniss (1968) and was referenced by H by Harniss (1968) and was referenced by Harniss and West (1973a) in their outline of the vegetation types of the NRTS. It is the purpose of this report to document the original vegetation type map prepared by the late Ray McBride and to provide general descriptions of the different vegetation types. The map has been revised and redrawn, and is appended to this report. Because vegetation is intimately related to soil development, a preliminary soil type map prepared and discussed by Adrian H. Dahl is included in this report

  19. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  20. FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION BY ECOLOGICAL ZONE AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi

    2014-07-01

    Summary The disease burden in both developed and developing countries is moving towards higher proportions of chronic diseases, and diseases such as cancers are now considered to be of public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, healthy behaviours such as fruit and vegetable consumption are recommended to reduce the chances of onset of chronic diseases. This paper examines the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in Ghana with particular emphasis on consumption by ecological zone. Data were from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=4916 females; n=4568 males). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using basic descriptive and Poisson regression. The main independent variable was ecological zone and the dependent variables were levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. The mean number of fruits and vegetables consumed in a week was higher among females (fruits: 7.5, 95% CI=7.3-7.7; vegetables: 8.1, 95% CI=7.8-8.3) than males (fruits: 6.2, 95% CI=6.0-6.4; vegetables: 7.9, 95% CI=7.7-8.2). There were significant differences in consumption by ecological zone. Respondents in the Savannah zone consumed less fruit than those in the Coastal and Forest zones, but the differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between the Coastal and Savannah zones were not consistent, especially for vegetable consumption. The findings suggest that one of the key interventions to improve fruit and vegetable consumption could lie in improving distribution systems since their consumption is significantly higher in the Forest zone, where the production of fruit and vegetables is more developed than in the Savannah and Coastal zones. The findings relating to household wealth challenge conventional knowledge on fruit and vegetable consumption, and rather argue for equal consideration of spatial differences in critical health outcomes. PMID:24991697

  1. Ecology and management of whitefly-transmitted vegetable viruses in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon, tomato and other vegetable crops are infected by a wide variety of viral pathogens, many of which are transmitted by whiteflies. The inter-related ecology and management of four such viruses currently present in Florida, Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Tomato y...

  2. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Edcarlos Mannfredini; Deonisio Destro; Martin Homechin; Gustavo Sachsida; Édison Miglioranza

    1998-01-01

    Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plast...

  3. ECOLOGICAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERWATER VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TITINSCHNEIDER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The excess of aquatic submerse vegetation development carries to the reduction of the real rearing area for the piscicultural material from the production farms and allow nestling of the ichthyophages bird species that decrease the fish production. Aquatic submerse vegetation stumble the utilization of aquatic zones for recreation and also wright function of basins utilized for the electric energy production, of micro electricity works through obstruction of the dams grid. The control of the aquatic submerse vegetation development, for Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ceratophyllum submersum, Urticularia vulgaris, Potamogeton natans, Nimphoides peltata species it is accomplish through the removing of some parts of these, preferably with all the stump system. Usually, these its accomplish with the floating equipments fit up with the thermic engines and the propulsion and governating elements who have harm over the fish and some others aquatic organisms through the noise, the displacing a large quality of water caused of propulsion systems and through the noxes elimination (flue, carburant trails, etc.. These technologies reside from the evacuation of the aquatic submerse vegetation and the stump systems of these with the help of an adjustable rake, hang up from the coast by a rope, wrapped to a drummer, who is trained by a motto-propeller group with a small installed power.

  4. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edcarlos, Mannfredini; Deonisio, Destro; Martin, Homechin; Gustavo, Sachsida; Édison, Miglioranza.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visand [...] o a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V) igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo. Abstract in english Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soy [...] bean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.

  5. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo.

  6. Alternative Ecology of Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, A.; Gothandam, K. M.; Babu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of illness due to human enteric pathogenic bacteria via fresh vegetables warrant intensive research on changing strategies of these bacteria in alterning their hosts for survival. The systemic infection of human pathogenic bacteria in plants and the plant growth stage at which they establish endophytic relationship is poorly understood. The issue is magnified in countries like India where the dietary habits are changing and consumption of fresh fruits ...

  7. Ecological problems and nitrogen balance in vegetable crops growing

    OpenAIRE

    Simeonova, Tsetska; Stoicheva, Dimitranka; Alexandrova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the nitrogen balance and losses in agricultural system. The influence of precipitation, irrigation and fertilizer application on some soil parameters, N-uptake by plant production and N-output by lysimetric water are evaluated in this paper.The study is carried out on Fluvisol, near Plovdiv in Southern Bulgaria under the conditions of field experiments with different vegetable crops (eggplant, green beans and carrots) over the period 2009-2011. The exp...

  8. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime.

  9. Vegetation, population and ecological track as sustainability indicators in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biophysical sustainability, namely natural capabilities to sustain human development in Colombia, is explored through environmental indicators based on land cover and demographic variables. Remnant vegetation index (IVR in Spanish) uses cover as a measure of ecosystem functionality. Population pressure index (IPD) applies population density to environmental demand analysis. Footprint index (IHE) relates the inverse of density with sustainability. Environmental criticality index combines IVR and IPD to detect offer/demand unbalances. Results suggest Colombia is sustainable although many places in it could be in danger; this could be related with social and economical features of the country

  10. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Role?ek, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvon?ík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6163303; GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  11. Ecological Land Type Associations of Minnesota

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the fourth level of the Ecological Classification System. Polygon boundaries were delineated at a scale of 1:100,000 with a...

  12. Koncept ekologických fenomén? v interpretaci st?edoevropské vegetace Ecological phenomena concept: the interpretation of the Central-European vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Ku?era

    2005-01-01

    A review of literature referring to floristic, vegetation and habitat diversity in Bohemian Massif has resulted to a revision and detailed classification of ecological phenomena. Each phenomenon represents an open nonhierarchical system of lithological, hydrological, topoclimatic and biotic aberrations, that differ from common features of surrounded “zonal“ environment. Two main groups of ecological phenomena have been distinguished: (i) large-scale ecological geo-phenomena originated by ...

  13. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA a...

  14. Soil depth constrains whether evapotranspiration contrasts between vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W.; Heilman, J. L.; Rebel, K. T.; Owens, M. K.; Litvak, M. E.; Nero, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    Altering vegetation types in semiarid ecosystems has been proposed as a method for managing evapotranspiration (ET). In adjacent sites with contrasting vegetation types, ET is controlled by available energy (net radiation minus storage heat flux), which is largely a function of ecosystem composition and structure, and on how that available energy is partitioned between latent and sensible heat flux. Available energy in woodlands, for example, is typically higher than in grasslands because woodlands absorb more radiant energy. The partitioning of available energy between latent and sensible heat is controlled to a large degree by water availability. In shallow soil systems, however, roots of both grasses and trees are confined and water storage capacity is limited, which may result in lower latent and higher sensible heat than what would occur in deeper soil systems. In a semiarid system underlain by limestone, we compared energy balance partitioning and ET among a continuum of vegetation types: grassland (G), oak savanna (S), and juniper-oak woodland (W). We expect differences among sites to be most pronounced during drought in areas with deep soil because nearly all available energy should transfer to latent heat when adequate moisture is available, regardless of vegetation type. Root depth may differ by species in deep soils, but may only differ in shallow soils if roots penetrate into fractured limestone below the soil horizon. Three adjacent sites (G, S, W) were monitored for ET using the eddy covariance method. Soil depths are approximately 0.5 m at G, 1 m at S, and 0.2 m at W. Trees were equipped with sapflow sensors to monitor species differences in dry down response. Measurements showed that available energy was highest in the woodland, and lowest in the grassland. However, ET was highest in the savanna, the site with the deepest soil. Total ET over a 2-yr period was 1319 mm, 1465 mm, and 1409 mm, respectively at G, S, and W sites. The highest sensitivity of ET to rainfall and water deficits was observed in the woodland, the site with the greatest woody cover, but the thinnest soil. Transpiration in oak in the woodland was more sensitive to precipitation events than juniper. The least sensitivity of ET to rainfall and water deficits was observed in the savanna, the site with the deepest soil. A separate experiment at a new location was conducted to examine root water uptake differences between grass and juniper plots in very deep soils (>1 m) and to calibrate a soil water balance model. The model was then used to simulate changes in uptake with varying soil depth. Deep soils under juniper were depleted of moisture much faster than deep soils under grass, resulting in very large cumulative annual differences (10 times) in water loss between the two vegetation types. However, a model of this system with soil depth constrained to only the top 10 cm (a common occurrence) predicts that differences would be much smaller, only 40% annually. It follows for this semiarid ecosystem underlain by limestone that spatial patterns in ET are dependent upon both vegetation type and soil depth variation.

  15. The ecology of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana: abundance, productivity and survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Afrane Yaw A; Lawson Bernard W; Brenya Ruth; Kruppa Thomas; Yan Guiyun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Irrigated vegetable farms within the city of Kumasi, Ghana, create hotspots for the breeding of malaria vectors, which could lead to high transmission of malaria. This study investigated the abundance and productivity of mosquitoes in an irrigated vegetable farm in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods Adult mosquito productivity was estimated five days in a week in different irrigated scheme types (dug-out wells, furrows and footprints) for 12 weeks using emergence traps. Larval samplin...

  16. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  17. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  18. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  19. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  20. Impact of time delays on stochastic resonance in an ecological system describing vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qinglin; Yang, Tao; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Hua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Fu, Yunchang; Zhang, Chun; Tian, Dong

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stochastic resonance phenomenon in a vegetation ecological system with time delay, at which the vegetation dynamics is assumed to be disturbed by both intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The signal-to-noise ratio is calculated when a weak periodic signal is added to the system. The impacts of time delay ? and correlation strength k between two noises on the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed, respectively. Our research results show that: (i) the increase of ? or k can enhance the stochastic resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of intrinsic noise strength ?; (ii) on the contrary, the increase of ? or k can weaken the stochastic resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of extrinsic noise strength D; and (iii) the increase of ? can lead to double stochastic resonance phenomenon in the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of k.

  1. Syntaxonomy and ecology of forest vegetation in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation of deciduous forests in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (Central Slovakia was studied using the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. The numerical classification and ordination technique were applied to determine the main forest vegetation types and to find the responsible environmental drivers related to their distribution patterns, respectively. The data set including 198 relevés collected by authors in 1997-2009 and 185 relevés excerpted from literature was used to analysis. Numerical classification resulted in delimitation of fourteen vegetation types representing eleven associations with two variants and two communities within the Quercetea robori-petraeae and Querco-Fagetea classes. The major environmental gradients in variation of forest species composition were associated with moisture and nutrient content following the average Ellenberg indicator values. Along the moisture gradient, vegetation types were ordered from subxerophilous oak forests turn mesophilous mixed oak-hornbeam, beech and ravine forests to hygrophilous riparian alder forest. The results confirmed important role of soil nutrients and moisture by determination of forest vegetation in subcontinental part of Central Europe. Special attention was given to the discussion of floristical characteristics, site conditions and syntaxonomy.

  2. Effects of Mixing Interaction Types on Ecological Community Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, a remarkable theoretical effort has been made in order to understand stability and complexity in ecological communities. The non-random structures of real ecological interaction networks has been recognized as one key ingredient contributing to the coexistence between high complexity and stability in real ecosystems. However most of the theoretical studies have considered communities with only one interaction type (either antagonistic, competitive, or mutualistic). Recently it has been proposed a theoretical analysis on multiple interaction types in ecological systems, concluding that: a) Mixture of antagonistic and mutualistic interactions stabilize the system with respect to the less realistic case of only one interaction type; b) Complexity, measured in terms of the number of interactions and the number of species, increases stability in systems with different types of interactions. By introducing new theoretical investigations and analyzing 21 empirical data sets representing mutualisti...

  3. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania) Tailing Pound. Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Marian; Cozmuta, Leonard M.; Camelia Varga; Cozmuta, Anca M.; Eugen Nour

    2009-01-01

    The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodivers...

  4. The Role of Vegetation on the Ecosystem Radiative Entropy Budget and Trends Along Ecological Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem entropy production is predicted to increase along ecological succession and approach a state of maximum entropy production, but few studies have bridged the gap between theory and data. Here, we explore radiative entropy production in terrestrial ecosystems using measurements from 64 Free/Fair-Use sites in the FLUXNET database, including a successional chronosequence in the Duke Forest in the southeastern United States. Ecosystem radiative entropy production increased then decreased as succession progressed in the Duke Forest ecosystems, and did not exceed 95% of the calculated empirical maximum entropy production in the FLUXNET study sites. Forest vegetation, especially evergreen needleleaf forests characterized by low shortwave albedo and close coupling to the atmosphere, had a significantly higher ratio of radiative entropy production to the empirical maximum entropy production than did croplands and grasslands. Our results demonstrate that ecosystems approach, but do not reach, maximum entropy production and that the relationship between succession and entropy production depends on vegetation characteristics. Future studies should investigate how natural disturbances and anthropogenic management—especially the tendency to shift vegetation to an earlier successional state—alter energy flux and entropy production at the surface-atmosphere interface.

  5. Categorizing Grassland Vegetation with Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning: A Feasibility Study for Detecting Natura 2000 Habitat Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Zlinszky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand for reliable, high-resolution vegetation maps covering large areas. Airborne laser scanning data is available for large areas with high resolution and supports automatic processing, therefore, it is well suited for habitat mapping. Lowland hay meadows are widespread habitat types in European grasslands, and also have one of the highest species richness. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of airborne laser scanning for vegetation mapping of different grasslands, including the Natura 2000 habitat type lowland hay meadows. Full waveform leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds were collected from a Natura 2000 site in Sopron, Hungary, covering several grasslands. The LIDAR data were processed to a set of rasters representing point attributes including reflectance, echo width, vegetation height, canopy openness, and surface roughness measures, and these were fused to a multi-band pseudo-image. Random forest machine learning was used for classifying this dataset. Habitat type, dominant plant species and other features of interest were noted in a set of 140 field plots. Two sets of categories were used: five classes focusing on meadow identification and the location of lowland hay meadows, and 10 classes, including eight different grassland vegetation categories. For five classes, an overall accuracy of 75% was reached, for 10 classes, this was 68%. The method delivers unprecedented fine resolution vegetation maps for management and ecological research. We conclude that high-resolution full-waveform LIDAR data can be used to detect grassland vegetation classes relevant for Natura 2000.

  6. Community structure of skipper butterflies (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) along elevational gradients in Brazilian Atlantic forest reflects vegetation type rather than altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Fiedler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Species turnover across elevational gradients has matured into an important paradigm of community ecology. Here, we tested whether ecological and phylogenetic structure of skipper butterfly assemblages is more strongly structured according to altitude or vegetation type along three elevation gradients of moderate extent in Serra do Mar, Southern Brazil. Skippers were surveyed along three different mountain transects, and data on altitude and vegetation type of every collection site were recorded. NMDS ordination plots were used to assess community turnover and the influence of phylogenetic distance between species on apparent community patterns. Ordinations based on ecological similarity (Bray-Curtis index) were compared to those based on phylogenetic distance measures (MPD and MNTD) derived from a supertree. In the absence of a well-resolved phylogeny, various branch length transformation methods were applied together with four different null models, aiming to assess if results were confounded by low-resolution trees. Species composition as well as phylogenetic community structure of skipper butterflies were more prominently related to vegetation type instead of altitude per se. Phylogenetic distances reflected spatial community patterns less clearly than species composition, but revealed a more distinct fauna of monocot feeders associated with grassland habitats, implying that historical factors have played a fundamental role in shaping species composition across elevation gradients. Phylogenetic structure of community turned out to be a relevant additional tool which was even superior to identify faunal contrasts between forest and grassland habitats related to deep evolutionary splits. Since endemic skippers tend to occur in grassland habitats in the Serra do Mar, inclusion of phylogenetic diversity may also be important for conservation decisions. PMID:25272004

  7. Effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Saeko; Fukui, Michiaki; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate whether eating vegetables before carbohydrates could reduce the postprandial glucose, insulin, and improve long-term glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and glycemic control for 2.5 y in patients with type 2 diabetes. The postprandial glucose and insulin levels decreased significantly when the patients ate vegetables before car...

  8. IDENTITIES AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOPLASMAS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ASTER YELLOWS EPIDEMIC IN VARIABLE VEGETABLE CROPS IN TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2000, an outbreak of aster yellows in carrots occurred in southwestern Texas. An epidemiological survey indicated that several vegetable crops including cabbage, onion, parsley and dill, and some weeds were also infected by aster yellows phytoplasmas. Ecological aspects of phytoplasmas involved ...

  9. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  10. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bittern...

  11. Measurement and modelling of evapotranspiration in three fynbos vegetation types

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Dzikiti; NZ, Jovanovic; R, Bugan; S, Israel; DC, Le Maitre.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the water relations of indigenous plants in the fynbos shrublands of the Cape, South Africa. These have mainly focused on understanding the mechanisms by which individual plant species respond to droughts, the frequency and severity of which is expected to increase due [...] to climate change. However, comparatively little information exists on the dynamics of water use by indigenous plants in the region, and, in particular, how water use varies seasonally and between sites. In this study we determined water use by 3 fynbos vegetation types growing at 4 different sites, namely: (i) lowland Atlantis Sand Plain fynbos growing on deep sandy soils, (ii) Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing in a riparian zone on deep alluvial soils, (iii) dryland Kogelberg Sandstone fynbos growing on shallow sandy soils at a montane site, and (iv) alluvial Swartland fynbos growing in clayey soils. Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified at each site during specific periods using a boundary layer scintillometer and energy balance system. A simple dual source model in which the stand ET was calculated as the algebraic sum of outputs from soil evaporation and transpiration sub-models was used to scale up the ET measurements to annual values. The data showed large differences in ET depending on site characteristics and on plant attributes. Dense stands of riparian Sandstone Fynbos had an annual ET of 1 460 mm which exceeded the reference ET of 1 346 mm. Dryland Sandstone Fynbos used only 551 mm of water per year while the Sand Plain Fynbos' annual ET was 1 031 mm, which was similar to the reference ET of 1 059 mm. We conclude that some indigenous plant species use large volumes of water which should be accounted for in, e.g., groundwater recharge estimates, and calculations of incremental water gains after clearing alien invasive plants, among other applications

  12. The Effective Ecological Factors and Vegetation at Koh Chang Island, Trat Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathsuda Pumijumnong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the tropical rain forest present in the Chang Island, Trat Province, Thailand, and to analyze the environmental factors to determine its composition and structure. Thirty one plots were sampled, plant cover was measured in 20 × 40 m2 plots, and the importance value index was calculated. A total of 78 species belonging to 32 families were identified.Twenty soil samples were analyzed, and cluster analysis was employed to classify the vegetation communities. Floristic and environmental data were evaluated and ordered using canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that the vegetation communities could be divided into 4 types and were significantly (p Calophyllum thorelii Pierrecommunity (Type 2. The Dipterocarpus (Hopea pierrei Heim community (Type 3 was more likely to occur in regions with moderate to high levels of TWI, but the result from cluster analysis showed that some of the plot samples from the Dipterocarpus community were separated by characteristic importance value index (IVI values. There was also evidence that the area was impacted by an old disturbance created by a rubber plantation. This impact was referred to as a secondary succession community (Type 4.

  13. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

  14. The natural vegetation responses to the groundwater change resulting from ecological water conveyances to the lower Tarim River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailiang; Ye, Mao; Song, Yudong; Chen, Yaning

    2007-08-01

    This paper takes the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) that transfers water from the Bosten Lake, to Daxihaizi Reservoir, and finally to the Taitema Lake as a case study to analyze the dynamic change of the groundwater depth, the vegetation responses to the elevation of the groundwater depth as well as the relationship between the groundwater depth and the natural vegetation. The results from many years' monitoring in field indicate: (1) the groundwater depth has been elevating gradually with the increase in the times of watering and the elevation range has been expanding continuously in the lower reaches of Tarim River. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation has a favorable response to the elevation of the groundwater depth. The change of the natural vegetation has accordance with that of the groundwater depth. Such facts not only show that groundwater is a key factor to the growth of the native vegetation but also prove it is feasible that the degraded ecosystem can be restored and protected by the EWCP; (2) the results of analysis of the spatial-temporal response of the natural vegetation to watering reveals that the beneficial influence of the EWCP on the ecosystem in the lower Tarim River is a long-term process; (3) in terms of the function and structure of ecosystem after watering in the lower reaches of Tarim River, the EWCP does not still reach the goal of ecological restoration at a large spatial scale at present. Based on such monitoring results, some countermeasures and suggestions for the future restoration strategy are proposed so as to provide a theoretical basis for restoring and protecting the ecosystem in Tarim River, and meanwhile it can also provide some scientific references for implementing the similar ecological projects in other areas. PMID:17225962

  15. The variation of components in the radiation balance over different fynbos vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this research is to test whether fynbos vegetation has a high reflection coefficient, and the secondary aim is to consider the vegetation at the sites where the radiation measurements were carried out in order to determine whether similar vegetation structural types have similar radiation regimes. In order to do this six sites were selected in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. At each site the radiation fluxes were measured for three days during the late summer, giving a total of eighteen days of observation. In addition to the radiation measurements structural data was collected for the vegetation at each site so that comparisons between the radiation fluxes and vegetation could be made. Floristic data was also collected, to typify the vegetation at each site. It has been found that fynbos vegetation, as represented by this study, has an unusually low reflection coefficient which varies from 0,08 -0,13. These values are below those recorded in the literature for other heathland vegetation. On the basis of a numerical classification of the vegetation structural data, it has been found that there is no clear relationship between the vegetation and the various components of the radiation balance

  16. Vegetation change and emerging research feedback for Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of theenvironmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetationdynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in fourKorean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was notobserved in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitudegradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change--convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Workshowed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes ofspecies richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas onespecies disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order: Mt. Nam(25.5%, Mt. Jeombong (24.3%, Mt. Worak (16.4% and Mt. Jiri (0.8%. In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows(in descending order: Mt. Nam (63.7%, Mt. Worak (12.9%, Mt. Jeombong (7.6% and Mt. Jiri (7.3%. The mortalityrate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002, and the recruitment rate andchange rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026. In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes wereattributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affectthese changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed.

  17. Mapping topography and broad vegetation type to characterise the Boxford meadows SSSI (Unit 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, C.; Old, G.; Mountford, O.; Sorensen, J. P. R.; Williams, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic relationship between hydrology and ecology in a complex wetland setting should be considered integral to the sustainable management and conservation of wetland habitats and future water resource planning. Wetland hydrology can exhibit considerable spatial complexity as a result of sub surface and surface heterogeneity. The latter of which may be determined by the relationship between spatial topography variation and broad vegetation distribution. Any study to inv...

  18. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  19. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone) gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of veget...

  20. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  1. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  2. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: ? N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. ? Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. ? Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. ? Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  3. Productive vegetation: relationships between net primary productivity, vegetation types and climate change in the Wet Tropics bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: There is now ample evidence demonstrating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and human society (Walther ef a/. 2002). Numerous studies have shown climate change is one of the most significant threats to tropical forests, such as the Wet Tropics Heritage Area, due to their high biodiversity and endemism (Pounds ef al. 1999; Hughes 2000; Parmesan and Yohe 2003). Williams ef al. (2003) suggested that small shifts in net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of climate change could lead to potentially massive follow-on effects for the extremely diverse and vulnerable rainforest flora and fauna. It is therefore crucial to explore the relationships between NPP and local biodiversity, especially to create models for different climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, NPP in the Wet Tropics has yet to be estimated. This is the first study to provide a general NPP estimate for the Wet Tropics bioregion using climate surrogates (Schuur 2003). This technique estimates NPP in an accurate, repeatable, and cost-effective way. NPP values were linked to vegetation types and examined under various climatic and environmental conditions. Results show a significant difference in productivity according to vegetation types and climatic variables, with temperature and rainfall seasonality as the most important determining variables. Additionally, lowland and upland vegetations showed a significant difference in productivity patterns throughout the year. Vegettivity patterns throughout the year. Vegetation types located above 1000 metres in altitude had the lowest values of mean annual productivity due to their high rainfall and low temperatures; vegetation types located below 600 metres showed increased productivity values during the wet season (December-March). Net primary productivity will certainly be impacted by changes in temperature and rainfall, due to climate change. Although an increase in NPP values can be predicted for upland areas, the more widely distributed lowlands will drastically decrease their productivity values. Information regarding the variability of net primary productivity across the Wet Tropics bioregion and its possible modifications due to climate change is crucial for management of future scenarios. The results from this study will help management agencies and conservation groups to plan accordingly

  4. Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

    2013-04-01

    The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

  5. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for...

  6. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  7. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

  8. Ecología de la vegetación del desierto chihuahuense / Vegetation ecology of the chihuahuan desert

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diódoro, Granados-Sánchez; Arturo, Sánchez-González; Ro Linnx, Granados Victorino; Amparo, Borja de la Rosa.

    Full Text Available El desierto Chihuahuense (DC), el más grande del Continente Americano, está flanqueado por montañas que impiden el paso de los vientos húmedos: la Sierra Madre Oriental, la Faja Volcánica Trans-mexicana y la Sierra Madre Occidental (en México) y Las Rocallosas (en Estados Unidos); cubre una superfic [...] ie de 507,000 km², desde Nuevo México y Texas en Estados Unidos, hasta porciones de los estados de Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas y Zacatecas, en México. El trabajo en campo consistió en la caracterización cualitativa de los principales tipos de vegetación del DC, con base en su fisonomía y en la recolección de ejemplares vegetales para su posterior identificación. Con los datos de composición y fisonomía se elaboraron perfiles semirrealistas de las principales asociaciones vegetales y de las condiciones fisiográficas y edáficas donde se desarrollaban. Las asociaciones detectadas fueron: matorral micrófilo de Larrea tridentata, matorral rosetófilo de Agave lechuguilla, matorral rosetófilo de Dasylirion spp., pastizal, chaparral, nopalera, mezquital, izotal, vegetación de dunas y vegetación halófita. Abstract in english The Chihuahuan Desert (CD), the largest in the Americas, is flanked by mountains that prevent wet winds from blowing across it; those mountain ranges are the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, and the Rockies in the United States. The de [...] sert covers an area of 507,000 km2, stretching from New Mexico and Texas in the United States to parts of the states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Querétaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas and Zacatecas in Mexico. Field work consisted of the qualitative characterization of the main vegetation types in the CH, based on their physiognomy and the collection of plant specimens for later identification. With the composition and physiognomy data, semi-realistic profiles were made of the main plant associations and the physiographic and soil conditions where they thrive. The associations detected were: Larrea tridentata microphyll scrub, Agave lechuguilla rosette scrub, Dasylirion spp. rosette scrub, grassland, chaparral, nopalera (a patch of prickly pears), mesquite, yucca, dune vegetation and halophytic vegetation.

  9. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity. PMID:24380352

  10. Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book turns to the freshment, the teacher, for preparation of ecological topics for lessons, but also to pupils of the secondary stage II, and the main course ecology. The book was knowingly held simple with the restriction to: the ecosystem and its abiotic basic functions, simple articles on population biology, bioceonotic balance ith the questions of niche formation and the life form types coherent with it, of the substance and energy household, the production biology and space-wise and time-wise differentations within an ecological system form the main points. A central role in the volume is given to the illustrations. Their variety is to show and deepen the coherences shown. (orig./HP)

  11. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different ...

  12. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p gardens. We explain these vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  13. Evaluation of Mediterranean-type vegetation for weedicide activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.; Pereira, I.P.; Dias, A. S.

    1995-01-01

    Important differences were found in the response of wheat and lettuce to the treatments, with wheat being generally unaffected. Conversely, a better agreement was found between the sensitivity of lettuce and P. minor. In three (C. villosa, C. ladanifer, and L. stoechas) out of the five donors bioassayed in both species, the same type of answer was found, with an amplification of the effect when P. minor was used. These results support the use of lettuce as a allelopathin indicator speci...

  14. Assessment of the transfer of 137Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of 137Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of 137Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of 137Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the 137Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the 137Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement

  15. Vegetation associated with different walking track types in the Kosciuszko alpine area, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Wendy; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2006-01-01

    Tourism infrastructure such as walking tracks can have negative effects on vegetation including in mountain regions. In the alpine area around continental Australia's highest mountain, Mt Kosciuszko (2228 m), there is a range of walking tracks (paved, gravel and raised steel mesh surfaces) in addition to an extensive network of informal/non-hardened tracks. Vegetation characteristics were compared between track types on/under tracks, on the track verge, and in the adjacent native vegetation. For a raised steel mesh walkway there was no difference in vegetation under the walkway, on the verge, and 3m away. In contrast, for a non-hardened track there was 35% bare ground on the track surface but no other detectable impacts. Gravel and paved tracks had distinct verges largely comprising bare ground and exotic species. For non-hardened tracks there was an estimated 270 m2 of disturbance per km of track. For wide gravel tracks the combined area of bare ground, exotic plants and gravel was estimated as 4290 m2 per km, while for narrow gravel tracks it was estimated as 2940 m2 per km. For paved tracks there was around 2680 m2 per km of damage. In contrast, there was no detectable effect of raised steel mesh walkway on vegetation highlighting some of the benefits of this surface over other track types. PMID:16099588

  16. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

    OpenAIRE

    Breshears, David D; Cobb, Neil S.; Rich, Paul M.; Price, Kevin P.; Allen, Craig D.; Balice, Randy G.; Romme, William H.; Kastens, Jude H.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Belnap, Jayne; Anderson, Jesse J.; Myers, Orrin B; Meyer, Clifton W.

    2005-01-01

    Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for deca...

  17. Vegetation and Vertebrates of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Outline of Ecology and Annotated Lists 1947

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an extensive list of vegetation and vertebrates at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center based on information gathered during the years 19361946.

  18. Differentiation of semi-arid vegetation types based on multi-angular observations from MISR and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapping accurately vegetation type is one of the main challenges for monitoring arid and semi-arid grasslands with remote sensing. The multi-angle approach has been demonstrated to be useful for mapping vegetation types in deserts. This letter presents a study on the use of directional reflectance d...

  19. SACRIFICING THE ECOLOGICAL RESOLUTION OF VEGETATION MAPS AT THE ALTAR OF THEMATIC ACCURACY: ASSESSED MAP ACCURACIES FOR HIERARCHICAL VEGETATION CLASSIFICATIONS IN THE EASTERN GREAT BASIN OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SW ReGAP) improves upon previous GAP projects conducted in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah to provide a consistent, seamless vegetation map for this large and ecologically diverse geographic region. Nevada's compone...

  20. Use of High Resolution UAS Imagery to Classify Sub-Arctic Vegetation Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C.; Palace, M. W.; Finnell, D. R.; Garnello, A.; Sullivan, F.; Anderson, S. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-arctic permafrost regions are now experiencing annual warming with a resulting thaw that induces changes to the vegetative landscape. This warming trend is directly correlated to increases in annual greenhouse gas emissions including methane (CH4). Vegetation species and composition are indirect indicators of CH4 flux, and may serve as a proxy for estimating changes in CH4emission over time. Three WorldView-2 images (2m2 spatial resolution, 8 multispectral bands) were acquired in Jul/Aug of 2012-2014 over the Abisko region in northern Sweden. Color infrared (CIR) sub-meter imagery was also collected over a 4km2 area in 2014 using both a multi-rotor helicopter and a fixed wing unmanned aircraft system (UAS). Fifty 1m2 ground sample plots were established; these plots cover 5 major ground cover vegetation classes and were used in classification efforts. Texture analysis was conducted on both UAS and WV-2 imagery. Both an unsupervised k-means clustering algorithm to predict vegetation classes and a supervised classification using both random forests and neural networks were conducted; similar texture analysis and clustering were also performed on the UAS imagery. Classifications of the two imagery types were compared with promising results, thus supporting the use of UAS and high resolution satellite image collection to provide landscape level characterization of vegetation.

  1. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differenotential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  2. Noise- and delay-induced regime shifts in an ecological system of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the stationary probability distribution (SPD) and mean first passage time (MFPT) in a vegetation model with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation dynamics is assumed to be disturbed by both intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The impacts of the intrinsic noise strength ?, extrinsic noise strength D, time delay ? and cross-correlation strength q between two noises on the SPD and MFPT of the regime shifts between the sustainable vegetation and barren states are discussed, respectively. Our main results are as follows. (i) The increase of ? will cause regime shifts from the barren state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the increase of D or ? will cause regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the barren state. (ii) The MFPT as a function of the noise intensities (i.e., ? and D) exhibits one maximum value in the case of q 0.0), the presence of time delay can also cause the existence of extrinsic noise enhanced stability. (paper)

  3. Catastrophic Shifts in Wetland Geomorphology and Ecology in Response to Hydrology-Vegetation-Sediment Transport Feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. G.; Harvey, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal marshes and long-hydroperiod floodplain wetlands exhibit strong bi-directional feedback between hydrology, vegetation, and sediment that impacts landscape dynamics and ecosystem services. In these ecosystems, vegetation responds to and also influences the distribution of topography, with effects on habitat provision, biological diversity, landscape connectivity, surface-subsurface exchange, and microbial and redox reactions. Topography evolves both autogenically and allogenically. Autogenically, peat accretes under reducing conditions as a function of local water levels, vegetation community, and nutrient concentrations. Concurrently, an allogenic sediment redistribution feedback process involves erosion of sediment from low, sparsely vegetated areas and deposition of sediment within dense vegetation that resists flow. It is well documented that these feedback processes are dominantly responsible for evolution of tidal marsh morphology and response of coastal marshes to sea level rise. Less well understood is the role these feedbacks play in the evolution of more slowly flowing interior marshes and in the response of these systems to perturbations in flow velocity as well as water level. We developed a cellular automata model that physically simulates both sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks. Because of the efficiency of this simplified modeling technique, we ran the model over a broad range of environmental conditions in a generalized sensitivity analysis. As a result of the two feedback processes, simulated landscapes reflected a variety of morphologies found in coastal and interior wetlands worldwide, with differences attributable to relative dominance of physical (e.g., surface-water flow, water level) or biological (e.g., vegetation productivity and colonization) drivers. Significantly, under moderate surface-water flow velocities (4-6 cm s-1), a class of patterned wetlands with regular ridges and sloughs oriented parallel to the dominant flow direction emerged, which mimics the patterned, flow-parallel topography found in the Florida Everglades. Sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks constitute the first description of a viable mechanism for formation of this ecologically important landscape structure and provide guidance for restoration efforts. We show that because of vegetative resistance to flow, this patterned landscape structure is prone to shift to an alternate stable state, dominated by a monoculture of emergent vegetation, under changes in surface-water flow velocity or water level. Results suggest that twentieth-century degradation of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape is attributable primarily to changes in water level and, secondarily, to diminished surface-water flow velocities. Because hydrology-vegetation-sediment feedbacks cause hysteresis in landscape evolution trajectories, restoration of historic flow velocities and water levels will not necessarily produce a return to historic landscape structure. Understanding the dynamics of sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks will be essential in predicting how wetlands worldwide will respond to changes in climate or water management.

  4. Fossil hyrax dung and evidence of Late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation types in the Namib Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Louis; Marais, Eugene; Brook, George A.

    2004-12-01

    Pollen was derived from fossil dung of herbivorous hyraxes, deposited in a rock shelter on the highest mountain in Namibia, Dâures or Brandberg, situated on the Namib Desert margin. Radiocarbon dating ranging in age between modern times and 30 000 yr BP showed it represents the first empirical pollen evidence of continental palaeovegetation during the Late Pleistocene along the western escarpment of southern Africa. The initial results indicate Last Glacial Maximum vegetation differed totally from the current pattern as vegetation types were dominated by small Asteraceae shrubs, in contrast to those of the Holocene and modern times which show more succulents, grass and woody elements (arboreal pollen). The results suggest that Cape floral communities did not reach into the tropics along the western escarpment of Africa, despite such pollen types occurring in marine cores. Copyright

  5. Diversity in a complex ecological network with two interaction types.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melián, C. J.; Bascompte, J.; Jordano, P.; K?ivan, Vlastimil

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 118, ?. 1 (2009), s. 122-130. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100070601 Grant ostatní: University of California(US) DEB-0553768; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-04774; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-00273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : complex ecological network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2009

  6. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

  7. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  8. Holocene planform change in broad valleys in the Southern Rocky Mountains: the role of vegetation type and beaver in shaping long-term channel complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi-Pilgrim, L. E.; Wohl, E.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shown the importance of streambank vegetation in forming meandering channels. Recent work has also showed the importance of beaver in creating a more heterogeneous landscape, in terms of channel planform and complexity, sedimentation, and riparian vegetation. Streambank vegetation and beavers interact as ecosystem engineers to determine long-term channel planform, floodplain processes, and complexity. We use studies of Holocene beaver aggradation and effects on channel complexity, in addition to measurements of added bank strength by various riparian vegetation types, to predict Holocene planform change in broad (>200 m, disconnected from hillslopes), high-elevation (>2300 m) valleys of the Colorado Front Range in the Southern Rocky Mountains. Sediment core analyses and shallow subsurface geophysical measurements indicate that post-glacial beaver-related aggradation is significant. Additionally, historical and field evidence from the last century, when the beaver population steadily declined, shows that beaver contribute to the formation of a complex, multi-thread channel network. Streambank vegetation in the Colorado Front Range can be categorized based on its ability to provide added strength to the streambank, where riparian or rhizomatous shrubs and trees provide more strength than xeric trees or non-rhizomatous graminoids and herbs, depending on the bank texture and hydrologic conditions. Assuming a snowmelt-dominated flow regime in a gravel-bed channel system, four planform regimes are identified based on beaver populations and the abundance and presence of xeric or riparian vegetation. Following deglaciation, without beaver or bank-stabilizing vegetation, (1) a braided channel formed. The introduction of riparian vegetation and a more stable flow regime triggered a transition to (2) a meandering channel, which in turn provided habitat for beaver, allowing the formation of (3) a complex multi-thread channel system. The fourth planform regime occurs only after beaver that occupied a valley for a long period have been removed. With a stable beaver population, ponds trap large amounts of fine, cohesive sediment, which becomes incorporated into the floodplain sediment and streambanks after channel migration. A legacy effect from beaver removal, which is accompanied by higher gradient and thus stream power, and a lowered water table and thus more xeric vegetation, is (4) a narrow, incised channel. These planform regimes can be inferred over the range of Holocene climate conditions in the Colorado Front Range, and understanding of these biotic-physical interactions should be a crucial component of any management decisions for geomorphic or ecologic conditions.

  9. Spatial variability models of soil respiration from some vegetation types in Maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala, Newton, Jr.; Mendonça, Eduardo S.; Rodrigo Panosso, Alan; Dimas, Felipe N.; Schaefer, Carlos Eduardo G.

    2010-05-01

    Soil respiration is an important part of the terrestrial carbon cycling and is influenced by several aspects, such as type and distribution of vegetation. In this work we evaluated the spatial variability of the soil respiration (or soil CO2 emission) in three sites located in Maritime Antarctica at Admiralty Bay, King George Island under contrasting vegetation, representative of this region: (I) a mixed Deschampsia/Mosses field, (II) a moss carpet of Sanionia uncinata and (III) a grass field of Deschampsia Antarctica. Soil respiration was measured in a 60-point regularly spaced grid previously installed at each site. The grid size was 3 x 1.5 meter with a minimum distance of 0.5 m between grid points in March 2009 during the morning at site I and afternoon at sites II and III. The spatial variability was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and the adjustment of the semivariogram models to the soil respiration and soil temperature data. The model adjusted to the semivariogram was used in order to generate the so-called kriging map by interpolation techniques, estimating the studied property at non-sampled places. Higher mean emission was observed in the Deschampsia field (4.13 µmol m-2 s-1), but the highest variability was detected in the mixed vegetation site I. The overall results indicate that soil temperature is not directly related to the spatial pattern of the soil respiration in the studied sites. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate for emission in all studied sites. Temperature values presented degree of spatial dependence classified as strong for sites I and III and moderate in site II. CO2 emission ranges were 1.29, 2.23 and 2.79 m for sites I - II - III, respectively. Higher range values observed in site II and III suggest higher emission homogeneity. In mixed vegetation at site I, points under Deschampsia Antarctica had an overall higher mean respiration (1.49 µmol m-2 s-1) compared with remaining points under mosses tuffs (1.32 µmol m-2 s-1). Kriging maps of soil CO2 emission and soil temperature indicate a more continuity of isolines for emission maps from sites II and III. This can also be observed in soil temperature maps, suggesting that vegetation cover may also control the continuity or discontinuity of both properties in space. Therefore distribution of soil respiration and soil temperature did not appear to be related to soil type, but more associated to the vegetation type and distribution at each site.

  10. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  11. [Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types in Loess hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Qu, Lai-Ye; Chen, Li-Ding; Wei, Wei

    2010-01-01

    By using fumigation-extract (FE) method and Biolog Ecoplate, this paper investigated the microbial biomass and diversity in 0-20 cm soil layer under five vegetation types, including artificial woodland, shrubland, cropland, abandoned farmland, and natural grassland, in Dingxi of Gansu Province. In the meanwhile, the relationships between soil microbes and soil nutrients were studied by path analysis, and the five typical vegetation types were evaluated from the aspect of soil microbes. Relative to cropland, "grain for green" project played a key role in improving soil microbial resources. Microbial biomass carbon was the highest in ridge grassland, abandoned farmland, and pine woodland, followed by in Caragana korshinskii land, Medicago sativa land, restored land, and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Microbial biomass nitrogen was the highest in ridge land, abandoned farmland, Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, Caragana korshinskii land, and Medicago sativa land, followed by in restored land and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Caragana korshinskii land and Medicago sativa land, due to the existence of N-fixing rhizobium, had the highest ratio of soil microbial biomass nitrogen to soil total nitrogen. Owing to the continual biomass loss and rare feedback, cropland had the lowest quantity and activity of soil microbes. Through planting trees, shrubs and grasses or through fallowing, soil microbial biomass and activity were recovered, and the effect was increased with time. In 20-year old Caragana korshinskii land, the quantity and activity of soil microbes were similar to those in 50-year old Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, and the microbial community catabolic activity and soil nutrient use efficiency were higher. Considering the features of soil microbes under test vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii would be a good choice for local vegetation restoration. PMID:20387439

  12. Perceived Social Ecological Factors Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Purchasing, Preparation, and Consumption among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Dan J.; Pelletier, Jennifer; Neumark-sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Most young adults do not consume recommended levels of fruits and vegetables (FV), and interventions to increase FV-related behaviors among this understudied population are needed. Therefore, it is important to identify correlates of FV intake among young adults to guide intervention development. This cross-sectional study utilized data from an online survey to identify factors related to young adults’ FV purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and to explore between-factor relationships ...

  13. An Ecological Study of Roadside Vegetation and Soils in Sahiwal District

    OpenAIRE

    K.F. Akbar; Ahmad, Z.; M. A. Shad; T.M. Ansari

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the floristic composition of roadside vegetation and levels of some heavy metals in roadside soils in Sahiwal district, Pakistan. Among sixty recorded species, the main grass species include Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Panicum turgidum, Cyperus rotundus and Cenchrus biflorus. The dominant species exhibited little variation between different zones of verges. Other species however, showed preferences for certain zones of the v...

  14. Temporal variations in soil moisture for three typical vegetation types in inner Mongolia, northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Gao, Jixi; Teng, Yanguo; Feng, Chaoyang; Tian, Meirong

    2015-01-01

    Drought and shortages of soil water are becoming extremely severe due to global climate change. A better understanding of the relationship between vegetation type and soil-moisture conditions is crucial for conserving soil water in forests and for maintaining a favorable hydrological balance in semiarid areas, such as the Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. We investigated the temporal dynamics of soil moisture in this reserve to a depth of 40 cm under three types of vegetation during a period of rainwater recharge. Rainwater from most rainfalls recharged the soil water poorly below 40 cm, and the rainfall threshold for increasing the moisture content of surface soil for the three vegetations was in the order: artificial Larix spp. (AL) > Quercus mongolica (QM) > unused grassland (UG). QM had the highest mean soil moisture content (21.13%) during the monitoring period, followed by UG (16.52%) and AL (14.55%); and the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 9.6-12.5%), followed by UG (CV 10.9-18.7%) and AL (CV 13.9-21.0%). QM soil had a higher nutrient content and higher soil porosities, which were likely responsible for the higher ability of this cover to retain soil water. The relatively smaller QM trees were able to maintain soil moisture better in the study area. PMID:25781333

  15. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  16. Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Czaikoski; Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi; Josemeyre Bonifácio da Silva; Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267) minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*). The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decrease...

  17. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation across time, there is an evident temporal change in all test sites. The sensitivity of EVI to LAI is smaller in periods of high biomass production. The range of fluctuation is different across sites, and is related to biomass quantity and type. Higher fluctuation is noted in the winter season in Tamega, possibly due to cloud infected pixels that the QA and compositing algorithms did not successfully detect. Finally, there was no significant difference in the R2 and EVI factor when including in the analyses pixels indicated as "low and marginal quality" by the QA layers, thus suggesting that the use of low quality pixels can be justified when good quality pixels are not enough. Future work will study the transferability of these relations across scales and sensors. This study is supported by the Research Committee of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki project "Improvement of the estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) at basin scale using satellite images". MODIS data are provided by USGS.

  18. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry down from saturation to complete water stress were performed and is analyzed as far how ABL respond to soil moisture changes. This provides informations about ABL behavior on the transition states. Future studies will look on how this behavior will change with the new vegetation covers.

  19. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theo H.C., Mostert; George J., Bredenkamp; Hannes L., Klopper; Cornie, Verwey; Rachel E., Mostert; Norbert, Hahn.

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT) and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence [...] ANAlysis (DECORANA) and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT's were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana-Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum-Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum-Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata-Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis-Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon-Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida-Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora-Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  20. An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 1. The Than-Droogeveld section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bezuidenhout

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed classification, description and mapping of the Than-Droogeveld section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape Province, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as an ecological basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. A hierarchical classification, as well as description, ecological interpretation and a vegetation map are presented. In the phytosociological table 11 major plant communities are recognised.

  1. Hotspots of human-induced biomass productivity decline and their social-ecological types toward supporting national policy and local studies on combating land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quyet Manh; Le, Quang Bao; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    2014-10-01

    Identification and social-ecological characterization of areas that experience high levels of persistent productivity decline are essential for planning appropriate management measures. Although land degradation is mainly induced by human actions, the phenomenon is concurrently influenced by global climate changes that need to be taken into account in land degradation assessments. This study aims to delineate the geographic hotspots of human-induced land degradation in the country and classify the social-ecological characterizations of each specific degradation hotspot type. The research entailed a long-term time-series (1982-2006) of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index to specify the extents of areas with significant biomass decline or increase in Vietnam. Annual rainfall and temperature time-series were then used to separate areas of human-induced biomass productivity decline from those driven by climate dynamics. Next, spatial cluster analyses identified social-ecological types of degradation for guiding further investigations at regional and local scales. The results show that about 19% of the national land mass experienced persistent declines in biomass productivity over the last 25 years. Most of the degraded areas are found in the Southeast and Mekong River Delta (17,984 km2), Northwest Mountains (14,336 km2), and Central Highlands (13,504 km2). We identified six and five social-ecological types of degradation hotspots in agricultural and forested zones, respectively. Constraints in soil nutrient availability and nutrient retention capability are widely spreading in all degradation hotspot types. These hotspot types are different from each other in social and ecological conditions, suggesting that region-specific strategies are needed for the formulation of land degradation combating policy.

  2. Physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and the built environment: ecological and epidemiological studies among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, there has been increasing scientific interest in investigating place effects on dietary and exercise behaviors. The two overall aims of this dissertation are designed to investigate at an area level and at an individual level, how food and physical activity resources are spatially distributed by socioeconomic indicators, and whether these associations can be observed between aspects of the built environment and: a) fruit and vegetable intake, and b) vigorous physical activity in individuals. Specifically, this involves operationalization of geographical measures of exposure within neighborhood environments, with development and validation of data used to describe characteristics of exercise and dietary resources. The concept of deprivation amplification is also investigated, which suggests that individual or household deprivation is further enhanced or comprised by the lack of resources in the neighborhood, and could manifest itself in poor health behaviors. This concept is first studied at the neighborhood level, by examining the socioeconomic patterning of food and exercise resources. Next, at the individual level, I examine the combined effects of socioeconomic status and the built environment, and report on how these associations affect individual dietary and exercise behavior. Data drawn for the individually-based analyses stem from the Danish contribution to the Health Behavior in School-aged Children Study (HBSC), an international, cross-sectional population-based study investigating the health and health behaviors of 11-to-15-year old school children. Outcome measures for these studies were infrequent less than daily intake of fruit and vegetables (Paper II) and frequent vigorous physical activity of one hour or more per day (Paper IV). The individual dataset was appended with a validated and cross-referenced objected database built for these studies and contained location information about supermarkets, fast food outlets, and various exercise-supportive resources (public open space, sports facilities, street connectivity, and total length of cycling and walking paths). The neighborhood-based analyses uses validated and cross-referenced objective data about food and physical activity resources in each of the 400 neighborhoods in Copenhagen and combines them with area-level socioeconomic and demographic data derived from The National Statistics Bank of Denmark. Outcome measures for these studies were also defined as the number of supermarkets and fast food outlets in each neighborhood (Paper I) and high exposure (top 25%) to resources supportive of physical activity. Study findings are expressed as either relative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In general, study findings indicate no clear socioeconomic patterning of food or physical activity resources by examining neighborhood units alone. For example, there was no association between areal income and supermarket exposure in Copenhagen, while low income areas were more likely to be exposed to fewer fast food outlets than high-income neighborhoods (RR = 0.66; CI: 0.46-0.97). Areas with a high proportion of residents lacking a high school diploma had greater exposure to physical activity resources such as, public open space (OR = 1.90; CI: 1.15-3.15), cycling and walking paths (OR = 3.46; CI: 1.86-6.42) and one or more sports facilities (OR = 2.05; CI: 1.36-3.10) than the referent. Areas with high proportions of children were less likely to have exposure to connected streets (OR = 0.51; 0.31-0.83) than areas with low proportions of children. Results from individual-level studies generally show that while socioeconomic status remains an important individual predictor for diet and exercise behavior, the exposure to resources in the neighborhood environment may differentially affect children according to social class background. Children from low social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to supermarkets had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.43

  3. Species composition and temporal activity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in two cerrado vegetation types

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Scheila, Scherrer; Viviane G., Ferro; Marina N., Ramos; Ivone R., Diniz.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Arctiinae moths include nearly 11,000 species worldwide, of which approximately 700 species occur in the Brazilian Cerrado. The aim of this study was to describe the species composition of Arctiinae, as well as the variation in annual and nightly moth activity, in two Cerrado vegetation types. We sa [...] mpled moths one night per month from September 2008 to June 2009, in the gallery forest and in the cerrado sensu stricto in the Jardim Botânico de Brasília. We collected 395 tiger moths belonging to 65 morphospecies; 74% of the species belonged to the tribe Arctiini and 26% to Lithosiini. Thirty-one species (47.7%) occurred only in the gallery forest, 13 (20%) occurred only in the cerrado sensu stricto, and 21 (32.3%) occurred in both vegetation types. Additionally, we found the greatest species richness between 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m., and these hours were associated with 21 and 22 species, respectively. Most species (51.8%) were active for up to three hours during the night. In general, the species composition differed between the dry and rainy seasons, and the similarity of the fauna also varied hourly. Based on our results, we suggest that rapid inventories of Arctiinae be performed in both rainy and dry seasons, and sampling should be carried out the entire night.

  4. Evaluation of the shelf-life of vegetable-type soybean pods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Cristina, Santana; Mercedes Concórdia, Carrão-Panizzi; José Marcos Gontijo, Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos, Leite; Josemeyre Bonifácio da, Silva; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of the vegetable-type soybean pods stored under different conditions was evaluated by chemical characteristics and color. The pods were harvested in the R6 stage and stored either at 30 or 7ºC for 9 d. After the storage period, the pods were blanched and threshed, and the immature gre [...] en grains were used for the analysis. The protein content decreased after 6 d of storage at 7ºC. There was no difference in the lipid content after the storage at 30 and 7ºC for 9 d. The starch and sucrose contents decreased after the first day of storage at 30ºC. There was no difference in trypsin inhibitor activity until 6 d of storage at 30 and 7ºC. The green color of the pods that was an indication of the quality that was maintained when stored at 7ºC during 3 d. To preserve the quality of vegetable-type soybean, pods should be stored at 30ºC and consumed within 24 h or stored at 7ºC for up to 3 d of storage.

  5. Evaluation of the shelf-life of vegetable-type soybean pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Santana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of the vegetable-type soybean pods stored under different conditions was evaluated by chemical characteristics and color. The pods were harvested in the R6 stage and stored either at 30 or 7ºC for 9 d. After the storage period, the pods were blanched and threshed, and the immature green grains were used for the analysis. The protein content decreased after 6 d of storage at 7ºC. There was no difference in the lipid content after the storage at 30 and 7ºC for 9 d. The starch and sucrose contents decreased after the first day of storage at 30ºC. There was no difference in trypsin inhibitor activity until 6 d of storage at 30 and 7ºC. The green color of the pods that was an indication of the quality that was maintained when stored at 7ºC during 3 d. To preserve the quality of vegetable-type soybean, pods should be stored at 30ºC and consumed within 24 h or stored at 7ºC for up to 3 d of storage.

  6. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account. PMID:17846909

  7. An ecological approach to the assessment of vegetation cover on inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular plants have been collected from abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in three mining areas in Canada. The collection was evaluated to determine some characteristics of vegetation development and to identify the plants which will persist on the sites. A total of 170 species were identified. Many of the species are widely distributed in North America, none has been reported as rare in any of the locations from which they were collected. Species richness was highest on Bancroft sites and lowest on Uranium City sites, though values were variable between sites. Forty-four per cent of the total number of species were found on only a single site. Only seven species occurred on more than half of the tailings sites and in all three mining areas. There was no difference between amended and unamended sites in terms of either species richness or species composition. There was no apparent relationship between species richness and either site size, site age or amendment history. The results of this survey suggest that the uranium mill tailings sites are at an early stage of colonization where the seed input from surrounding areas and the heterogeneity of the sites are factors determining species composition and species richness. The fate of an individual once it has reached the site will be determined by its ability to establish on the sites. A perennial growth habit and the ability to expand clonally are important characteristics of the species on the tailings. Theistics of the species on the tailings. The species on the tailings are commonly found in a variety of habitats. Consistent with the observation that the tailings sites are at a stage of early colonization, we find that the few species widely distributed across sites are all characteristic pioneering species with wide environmental tolerances. These species included Populus tremuloides, P. balsamifera, Scirpus cyperinus, Equisetum arvense, Betula papyrifera, Achillea millefolium and Typha spp. The vegetation on the tailings is likely to be characterized by these species for a long period of time. (author)

  8. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management. PMID:25163638

  9. An Ecological Study of Roadside Vegetation and Soils in Sahiwal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Akbar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the floristic composition of roadside vegetation and levels of some heavy metals in roadside soils in Sahiwal district, Pakistan. Among sixty recorded species, the main grass species include Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Panicum turgidum, Cyperus rotundus and Cenchrus biflorus. The dominant species exhibited little variation between different zones of verges. Other species however, showed preferences for certain zones of the verges indicating differences in microhabitat conditions in the verges. The roadside soils were analysed for lead, copper, manganese and zinc levels. The amount of total lead, zinc, copper and manganese varied from 0.5 to 48.4, 37.7 to 109.9, 3.8 to 44.3 and 170 to 258.5 ? g g-1, respectively with a mean values of 9.4, 63.0, 31.4 and 218 ? g g-1. The levels of heavy metals in the roadside soils indicated that these soils were non-contaminated.

  10. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ?mol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 ?mol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of ?-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  11. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the red spectral range

    OpenAIRE

    T. Wagner; Beirle, S.; T. Deutschmann; Grzegorski, M.; Platt, U (Ulrich)

    2007-01-01

    A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm) reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures) of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), which is usually applied for the anal...

  12. Present and Historical Climate Variability and its Ecological Impact on Vegetation in South West England

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Sasha) Kosanic, Aleksandra; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Turkington, Thea

    2014-05-01

    West Cornwall is the most south westerly part of the United Kingdom with a strong maritime climate. This study analyses the earliest archived instrumental meteorological records collected in West Cornwall (SW England). Records were obtained from the Met Office archive (Camborne 1957-2010; Culdrose 1985-2011), Trengwainton Garden (1940-2010), and from the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, data for Falmouth (1880-1952) and Helston (1843-1888). Homogeneity tests were used (Levene and Brown-Forsythe tests) to exclude any trends not related to climate variability. The data exhibit trends in annual mean and maximum temperatures over the timescales analysed, and show a general temperature increase in the 20th and 21st century. Annual and seasonal temperature changes are found to vary locally with strongly positive trends in autumn, spring and summer seasons. Trends in precipitation are positive only for the 19th century and only for one station. Correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index shows negative results for precipitation data. However correlation with the NAO index is positive with temperature, especially in the winter season. Return period analysis showed a decrease in intensity and frequency of extreme precipitation events in the post-1975 period (Camborne and Trengwainton Garden stations). Climate change in the 20th century, and future continued warming is likely to have major implications on biodiversity in this region. The second part of this research analyses changes in the geographical distribution of plant species over West Cornwall using herbarium and current vegetation records. Also we examine whether Ellenberg values could be used as an environmental change indicator. This research will clearly contribute to a better identification of the climate change impact in West Cornwall, but will also benefit policy developing strategies to identify areas at risk of climate impacts at the regional and local scale.

  13. Expanding the Range of Plant Functional Diversity Represented in Global Vegetation Models: Towards Lineage-based Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Griffith, D.; Edwards, E.; Forrestel, E.; Lehmann, C.; Anderson, M.; Craine, J.; Pau, S.; Osborne, C.

    2014-12-01

    Variation in plant species traits, such as photosynthetic and hydraulic properties, can indicate vulnerability or resilience to climate change, and feed back to broad-scale spatial and temporal patterns in biogeochemistry, demographics, and biogeography. Yet, predicting how vegetation will respond to future environmental changes is severely limited by the inability of our models to represent species-level trait variation in processes and properties, as current generation process-based models are mostly based on the generalized and abstracted concept of plant functional types (PFTs) which were originally developed for hydrological modeling. For example, there are close to 11,000 grass species, but most vegetation models have only a single C4 grass and one or two C3 grass PFTs. However, while species trait databases are expanding rapidly, they have been produced mostly from unstructured research, with a focus on easily researched traits that are not necessarily the most important for determining plant function. Additionally, implementing realistic species-level trait variation in models is challenging. Combining related and ecologically similar species in these models might ameliorate this limitation. Here we argue for an intermediate, lineage-based approach to PFTs, which draws upon recent advances in gene sequencing and phylogenetic modeling, and where trait complex variations and anatomical features are constrained by a shared evolutionary history. We provide an example of this approach with grass lineages that vary in photosynthetic pathway (C3 or C4) and other functional and structural traits. We use machine learning approaches and geospatial databases to infer the most important environmental controls and climate niche variation for the distribution of grass lineages, and utilize a rapidly expanding grass trait database to demonstrate examples of lineage-based grass PFTs. For example, grasses in the Andropogoneae are typically tall species that dominate wet and seasonally burned ecosystems, whereas Chloridoideae grasses are associated with semi-arid regions. These two C4 lineages are expected to respond quite differently to climate change, but are often modelled as a single PFT.

  14. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  15. Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Czaikoski; Mercedes Concórdia, Carrão-Panizzi; Josemeyre Bonifácio da, Silva; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267) minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, we [...] ight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*). The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.

  16. Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czaikoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267 minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*. The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.

  17. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  18. Microbial ecology of watery kimchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemistry and microbial ecology of 2 similar types of watery (mul) kimchi, containing sliced and unsliced radish and vegetables (nabak and dongchimi, respectively), were investigated. Samples from kimchi were fermented at 4, 10, and 20 °C were analyzed by plating on differential and selective...

  19. Prioritydirections of development of jscrosneft: alternative types of fueland ecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Pryadko

    2013-01-01

    In this article possibility of an exit of Rosneft on the market of alternative types of fuel is considered. The attention is paid that, according to a large number of experts, there is a probability of that in the near future environmentally friendly and inexhaustible fuel will come to alternative to habitual motor fuel – hydrogen. In article all possible ways and cost of production of hydrogen, experience of use of hydrogen engines in automotive industry and possibility of the offer and ad...

  20. Environment effects on wood density of vegetation types in Minas Gerais State – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Donizette de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to verify the general behavior of wood density of native tree species in forest types in Minas Gerais state. The trees scaling data were obtained from the Forest Inventory of Minas Gerais State. Were used data from 1988 trees distributed in different forest formations. From each tree, five discs of wood were removed, at the 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the total height. The wood basic density of each disk was determined according to NBR 7190/1997. The ombrophylous forest, semideciduous forest, savanna woodland, typical savanna and deciduous forest presented average wood density of 0.502, 0.561, 0.585, 0.612 and 0.675 g.cm-3, respectively, all statistically different. It was found a clear and consistent relation between wood density and environment characteristics that affect the different vegetation types in Minas Gerais State. The forest formations present environmental conditions so typical that they affect the floristic composition and also the cambial and physiological activity of plants, causing particular wood densities to forests formations.

  1. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability – insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2014-07-01

    We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth, and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

  2. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land < grass < shrub < forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land < grass < forest < shrub. Under the same vegetation types, the POC/MOC in stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation. PMID:22126032

  3. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Various Types of Vegetables and Salads

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrzad Atapoor; Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi; Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Background:: There is a possibility for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in vegetables due to their close contact with polluted water, soil and feces. Objectives:: This study was carried out to detect the presence of H. pylori in vegetables and salads in Iran. Materials and Methods:: In total, 460 vegetable and salad samples were collected and transferred immediately to the laboratory. All samples were cultured and tested for the presence of H. pylori using the Polymerase Chain Rea...

  4. An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 2. The Graspan-Holpan section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bezuidenhout

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed classification, description and mapping of the Graspan-Holpan section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as a basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. A hierarchical plant community clas- sification, description, ecological interpretation and a vegetation map are presented. In the phytosociological table nine major plant communities are recognised.

  5. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ?3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ?three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants.Conclusion: Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.Keywords: red beans, cataract extraction, socioeconomic status, public health implications

  6. The effect of vegetation type and snow depth on annual CO2 efflux in a high arctic tundra region

    OpenAIRE

    Morgner, Elke

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of vegetation type and increased snow depth on soil temperature and annual CO2 efflux in an arctic tundra region. Snow fences were set up to manipulate snow accumulation in heath and meadow vegetation on Spitsbergen. Field campaigns lasted from July 2007 - July 2008. CO2 efflux, measured by means of a dark and closed-dynamic soil flux chamber, showed seasonal variation and was lowest in winter time. Soil temperature had a strong influence on efflux year-round,...

  7. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm-1) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computhed using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  8. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  9. Ecology of Nematodes Under Influence of Cucurbita spp. and Different Fertilizer Types

    OpenAIRE

    Porazinska, D.L.; COLEMAN, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    In a field study conducted in Georgia, cucurbit plants with high (Cucurbita andreana) and low (Cucurbita maxima) concentrations of cucurbitacins were used in combination with two types of fertilizers to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity, trophic group proportions, fungivore/bacterivore ratio, and modified maturity index were assessed and co...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  11. Estado ecológico de ríos y vegetación ribereña en el contexto de la nueva Ley General de Aguas de México / Ecological status of rivers and riparian vegetation within the new General Mexican Water's Law context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra, MENDOZA CARIÑO; Abel, QUEVEDO NOLASCO; Ángel, BRAVO VINAJA; Héctor, FLORES MAGDALENO; María de Lourdes, DE LA ISLA DE BAUER; Francisco, GAVI REYES; Bertha Patricia, ZAMORA MORALES.

    Full Text Available Los ríos son unidades vitales en el funcionamiento de las cuencas que, debido al transporte y a la circulación cíclica del agua, permiten la existencia de los seres vivos. Poseen gran valor ecológico y ambiental dada su influencia sobre otros ecosistemas y los beneficios que proporcionan al hombre, [...] tanto para consumo como para riego y uso en los ámbitos agrícola e industrial. Sin embargo, casi todos los ríos de México presentan algún tipo de deterioro. Alrededor de 73 % de los sistemas acuáticos muestran contaminación, lo que empobrece la salud de estos ecosistemas. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer que en la formulación de la nueva ley general de aguas se considere la regulación de la vegetación ribereña, pues su influencia en el mantenimiento y en la rehabilitación del estado ecológico de los ríos es fundamental. Se sugiere que la nueva ley contenga una sección de protección ambiental en la que se incluya a la vegetación ribereña como elemento clave para proteger, conservar y restaurar los ríos. Asimismo, que la delimitación de dicha vegetación se apegue a las condiciones naturales de inundación del cauce, con una frecuencia de una vez cada ocho años, de acuerdo con la variabilidad del flujo. Además, su manejo debe tomar en cuenta la reforestación y el mantenimiento de especies vegetales nativas de cada región. Abstract in english Rives are vital units in the functioning of the watersheds that, due to the transportation and circulation of water, allow the existence of life. They are of great ecological and environmental value because of their influence on other ecosystems as well as the benefits they give to humankind, not on [...] ly in the consumption for irrigation but also in the use in the agricultural and industrial areas. However, almost all the rivers in Mexico show a certain type of deterioration. About 70 % of the aquatic systems shows contamination which diminishes the health of these ecosystems. The objective of this work is to propose that the riparian vegetation should be included in the making of the new general law of water because its influence on the maintenance and rehabilitation of the ecological state of rivers is fundamental. It has been suggested a new law that contains a section of environmental protection which includes the riparian vegetation as a key element to protect, preserve, and restore rivers. Likewise, the boundaries of this vegetation should be according to the natural conditions of flooding in the bed of the river, with a once-in-every eight years- frequency, according to the variability of flow. In addition, its handling must consider the reforestation and maintenance of native vegetation species in each region.

  12. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Various Types of Vegetables and Salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Atapoor

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:: There is a possibility for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in vegetables due to their close contact with polluted water, soil and feces. Objectives:: This study was carried out to detect the presence of H. pylori in vegetables and salads in Iran. Materials and Methods:: In total, 460 vegetable and salad samples were collected and transferred immediately to the laboratory. All samples were cultured and tested for the presence of H. pylori using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. Results:: The results showed that 44 of 460 samples (9.56% were positive for H. pylori using the culture method. The Polymerase Chain Reaction technique showed that 50 of 460 samples (10.86% were positive for H. pylori. Un-washed leek, traditional salad, un-washed basil and un-washed lettuce were the most commonly contaminated samples. The presence of the bacteria in various vegetables was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions:: Vegetables are a new source of H. pylori and accurate washing of vegetables improves such contaminations. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Vegetables; Culture; Polymerase Chain Reaction

  13. Contribution to the Ecology of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim A. Mashaly

    2001-01-01

    The ecology of the western section of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt provides a quantitative assessment of the vegetation structure, the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the recognized vegetation groups and environmental attributes. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 75 stands representing the physiographic variation and/or different habitat types in the study area. Relative values of frequency, density and cover for each perennial and ...

  14. Split-Sample Tests for Vegetation-Type Dependence of Parameters of the Land Dynamics (LaD) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Milly, P.; Dunne, K.

    2005-05-01

    Poorly constrained vegetation parameters (a stomatal resistance parameter and a plant-root parameter) of the Land Dynamics (LaD) model for global land water and energy balance are estimated by model calibration. Very fast simulated annealing is used to minimize selected measures of the deviation between modeled and measured streamflow over a set of streamgauges (the calibration gauges). Estimated parameters are then transferred for use in other gauged basins that were excluded from the optimization (evaluation gauges). This calibration-evaluation process is performed in two ways: with parameters assumed to be globally constant, and with parameters assumed to depend on vegetation type. Performance of this parameter-transfer procedure is evaluated by computing, for the evaluation gauges, the value of the error measure that had been used in the calibration. Does stratification of the optimization by vegetation type yield predictive power? Comparison of the calibration and evaluation error measures for the global and vegetation-stratified approaches may help to answer that question.

  15. Vegetation Cover Types of St. Vincent Island N.W.R.

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this vegetative study on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge was to identify and describe the major plant communities and associations on the...

  16. Wieslander Vegetation

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  17. The impact of parent material, climate, soil type and vegetation on Venetian forest humus forms: a direct gradient approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-franc?ois; Sartori, Giacomo; Garlato, Adriano; Ungaro, Fabrizio; Zanella, Augusto; Jabiol, Bernard; Obber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of geology, climate, soil type and vegetation on forest humus forms was studied in the Veneto Region (northern Italy). A total of 352 study sites were compared by Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Humus forms were described by the structure (micro-, meso-, or macro-aggregated) of the organo-mineral A horizon, by the thickness of litter horizons and by their nomenclature, which followed the morpho-functional classification recently proposed for inclusion in the WRB-FAO. The size of aggrega...

  18. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

  19. Effect of vegetation type on post-fire enhancement of wind erosion in semi-arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; Baddock, M.

    2010-12-01

    Aeolian processes redistribute sediments and nutrients within arid landscapes with important implications on the composition and structure of vegetation. Aeolian processes, on the other hand, are affected by vegetation cover and disturbances. For example, it has been reported that wind erosion is enhanced by fire occurrences, though it is still unclear how this post-fire erosion activity is affected by the vegetation type. In this study we monitored wind erosion activity in a managed grassland (CRP) and in a shrub encroached grassland within the Cimarron National Grasslands (KS). Measurements started after a naturally occurring wildfire and included both field observations - BSNE dust samplers, SENSIT particle impact sensors - and laboratory wind tunnel experiments. The results indicate that, by decreasing the threshold shear velocity (due to vegetation removal and soil water repellency), fires enhance the soil erodibility both in the CRP grassland and in the shrub-encroached grassland. The initial post-fire horizontal dust fluxes in grasslands and adjacent shrub encroached grasslands were comparable. However, the post fire recovery (decline in erosion activity) was rapid in the case of grasslands, while erosion activity remained high in the shrub encroached grasslands for several months after the wild fire. Our results support the hypothesis that woody plant encroachment decreases the resilience of semi arid grasslands - the capacity of these systems to recover from disturbances. This higher post-fire loss and redistribution of soil resources from shrub encroached grasslands further inhibits grass recovery, thereby favoring the shrub encroachment process.

  20. Floodplain restoration leads to wetter and more diverse soil water regimes and vegetation types: Insight from an integrated hydroecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, E. G.; Loheide, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture availability in the root zone is one of the most important factors affecting plant species composition by creating stress on vegetation both when it is lacking (water stress) and when it is excessive (oxygen stress). Plant species have individual tolerance ranges along a gradient of available soil moisture that can be described as a hydrological niche. Combining a hydrological model and a habitat niche model can provide spatially-extensive predictions of vegetation composition, which would be useful for land management decision-making under changing environmental conditions. Floodplain ecosystem restoration provides an example of the utility of such a predictive tool as a site is hydrologically altered to create a wetter environment. We developed an integrated hydroecological model that links a quasi-3D, variably-saturated, groundwater flow model that simulates soil moisture with several plant habitat niche models. The focus of this research is a floodplain in southwestern Wisconsin where post-settlement alluvium was removed with the expectation of increasing regionally-threatened wetland plant species. Hydrological niche models were created based on simultaneous observations of vegetation composition and surface effective saturation. These models were then used to predict probability of presence for two dominant plant species (Carex vulpinoidea and Elymus canadensis) and composite wetland indicator score based on simulated surface effective saturation across the study site. The model predicts the site to be more wetland-species dominant overall following restoration. However, the soil moisture regime and vegetation types are slightly drier following restoration in zones where a silt-clay confining layer is present that inhibits vertical groundwater flow from a basal gravel aquifer to the near-surface soil zone. This differential response to restoration leads to a mosaic of soil water regimes across the site, which is reflected in a wider distribution of vegetation types. Therefore, the management goal of increasing wetland plant species occurrence is shown to co-occur with an increase in the site-scale diversity of plant community types. This result reveals the unique ability of the presented modeling framework to predict vegetation composition and aid land managers that are faced with difficult management decisions in a complex and uncertain future.

  1. Physical rehabilitation of students of medical groups with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia for mixed type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?lchovik Alina Vitalievna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Consider the problem of declining levels of health of students I-II courses that are assigned to special medical group. Substantiated the importance of including health improvement-rehabilitation program for students with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia of mixed type. Define oriented content rehabilitation programs for this group of individuals. The program improves the functional and psychological status of students, to carry out prevention of autonomic crises. Proved the prevalence and increase with each passing year the number of people with vascular dystonia of mixed type of students - 50-55%.

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes : EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, A J; Forouhi, N G

    2012-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16?154 participants and 12?403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340?234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 August 2012; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.85.

  3. Vegetation types of East Ladakh: species and growth form composition along main environmental gradients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, Miroslav; Doležal, Ji?í; de Bello, Francesco; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 1 (2011), 132-147. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * Classification * Trans-Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D A; Bhatt, U S; Raynolds, M K; Romanovsky, V E [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Leibman, M O; Gubarkov, A A; Khomutov, A V; Moskalenko, N G; Orekhov, P; Ukraientseva, N G [Earth Cryosphere Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Epstein, H E; Yu, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Forbes, B C; Kaarlejaervi, E [Arctic Center, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi (Finland); Comiso, J C [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD (United States); Jia, G J [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Kaplan, J O [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kumpula, T [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland); Kuss, P [University of Berne, Berne (Switzerland); Matyshak, G [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow awarming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  6. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some citional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological carrying capacity). The resulting proposal has been assessed on the basis of abiotic limits and it requires further modifications pursuing the biotic, abiotic and socio-economic limits. (authors

  7. Plant seedlings in a species-rich meadow: effect of management, vegetation type and functional traits.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ond?ej; Doležal, Ji?í; Hájek, M.; Dan?ák, M.; Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 16, ?. 2 (2013), s. 286-295. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bile Karpaty Mountains * Litter * Mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  8. Preliminary estimation of bryophyte biomass and carbon pool from three contrasting different vegetation types.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M.K.; Juhász, A.; Csintalan, Z.; Kaligaric, M.; Marek, Michal V.; Urban, Otmar; Tuba, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 1 (2005), s. 267-270. ISSN 0133-3720 Grant ostatní: EU(CZ) HPRI-CT-2002-00197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bryophyte * carbon pool * rain forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2005

  9. Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: its ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G; Ekman, Stefan; McDowell, Timothy D; Bremer, Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    During angiosperm evolution, innovations in vegetative and reproductive organs have resulted in tremendous morphological diversity, which has played a crucial role in the ecological success of flowering plants. Morindeae (Rubiaceae) display considerable diversity in growth form, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, small flower, and multiple fruit are the predominant states, but arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, large flower, and simple fruit states occur in various genera. This makes Morindeae an ideal model for exploring the evolutionary appearances and transitions between the states of these characters. We reconstructed ancestral states for these four traits using a bayesian approach and combined nuclear/chloroplast data for 61 Morindeae species. The aim was to test three hypotheses: 1) self-supporting habit is generally ancestral in clades comprising both lianescent and arborescent species; 2) changes from lianescent to arborescent habit are uncommon due to "a high degree of specialization and developmental burden"; 3) head inflorescences and multiple fruits in Morindeae evolved from non-headed inflorescences and simple fruits, respectively. Lianescent habit, head inflorescence, large flower, and multiple fruit are inferred for Morindeae, making arborescent habit, non-headed inflorescence, small flower, and simple fruit derived within the tribe. The rate of change from lianescent to arborescent habit is much higher than the reverse change. Therefore, evolutionary changes between lianescent and arborescent forms can be reversible, and their frequency and trends vary between groups. Moreover, these changes are partly attributed to a scarcity of host trees for climbing plants in more open habitats. Changes from large to small flowers might have been driven by shifts to pollinators with progressively shorter proboscis, which are associated with shifts in breeding systems towards dioecy. A single origin of dioecy from hermaphroditism is supported. Finally, we report evolutionary changes from headed to non-headed inflorescences and multiple to simple fruits. PMID:22815842

  10. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae) based on trichomes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mosti, Stefano; Alessio, Papini; Luigi, Brighigna.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil) de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio) produjo [...] un número puro (T). Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas) y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas). Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo. Abstract in english Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes [...] (means) produced a pure number (T) that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands) and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands). Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1): 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.

  11. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el número por milímetro cuadrado y el área del "ala" (parte móvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial próxima y distal, y adaxial próxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del género Tillandsia. El producto del área del ala para el número de los tricomas (promedio produjo un número puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las características ecológicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlación es positiva con respecto a ambientes áridos (especies xéricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes húmedos (especies mésicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categorías particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando así cinco tipos ecológicos. En comparación con otros sistemas de tipificación ecológica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  12. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paredes; Luis Cayuela; Gurr, Geoff M.; Mercedes Campos

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two...

  13. The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khairiah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum and long beans (Vigna sinensis from the soil. Heavy metals studied were Pb, Cd and Zn. Wet digestion method was used for heavy metals analysis in the vegetables. Heavy metals from soil samples were extracted by sequential extraction method, which extract heavy metals from easily and freely leachable fraction (EFLE, acid reduction (AR, organic oxidation (OO and resistant fraction (RR. The results of the study showed that the level of Zn content in long beans (Vigna sinensis was higher than in chilies (Capsicum annum. However the concentrations of heavy metals studied in these vegetables were still below the maximum level allowed by the Malaysian Food Act (1983 and Food Regulations (1985 for Pb (2.00 mg kg-1, Cd (1.00 mg kg-1 and Zn (30.00 mg kg-1.

  14. Eddy covariance and scintillation measurements of atmospheric exchange processes over different types of vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Nieveen, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction and objectivesGood comprehension of the energy and mass cycles and their effect on climate dynamics is crucial to understanding, predicting and anticipating ecological changes due to possible future climate perturbations. Here direct and long-term flux density measurements of greenhouse gases from various ecosystems provide means to supply such fundamental knowledge. For the global water vapour and carbon cycles, however, the interactions between different spatial scales become i...

  15. Influência do tipo da cobertura vegetal sobre a erosão no semi-árido Paraibano / Influence of the type of vegetal cover on sediment yield in the semiarid of Paraíba state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Augusto Guimarães, Santos; Koichi, Suzuki; Masahiro, Watanabe; Vajapeyam S., Srinivasan.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O tipo de cobertura vegetal, presente numa área, tem grande influência sobre o escoamento superficial e a produção de sedimentos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é estabelecer uma relação entre o tipo da cobertura vegetal e a erosão do solo nu, mediante uma equação empírica da perda de solo. A equaç [...] ão proposta foi calibrada usando-se dados sintéticos gerados por um modelo físico hidrossedimentológico, cujos parâmetros de erosão foram determinados como valores representativos de uma área desmatada do semi-árido paraibano. Apresenta-se uma comparação entre os valores calculados pela equação e os dados observados em várias parcelas de erosão, as quais apresentavam condições de cobertura vegetal e declividade distintas, localizadas na Bacia Experimental de Sumé, PB. Esta comparação permitiu uma avaliação da influência do tipo de cobertura vegetal sobre a erosão do solo. Abstract in english The type of vegetation cover present in an area, greatly influences the surface runoff as well as the sediment yield. The objective of this paper is to establish a relationship between the type of vegetal cover and erosion by means of an empirical equation for soil loss. The proposed equation was ca [...] librated using synthetic data obtained from a physically-based runoff-erosion model in which the erosion parameter values are representative of a cleared bare-land surface in the semiarid area of Paraíba State. A comparison between the values obtained from the equation and the observed data collected from several erosion plots in the Sumé Experimental Watershed with different conditions of vegetal cover and slope is presented as an evaluation of the influence of the vegetation cover on soil erosion.

  16. Avaliação nutricional da glicerina vegetal semipurificada para codornas de corte / Nutritional evaluation of vegetable semi-purified glycerin of meat type quail

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Batista; A.C., Furlan; A.P.S., Ton; T.J., Pasquetti; T.C.O., Quadros; D.O., Grieser; V., Zancanela.

    1783-17-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores de energia metabolizável da glicerina vegetal semipurificada e verificar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de codornas de corte alimentadas com rações contendo níveis crescentes de glicerina. [...] No experimento 1, foram utilizadas 50 codornas, alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração referência e de uma ração teste contendo nível de substituição de 10% de glicerina, com cinco repetições de cinco codornas por repetição. O valor de energia metabolizável aparente corrigida para balanço de nitrogênio da glicerina foi de 3.069kcal/kg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 640 codornas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (ração controle e níveis de glicerina = 4, 8, 12 e 16%) e quatro repetições com 32 aves em cada repetição. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) para consumo de ração e ganho de peso. A inclusão de glicerina, na fase de um a 14 dias de idade, piorou a conversão alimentar. No experimento 3, foram utilizadas 440 codornas, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com 22 aves em cada repetição. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os mesmos do experimento 2. O consumo de ração aumentou linearmente (P Abstract in english Three experiments were carried out to determine the chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of vegetable semi-purified glycerin and verify the performance and carcass yeild of meat type quai, fed with diets containing increasing levels of glycerin. In the first experiment 50 quails were [...] used, housed in metabolism cages. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and a test diet containing the replacement level of 10% glycerin, with five replications of five quails per replication. The value of apparent metabolisable energy corrected by nitrogen balance of glycerin was 3.069 kcal/kg. In the second experiment 640 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (control diet and four levels = 4, 8, 12 and 16% of glycerin), four replications with 32 birds per replication. There were no differences (P>0.05) on feed intake and weight gain. The inclusion of glycerin (1 - 14 days of age) decrease feed:gain ratio. In the third experiment, 440 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, with four replications with 22 birds per repetition. The treatments used were the same as the second trial. The feed intake increased linearly (P

  17. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  18. Characterisation of pastures in a eastern Alpine area in relation to ecological and management parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini S

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out in Val Visdende (north-eastern Italian Alps on a surface of 1108 ha, with the aim of identifying the most important pasture vegetation types. Based on the conditions observed in the area, main parameters concerning topographic, ecological and management conditions were evaluated and expressed using synthetic indexes. Cluster and principal component analyses were used for the interpretation of the distribution of pasture types in relation to ecological factors, allowing to formulate hypotheses on the evolution of pasture vegetation as a function of ecological and management parameters.

  19. Tidal Creek Morphology and Sediment Type Influence Spatial Trends in Salt Marsh Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairns, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Zonal patterns of salt marsh plants and physical conditions have been addressed primarily across the elevation gradient from inland to coastline rather than across tidal creeks in relation to their hydro-geomorphic processes such as bar formation and bank erosion. We found at a Danish marsh that by shaping major geomorphic features and providing sediments to the adjacent sites, fluvial-geomorphic processes of tidal creeks exert fundamental controls on the cross-channel distribution of abiotic and biotic factors. These results point to a need for biogeomorphic and landscape ecological perspectives to fully understand the underlying structure and geographic variability in salt marshes.

  20. Residues and potential ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics in manures and composts associated with protected vegetable farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Wu, Longhua; Huang, Yujuan; Christie, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants and enter into soil principally by agricultural application of organic fertilizer. A total of 33 solid animal manures and 17 compost samples from protected vegetable farms in nine areas of China were analyzed for the antibiotic classes of tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and macrolides (17 substances in total). Oxytetracycline was found as a dominant compound in the samples, and its highest concentration reached 416.8 mg kg(-1) in a chicken manure sample from Shouguang, Shandong Province. Among the samples, animal manures (especially pig manure) contained higher VA residues than composts. However, fluoroquinolones exhibited higher persistence in the compost samples than other antibiotic classes. This is particularly the case in the rice husk compost, which contained the highest level of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (1334.5 and 1717.4 ?g kg(-1) on average, respectively). The veterinary antibiotic profile in the risk husk compost had a good relationship with that in the corresponding manures. The refined commercial compost had the lowest VA residues among the compost samples in general. This implied that composting process might be important to reduce the antibiotic residue. High residue of antibiotics in soil was assumed to be a hazard to ecosystem. This is especially noticeable under current application rates (150 t ha(-1) a(-1)) in protected vegetable farming because over half of the samples exhibited a risk quotient (RQ) >1 for one or more antibiotics. PMID:25354434

  1. Pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of Holocene regional vegetation cover (plant-functional types and land-cover types) in Europe suitable for climate modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondman, A-K; Gaillard, M-J; Mazier, F; Sugita, S; Fyfe, R; Nielsen, A B; Twiddle, C; Barratt, P; Birks, H J B; Bjune, A E; Björkman, L; Broström, A; Caseldine, C; David, R; Dodson, J; Dörfler, W; Fischer, E; van Geel, B; Giesecke, T; Hultberg, T; Kalnina, L; Kangur, M; van der Knaap, P; Koff, T; Kuneš, P; Lagerås, P; Lata?owa, M; Lechterbeck, J; Leroyer, C; Leydet, M; Lindbladh, M; Marquer, L; Mitchell, F J G; Odgaard, B V; Peglar, S M; Persson, T; Poska, A; Rösch, M; Seppä, H; Veski, S; Wick, L

    2015-02-01

    We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for climate modelling. The REVEALS model was applied on 636 pollen records from lakes and bogs to reconstruct the past cover of 25 plant taxa grouped into 10 plant-functional types and three land-cover types [evergreen trees, summer-green (deciduous) trees, and open land]. The model corrects for some of the biases in pollen percentages by using pollen productivity estimates and fall speeds of pollen, and by applying simple but robust models of pollen dispersal and deposition. The emerging patterns of tree migration and deforestation between 6k bp and modern time in the REVEALS estimates agree with our general understanding of the vegetation history of Europe based on pollen percentages. However, the degree of anthropogenic deforestation (i.e. cover of cultivated and grazing land) at 3k, 0.5k, and 0.2k bp is significantly higher than deduced from pollen percentages. This is also the case at 6k in some parts of Europe, in particular Britain and Ireland. Furthermore, the relationship between summer-green and evergreen trees, and between individual tree taxa, differs significantly when expressed as pollen percentages or as REVEALS estimates of tree cover. For instance, when Pinus is dominant over Picea as pollen percentages, Picea is dominant over Pinus as REVEALS estimates. These differences play a major role in the reconstruction of European landscapes and for the study of land cover-climate interactions, biodiversity and human resources. PMID:25204435

  2. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using satellite VEGETATION, MODIS, TM time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, C.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Therefore variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 1998 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different type of environmenta diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective is to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at different temporal and spatial scales

  3. On the evaluation of vegetation resilience in Southern Italy by using VEGETATION, MODIS, TM satellite time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonna, I.; Coluzzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation re-growth after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, disturbance -induced dynamical processes are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. The remote sensing of vegetation has been traditionally carried out by using vegetation indices, which are quantitative measures, based on vegetation spectral properties, that attempt to measure biomass or vegetative vigor. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the mutiscale satellite temporal series ( 2000 to 2008) of NDVI and other vegetation indices from SPOT VEGETATION, MODIS and Landsat TM data acquired for some significant test areas affetced and unaffected (Southern Italy) by different types of environmental diturbances (drought, salinity, pollution, etc). Our objective was to characterize quantitatively the resilient effect of vegetation cover at differen temporal and spatial scales.

  4. Differences in organotin accumulation among ecological migratory types of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2006-08-01

    In order to examine the ecological risks caused by organotin compounds (OTs) in diadromous fish migrating between sea and freshwater, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds, and their breakdown products, were determined in the catadromous eel Anguilla japonica having sea, estuarine and river life histories, collected in Japanese sea, brackish and fresh waters. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate the migration type. There were generally three different patterns, which were categorized 'sea eels' (spent most of their life in the sea and did not enter freshwater), 'estuarine eels' (inhabited estuaries or switched between different habitats), and 'river eels' (entered and remained in freshwater river habitats after arrival in the estuary) according to the otolith Sr:Ca ratio. There were generally no significant correlations between TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in A. japonica. The concentrations of TBT and TPT in silver eels (mature eels) were significantly higher than those in yellow eels (immature eels), and the percentages of TBT and TPT were also higher in silver eels than in yellow eels. A positive correlation was found between TBT concentration and the gonad-somatic index (GSI). It is thus considered that silver eels have a higher risk of contamination by TBT than yellow eels. TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in TBT and TPT concentrations in estuarine eels compared to sea and river eels. These results suggest that sea eels have a higher ecological risk of OT contamination than river eels during their life history, and the risk of OTs in estuarine eels is considered to be intermediate between that of sea and river eels. Positive linear relationships were found between Sr:Ca ratios and the concentrations of TBT and TPT. Therefore, these results suggest that the ecological risk of OTs increase, as the sea residence period in the eel become longer. Even at the same maturation stage, TBT and TPT concentrations in sea eels were significantly higher than those in river eels. Thus, it is clear that migratory type is a more important factor for OT accumulation than maturation stage.

  5. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changyin; You, Changjun; Li, Caishun; Long, Tuan; Chen, Guoxing; Byrne, Mary E.; Zhang, Qifa

    2008-01-01

    Transition from the vegetative phase to reproductive phase is a crucial process in the life cycle of higher plants. Although the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation have been extensively characterized in a number of plant species, little is known regarding how the transition process initiates. Here, we show that the Rice Indeterminate 1 (RID1) gene acts as the master switch for the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. RID1 encodes a Cys-2/His-2-type zinc finger trans...

  6. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Dario de O Lima-Filho; Anderson S Hokama; Caroline P Spanhol

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters...

  7. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability - insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, C.; Arens, S.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2014-07-01

    In old and heavily weathered soils, the availability of P might be so small that the primary production of plants is limited. However, plants have evolved several mechanisms to actively take up P from the soil or mine it to overcome this limitation. These mechanisms involve the active uptake of P mediated by mycorrhiza, biotic de-occlusion through root clusters, and the biotic enhancement of weathering through root exudation. The objective of this paper is to investigate how and where these processes contribute to alleviate P limitation on primary productivity. To do so, we propose a process-based model accounting for the major processes of the carbon, water, and P cycles including chemical weathering at the global scale. Implementing P limitation on biomass synthesis allows the assessment of the efficiencies of biomass production across different ecosystems. We use simulation experiments to assess the relative importance of the different uptake mechanisms to alleviate P limitation on biomass production. We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth), and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

  8. Série temporal de índice de vegetação sobre diferentes tipologias vegetais no Rio Grande do Sul / Time series of vegetation index for different vegetation types in Rio Grande do Sul

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana M., Kuplich; Andreise, Moreira; Denise C., Fontana.

    1116-11-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se identificar a dinâmica fenológica das principais tipologias vegetais do Rio Grande do Sul, para o período de 2000 a 2010, utilizando-se dados de Enhanced Vegetation Index, através da transformada de ondaleta. A identificação da fenologia em ciclos ou padrões sazonais e [...] m séries temporais de índices de vegetação, obtidos por sensores orbitais, permite a observação de anomalias e os efeitos de mudanças climáticas ou ambientais. Um perfil temporal do Enhanced Vegetation Index foi construído para o Rio Grande do Sul e retiradas amostras para quatro tipologias vegetais: campo nativo, floresta ombrófila mista, cultivo de soja e de arroz. Essas amostras foram submetidas à transformada de ondaleta, que permitiu a decomposição da série e apresentação dos dados em relação ao tempo e frequência com que os eventos fenológicos ocorreram. Os dados apresentaram regularidade na dinâmica das tipologias vegetais testadas, com ciclos anuais de maior vigor e crescimento vegetal nas estações de primavera e verão e menor no outono e inverno. Abstract in english The objective of this study was the identification of the phenology dynamics of the main types of vegetation of Rio Grande do Sul state, for the period from 2000 to 2010, using Enhanced Vegetation Index data through the wavelet transform. The identification of cycles or seasonal patterns in time ser [...] ies of vegetation indices obtained by orbital sensors allows the observation of anomalies and effects of climate and environmental change. A temporal profile of Enhanced Vegetation Index was built for the Rio Grande do Sul region, where samples of the four main plant typologies were selected: native grassland, mixed ombrophilous forest, soybean and rice crop. These samples were submitted to the wavelet transform, which allowed the decomposition of the series and presentation of data in relation to time and frequency with which the phenological events have occurred. The data showed regularity in the dynamics of vegetation types tested, with annual cycles of plant growth and higher Enhanced Vegetation Index values in spring and summer and lower Enhanced Vegetation Index values in autumn and winter.

  9. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by insufficient amount of field measurements to ground-truth both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically-sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs, and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore co-existence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, was so far not captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources

  10. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day. Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the use of the range area, activity level, and feed content in the crops were observed in relation to genotype, sex, age of broilers, and also the time of day. Foraging activity was positively correlated with age. Medium-growth broilers spent more time inside and closer to the broiler houses during the day with increased foraging activity during evenings, in contrast to the slow-growing broilers that showed a more uniform activity during the day. Based on the measurement of crop content it was estimated that the slow-growing genotype had a daily intake of 5 to 8 g of forage per day, whereas the medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.

  11. Assessment of Trace Gas Emissions From Wild Fires in Different Vegetation Types in Northern Ghana: Implications for Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyadzi Emmanuel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning in Northern Ghana is a major cause for concern because of its potential contribution to global warming, hence climate change. This study assessed the emission of trace gases from human activities in the Guinea savanna of Northern Ghana using the guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Carbon content of biomass was determined from four different vegetation covers in the study area; namely, widely open savanna woodland, grass/herb with scattered trees, open savanna woodland and closed savanna woodland. Under each vegetation cover, five plots (1 m x 1 m were demarcated for the estimation of above-ground biomass density. Using the combustion furnace method, emitted carbon, methane and carbon monoxide were estimated. Results showed that the emitted methane (CH4 and carbon monoxide (CO differed significantly (p<0.05 under all the vegetation types. The gases were in perfect correlation (r=1.00 with the quantity of above-ground biomass density and carbon released, with more CO being emitted. Emission of CH4 and CO per hectare of burnt area in the open savanna woodland category was the highest with 0.001719 ton and 0.045119 ton respectively. Over time, emission of these gases may increase their atmospheric concentration, causing major health problems. The contribution to global warming, thus climate change, may also become quite significant. This underscores the fact that existing flaws in the wild fire management policy of Ghana must be effectively dealt with and appropriately implemented with regular reviews to reduce the annual wild fires that are very rampant in Northern Ghana, especially during the dry season.

  12. Short-term trends in vegetation cover of Danish semi-natural ecosystems : a landscape-ecological assessment of main drivers indicated by traits of winner and loser species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Allan; Damgaard, Christian

    The landscapes in which many plant communities persist today are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities, especially in Denmark, where most communities are influenced by for example atmospheric deposition of Nitrogen, changes in soil moisture levels (e.g. ground water-table changes caused by drainage) and changes in management regimes (primarily reduced grazing-pressure). Such modifications of the environment are filtering the persistence of species into those that are adapted to these new conditions (winners) and those that are not (losers). Across the landscape, it is reasonable to expect species with similar traits to respond similarly to systematic shifts in habitat conditions and disturbance. Consequently, contrasting traits of winner and loser species could be a powerful tool in identifying mechanisms that might be driving community changes. In this study, we use a large dataset of vegetation surveys from 207 semi-natural non-forested sites in Denmark, identifying temporal short-term changes in vegetation cover, notably identifying those species that are winners and losers. A further goal is to identify environmental drivers of contemporary vegetation change in Danish semi-natural habitats by quantifying which functional traits makes species decline or increase. We therefore assess whether winners and losers differ with regard to key functional traits and ecological indicator values, and whether these results match our expectations given the current anthropogenic disturbance regime. Notably, do winner and loser species display distinct sets of traits of the ones related to: exotic species invasion, eutrophication by nitrogen deposition, management changes (decreasing grazing and associated encroachment by woody plants), soil moisture changes (due to excessive water extraction and drainage)? Preliminary results suggest that even during a relative short time span of just seven years, it is possible to identify winner and loser species, indicating that significant shifts in species compositionare currently taking place in Danish semi-natural ecosystems. The number of identified loser species was greater than the number of identified winner species, suggesting that homogenization of species composition across the landscape may be a concern. Today, management of semi-natural habitats is a common conservation measure. However, despite traditional management, habitats may still be vulnerable to compositional changes due to e.g. surrounding land-use and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The preliminary results from this study, are dichotomous in that it seems some factors as for example soil moisture and woody species encroachment are being managed in a way that opposites expectations from human disturbances, whereas management can not combat the effects of nitrogen deposition. Further analyses are still being developed to differentiate the landscape pattern of winners and losers into the specific habitat-types to induce differences between them in their responses to environmental drivers.

  13. Vegetation associated with the occurrence of the Brenton blue butterfly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.A., Edge; S.S., Cilliers; R.F., Terblanche.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brenton blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen), is critically endangered and known only from one site near Knysna in the Western Cape province of South Africa, now proclaimed as the Brenton Blue Butterfly Reserve (BBBR). We have explored associations between vegetation types and the presence [...] of O. niobe's only host plant, Indigofera erecta (Thunb.), using Braun-Blanquet vegetation classification and ordination techniques as part of a broader research project at the BBBR. Positive correlations are demonstrated between the occurrence of I. erecta and certain thicket vegetation types dominated by Pterocelastrus tricuspidatus (candlewood trees). Ordinations using soil analysis and slope data have not detected significant environmental gradients influencing vegetation types. The high degree of vegetation heterogeneity at the BBBR appears to be driven in part by various disturbance histories. Historical ecological events at the site such as fire and megaherbivore impacts, and their role in sustaining the ideal habitat for I. erecta and O. niobe, are discussed. Management techniques for the BBBR such as controlled fires or the cutting of paths through the vegetation are evaluated and an optimum future management strategy is recommended. This is the most comprehensive vegetation study ever carried out at the habitat of an endangered butterfly in South Africa, and breaks new ground by using vegetation analysis to develop a well-informed management plan for conservation of this species. It has significance for the management of small sites where many such endangered butterflies occur.

  14. Vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil reduce DNA strand breaks in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with increased oxidative stress, which may lead to increased DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a healthy diet on DNA oxidation in diabetics and nondiabetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-six diabetic and 21 nondiabetic individuals participated in this study. All subjects received information about the benefits of a healthy diet, while subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group received additionally 300 g of vegetables and 25 mL PUFA-rich plant oil per day. DNA damage in mononuclear cells (Comet Assay), urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7-hydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured at baseline, after 4, 8 (end of intervention), and 16 weeks. The intervention with vegetables and PUFA-rich oil led to a significant increase in plasma antioxidant concentrations. Diabetic individuals of the intervention group showed a significant reduction inHbA1c and DNA strand breaks. Levels of HbA1c were also improved in diabetics of the information group, but oxidative damage to DNA was not altered. Urinary 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGuo excretion remained unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a healthy diet rich in antioxidants reduces levels of DNA strand breaks in diabetic individuals.

  15. Characterization of glycosyltransferase activity of wild-type Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains from Bulgarian fermented vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Tonka; Iliev, Ilia; Amari, Myriam; Bivolarski, Veselin; Bounaix, Marie-Sophie; Robert, Hervé; Morel, Sandrine; Rabier, Philippe; Ivanova, Iskra; Gabriel, Bruno; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Gabriel, Valérie

    2012-10-01

    Glycosyltransferase activity of 13 Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Bulgarian fermented vegetables was investigated. All the strains displayed a mucoid phenotype on sucrose-containing agar media. Strains were characterized according to carbohydrate fermentation, species-specific multiple PCR using several primers, repetitive element-PCR fingerprinting using (GTG)(5) primers and glycosyltransferase activity. Level of activity and cellular localization (soluble or cell-associated) were variable among strains. Precipitation of exopolysaccharides produced from sucrose by the soluble fractions from these strains allowed recovery of only glucans and further characterization by (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis and enzymatic digestion with dextranase revealed dextran production. However, levans could be detected in presence of raffinose as fructosyl donor. Both fructosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase encoding genes were detected by PCR and both active enzymes were detected after functional characterization by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and in situ polymer production after incubation with sucrose. This work therefore showed that concomitant production of glucosyltransferase and fructosyltransferase is widespread in L. mesenteroides strains. PMID:22932848

  16. El uso del método de puntos de intercepción para cuantificar los tipos de vegetación y hábitats abióticos en los bofedales altoandinos / Using line-intercept methods to quantify vegetation types and abiotic habitats in high Andean wetlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kazuya, Naoki; Rosa Isela, Meneses; M. Isabel, Gómez; Carlos Miguel, Landivar.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los bofedales son ecosistemas húmedos altoandinos de los Andes centrales con una importancia socioeconómica y ecológica crucial en la región. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es describir el método de puntos de intercepción para cuantificar la disponibilidad y la variabilidad de las asociaciones veget [...] ales, así que la cobertura no vegetativa en los bofedales, datos útiles para categorizarlos. En el contexto de nuestro proyecto, tomado en cuenta como ejemplo, se aplicó el método en 40 bofedales ubicados en la Cordillera Real (Bolivia) donde se establecieron aleatoriamente 10-20 líneas de intercepción de 50 m en cada bofedal. En cada línea de intercepción se registró la cobertura a intervalos de 1 m y se registraron 22 categorías de coberturas reconocibles a simple vista. Discutimos la relevancia del método para realizar evaluaciones rápidas en diferentes estudios en bofedales. Al estar enfocado en tipos de vegetación en lugar de las especies vegetales, permite su aplicación por investigadores que no tienen un conocimiento taxonómico profundo de la flora local. Abstract in english Bofedales are high Andean wetlands found in the central Andes, which provide crucial socio-economic and ecological resources in this region. The aim of our study is to describe the line-intercept methods to quantify the availability and variability of plant association and non-vegetative cover in hi [...] gh Andean bogs. Within the project BIOTHAW, taken as a methodological example, the method was applied in 40 bogs located in the Cordillera Real (Bolivia). In each bofedal, between 10 and 20 50-m intercept lines were randomly established. Along each intercept line, one of the 22 coverage types recognizable to the naked eye was recorded at 1-m interval. We discuss the relevance of this method for rapid assessments in different studies on highland bogs. Since the method focuses on simple vegetation types rather than on plant species, it can be used by researchers who do not have a deep taxonomic knowledge of the local flora.

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  18. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en 4 tipos de aceites vegetales / Organochlorine pesticide residues in 4 types of vegetable oils.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María, Piñero González; Pedro, Izquierdo Córser; María, Allara Cagnasso; Aiza, García Urdaneta.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivos identificar y cuantificar residuos de los plaguicidas organoclorados (POC) hexaclorobenceno (HCB), lindano, cis-clordano, heptacloro, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín y o,p’-diclorodifeniltricloroetano (o,p’-DDT) en aceites de maíz, soya, girasol y mezclas de aceites, [...] que se expenden en la ciudad de Maracaibo, Venezuela. Se analizaron 30 muestras de 4 tipos de aceites de 10 marcas comerciales. La extracción de residuos de POC se realizó según la técnica de la AOAC. Para la identificación y cuantificación se utilizó un cromatógrafo de gases con detector de captura electrónica (GC-ECD), y para la confirmación, un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a un espectrómetro de masas (GCMS). Todos los residuos de POC investigados fueron detectados en las muestras analizadas. Se detectaron en mayor concentración (mg/ g) aldrín (0,0088), lindano (0,0054) y o,p’-DDT (0,0035). El análisis estadístico demostró diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english The present study had as objectives to identify and to quantify organochlorine pesticide residues (OCP) hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, cis-chlordane, heptachlor, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín and o,p’-DDT in vegetable oils of corn, soybean, sunflower and mixtures of oils, sold in the city of Maracaibo [...] , Venezuela. 30 samples of 4 types of vegetable oils of 10 commercial brands were analyzed. The extraction of OCP residues was done according to the Official Method of AOAC. A gas chromatograph with an electronic capture detector (GC-ECD) was used for identification and quantification of OCP residues and confirmation was done with a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). All the OCP residues investigated were detected in the analyzed samples. Aldrin (0.0088), lindane (0.0054) and o,p’-DDT (0.0035) were the OCP residues detected in higher concentrations (mg/g). The statistical analysis showed significant differences (P

  19. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  20. SOIL EMISSIONS OF N2O, NO AND CO2 IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS: EFFECTS OF VEGETATION TYPE, SEASONALITY, AND PRESCRIBED FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using closed chamber techniques, soil fluxes of NO, N20 and C02 were measured from September 1999 through October 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) subjected to prescribed fires. Our studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto sensu (20-50% canopy cov...

  1. On the use of satellite VEGETATION time series for vegetation disturbance recovery assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanorte, A.; Coluzzi, R.; de Santis, F.; Didonna, I.

    2009-04-01

    The characterization of vegetation reaction to disturbance is of primary importance since changes in the status or types of vegetation play an active role in ecological processes (such as productivity level, creation of altered patches, modification in vegetation structure and shifts in vegetation cover composition), as well as in land surface processes (such as surface energy, water balance, carbon cycle). The assessment of disturbance impacts on ecological resources requires investigations performed at different temporal and spatial scales, from local up to regional level. In such a context, satellite technologies can be profitably used for investigating the dynamics of vegetation after disturbance at different temporal and spatial scales; although, dynamical processes induced by disturbance are very difficult to study since they affect the complex soil-surface-atmosphere system, due to the existence of feedback mechanisms involving human activity, ecological patterns and different subsystems of climate. In this study, a time series of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data derived from SPOT-VEGETATION was used to examine the recovery characteristics of drought and fire affected vegetation in some test areas of the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. The vegetation indices operate by contrasting intense chlorophyll pigment absorption in the red against the high reflectance of leaf mesophyll in the near infrared. The simplest form of vegetation index is simply a ratio between two digital values from these two spectral bands. The most widely used index is the well-known normalized difference vegetation index NDVI = [NIR-R]/ [NIR+R]. The normalization of the NDVI reduces the effects of variations caused by atmospheric contaminations. High values of the vegetation index identify pixels covered by substantial proportions of healthy vegetation. NDVI is indicative of plant photosynthetic activity and has been found to be related to the green leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation. Therefore variations in NDVI values become indicative of variations in vegetation composition and dynamics. In this study, we analyze the temporal series from 1998 to 2005 of NDVI satellite SPOT VEGETATION data acquired for a shrubland test site In order to eliminate the phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition of each pixel, we focused on the departure NDVId = [NDVI - ]/?, where is the decadal mean and ? is the decadal standard deviation. The decadal mean and the standard deviation were calculated for each decade, e.g. 1st decade of January, by averaging over all years in the record. We analyzed both: 1) Post-disturbance NDVI spatial patterns on each image date were compared to the pre-disturbace pattern to determine the extent to which the pre-disturbance pattern was re-established, and the rate of this recovery. 2) time variation of NDVI from 1998 to 2005 of two pixels for the disturbance affected and disturbance unaffected areas. Results show the ability of NDVI time series to capture the different impacts/effects of different disturbances (drought and fire in the current case) and the capability of VEGETATION-NDVI data set to monitoring vegetation status from local up to a global scale.

  2. Vegetation of Upper Coastal Plain depression wetlands: Environmental templates and wetland dynamics within a landscape framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Toner, Maureen, M.

    2004-03-01

    Reference wetlands play an important role in efforts to protect wetlands and assess wetland condition. Because wetland vegetation integrates the influence of many ecological factors, a useful reference system would identify natural vegetation types and include models relating vegetation to important regional geomorphic, hydrologic, and geochemical properties. Across the U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain, depression wetlands are a major hydrogeomorphic class with diverse characteristics. For 57 functional depression wetlands in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, we characterized the principal vegetation types and used a landscape framework to assess how local (wetland-level) factors and regional landscape settings potentially influence vegetation composition and dynamics. Wetland sites were stratified across three Upper Coastal Plain landscape settings that differ in soils, surface geology, topography, and land use. We sampled plant composition, measured relevant local variables, and analyzed historical transitions in vegetative cover types. Cluster analysis identified six vegetation types, ranging from open-water ponds and emergent marshes to closed forests. Significant vegetation-environment relationships suggested environmental ''templates'' for plant community development. Of all local factors examined, wetland hydrologic regime was most strongly correlated with vegetation type, but depression size, soil textural type, and disturbance history were also significant. Because hydrogeologic settings influence wetland features, local factors important to vegetation were partly predictable from landscape setting, and thus wetland types were distributed non-randomly across landscape settings. Analysis of long-term vegetation change indicated relative stability in some wetlands and succession in others. We developed a landscape-contingent model for vegetation dynamics, with hydroperiod and fire as major driving variables. The wetland classification, environmental templates, and dynamics model provide a reference framework to guide conservation priorities and suggest possible outcomes of restoration or management.

  3. Evolutionary Ecology of Human Papillomavirus: Trade-offs, Coexistence, and Origins of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Paul A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Brown, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background.?We address the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) that lead to the dichotomy between high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) types. We hypothesize that HPV faces an evolutionary tradeoff between persistence and per-contact transmission probability. High virion production enhances transmissibility but also provokes an immune response leading to clearance and limited persistence. Alternatively, low virion production increases persistence at the cost of dim...

  4. Does sleep aggravate tension-type headache?: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki Gen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both insufficient sleep and oversleeping have been reported as precipitating and aggravating factors of tension-type headache (TTH. However, previous studies relied on recalled self-reports, and the relationship has not been confirmed prospectively and objectively in a daily life situation. Recently, ecological momentary assessment (EMA using electronic diaries, i.e., computerized EMA, is used to record subjective symptoms with the advantages of avoiding recall bias and faked compliance in daily settings. In addition, actigraphy has become an established method to assess sleep outside laboratories. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the within-individual effect of sleep on the following momentary headache intensity in TTH patients during their daily lives utilizing EMA and actigraphy. Methods Twenty-seven patients with TTH wore watch-type computers as electronic diaries for seven consecutive days and recorded their momentary headache intensity using a visual analog scale of 0-100 approximately every six hours, on waking up, when going to bed, and at the time of headache exacerbations. They also recorded their self-report of sleep quality, hours of sleep and number of awakenings with the computers when they woke up. Physical activity was continuously recorded by an actigraph inside the watch-type computers. Activity data were analyzed by Cole's algorithm to obtain total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake time after sleep onset and number of awakenings for each night. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effect of each subjective and objective sleep-related variable on momentary headache intensity on the following day. Results Objectively measured total sleep time was significantly positively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day, while self-reported sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day. Conclusions Using computerized EMA and actigraphy, longer sleep and worse sleep quality were shown to be related to more intense headache intensity on within-individual basis and they may be precipitating or aggravating factors of TTH.

  5. Differences in Fine-Root Biomass of Trees and Understory Vegetation among Stand Types in Subtropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoli; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Variation of total fine-root biomass among types of tree stands has previously been attributed to the characteristics of the stand layers. The effects of the understory vegetation on total fine-root biomass are less well studied. We examined the variation of total fine-root biomass in subtropical tree stands at two sites of Datian and Huitong in China. The two sites have similar humid monsoon climate but different soil organic carbon. One examination compared two categories of basal areas (high vs. low basal area) in stands of single species. A second examination compared single-species and mixed stands with comparable basal areas. Low basal area did not correlate with low total fine-root biomass in the single-species stands. The increase in seedling density but decrease in stem density for the low basal area stands at Datian and the quite similar stand structures for the basal-area contrast at Huitong helped in the lack of association between basal area and total fine-root biomass at the two sites, respectively. The mixed stands also did not yield higher total fine-root biomasses. In addition to the lack of niche complementarity between tree species, the differences in stem and seedling densities and the belowground competition between the tree and non-tree species also contributed to the similarity of the total fine-root biomasses in the mixed and single-species stands. Across stand types, the more fertile site Datian yielded higher tree, non-tree and total fine-root biomasses than Huitong. However, the contribution of non-tree fine-root biomass to the total fine-root biomass was higher at Huitong (29.4%) than that at Datian (16.7%). This study suggests that the variation of total fine-root biomass across stand types not only was associated with the characteristics of trees, but also may be highly dependent on the understory layer. PMID:26047358

  6. Nutrient release from combustion residues of two contrasting herbaceous vegetation types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Benjamin A; Inglett, Patrick W

    2012-08-01

    Fire is a critical regulator of biogeochemical cycles in approximately 40% of the earth's land surface. However, little is known about nutrient release from combustion residues (ash and char) from herbaceous or grassland fires of varying intensity. Much of our knowledge in this area is derived from muffle furnace temperature gradient experiments. Therefore, we used two approaches (muffle and flame burning) to combust herbaceous biomass from contrasting nutrient level sites to estimate the forms and availability of nutrients after fire. Clear differences were measured in total and extractable nutrient concentrations in combustion residues of different plant types, with most carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) being volatilized (>99%), while P remained in high concentrations in the residues. Different combustion methods yielded contrasting results, where temperatures greatly affected nutrient quantity and form in muffle furnace residues, while relatively similar residues resulted from flame combustion at varying intensities. It was also found that only 5% of N and 50% of P remaining in flame combustion residues were extractable. Flame residues appeared to be composed of mixtures of materials (ash and char) created at low (450 °C) muffle temperatures (pH, extractable potassium (K), and extractable NH(4)-N). We attribute dissimilar results of the combustion methods to heterogeneity of combustion (zones of low oxygen availability) and short duration (combustion characterizing natural fires in herbaceous, grassland systems. These results can be adapted to ecosystem level models to better predict nutrient changes that may occur after a fire event. PMID:22664533

  7. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. There still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 72 site-years for 58 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SR MAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This convergence is to be theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SR MAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it is sufficient to measure SR MAT for obtaining a highly constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution and interannual variation of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatio-temporal resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  8. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  9. The ecological and evolutionary implications of merging different types of networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, C.; Guimaraes, P. R.; Ke?fi, S.; Loeuille, N.; Memmott, J.; Putten, W. H.; Veen, F. J.; The?bault, E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions among species drive the ecological and evolutionary processes in ecological communities. These interactions are effectively key components of biodiversity. Studies that use a network approach to study the structure and dynamics of communities of interacting species have revealed many patterns and associated processes. Historically these studies were restricted to trophic interactions, although network approaches are now used to study a wide range of interactions, including for ex...

  10. On variability of evapotranspiration : the role of surface type and vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is part of the long-term catchment-scale hydrological observatory, HOBE, situated in the Skjern River catchment covering 2500 km2 on the western coast of Denmark. To gain a more detailed knowledge of how evapotranspiration is controlled by the local surface and weather patterns, eddy-covariance systems was installed over the tree dominant surface types in the catchment; an agricultural field, a spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] plantation and a meadow site. Measurements started in late 2008, and the full evaporation and energy balances for the years 2009-2011 forms the basis for this study. At the spruce plantation additional separate measurements of transpiration, interception evaporation and forest floor evaporation was performed. Transpiration was measured in the growing season of 2010 using Granier type TDP sap flux probes, interception was measured using net precipitation gauges for the years of 2010 and 2011 and forest floor evaporation was measured on a campaign basis by weighing cut out sections for forest floor. The cumulative measured evapotranspiration from the three surfaces showed large differences. 2009 was an unusually dry year with much lower than normal rates of precipitation in April, May and June, while 2010 and 2011 where normal years in terms of precipitation. The meadow site and agricultural site had the largest evapotranspiration in dry year of 2009 at 512 and 470 mm respectively, while the normal years 2010 and 2011 saw 446 and 455 mm for the meadow and 406 and 400 mm for the agricultural site. The spruce plantation showed the opposite pattern. In 2009 the ET was 494 mm while in 2010 and 2011 the sum was 545 and 544 mm respectively. In all years the agricultural site had less evapotranspiration than the natural surfaces. In the dry year 2009 the meadow had slightly more evapotranspiration than spruce plantation, while in the normal years 2010 and 2011 the forest had considerably more evapotranspiration than either the Meadows or the Farm. At the agricultural site, transpiration was the most important component of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by crop development and by the available energy. At the meadow site soil evaporation and evaporation from free water surfaces was the most important parts of the evapotranspiration. The rate of evapotranspiration was controlled by the water level in the Skjern River which influenced the ground water level in the meadows and by the available energy. At the spruce plantation transpiration and terception evaporation were both important. The rate of transpiration was heavily influenced by stomatal control in response to high vapor pressure deficits. In addition soil moisture stress had a limiting effect during prolonged dry periods. Interception evaporation was controlled by the amount and duration of precipitation. During rain, advection was found to comprise about half the energy balance of the spruce plantation in summer and the majority the energy balance in winter. On average, 19% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in summer, and 12% of the precipitation evaporated during rain in winter. Canopy structure in the forest were found to affect both transpiration and interception evaporation. Young stands with an open canopy structure transpired at about 30% higher rate than mature stands with a close canopy structure; the young stands had an interception evaporation of 31% of the gross precipitation, while the mature stands had an interception evaporation of 34% of the gross precipitation. Within the mature stands there was an edge effect with trees next to access roads and aisles being responsible for a disproportionally large part of the stand transpiration.

  11. On the Suitability of MODIS Time Series Metrics to Map Vegetation Types in Dry Savanna Ecosystems: A Case Study in the Kalahari of NE Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and evaluation of the recent status of biodiversity in Southern Africa’s Savannas is a major prerequisite for suitable and sustainable land management and conservation purposes. This paper presents an integrated concept for vegetation type mapping in a dry savanna ecosystem based on local scale in-situ botanical survey data with high resolution (Landsat and coarse resolution (MODIS satellite time series. In this context, a semi-automated training database generation procedure using object-oriented image segmentation techniques is introduced. A tree-based Random Forest classifier was used for mapping vegetation type associations in the Kalahari of NE Namibia based on inter-annual intensity- and phenology-related time series metrics. The utilization of long-term inter-annual temporal metrics delivered the best classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.93 compared with classifications based on seasonal feature sets. The relationship between annual classification accuracies and bi-annual precipitation sums was conducted using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. Increased error rates occurred in years with high rainfall rates compared to dry rainy seasons. The variable importance was analyzed and showed high-rank positions for features of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and the blue and middle infrared bands, indicating that soil reflectance was crucial information for an accurate spectral discrimination of Kalahari vegetation types. Time series features related to reflectance intensity obtained increased rank-positions compared to phenology-related metrics.

  12. Two centuries of vegetation succession in an inland sand dune area, central Netherlands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ujházy, K.; Fanta, J.; Prach, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 3 (2011), 316-325. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : primary succession * relief types * vegetation mapping Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  13. Minimal mechanisms for vegetation patterns in semiarid regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Hernandez-Garcia, E; Lopez, C

    2014-01-01

    The minimal ecological requirements for formation of regular vegetation patterns in semiarid systems have been recently questioned. Against the general belief that a combination of facilitative and competitive interactions is necessary, recent theoretical studies suggest that, under broad conditions, nonlocal competition among plants alone may induce patterns. In this paper, we review results along this line, presenting a series of models that yield spatial patterns when finite-range competition is the only driving force. A preliminary derivation of this type of model from a more detailed one that considers water-biomass dynamics is also presented. Keywords: Vegetation patterns, nonlocal interactions

  14. Some Ecological Aspects of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F. and Type of Sugar Contents in Honey in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Onlamai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out at Khon Kaen and Maha Sarakham Provinces in northeastern region of Thailand. The work designed to investigate ecological locations and types of sugar in honey of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F.. The results showed that there were four types of ecological locations found, i.e. cropland and degradation forest, orchard farm, villages, and housing area of government?s official. Five types of sugar contents in honey were found with majority of fructose followed by glucose, lactose, maltose, and least with sucrose. The highest amounts of sugar in honey were highest in June followed by February, December, January, March, September, April, October and November. All types of sugar had no effect on egg rate, worker, and drone cells except fructose where it had highly significant effect on number of queen cells. A range of 1-1.05 (g ml-1 of total sugar had highly significant effect on number of queen cells, but with higher range number of queen cells was declined

  15. Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Janete Jane Resende; Paulo Enrique Cardoso Peixoto; Evandro Nascimento Silva; Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie; Santos, Gilberto M. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest) domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource) and honey (carbohydrate resource) baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1) preserved native forest, (2) forest in regeneration (capoeira) with many invasive plants and (3) a mixed agr...

  16. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  17. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    OpenAIRE

    J.-C. Calvet; A.-L. Gibelin; J.-L. Roujean; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.; Douville, H.; Noilhan, J.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France) to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, (CO2), is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated maize, coniferous forest). Past (1960) and future (2050) scenarios of (CO2) corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual ...

  18. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  19. The dynamics of cork oak systems in Portugal: the role of ecological and land use factors

    OpenAIRE

    Aca?cio, V. C.

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation degradation and desertification occur in many semiarid ecosystems worldwide, particularly in the Western Mediterranean Basin. A peculiar semiarid Mediterranean land use system dominates the landscape of southern Portugal where cork oak (Quercus suber) is the main tree species. This system is the result of both ecological and land use dynamics that shaped the landscape for centuries and created a fine-grained mosaic landscape, which includes four main types of vegetation patches: co...

  20. The results from trial operation of the ecological display for monitoring of drum-separator status at RBMK-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes procedure and results of ecological interface for monitoring of drum-separator at RBMK-type NPP. Trial operation has been carried out during four months at the full scope simulator of the leningrad NPP with participation of the licensed control room operators. The results from the trial operation demonstrate that ecological interface considerably increases efficiency of operator activity and essentially reduces protection activation rate caused by errors or untimely actions of operator compared to conventional human-machine interface

  1. Composição da entomofauna da Floresta Nacional do Araripe em diferentes vegetações e estações do ano / Composition of entomofauna on the Araripe National Forest in different vegetation types and year seasons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Roberto de, Azevedo; Maria Andréia Rodrigues de, Moura; Maria Solidade Barbosa, Arrais; Daniel Rodrigues, Nere.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de insetos tem grande significado ecológico e está relacionada com os fatores ambientais, disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo. Para avaliar a composição da entomofauna, em diferentes tipos de vegetação (Cerrado, Carrasco e Mata Úmida) e estações do ano na Floresta Nacional do Araripe, [...] Crato, Ceará, nordeste brasileiro, foram realizadas coletas semanais na estação seca (setembro a dezembro) e chuvosa (abril a julho), por meio de armadilhas McPhail, de solo e bandejas amarelas. Os insetos da ordem Coleoptera são numerosos, na estação seca, agindo como polinizadores, fitófagos e detritívoros, além de decompositores de matéria orgânica, na estação chuvosa. Os Diptera são numerosos na estação chuvosa, quando são encontradas moscas frugívoras, decompositoras de carcaças de animais, de matéria orgânica e predadoras; os da família Calliphoridae predominam no Cerrado; da família Tachinidae, no Carrasco, e da Tephritidae, na Mata Úmida. Os Orthoptera Gryllidae predominam na Mata Úmida e os Hymenoptera Formicidae, no Carrasco e Cerrado na estação seca. Portanto, cada grupo de insetos desempenha um papel ecológico sobre as vegetações, nas diferentes estações do ano. Abstract in english The occurrence of insects has great ecological significance and is related to environmental factors, food availability, and refuge. We assess the composition of the entomofauna in different vegetation types (cerrado, carrasco and humid forest), and seasons in the Araripe National Forest, Crato-CE, b [...] y weekly collections made in the dry season (September to December) and in the rainy season (April to July), through McPhail, pitfall and yellow tray traps. Many Coleoptera occur in the dry season, acting as pollinators, phytophagous, detritivore and decomposers of organic matter in the rainy season. Already, the Diptera is abundant in the rainy season, when fruit flies are found, decomposing animal carcasses, organic matter and predators. The Calliphoridae family predominate in the Cerrado, the Tachinidae in the Carrasco and Tephritidae in the Humid Forest. The Orthoptera Gryllidae predominate in the Humid Forest and the Hymenoptera Formicidae in the Carrasco and Cerrado in the dry season. Therefore, there is a satisfactory balance in the structure and functioning of the Araripe National Forest as each group plays an important ecological role on the vegetation, in the different seasons of the year.

  2. Comparison of two types of forest disturbance using multitemporal Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery and field vegetation data.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hais, M.; Jonášová, Magda; Langhammer, J.; Ku?era, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 113, ?. 4 (2009), s. 835-845. ISSN 0034-4257 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB600870701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Landsat * disturbance * bark beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.612, year: 2009

  3. Selective acquisition of novel mating type and vegetative incompatibility genes via interspecies gene transfer in the globally invading eukaryote Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Mathieu; Buck, Kenneth W; Brasier, Clive M

    2006-01-01

    The Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, which has destroyed billions of elm trees worldwide, originally invaded Europe as a series of clonal populations with a single mating type (MAT-2) and a single vegetative incompatibility (vic) type. The populations then rapidly became diverse with the appearance of the MAT-1 type and many vegetative incompatibility types. Here, we have investigated the mechanism using isolates from sites in Portugal at which the rapid evolution of O. novo-ulmi populations from clonality to heterogeneity was well established. We show by genetic mapping of vic and MAT loci with AFLP markers and by sequence analysis of MAT loci that this diversification was due to selective acquisition by O. novo-ulmi of the MAT-1 and vic loci from another species, Ophiostoma ulmi. A global survey showed that interspecies transfer of the MAT-1 locus occurred on many occasions as O. novo-ulmi spread across the world. We discuss the possibility that fixation of the MAT-1 and vic loci occurred in response to spread of deleterious viruses in the originally clonal populations. The process demonstrates the potential of interspecies gene transfer for facilitating rapid adaptation of invasive organisms to a new environment. PMID:16367844

  4. Trophodynamics of current use pesticides and ecological relationships in the Bathurst region vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam D; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R; Teixeira, Camilla; Duric, Mark; Wang, Xiaowa

    2014-09-01

    The bioaccumulation of current use pesticides (CUPs) and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were investigated in vegetation-caribou-wolf food chain in the Bathurst region (Nunavut, Canada). Volumetric bioconcentration factors (BCF(v)) in vegetation were generally greatest for dacthal (10-12)???endosulfan sulfate (10-11)?>?ß-endosulfan (>9.0-9.7)???pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB; 8.4-9.6)?>??-endosulfan (8.3-9.3)?>?chlorpyrifos (8.0-8.7) >chlorothalonil (7.6-8.3). The BCF(v) values in vegetation were significantly correlated with the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficients (log?K(OA)) of CUPs (r(2) ?=?0.90, p?=?0.0040), although dacthal was an outlier and not included in this relationship. Most biomagnification factors (BMFs) for CUPs in caribou:diet comparisons were significantly less than 1. Similarly, the majority of wolf:caribou BMFs were either significantly less than 1 or were not statistically greater than 1. Significant trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were all less than 1, indicating that these CUPs exhibit trophic dilution through this terrestrial food chain. The log K(OA) reasonably predicted bioconcentration in vegetation for most CUPs but was not correlated with BMFs or TMFs in mammals. Our results, along with those of metabolic studies, suggest that mammals actively metabolize these CUPs, limiting their biomagnification potential despite entry into the food chain through effective bioconcentration in vegetation. PMID:24975230

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Johnstown Flood National Memorial Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Johnstown Flood National Memorial provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation...

  6. [Change trend of vegetation cover in Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2012-11-01

    The MODIS-NDVI data from 2000 to 2009 were used to analyze the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of the vegetation cover in the Beijing metropolitan region before and after the 2008 Olympics. During the study period, the proportion of the significantly increased pixels of NDVI occupied 20.7% while that of the significantly decreased pixels only occupied 4.1% of the total, and the decreasing rate of the NDVI was slightly faster than the increasing rate. The significant changes of the NDVI were mainly concentrated in the low altitude and small slope areas with intensive human activities, and two bands were formed in the plain area, i. e., the vegetation increasing band within the 5th Ring Road and the vegetation decreasing band from the 5th Ring Road to the outside areas of the 6th Ring Road. In the areas with significant vegetation change, there was an obvious transition between the high and low NDVI sections but less change in the medium NDVI section, mainly due to the conversion of land cover type. In the Capital function core area and ecological conservation zones, vegetation change represented a positive trend; while in the urban function expansion area and urban development area, vegetation change had the dual characteristics of both positive and negative trends. A series of ecological engineering projects during the preparatory period of the 2008 Olympics was the main cause of the vegetation increase in the study area. PMID:23431801

  7. The use of typed lambda calculus for comprehension and construction of simulation models in the domain of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschold, Michael

    1992-01-01

    We are concerned with two important issues in simulation modelling: model comprehension and model construction. Model comprehension is limited because many important choices taken during the modelling process are not documented. This makes it difficult for models to be modified or used by others. A key factor hindering model construction is the vast modelling search space which must be navigated. This is exacerbated by the fact that many modellers are unfamiliar with the terms and concepts catered to by current tools. The root of both problems is the lack of facilities for representing or reasoning about domain concepts in current simulation technology. The basis for our achievements in both of these areas is the development of a language with two distinct levels; one for representing domain information, and the other for representing the simulation model. Of equal importance, is the fact that we make formal connections between these two levels. The domain we are concerned with is ecological modelling. This language, called Elklogic, is based on the typed lambda calculus. Important features include a rich type structure, the use of various higher order functions, and semantics. This enables complex expressions to be constructed from relatively few primitives. The meaning of each expression can be determined in terms of the domain, the simulation model, or the relationship between the two. We describe a novel representation for sets and substructure, and a variety of other general concepts that are especially useful in the ecological domain. We use the type structure in a novel way: for controlling the modelling search space, rather than a proof search space. We facilitate model comprehension by representing modelling decisions that are embodied in the simulation model. We represent the simulation model separately from, but in terms of a domain mode. The explicit links between the two models constitute the modelling decisions. The semantics of Elklogic enables English text to be generated to explain the simulation model in domain terms.

  8. Conhecimento ecológico tradicional da comunidade de Limpo Grande sobre a vegetação, Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation in the community of Limpo Grande, Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de, Morais; Cintia Silva, Serrano; Fernando Ferreira de, Morais.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido na comunidade de Limpo Grande, localizada a 23 km do município de Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Para verificar a possibilidade de os informantes organizarem o conhecimento ecológico tradicional da vegetação de acordo com uso o trabalho, buscou-se os seguintes objetivos: i) conhe [...] cer as espécies de cada domínio cultural indicado pelos informantes; ii) verificar a existência de consenso cultural para cada domínio cultural; iii) analisar a similaridade das espécies dos domínios culturais. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada para obtenção dos dados da lista livre e dados socioeconômicos. A lista livre foi analisada por meio do índice de Smith, consenso cultural e escalonamento multidimensional. Os informantes definiram três domínios culturais com base no uso da vegetação: plantas (utilizadas para o cultivo), mato (vegetação nativa que apresenta diversos usos) e plantas medicinais (utilizadas para tratamento de enfermidades). O domínio cultural de plantas foi representado por 107 espécies; mato, por 96; e plantas medicinais, por 99 espécies. Para os três domínios, pode-se verificar a existência de consenso cultural. Verificou-se baixa similaridade entre as espécies dos domínios. Os critérios utilizados pelas comunidades tradicionais para uso e manejo da vegetação podem contribuir para elaboração de políticas públicas destinadas à conservação da biodiversidade ecológica e cultural. Abstract in english This study was conducted in the community of Limpo Grande, located 23 km from the city of Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In order to investigate the way informants organize traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation according to its use, our research had the following objectives: i) to iden [...] tify the species of each cultural domain indicated by the informants; ii) check for cultural consensus within each cultural domain; iii) to analyze the similarity of the species of the cultural domains. We used structured interviews to obtain socioeconomic data and data from the free list. The free list was analyzed by means of the Smith index, cultural consensus and multidimensional scaling. Informants defined three cultural domains based on the use of vegetation, whether the plants are those used for cultivation, are medicinal plants used to treat diseases, or are considered native vegetation with several different uses. The domain of cultural plants is represented by 107 species, weeds by 96 species and medicinal plants by 99 species. For the three domains, the existence of cultural consensus can be verified. There was little similarity between species from different domains. The criteria used by traditional communities for vegetation management and use may contribute to the development of public policies for the conservation of ecological and cultural biodiversity.

  9. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Mvitu M; Longo-Mbenza B; Tulomba D; Nge A

    2012-01-01

    Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications....

  10. Representatividad de los tipos de vegetación en las áreas naturales protegidas de Durango / Representation of the vegetation types in the natural protected areas of Durango

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Rentería Arrieta; César, Cantú Ayala; Eduardo, Estrada Castillón; José, Marmolejo Moncivais; Fernando, González Saldívar.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una evaluación en el 2009 de la cobertura de los tipos de vegetación existentes en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas (ANP) en Durango y los hexágonos prioritarios generados por la CONABIO para identificar las prioridades de conservación. Se utilizó el programa de análisis de vacíos y omisiones [...] de conservación (gap) de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica y un análisis de componentes principales. En el estado se registran 38 tipos de vegetación natural con una extensión de 9'629,553 ha, que representan 78 % de la superficie; 19 fitocenosis son vacíos de conservación que se distribuyen principalmente en la región central de la entidad y 17 corresponden a omisiones de conservación. La vegetación halófila y el pastizal halófilo en condición primaria constituyen proporciones superiores a 12 % (media nacional protegida); sin embargo, sólo equivalen a 2.2 % del territorio, con una extensión de 208,341 ha y se localizan en la Reserva de la Biosfera Mapimí. Con la incorporación de los hexágonos de importancia extrema, cuya extensión es de 141,335 ha, el número de asociaciones vegetales consideradas vacíos de conservación disminuyen a 15. De igual manera, con la suma de los hexágonos prioritarios, que abarcan 2'952,521 ha se cubren 15 de las 19 fitocenosis. No obstante los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio para determinar las prioridades de conservación del estado de Durango, es necesario realizar trabajos específicos sobre los patrones de distribución de las especies, de las endémicas y en riesgo de extinción, en particular. Abstract in english Effectiveness of current protected areas and conservation priority hexagons generated by CONABIO to represent vegetation types in the state of Durango was evaluated in the 2009, as a tool to identify conservation priorities. In the state of Durango exist 38 natural vegetation types covering 9'629,55 [...] 3 ha which represent 78 % of territory, 19 of them are conservation gaps, which are located mainly in the northeast central region of the state, 17 vegetation types are under-represented in nature reserves and two types: halophilous vegetation and halophilous grassland in primary condition are represented in nature reserves in higher proportions than 12 % (national protected average); however, they represent only 2.2 % of territory, covering 208,341 ha and are located in Mapimí Biosphere Reserve. The inclusion of extreme importance conservation hexagons of Durango whose surface represent 141,335 ha, the 19 vegetation types which are conservation gaps, would be reduced to 15. Moreover, all priority hexagons of covering 2'952,521 ha include 15 of 19 vegetation types. Although the results obtained to determine conservation priorities of the state of Durango, it is necessary to develop specific studies on the distribution patterns of species, especially endemic and endangered.

  11. Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

  12. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated mineral group mapping products described in this study are ideal for application to mineral resource and mineral-environmental assessments at regional and national scales.

  13. A Research on the Cytological Characters of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum (L) Keng ) Occured in Natural Maqui Type Vegetation of Çukurova Region

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, Ersin

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the number and morphological features of somatic chromosomes of yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum (L) Keng) dominated in natural maqui type range vegetation of Çukurova region. The results showed that 39 out of the 40 ekotypes had 2n=60 and only one had 2n=50 chromosomes. It was determined that all the chromosomes of yellow bluestem were metacentrich and their lengths ranged from 1.3006 mm to 3.1294 mm. The cytotype with 2n=50 had two pairs of chr...

  14. Geophysical Applications of Vegetation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and selected applications of a global vegetation model, BIOME4. The model is applied to problems in high-latitude vegetation distribution and climate, trace gas production, and isotope biogeochemistry. It demonstrates how a modeling approach, based on principles of plant physiology and ecology, can be applied to interdisciplinary problems that cannot be adequately addressed by direct observations or experiments. The work is relevant to understanding the p...

  15. Diurnal variation of tension-type headache intensity and exacerbation: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Tension-type headache is a common psychosomatic disease. However, diurnal variation of headache is yet to be clarified, perhaps due to the lack of an appropriate method to investigate it. Like other painful diseases, it would be helpful to know if there is diurnal variation in tension-type headaches, both for managing headaches and understanding their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine if there is diurnal variation in the intensity and exacerbation of tension-type headache. Methods Patients (N?=?31 with tension-type headache recorded for one week their momentary headache intensity several times a day and their acute headache exacerbations using a watch-type computer as an electronic diary (computerized ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effects of time of day on momentary headache intensity and on the occurrence of acute exacerbations. Results A significant diurnal variation in momentary headache intensity was shown (P?=?0.0005, with the weakest headaches in the morning and a peak in the late afternoon. A between-individual difference in the diurnal pattern was suggested. On-demand medication use was associated with a different diurnal pattern (P?=?0.025, suggesting that headache intensity decreases earlier in the evening in subjects who used on-demand medication, while headache subtype, prophylactic medication use, and sex were not associated with the difference. The occurrence of acute headache exacerbation also showed a significant diurnal variation, with a peak after noon (P?=?0.0015. Conclusions Tension-type headache was shown to have a significant diurnal variation. The relation to pathophysiology and psychosocial aspects needs to be further explored.

  16. To what extent did changes in July temperature influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.

    2014-12-01

    What was the impact of July temperature changes on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air temperature estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy temperature records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these temperature estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of temperature and of temperature changes on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of temperature on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to change. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with temperature controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation changes. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July temperature alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of temperature and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.

  17. Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Pinilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain were established. Three treatments were applied: in some of the plots, the original ash layer was kept on the ground; in a second group, the ash layer was removed for simulating the effects of erosion; finally, in a third group, percolating irrigation was conducted to simulate a possible good input of water into the soil profile after burning, that could occur if the first rains were with high quantity but low intensity. During the dry season, soil moisture content was significantly lower in burned plots due to fire-induced water repellency and reduced vegetation cover. During the wet season, soil moisture decreased in the control unburnt plots due to direct evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation and consumption by roots. Fire increased soil water repellency only in plots under pine. Water repellency decreased during the wet season, disappearing in January and reappearing after declining rainfalls. This baseline recovery of soil water repellency was lower where ash removal was simulated. In unburned plots, seasonal fluctuations were less important. In general, ash removal promotes a rapid reduction of water repellency, since it can induce washing of hydrophobic compounds. Irrigation performed immediately after the fire also contributed to decreased water repellency.

  18. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil / Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benedito Cortês, Lopes.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpo [...] s de besouros ou formigas) ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga. Abstract in english A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or [...] carcasses of beetles or ants) or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

  19. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se considerar C. morschi como uma espécie detritófaga.A total of 400 nests of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 was evaluated between 1997 and 1998 at the dunes of the Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, in order to verify the substrate brought back to the nests. These ants use vegetable or animal material (excrements of lepidopteran larvae or carcasses of beetles or ants or even not identified material that are used to culture the fungus. Thus, ecologically speaking, C. morschi can be considered a detritiphagous species.

  20. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  1. Mediation of Fire-Climate Linkages by Vegetation Types in Alaskan Arctic Tundra Ecosystems: Impacts of Model Uncertainty on GCM-Based Forecasts of Future Fire Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, P.; Higuera, P. E.; Young, A. M.; Hu, F.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a powerful landscape scale disturbance agent in tundra ecosystems. Impacts on biophysical properties (e.g. albedo) and biogeochemical function (e.g. carbon flux) underscore the need to better quantify fire-climate linkages in tundra ecosystems as climate change accelerates at northern high latitudes. In this context, a critical question is "How does the functional linkage between climate and fire vary across spatial domains dominated by different vegetation types?" We address this question with BLM-Alaska Fire Service area burned data (http://fire.ak.blm.gov/predsvcs/maps.php) used in conjunction with downscaled historical climate data from the Scenarios Network for Alaska Planning (http://www.snap.uaf.edu/data.php) to develop gradient boosting models of annual area burned in Alaska tundra ecosystems. The sparse historical fire records in the Arctic necessitate explicit quantification of model uncertainty associated with the development of statistical analyses. In this work, model uncertainty is depicted through the construction of separate models depicting fire-climate relationships for regions defined by the graminoid, shrub, and wetland tundra vegetation classes (Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map: http://www.geobotany.uaf.edu/cavm/). Non-linear relationships between annual area burned and climate variables are depicted with partial dependence functions. Our results show that vegetation-specific models result in different non-linear relationships between climate and fire. Precipitation variables generally had higher relative influence scores than temperature; however, differences between the magnitude of the scores were greater when models were built with monthly (versus seasonal) explanatory variables. Key threshold values for climate variables are identified. The impact of model uncertainty on forecasts of future fire activity was quantified using output from five different AR5/CMIP5 General Circulation Models. Model uncertainty corresponding to vegetation-specific functional linkages between climate and fire has a magnitude similar to that of GCM-based model uncertainty. Results of this work strongly suggest that future forecasts of fire activity must account for and quantify sources of uncertainty in order to provide useful information.

  2. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  3. Influência do sistema de condução e do tipo de solo sobre o crescimento vegetativo da videira / Influence of trellis system and soil type on grapevine vegetative growth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Pierre, Rosier; Alain, Carbonneau.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a influência de dois sistemas de condução (lira e espaldeira) e do tipo de solo (arenoso e argiloso) no crescimento do aparelho vegetativo da videira. As diferenças observadas foram maiores no crescimento dos netos do que no dos sarmentos e estão ligadas à precocidade determinad [...] a pelo tipo de solo. Os efeitos da poda verde e do estresse hídrico associados aos sistemas de condução foram os responsáveis pelas diferenças na velocidade de crescimento dos sarmentos e dos netos. Abstract in english This work evaluates the influence of two trellis-training systems (lyre and vertical), and two soil types (sandy and clay) on grapevine vegetative growth. The observed differences were greater on axillary shoot growth than on main shoots, and they are linked to the precocity determined by soil type. [...] The effects of summer pruning and hydric stress associated to trellis-training systems were responsible for differences on growth speed of shoots and axillary shoots.

  4. Influência do sistema de condução e do tipo de solo sobre o crescimento vegetativo da videira Influence of trellis system and soil type on grapevine vegetative growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Rosier

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a influência de dois sistemas de condução (lira e espaldeira e do tipo de solo (arenoso e argiloso no crescimento do aparelho vegetativo da videira. As diferenças observadas foram maiores no crescimento dos netos do que no dos sarmentos e estão ligadas à precocidade determinada pelo tipo de solo. Os efeitos da poda verde e do estresse hídrico associados aos sistemas de condução foram os responsáveis pelas diferenças na velocidade de crescimento dos sarmentos e dos netos.This work evaluates the influence of two trellis-training systems (lyre and vertical, and two soil types (sandy and clay on grapevine vegetative growth. The observed differences were greater on axillary shoot growth than on main shoots, and they are linked to the precocity determined by soil type. The effects of summer pruning and hydric stress associated to trellis-training systems were responsible for differences on growth speed of shoots and axillary shoots.

  5. Extraction of Urban Vegetation in Highly Dense Urban Environment with Application to Measure Inhabitants’ Satisfaction of Urban Green Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Ramdani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban environment has functioned not only for ecological reason but also for socioeconomic function, due to this reason extraction of urban vegetation in highly dense urban environment becomes more important to understand the inhabitants’ satisfaction of urban green space. With a medium resolution of satellite imagery, the precision is very low. We used high resolution of WorldView-2 satellite to raise the accuracy. We chose Depok City in West Java as a case study area, analyse four multispectral bands, and apply TCT algorithm for getting vegetation density. The relationship between vegetation density and inhabitants’ satisfaction was calculated by Geo-statistical technique based on administrative boundary. We extracted three types of urban vegetation density: good, mid and low. The final result shows that the inhabitants are mostly satisfied with good density of urban vegetation in the city forest inside Campus University of Indonesia.

  6. An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 1. The Than-Droogeveld section

    OpenAIRE

    Bezuidenhout, H.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed classification, description and mapping of the Than-Droogeveld section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape Province, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as an ecological basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN) as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures....

  7. Renosterveld remnants – Current ecological situation and restoration perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Heelemann, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    West Coast Centre renosterveld in the Western Cape of South Africa is highly fragmented and threatened due to conversion by agriculture, urbanization and the effects of invasive alien species. Currently, insufficient data on ecological processes and restoration priorities of this endangered vegetation type exist. Therefore, this thesis is an attempt to close knowledge gaps, starting with a review of renosterveld research in chapter one. Integrating available research results, the...

  8. Forest vegetation management in Europe – Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Ba?a?, P.; Krej?í?, R.

    Brussels : COST Office , 2009 - (Willoughby, I.; Balandier, P.; Bentsen, N.; McCarthy, N.; Claridge, J.), s. 7-14 [Ecological forest vegetation management. Vejle (DK), 04.05.2009 -08.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest vegetation management * herbicides * alternative methods Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  9. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealongiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer

  10. The ecology of dark matter haloes I: The rates and types of halo interactions

    OpenAIRE

    L Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast $\\delta \\approx 20$, regardless of the redshift, corresponding to g...

  11. Water deficit affects wood vessels of Croton floribundus Spreng. in different vegetation types, São Paulo State, Brazil / Déficit hídrico interfere nos vasos do lenho de Croton floribundus Spreng. em diferentes tipos de vegetação, SP, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Luiz, Longui; Diego, Romeiro; Luana Naves, Testoni; Osny Tadeu de, Aguiar; Roque, Cielo Filho; Israel Luiz de, Lima; Sandra Monteiro Borges, Florsheim.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O déficit hídrico influenciou na formação dos vasos da madeira de Croton floribundus ocorrentes em cinco áreas com as seguintes vegetações: Floresta Ombrófila, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Cerradão. As variações dos vasos devem-se especialmente ao déficit hídrico e número de meses com déficit [...] hídrico. Vasos de maior diâmetro ocorreram em áreas com maior déficit hídrico, o que pode indicar uma estratégia para otimizar o transporte de água em épocas favoráveis. Vasos com menores diâmetros ocorreram em áreas com menor déficit hídrico, possivelmente influenciados pelas menores temperaturas mínimas e a ocorrência de geadas, que semelhante a seca, causa a embolia dos vasos. Na Estação Ecológica de Caetetus, Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (área com maior déficit de água) observaram-se investimentos em eficiência e segurança, com a ocorrência de vasos de maior diâmetro associados a um dos menores índices de vulnerabilidade e maior proporção de vasos múltiplos de quatro ou mais elementos. Abstract in english In this paper we showed that water deficit affects the wood vessels of Croton floribundus in five areas with different vegetation types: Rain Forest, Semi-deciduous Forest and Woody Savanna. We concluded that variations in the vessels are due especially to water deficit and the number of months with [...] water deficit. Larger diameter vessels occurred in areas with higher water deficit, which may represent a strategy to optimize the water transport in favorable periods. Vessels with smaller diameters occur in areas with lower deficit, which may be related to lower minimum temperatures and frost occurrence, which like drought can cause vessel embolism. In Caetetus Ecological Station, a Semi-deciduous Forest (area of highest water deficit), we observed investments in efficiency and safety, with the occurrence of larger diameter vessels associated with one of the lowest vulnerability indexes and highest proportions of multiple vessels of four or more elements.

  12. Interactions Among Livestock Grazing, Vegetation Type, and Fire Behavior in the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in Idaho and Nevada, July 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbaugh, Karen; Brammer, Bob; Brooks, Matthew L.; Bunting, Stephen C.; Clark, Patrick; Davison, Jay; Fleming, Mark; Kay, Ron; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of wildland fires were ignited by lightning in sagebrush and grassland communities near the Idaho-Nevada border southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho in July 2007. The fires burned for over two weeks and encompassed more than 650,000 acres. A team of scientists, habitat specialists, and land managers was called together by Tom Dyer, Idaho BLM State Director, to examine initial information from the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex in relation to plant communities and patterns of livestock grazing. Three approaches were used to examine this topic: (1) identify potential for livestock grazing to modify fuel loads and affect fire behavior using fire models applied to various vegetation types, fuel loads, and fire conditions; (2) compare levels of fuel consumed within and among major vegetation types; and (3) examine several observed lines of difference and discontinuity in fuel consumed to determine what factors created these contrasts. The team found that much of the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex burned under extreme fuel and weather conditions that likely overshadowed livestock grazing as a factor influencing fire extent and fuel consumption in many areas where these fires burned. Differences and abrupt contrast lines in the level of fuels consumed were affected mostly by the plant communities that existed on a site before fire. A few abrupt contrasts in burn severity coincided with apparent differences in grazing patterns of livestock, observed as fence-line contrasts. Fire modeling revealed that grazing in grassland vegetation can reduce surface rate of spread and fire-line intensity to a greater extent than in shrubland types. Under extreme fire conditions (low fuel moisture, high temperatures, and gusty winds), grazing applied at moderate utilization levels has limited or negligible effects on fire behavior. However, when weather and fuel-moisture conditions are less extreme, grazing may reduce the rate of spread and intensity of fires allowing for patchy burns with low levels of fuel consumption. The team suggested that targeted grazing to accomplish fuel objectives holds promise but requires detailed planning that includes clearly defined goals for fuel modification and appropriate monitoring to assess effectiveness. It was recommended that a pilot plan be devised to strategically place grazed blocks across a landscape to create fuel-reduction bands capable of influencing fire behavior. Also suggested was the development of a general technical report that highlights information and examples of how livestock grazing influences fire extent, severity, and intensity. Finally, the team encouraged continued research and monitoring of the effects of the Murphy Wildland Fire Complex. Much more can be learned from the effects of this extensive fire complex that may offer insight for future management decisions.

  13. PATRONES DE LA VEGETACIÓN Y TIPOS DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL VALLE DEL PATÍA / Vegetation patterns and land use types in the Patia valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernando, Vergara Varela.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación del ecosistema de bosque seco del Valle del río Patía en el departamento del Cauca ha sido alterada y sustituida por cultivos y pastizales. Los remanentes boscosos se caracterizaron en función de su estructura y composición florística en altitudes comprendidas entre 500 m y 800 m de al [...] titud. Se evaluaron los cambios de cobertura usando fotografías aéreas y una imagen satélite y se relacionaron con los tipos de uso. Los datos fueron analizados a través de procedimientos multivariados usando el programa TWINSPAN con el fin de producir una clasificación de la vegetación, determinando seis tipos estructurales y seis tipos florísticos. El gradiente florístico arrojado por el programa describe tipos estructurales que van desde bosques y arbustales hasta herbazales. Las comunidades vegetales reflejan estados sucesionales de los fragmentos, la comunidad de Citharexylum kunthianum contrasta con los bosques riparios determinados por la comunidad de Eugenia sp., especie dominante y abundante en áreas intervenidas. La comunidad de Handroanthus chrysanthus muestra una transición hacia la vegetación de matorrales xerofíticos del sur del país. Los tipos de uso de la tierra y las clases de cobertura han permanecido desde 1961, se destaca el incremento de la cobertura de pastizal. Los estratos identificados muestran que los bosques secos tropicales se encuentran reducidos en su estructura, atendiendo a que son bosques perturbados. En la larga historia de uso y de perturbaciones que lleva esta área, se evidencia una reducción de los fragmentos de bosque; los factores sociales y económicos son una fuerza de cambio de las comunidades vegetales en áreas rurales. Abstract in english Vegetation of dry forest ecosystem of the Patia valley located in the department of Cauca has been altered and replaced by crops and pastures. The forest remnants were characterized in terms of their structure and floristic composition at altitudes between 500 and 800 m. This study evaluated changes [...] in land cover using aerial photographs and satellite image as input to produce land cover maps in order to assess changes associated with land use types. Data were analyzed by multivariate methods using the TWINSPAN program to produce a vegetation classification, identifying six vegetation structure types and six floristic types. The floristic gradient thrown by the program describes structural types, ranging from forests to shrublands and grasslands. Successional plant communities reflect conditions of the fragments, Citharexylum kunthianum community contrasts with riparian forests determined by Eugenia sp the dominant specie in disturbed areas. Handroanthus chrysanthus community shows a transition to xerophyte vegetation of the south of Colombia. Land use types and land cover classes have remained since 1961, increasing pasture cover. Tropical dry forests are reduced in its structure, considering that forests are disturbed. In the long history of the land use and disturbance of this area, a reduction in forest fragments is evident, social and economic factors are a force for a change in plant communities in rural areas.

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  15. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 ? C4 ? CAM with commute possibilities: C3 ? CAM; C4 ? CAM.

  16. Vegetation characteristics of geobiocoenological units of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mlýn NNR

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Štykar

    2010-01-01

    The paper brings results from the research of vegetation in forest geobiocenoses of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mlýn National Nature Reserve. The research was made on permanent and complementary research plots. Synthetic phytocoenological tables were presented for six most frequently occurring groups of geobiocoene types only with a brief description of their ecological and chorological character- istics (Sorbi-Piceeta humilia, Sorbi-Piceeta, Abieti-Fageta piceae typica, Fageta abietino-pi- ceosa...

  17. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México / Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raciel, Cruz-Elizalde; Aurelio, Ramírez-Bautista.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zo [...] na sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM) presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP), con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE), con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo. Abstract in english The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The [...] field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF) has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF), with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF), with 12 species. The associations between the CF-PF and CF-POF showed the highest dissimilarity in species, and the lowest the POF-PF. This study shows the richness and distribution species of the reptiles in the different vegetation types from southeast of the state, presents new records of species from the state and provides the basis for future studies on the biology of some species of reptiles in the area. The knowledge of species richness by vegetation types from this study provides the basis on the biodiversity that help to raise studies directed to the conservation of this group.

  18. Influence of Soil Type, Sowing Date and Diluted Seawater Irrigation on Seed Germination, Vegetation and Chemical Constituents of Moringa oleifera, Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hegazi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Two pot trials were conducted during the period of February 15 – October 15 of 2012 and 2013 seasons at two different locations, to evaluate the effect of soil type, sowing date and diluted seawater irrigation on: germination percentage in the first trial and on both plant vegetation and leaves chemical constituents of moringa (Moringa oleifera, Lam. in the second one. The results showed that, generally, Kafr El-Sheikh area (Agricultural area where clayey soil and Nile River water is available outperformed Balteem area (coastal area where soil is silty clay and seawater is available in most studied characters. Lowest seawater ratios in Moringa oleifera irrigation water gave the best results for germination %, growth characters and some chemical and mineral contents as total green color, leaf protein, total carbohydrates, nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnessium whereas, the highest ratios gave the best results for phosphorus and sodium contents.

  19. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles ? a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses ? to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  20. Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

    2014-05-01

    Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

  1. An ecological type nonlinear model for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by introducing liquid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average temperature of our planet is increasing in past several decades due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere leading to undesirable environmental consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to find a mechanism by which a global warming gas can be removed from the regional atmosphere. In this paper, therefore, we proposed an ecological type nonlinear mathematical model for the removal of a global warming gas CO2 from the regional atmosphere by externally introduced liquid species, which may react with this gas and removed it by gravity. The model consists of three dependent variables namely; the concentration of carbon dioxide, the concentration of externally introduced liquid species and the concentration of particulate matters (secondary species formed due to interaction of carbon dioxide with liquid species. The local and global stability conditions are discussed using Routh-Hurwitz criteria and suitable Lyapunove's function respectively. It is shown, analytically and numerically, that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of externally introduced liquid species increases.

  2. The South African National Vegetation Database: history, development, applications, problems and future

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael C., Rutherford; Ladislav, Mucina; Leslie W., Powrie.

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD) of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental plann [...] ing and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés) sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets), the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  3. The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W. Powrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets, the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  4. Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e 20cm e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg. Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados.The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax® were tested. The experiment was in blocks randomly distributed in four replications and five cuttings for parcel. After thirty five days the percentage of rooting, the length of the bigger root (cm and the leaf and root dry weight (mg were analysed. The results indicated that the vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi by cuttings is viable, once its mean rooting was over 70%. It was not observed significative interaction within the adopted treatments. The cuttings with 20cm length presented larger leaf and root dry weight but the percentage of rooting and the length of the bigger root was not affected by the cutting lenght. The substrate types did not present effect on the development of the cuttings. The production of Ocimum selloi seedlings is recommended with 20cm length cuttings using any substrate tested.

  5. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products. PMID:16842875

  6. Physiolgical and ecological studies of the vegetation on ore deposits, 3; Radioecological symptoms of plants over uranium ore deposits in Koisan, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1975 to 1981, the survey was carried out to find out radioecological effects of uranium ore deposits on natural vegetation in Koisan, Korea. The symptoms of spotty and mosaic chlorosis, and necrosis were observed in flowering plants in the areas of uranium ore deposits at Deok-Peung-Ri A, B, and C in Koisan. Although 13 species were found to be chlorosis and necrosis, foliages observed are small and very rare. The features of these symptoms closely resemble those occured by the effects of heavy metals. The amount of transparent radiation throughout the depth of soils from uranium radiation sources decreases exponentially. The mean contents in leaves of spotty and mosaik chlorotic plants, and soils were 1.36?1.53 and 5.3?7.4ppm, respectively

  7. The ecology of dark matter haloes I: The rates and types of halo interactions

    CERN Document Server

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast $\\delta \\approx 20$, regardless of the redshift, corresponding to groups and relatively dense part of filaments. However, the fraction of interacting target is maximum at $\\delta \\approx 1000$. We provide a new empirical fitting form for the interaction rate as a function of the halo mass, large-scale density, and redshift. We also report the existence of two modes of interactions from the distributions of mass ratio and relative distance, implying two different physical origins of the interaction. Satellite targets lose their mass as they proceed deeper into the host halo. The relative importance of thes...

  8. The ecology of dark matter haloes -I. The rates and types of halo interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2015-07-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast ? ? 20, regardless of the redshift corresponding to groups and relatively dense part of filaments. However, the fraction of interacting target is maximum at ? ? 1000. We provide a new empirical fitting form for the interaction rate as a function of the halo mass, large-scale density, and redshift. We also report the existence of two modes of interactions from the distributions of mass ratio and relative distance, implying two different physical origins of the interaction. Satellite targets lose their mass as they proceed deeper into the host halo. The relative importance of these two trends strongly depends on the large-scale density, target mass, and redshift.

  9. THE STUDY OF VEGETATION FOR A DIAGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. SOME EXAMPLES FROM LOMBARDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. INGEGNOLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that a landscape is much more than a set of spatial characters, I tried to focus its ecological elements and processes, proposing (a new concepts (e.g. ecocenotope, ecotissue, (b new functions (e.g. biological and territorial aspects of vegetation (c new applications (e.g. evaluation of vegetation, etc.. To verify these applications, a study on the landscape agricultural units of the hinterland of Milan (about 45° 26’N - 09° 17E, 100 m osl is in process in these years. The characters of some forested tesserae along a transect between the Adda river and the Ticino river (East to West, passing through Milan have been expressed, using the biological integrated method of vegetation survey proposed by Ingegnoli (2002. An example of how to use the ecological characters of all the different types of vegetation existing within a landscape unit is given by the study of corridors and crop fields. A comparison among 3 landscape units has been done, to demonstrate the diagnostic evaluation method, after a parametric analysis based on landscape ecological indexes.

  10. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

    2007-11-15

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  11. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  12. OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

  13. Avaliação dos índices de vegetação NDVI, SR e TVI na discriminação de fitofisionomias dos ambientes do Pantanal de Cáceres/MT / Evaluation of vegetation indexes NDVI, SR and TVI in the discrimination of vegetation types of environments of 'Pantanal' in Cáceres, Mato Grosso State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos, Galvanin; Sandra Mara Alves da Silva, Neves; Carla Bernadete Madureira, Cruz; Ronaldo José, Neves; Paulo Henrique Hack de, Jesus; Jesã Pereira, Kreitlow.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo faz uma comparação dos índices de vegetação Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) e Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), na discriminação das fitofisionomias de três ambientes do Pantanal de Cáceres, Mato Grosso, considerando a sazonalidade (períodos seco e úmid [...] o). As imagens utilizadas foram as do satélite Landsat TM 5, do ano de 2009 (período seco) e de 2010 (período úmido). As análises mostraram que o NDVI apresentou melhor desempenho em relação ao SR e TVI para os diferentes ambientes. Abstract in english This paper compares the performance of some vegetation indexes: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) e Transformed Vegetation Index (TVI), applied in seasonal periods to verify which one best fits to discriminate the vegetation types of environments of 'Pantanal' in Cácer [...] es, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, in Landsat TM 5 image of 2009 in the dry period and 2010 in the humid period. Result verification of indexes images showed that NDVI provide a better performance than the SR and TVI indexes for different environments.

  14. General ecology of wetlands.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejný, Slavomil; Segal, S.; Raspopov, I. M.

    Cambridge : University Press, 1998 - (Westlake, D.; Kv?t, J.; Szczepanski, A.), s. 1-77 ISBN 0-521-22822-0 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/98/0727; GA AV ?R KSK2017602 Keywords : habitats * wetland vegetation * wetland clasification Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Studies of vegetation?environment relationships and vegetation dynamics in Chinese subtropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-ying

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The principal aim of this study was to investigate vegetation-environment relationships and examine patterns of changes in forest understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests. Furthermore, an Ecological Field Theory (EFT) model for single-tree influence on understorey vegetation was applied to assess the relative contributions of tree influence to variation in understorey species composition. In focus are five study areas, located in the southern and southwestern part...

  16. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  17. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  18. Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils, Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks, Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats, Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites. They significantly (P < 0.05 differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

  19. Vegetative cover for low level radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW), hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the soil cover cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation down into the waste material. Turf type grasses are normally used as the principal vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this 5 year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on LLRW sites that can be quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap.The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and Phyllostachys rubromarginata) could be utilized to quickly establish a long lived, low maintenance, final vegetative cover for the waste sites

  20. Vegetative cover for low level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, S. Keith (USDA Soil Conservation Service, Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW), hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the soil cover cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation down into the waste material. Turf type grasses are normally used as the principal vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this 5 year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on LLRW sites that can be quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap.The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and Phyllostachys rubromarginata) could be utilized to quickly establish a long lived, low maintenance, final vegetative cover for the waste sites.

  1. Kuchler Vegetation

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  2. VEGETABLE MARKETING – A SYNTHETIC EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA ALBOIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the role of business relationships in the Romanian vegetable supply chain. The analysis reveals that informal contractual relationships are prevalent on the market while in many cases contractual enforcement is at stake. This situation leads to increased uncertainty in terms of what vegetable to produce and where to sell and it negatively impacts the farmers’ revenues and investment decision. The paper employs a qualitative analysis in order to assess the main vegetable commercialization channels including vegetable processing companies and the type of contractual relationship between parts.

  3. Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

    2015-02-01

    Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits. PMID:25348575

  4. Vegetated foreshores as coastal protection strategy: Coping with uncertainties and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Bas; Bouma, Tjeerd; De Vries, Mindert; Timmermans, Jos; Vuik, Vincent; Hermans, Leon; Hulscher, Suzanne; Jonkman, Bas

    2014-05-01

    Promising Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, such as vegetated foreshores, inherently have a dynamic nature. Therefore there is a relatively large degree of uncertainty with respect to their contribution to flood protection. This hampers innovation and the implementation of vegetated foreshores in flood risk management worldwide. We aim to develop new methods to assess how, and how much vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will lead to a better understanding of (uncertainties in) the functioning and stability of these ecosystems and the development of novel governance arrangements. This requires integration of knowledge from ecology, biogeomorphology, hydraulic engineering, and governance. By field observations on several sites and flume measurements we will analyse fundamental ecological and physical processes for various types of wetland vegetations. The knowledge obtained will be applied in one implementation case study for a location in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is needed in the future. This case study integrates fundamental knowledge from all the disciplines. It is used to design governance and implementation arrangements, and to demonstrate how vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will provide the knowledge, methods and tools (e.g. a maptable) required for the design and implementation of vegetated foreshores as a safe, ecologically desirable, and cost effective alternative in flood management. Strong cooperation with end-users from the private sector, government and non-governmental organizations is embedded in the project to enhance the implementation of our findings in practice. In the full-paper, we present a multidisciplinary research agenda how to address the uncertainties hampering application, how to develop probabilistic tools to derive failure chance in legally imposed terms and how to derive at suitable governance arrangements.

  5. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology that integrates the dynamics of biocultural interactions. PMID:12179860

  6. Desempenho de um trator operando em solo com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal / Tractor performance in soil with different types of plants covering

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Gabriel Filho; Suedêmio de L., Silva; Alcir J., Modolo; João C. M. da, Silveira.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de um trator para desenvolver esforço tratório depende da interação entre o rodado e o solo, envolvendo um complexo conjunto de fatores: característica do rodado, patinagem, transferência de peso do trator, tipo de solo, umidade, estado de compactação, tipo de cobertura do solo, entre o [...] utros, que proporcionam diferentes condições de trabalho e interferem no desempenho do trator. Assim, conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o propósito de avaliar alguns desses fatores no desempenho de um trator agrícola, em área coberta com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (aveia, ervilhaca, nabo, aveia e nabo e sem cobertura). O trator foi submetido a cargas por meio do acoplamento a um escarificador de arrasto e instrumentado para a obtenção da força de tração, velocidade de deslocamento, patinagem e consumo de combustível sendo os dados armazenados por meio de um sistema de aquisição de dados. A patinagem foi maior onde a massa de matéria seca era maior, porém não influenciou na potência requerida na barra de tração. A melhor eficiência de tração foi obtida nas parcelas sem cobertura. O coeficiente de tração foi maior nos tratamentos com cobertura de aveia, ervilhaca e nabo comparados com a área sem cobertura. Conclui-se que a cobertura do solo interfere na capacidade do trator em desenvolver esforço para tracionar máquinas e implementos e que o tipo de cobertura pode causar mudanças na patinagem e na eficiência tratória. Abstract in english The efficiency of a tractor to draft development depends on the interaction among the wheeled and the soil where it moves and it involves a complex group of factors, such as: characteristic of the tire, slip, the tractor weight transfer, soil type, water texture and soil compactation, type of soil c [...] overing, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acting of an agricultural tractor in an area covered with different types of plants. It was used five types of soil covering (oat, Vicia sativa, turnip, oat and V. sativa together and without cover). A load cell, pulse sensor, flow meters and a system of data acquisition, was used. The slip was larger where the mass of dry matter was larger, even so it didn't influence in the potency requested in the drawbar and in the consumption of fuel. The best traction efficiency was obtained in the portions without covering. The traction coefficient was larger in the treatments with covering of oat, Vicia sativa and turnip, when compared with the area without covering. It is ended that the covering of the soil interferes in the capacity of the tractor in developing effort for pull machines and the covering type can intervene in the slip and tractor efficiency.

  7. Desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora para plantio direto, em dois solos com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal / Performance of a no-tillage seeder, in two soils with different types of vegetable coverages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MILSON LOPES DE, OLIVEIRA; LUCIANO BAIÃO, VIEIRA; EVANDRO CHARTUNI, MANTOVANI; CAETANO MARCIANO DE, SOUZA; GUTEMBERG PEREIRA, DIAS.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho operacional de uma semeadora-adubadora de plantio direto, versão soja e milho, foi avaliado em um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo câmbico, fase terraço, e um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais. A máquina foi testada em três tipos de cobertura do solo e em duas veloci [...] dades de trabalho. Por ocasião do plantio, foram avaliados a patinagem do trator e da semeadora-adubadora, o consumo de combustível e a potência exigida, a distribuição de fertilizante e o nível de danos às sementes. Depois do plantio, foram avaliados o número de sementes distribuídas, o estande final, a profundidade de plantio e a distribuição longitudinal da semente. A uniformidade de distribuição longitudinal foi avaliada pela porcentagem de espaçamentos aceitáveis, distribuição dupla e falhas na distribuição, e pelo coeficiente de variação dos espaçamentos entre sementes. A demanda de potência foi maior no Podzólico, por sua maior densidade e resistência à penetração. Independentemente do tratamento, o número de sementes distribuídas e o estande final não apresentaram diferenças significativas. As sementes distribuídas não tiveram sua qualidade afetada pelos dosadores da máquina. A análise de variância não indicou diferença significativa entre os porcentuais de espaçamentos aceitáveis, a distribuição dupla e as falhas. Abstract in english The performance of a no-tillage seeder, version soybean and corn was evaluated under two classes of soil, a cambic Red-Yellow Podzolic terrace phase and a Red-Yellow Latosol, at Zona da Mata, MG. The machine was tested under three different vegetable coverages in two work speeds. During test, tracto [...] r and planter slipping, fuel consumption and the power required by the machine, distribution fertilizer, and seeds damage were evaluated. After planting, the number of seeds by hectare, final stand, planting depth and seed longitudinal distribution, were also evaluated. The uniformity of longitudinal distribution was measured for percentage of admissible spacing, pair distribution, failures on distribution and by coefficient variation of seed spacing. The demand of power was higher on podzolic, due to its higher density and resistance to penetration. Regardless of the type of treatment, the number of seeds distributed and the final stand obtained showed no significant difference and the depth average obtained in the test was close to the values foreseen in the control. The seeds distributed were not affected by dosage mechanism. The analysis of variance indicated no significant variation between the values of admissible spacing, the pair distribution and failures.

  8. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated corn, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of [CO2] corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated corn and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for corn, from 2000 to 2050 (–18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (–30 mm y?1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  9. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, (CO2, is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated maize, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of (CO2 corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated maize and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for maize, from 2000 to 2050 (?18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (?30 mm y?1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  14. Ecological Species Groups of Hornbeam Forest Ecosystems in Southern Caspian (North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jalilvand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological species group were developed for hornbeam forest ecosystems in North of Iran that had been moderately disturbed. Species groups were determined from field observations and sample plot data arranged and analyzed in association tables. The groups were defined on the basis of species patterns of presence, absence and coverage values. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN. The objectives of the study were to develop ecological species groups for lowland ecosystems types dominated by hornbeam in north of Iran, describe the site indicator values of species groups and increase our understanding of site-species relationships in moderately disturbed landscape in Khanikan lowland forests of Mazandaran province. Five vegetation groups were identified after the application of TWINSPAN programs. They are named after the characterizing species as follows: Menta aquatica (I, Oplismenus undulatifolius (II, Carex grioletia (III, Viola odarata (IV and Rubus caesius (V. Result have showed that II, III vegetation groups and I, II vegetation groups had the most (65.5% and the least (30% of Sorenson similarity coefficient, respectively. Apparently, similarity coefficient of differentiated vegetation groups was high.

  15. The importance of evolutionary history in studies of plant physiological ecology: examples from cerrados and forests of central Brazil / A importância da história evolutiva em estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal: exemplos dos cerrados e florestas do Brasil Central

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William A., Hoffmann; Augusto C., Franco.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos que comparam a fisiologia, anatomia e ecologia das espécies têm oferecido algumas das melhores apreciações sobre as limitações adaptativas e evolucionárias em plantas. Como resultado, a abordagem comparativa tem sido cada vez mais utilizada em estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal. A alta diversi [...] dade de espécies dos biomas brasileiros fornece excelentes oportunidades para estudos de ecofisiologia vegetal comparada, uma abordagem que poderia ser melhor explorada em pesquisas que visam a compreensão da evolução da forma e função em plantas. Neste artigo nós enfatizarmos a importância de considerar a informação filogenética no desenho e analises de estudos comparativos, utilizando como exemplos espécies lenhosas do cerrado e de mata de galeria (mata ripária). O uso de pares congenéricos, cada par contendo uma espécie do cerrado e uma espécie de floresta do mesmo gênero, aumenta o poder estatístico das análises, enquanto assegura concomitantemente a independência filogenética, uma condição essencial para inferência em estudos comparativos. Por exemplo, em um estudo comparativo de nove espécies do cerrado e nove de mata, não seria possível concluir que as espécies de cerrado e de mata diferem na razão de área foliar (LAR), área foliar especifica (SLA) e altura da plântula, se as relações filogenéticas forem ignoradas. Entretanto, se utilizarmos agrupamentos genéricos para contabilizar os efeitos filogenéticos, nós vamos encontrar que as plântulas de espécies de cerrado tem menores valores de LAR, SLA e altura da plântula. Muito da inércia filogenética observada para estes atributos em plântulas parece estar relacionada ao fato de que estas características se correlacionam fortemente com a massa da semente, que estudos anteriores demonstraram ser um atributo fortemente conservado em termos filogenéticos. Estes exemplos ressaltam a importância da informação filogenética em estudos comparativos. Abstract in english Studies that compare physiology, anatomy, and ecology across species have offered some of the best insight into adaptation and evolutionary constraints in plants. As a result, the comparative approach has become increasingly used in studies of plant physiological ecology. The high species diversity [...] of Brazilian biomes provides many excellent opportunities for comparative plant ecophysiology, and could be better exploited for understanding the evolution of plant form and function. In this paper we emphasize the importance of considering phylogenetic information for the design and analysis of comparative studies, relying on examples from comparisons of woody plants from cerrado and gallery (riparian) forests. The use of congeneric species pairs, each containing one cerrado species and one forest species of the same genus, greatly improves statistical power while assuring phylogenetic independence, an essential condition for inference in comparative studies. For example, in a study of seedlings of nine cerrado species and nine forest species, when we ignore phylogenetic relationships, it is not be possible to conclude that cerrado and forest species differ with regard to leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA), or seedling height. If, however, we use the generic groupings to account for phylogenetic effects, then we find that seedlings of savanna species have lower LAR, SLA, and seedling height. Much of the phylogenetic inertia observed for these traits appears related to the fact that these traits are all strongly correlated with seed mass, which has been previously shown to be strongly conserved phylogenetically. These examples emphasize the importance of phylogenetic information in comparative studies.

  16. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil / Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dario de O, Lima-Filho; Anderson S, Hokama; Caroline P, Spanhol.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS): uma mercearia (quitanda), um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, res [...] ponsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra. Abstract in english The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda"), a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was [...] conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.

  17. Behavior of the vegetable crops section in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazil Desempenho da seção de hortaliças em equipamentos varejistas de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de O Lima-Filho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the fresh fruits and vegetable produce section was evaluated, under the point of view of the consumer, in three types of food retail stores in Campo Grande, Brazilian southeast: a grocery store ("quitanda", a supermarket, and an open-air market. A quantitative-descriptive survey was conducted with 120 individuals, responsible for purchasing fresh fruit and vegetable produce for their homes. To accomplish that, twelve variables were investigated and adapted from the parameters used in the SERVQUAL model, in which the attributes of the retail outlet are pointed out, such as store hygiene and cleanliness and manner by which produce is displayed; employee training traits, such as courtesy and helpfulness; and quality, price range, and variety of the produce for sale. The results reveal that shopping for grocery is done weekly; 80% of the shoppers interviewed do their shopping in supermarkets and 94% do theirs in open-air markets. The open-air market had the best results in the attributes for which they were evaluated when compared with the grocery store and the supermarket. The study also points out that the older the shopper the more often he/she does grocery shopping.Neste estudo foi avaliado, sob o ponto de vista do consumidor, o desempenho da seção de hortaliças em três equipamentos varejistas de alimentos em Campo Grande(MS: uma mercearia (quitanda, um supermercado e uma feira-livre. Foi realizada uma pesquisa quantitativo-descritiva com 120 indivíduos, responsáveis pelas compras de hortaliças para suas residências. Para tanto, foram investigadas doze variáveis adaptadas das dimensões do modelo SERVQUAL, onde se destacam os atributos do equipamento varejista como higiene e limpeza da loja e exposição dos produtos; capacitação dos funcionários como atendimento e cortesia; e atributos do produto como qualidade, variedade e preço. Os resultados mostram que as compras de hortaliças são realizadas semanalmente, sendo que 80% dos consumidores as realizam em supermercados e 94% em feiras-livres. A feira livre apresentou o melhor desempenho nos atributos em que foi avaliada quando comparada com a quitanda e o supermercado. Esse estudo, também revela que, quanto maior a idade do consumidor, maior sua freqüência de compra.

  18. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritathose listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land Classification inventory data and predicted effects. (author)

  19. COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

  20. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased

  1. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-22

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.

  2. Vegetative propagation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka

    Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, 2011 - (Simberloff, D.; Rejmánek, M.), 678-679 ISBN 978-0-520-26421-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal growth * vegetative regeneration * mechanical control Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  3. Fermented Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  4. Effect of vegetation switch on soil chemical properties.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwashima, N.; Masunaga, T.; Fujimaki, R.; Toyota, Ayu; Tayasu, I.; Hiura, T.; Kaneko, N.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 6 (2012), s. 783-792. ISSN 0038-0768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm * litter * nutrient cycling * soil chemical properties * vegetation switch Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2012

  5. The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Bezuidenhout.

    Full Text Available The need for a scientifically-based wildlife management plan and for more knowledge on vegetation led to an investigation into the plant ecology of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve. The main aim of this study was therefore to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the reserve. The floristic data w [...] ere analysed according to the Braun-Blanquet procedure using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of 15 communities that can be grouped into ten major community types. This resulted in five ecology-based management units, which could assist with the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the reserve in order to achieve sustainable utilisation of the natural resources. The Rooipoort Nature Reserve is one of the oldest and largest private nature reserves in South Africa and as such deserves to be conserved and protected. The riverine and pan vegetation communities are considered to be endangered and are in need of special conservation and protection. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION: The results suggest five management units, which will assist in the compilation of an ecologically sound management plan for the RNR, in order to allow sustainable utilization of natural resources.

  6. Diversity of subalpine and alpine vegetation of the eastern part of the Nízke Tatry Mts in Slovakia: major types and environmental gradients.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekulová, L.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 64, ?. 5 (2009), s. 908-918. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * gradients * phytosociology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  7. Bacteriophage Ecology in Commercial Sauerkraut Fermentations†

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Z.; Breidt, F.; Plengvidhya, V.; Fleming, H P

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 phage isolates, including at least 26 distinct phages, were obt...

  8. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism). PMID:20879542

  9. Are tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationship independent of vegetation formation type? A case study with Cordia oncocalyx in the Brazilian caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Andréa P.; Martins, Fernando R.; Araújo, Francisca S.

    2012-08-01

    In temperate and tropical rainforests, ontogenetic structure and allometry during tree ontogeny are often associated with light gradients. Light is not considered a limiting resource in deciduous thorny woodland (DTW), but establishment and growth occur during a short rainy period, when the canopy is fully leaved and light in the understory may be modified. Our aim was to investigate whether the light gradient in DTW and the biomechanical limitations of tree growth would be enough to produce an ontogenetic structure and allometric growth similar to rainforest canopy trees. We investigated the ontogenetic stages and diameter-height relationship of Cordia oncocalyx (Boraginaceae), a dominant canopy tree of the DTW of semiarid northeastern Brazil. We tagged, measured and classified the ontogenetic stages of 2.895 individuals in a 1 ha area (5°6'58.1?S and 40°52'19.4?W). In the rainy season only 4.7% of the light falling on the canopy reached the ground. Initial ontogenetic stages, mainly infant (50.9%) and seedling (42.1%), were predominant in the population, with the remaining 7% distributed among juvenile, immature, virginile and reproductive. The ontogenetic structure was similar to that of rainforest tree species, but the population formed both permanent seed and infant banks in response to long dry periods and erratic rainy spells. Like many other Boraginaceae tree species in tropical rainforests, C. oncocalyx has a Prévost architectural model, but allometric growth was quite different from rainforest trees. C. oncocalyx invested slightly more in diameter at first, then in height and finally invested greatly in diameter and attained an asymptotic height. The continued high investment in diameter growth at late stages and the asymptotic height point to low tree density and more frequent xylem embolism as the main drivers of tree allometric shape in DTW. This indicates that tree ontogenetic structure and allometric relationships depend on vegetation formation type.

  10. Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Bruce A.; Denes Bajzak

    2011-01-01

    This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called “Lower Churchill Area” by establishing new power plants at Gull Island and at Muskrat Falls with associated reservoirs. These new plants would use the discharged water of the plant from Churchi...

  11. Microbial ecology of watery kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Kyu Hang; Medina Pradas, Eduardo; Kim, Song Gun; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Kyong Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; Cho, Joo Hyong; Chung, Chang Ho; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Breidt, Frederick

    2015-05-01

    The biochemistry and microbial ecology of 2 similar types of watery (mul) kimchi, containing sliced and unsliced radish and vegetables (nabak and dongchimi, respectively), were investigated. Samples from kimchi were fermented at 4, 10, and 20 °C were analyzed by plating on differential and selective media, high-performance liquid chromatography, and high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rDNA. Nabak kimchi showed similar trends as dongchimi, with increasing lactic and acetic acids and decreasing pH for each temperature, but differences in microbiota were apparent. Interestingly, bacteria from the Proteobacterium phylum, including Enterobacteriaceae, decreased more rapidly during fermentation at 4 °C in nabak cabbage fermentations compared with dongchimi. Although changes for Proteobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae populations were similar during fermentation at 10 and 20 °C, the homolactic stage of fermentation did not develop for the 4 and 10 °C samples of both nabak and dongchimi during the experiment. These data show the differences in biochemistry and microbial ecology that can result from preparation method and fermentation conditions of the kimchi, which may impact safety (Enterobacteriaceae populations may include pathogenic bacteria) and quality (homolactic fermentation can be undesirable, if too much acid is produced) of the product. In addition, the data also illustrate the need for improved methods for identifying and differentiating closely related lactic acid bacteria species using high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:25847522

  12. Tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação vegetativa da menta (Mentha arvensis L.) / Types of cuttings and substrates in the vegetative propagation of mint (Mentha arvensis L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.T.R, Amaro; J.R, Silveira; A.M.S de S, David; M.A.V de, Resende; J.A.S., Andrade.

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a propagação vegetativa da menta utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos. O experimento foi conduzido no Horto de Plantas Medicinais da Unimontes, campus Janaúba - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema f [...] atorial 2 x 4 (dois tipos de estacas e quatro diferentes substratos) com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela representada por seis estacas. Foram analisadas as variáveis comprimento de parte aérea e de raízes, massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes e número total de brotações formadas por planta. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. A interação entre os fatores estacas e substratos não foi significativa para as variáveis estudadas, passando-se a estudar o efeito isolado de cada fator. A propagação de Mentha arvensis L. pode ser realizada tanto por estacas apicais como medianas, utilizando o substrato solo + areia + esterco bovino (2:1:1) para a produção de mudas de qualidade. Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to evaluate the vegetative propagation using different types of mint cuttings and substrates. The experiment was conducted in the Garden of Medicinal Plants of Unimontes, in Janaúba - MG. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD) in 2 x 4 factorial schemes [...] (two types of poles and four different substrates) with four replications and each plot was represented by six cuttings. The variables analyzed were the length of the shoots and roots, the dry matter of the shoots and roots and the total number of shoots per plant. The data were subject to ANOVA and the means were compared by Scott-Knott's test at 5% of probability. The interaction among stem cuttings and substrates was not significant for the variables studied, thus, the isolated effect of each factor was studied. The propagation of Mentha arvensis L. can be performed either by apical cuttings as medians, using the substrate soil + sand + manure bovine (2:1:1) for the production of quality seedlings.

  13. Ecological restoration and soil improvement performance of the seabuckthorn flexible dam in the Pisha Sandstone area of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion of the Pisha Sandstone area of Loess Plateau is extremely severe in China. The Pisha Sandstone is very hard when it is dry, while it is very frail when wet. The seabuckthorn flexible dam (SFD, a type of ecological engineering, was proposed to control soil erosion and meliorate soil within the Pisha Sandstone area. To assess its effectiveness and the ecological restoration and soil improvement performance, a field experiment was conducted in this area. We found the strong sediment retention capacity of the SFD is the basis of using it to restore the ecosystem. We compared some certain ecological factors and soil quality between a gully with the SFD and a gully without the SFD, including soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM, soil nutrients (including Ammonia Nitrogen, available phosphorus and Potassium, vegetation coverage and biodiversity. The results showed that the SFD exhibits excellent performance for ecological restoration and soil improvement of this area. The results are as follows: (i by the sediment retention action, the deposition commonly occurred in the SFD gully, and the deposition patterns are obviously different from upper to lower gully, (ii more surprisingly, unlike trees or other shrubs, the seabuckthorn has good horizontal extending capacity by its root system, (iii soil moisture, SOM, soil nutrients, vegetation coverage and biodiversity in the vegetated gully with the SFD are all markedly increased. The results showed the SFD is both effective and novel biological measure for ecological restoration and soil improvement within the Pisha Sandstone area.

  14. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  15. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  16. Pollination ecology of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) in Central Brazil cerrado vegetation / Ecologia da polinização de Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. e T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae) em cerrado do Brasil Central

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARILUZA GRANJA, BARROS.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas a ecologia da polinização e a biologia reprodutiva de Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. e T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. em uma área de cerrado em Brasília (DF) Brasil. Estas espécies ocorrem simpatricamente, florescem massiva e sincronicamente, por aproximadamente um mês, durant [...] e a estação seca (julho a setembro). Ambas espécies têm estruturas florais similares, antese diurna, corola tubular e são produtoras de néctar. Quatorze espécies de abelhas visitaram ambas Tabebuia, porém somente três espécies de Centris e Bombus morio foram consideradas polinizadores potenciais, devido a alta freqüência e à eficiência no transporte do pólen. Os testes de polinização artificial, demonstraram que T. aurea e T. ochracea são auto-incompatíveis, com auto-incompatibilidade de ação tardia. A proporção de frutos maturados resultantes de polinização cruzada foi baixa (T. aurea 17,2% e T. ochracea 12,3%) em ambas espécies, considerando o grande número de flores desabrochadas, sugerindo falta de recursos maternos. A grande quantidade de sementes por frutos (cerca de 92 em T. aurea e 285 em T. ochracea) deve representar o investimento materno nos óvulos fertilizados que possuem maior vigor. Abstract in english The pollination ecology and breeding systems of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook., and T. ochracea (Cham.) Standl. were investigated in an area of cerrado vegetation in the Federal District of Brazil. These species occur sympatrically, flower massively and synchronously for a month, during the d [...] ry season (July to September). Both have diurnal anthesis, with similar floral structures, a yellow tubular corolla and produce nectar. Fourteen species of bees visited both Tabebuia species, but, only three Centris species and Bombus morio, were considered potential pollinators, because of their high frequency on the flowers and their efficiency in carrying pollen. Tests on the breeding systems of T. aurea and T. ochracea demonstrated that boths species are self-incompatible, with late-acting self-incompatibility. The proportion of fruit set from cross pollination (T. aurea 17.2% and T. ochracea 12.3%) in both species was low considering the great number of flowers displayed. This suggests a lack of maternal resources for fruit-set. The great amount of seeds per fruit (about 92 in T. aurea and 285 in T. ochracea) may represent an investment of maternal resources allocated on higher quality of fertilized ovules.

  17. Social-ecological feedbacks between climate, reindeer and people - contributions to climate change adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Kivinen, Sonja; Johansen, Bernt

    2015-04-01

    The circumpolar tundra is experiencing significant transformations as a consequence of climate change. The anticipated changes include greening of the tundra due to a latitudinal and altitudinal progression of the tree line and range expansion of shrubs. In Northern Fennoscandia, reindeer husbandry by the indigenous Sámi people depends on large, seasonally variable grazing grounds, including the tundra. We demonstrate relationships between different vegetation types and climate conditions in Northern Fennoscandia. A generalized, seamless vegetation type map with 100 m grid, based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and various ancillary data, allows examination of vegetation types in relation to current climate conditions (1950-2000). Downscaled GCMs with different RCPs for 2050 and 2070 allow estimating future vegetation changes. Recently, the potential of herbivores has been recognized in slowing down this regime shift of vegetation composition with its feedbacks e.g. on the atmospheric energy balance, biodiversity and local livelihoods that depend on the tundra ecosystem. However, ecology alone is not the answer. We need comprehensive scenarios for adaptive ecosystem management for this social-ecological system to slow down the unfavourable impacts of climate change and excessive grazing pressure by reindeer in space and time, as well as across country borders. Possible adaptations could encourage the design of new institutional structures, and thus contest the legal background governing reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries today. Designing such policy options for socially desirable and ecologically reasonable decision making, as well as navigating trade-offs inherent in flexible grazing patterns, require careful scenario analysis and acceptance by a variety of land users. A clear understanding of which values should be prioritized in relation to what ecosystem dynamics over what time scales is essential.

  18. Vegetation in the Gravettian Period – an Overview.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Petr

    Brno : Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Archaeology at Brno, 2009 - ( Šída , P.), s. 30-37 ISBN 978-80-86023-86-1. - (Dolnov?stonické studie. 17) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : palaeolithic * vegetation * palaeoecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. New insights into vegetation patterns and processes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Öpik, M.; de Bello, Francesco; Price, J. N.; Fraser, L. H.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 201, ?. 2 (2014), s. 383-387. ISSN 1469-8137 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : community * interaction * vegetation patterns Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.373, year: 2013

  20. An interdisciplinary analysis of multispectral satellite data for selected cover types in the Colorado Mountains, using automatic data processing techniques. [hydrology, ecology, geology, vegetation, and mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Documentation is presented of the capability of the middle infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to spectrally differentiate clouds from snow. Other portions of the spectrum cannot provide this capability.

  1. Characterization of subarctic vegetation using ground based remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnell, D.; Garnello, A.; Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Herrick, C.; Anderson, S. M.; Crill, P. M.; Varner, R. K.

    2014-12-01

    Stordalen mire is located at 68°21'N and 19°02'E in the Swedish subarctic. Climate monitoring has revealed a warming trend spanning the past 150 years affecting the mires ability to hold stable palsa/hummock mounds. The micro-topography of the landscape has begun to degrade into thaw ponds changing the vegetation cover from ombrothrophic to minerotrophic. Hummocks are ecologically important due to their ability to act as a carbon sinks. Thaw ponds and sphagnum rich transitional zones have been documented as sources of atmospheric CH4. An objective of this project is to determine if a high resolution three band camera (RGB) and a RGNIR camera could detect differences in vegetation over five different site types. Species composition was collected for 50 plots with ten repetitions for each site type: palsa/hummock, tall shrub, semi-wet, tall graminoid, and wet. Sites were differentiated based on dominating species and features consisting of open water presence, sphagnum spp. cover, graminoid spp. cover, or the presence of dry raised plateaus/mounds. A pole based camera mount was used to collect images at a height of ~2.44m from the ground. The images were cropped in post-processing to fit a one-square meter quadrat. Texture analysis was performed on all images, including entropy, lacunarity, and angular second momentum. Preliminary results suggested that site type influences the number of species present. The p-values for the ability to predict site type using a t-test range from classification of mire site types. Future work will involve scaling up from the 50 plots through the use of data collected from two unmanned aerial systems (UAS), as well as WorldView-2 satellite imagery collected during the years 2012-2014. Identification of methane flux regions will later be analyzed based on vegetation coverage to aid classification of increased emission zones within the mire.

  2. SFRSF: Landscape Synthesis and Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This South Florida Restoration Science Forum (SFRSF) site explores how to understand, describe, and predict ecological changes at the landscape and regional levels. Issues discussed include the effects of landscape hydrology on specific animal populations, predicting ecological responses to landscape management, understanding changes in the landscape by studying vegetation patterns, and the Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow's importance to understanding ecological changes. Links are provided for further information.

  3. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  4. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  5. An ecohydrological approach to predicting hillslope-scale vegetation patterns and dynamics in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Trenton; King, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Drylands are an important ecosystem, as they cover over 40% of the Earth's land surface and are know to exhibit threshold behavior in response to climatic change and anthropogenic disturbance. Where dryland vegetation supports pastoralist livestock production, catastrophic ecological shifts present a grave concern because of the direct coupling between the livestock forage available and human livelihoods. In this research we investigate the spatiotemporal organization of grazing resources on hillslopes by developing a relatively simple spatially explicit daily stochastic ecohydrological 1-layer bucket model with dynamic vegetation and grazing components. The model, MVUA MINGI (Mosaic Vegetation Using Agent-based Modeling Incorporating Non-linear Grazing Impacts), was constructed using a 2-year observational study in central Kenya combining in-situ sensors with near surface hydrogeophysical surveys. The data were used to derive an empirical patch water balance of three representative patch types, bare soil, grass, and tree. Visual and hydrogeophysical observations indicated the system is dominated by Hortonian runoff, overland flow, and vertical infiltration of water into vegetation patches. The patch-based water balances were next incorporated into a Cellular Automata model allowing us to simulate a range of surface flowpath convergence states across the hillslope during a rain event. The model also allows the root to canopy radius of the tree patches to vary affecting the length scale of water competition. By changing the length scales of facilitation and competition, we find the model demonstrates a range of most efficient static vegetation patterns from random to highly organized. In order simulate the vegetation dynamics we incorporated continuous transition probabilities for each patch type based on the frequency and duration of drought and grazing intensity. The modeled vegetation dynamics indicate various stable states and the timescales between the state transitions. The findings of this work support the mechanism of symmetry-breaking instabilities for pattern formation in drylands.

  6. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2011/2012

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Norris, David; And, The Participants Of The Icp Vegetation

    2012-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different ...

  7. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2012/2013

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Norris, David; And, The Participants Of The Icp Vegetation

    2013-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  8. Efectos del cambio climático en la diversidad vegetal del corredor de conservación comunitaria Reserva Ecológica El Ángel- Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador / The effects of climate change on vegetative diversity in the El Angel Ecological Reserve-Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor in northern Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Delgado; David, Suárez-Duque.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el impacto del cambio climático en el corredor de conservación comunitaria Reserva Ecológica El Ángel - Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador se utilizó modelos de distribución potencial generados con MARS de 413 especies vegetales, usando 19 variables bioclimáticas de Wo [...] rldclim con el clima actual y para el 2080 estas mismas variables fueron estimadas de acuerdo al modelo HadCM3-A2. En base a esta información se generaron mapas de riqueza tanto para el presente como para el 2080. Para el área del corredor se han identificado zonas donde se estima que haya cambios de riqueza y donde potencialmente las especies podrían colonizar nuevas áreas o donde se extinguirán. Esto permite determinar el grado de perturbación que sufrirán los ecosistemas por efecto del cambio climático. La tendencia general de las especies estudiadas muestra que colonizarán altitudes más elevadas, cambiando la estructura de los ecosistemas naturales actuales. Toda esta información muestra que para afrontar potenciales impactos en la flora de los ecosistemas de montaña es necesario formar corredores que conecten altitudinalmente áreas naturales protegidas, que permitan la migración de especies y por ende la conservación de la biodiversidad. Abstract in english In order to estimate the impact of climate change on the El Angel Ecological Reserve - Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor, potential distribution models generated using MARS of 413 vegetative species were applied using 19 Worldclim bioclimatic variables for current climate, [...] and for the year 2080, these same variables were estimated according to the HadCM3-A2 general circulation model. Based on this information, richness maps were developed for the present and for 2080. In the area of the corridor, zones were identified where changes in richness were predicted, where species could potentially colonize, or where species could become extinct. This allows the determination of the level of disturbance that the ecosystems will suffer with climate change. The general tendency of the species studied shows that they will colonize higher altitudes thus changing the structures of current natural ecosystems. All of this information demonstrates that to deal with potential impacts on the flora of mountain ecosystems it will be necessary to create corridors that will connect protected areas located at differing altitudes and thus permit species migration that will in turn conserve biodiversity.

  9. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP) plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6–8 years) grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  10. El papel de las unidades de manejo ambiental en la conservación de los tipos de vegetación de Coahuila / The environmental management units in the conservation of vegetation types in Coahuila state

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Cantú Ayala; Fernando, González Saldivar; Patricia, Koleff Osorio; José, Uvalle Sauceda; José G., Marmolejo Monsivais; Jorge, García Hernández; Laura, Rentería Arrieta; Jonás, Delgadillo Villalobos; Cynthia, Resendiz Infante; Edgardo, Ortíz Hernández.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó con el método de análisis de vacíos y omisiones de conservación (GAP), cómo contribuyen las 289 unidades de manejo para la conservación de la vida silvestre (UMA) de Coahuila a la conservación de los tipos de vegetación natural. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales se definió [...] la relación entre los tipos de vegetación de Coahuila, respecto a su representatividad en áreas protegidas (AP). Las UMA en el estado cubren 1,546,778 ha, de ellas 72.6% se localizan, principalmente, en sitios con cuatro tipos de vegetación primaria, que en orden de cobertura son: matorral desértico rosetófilo, matorral espinoso tamaulipeco, matorral desértico micrófilo y pastizal natural. Si se considera a las UMA como elementos equivalentes a las AP en la conservación de la biodiversidad, éstas cubrirían todos los tipos de vegetación que son omisiones de conservación en la red de AP, con excepción de la vegetación gipsófila y la halófila. Sin embargo, no incluirían los cuatro tipos de vegetación, que son a la vez vacíos de conservación en la actual red de AP, las cuales en suma sólo representan 12,514 ha. Las UMA comprenden más del 25% de la extensión del matorral espinoso tamaulipeco y 4 mezquital primarios de Coahuila, actualmente sub-representados en la red de AP de la entidad por lo que éstas, podrían contribuir a la conservación de la biodiversidad, si se manejaran sustentablemente, y de la cobertura natural del suelo. Abstract in english In order to know the way in which the 289 units for management and conservation of wildlife (UMA, according to its initials in Spanish) contribute to the conservation of natural vegetation types of Coahuila, the gap method was used. By the Principal Component Analysis was determined the relationship [...] of the vegetation types of the state in regard to the representativeness in protected areas (PA). The local UMAs cover 1, 546, 778 ha; 72 % of them are found, mainly, in places where the four types of primary vegetation are present, which, according to their extent, would be as follows: desert microphilous scrub, desert rosetophilous scrub, tamaulipean thorn scrub and natural grassland. If UMA would be considered equivalent to PA for biodiversity conservation they would cover five vegetation types which are gaps in current protected areas; however, two plant communities: halophilous vegetation and gypsophilous vegetation would be represented in PA below the reach of the national protected average of Mexico (12%). Moreover, four vegetation types, which represent only 12,514 ha, are not represented neither in PA nor in UMA. Coahuila's UMAs cover 25% of its tamaulipean thorn scrub and mesquite land extension in primary condition, which are currently under-represented in state PA network. That means, UMA can contribute to biodiversity conservation if they are sustainably managed, protecting natural land cover.

  11. A minimal model of fire-vegetation feedbacks and disturbance stochasticity generates alternative stable states in grassland–shrubland–woodland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Ackerly, David D.; Moritz, Max A.

    2015-03-01

    Altered disturbance regimes in the context of global change are likely to have profound consequences for ecosystems. Interactions between fire and vegetation are of particular interest, as fire is a major driver of vegetation change, and vegetation properties (e.g., amount, flammability) alter fire regimes. Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) constitute a paradigmatic example of temperate fire-prone vegetation. Although these ecosystems may be heavily impacted by global change, disturbance regime shifts and the implications of fire-vegetation feedbacks in the dynamics of such biomes are still poorly characterized. We developed a minimal modeling framework incorporating key aspects of fire ecology and successional processes to evaluate the relative influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on disturbance and vegetation dynamics in systems composed of grassland, shrubland, and woodland mosaics, which characterize many MTEs. In this theoretical investigation, we performed extensive simulations representing different background rates of vegetation succession and disturbance regime (fire frequency and severity) processes that reflect a broad range of MTE environmental conditions. Varying fire-vegetation feedbacks can lead to different critical points in underlying processes of disturbance and sudden shifts in the vegetation state of grassland–shrubland–woodland systems, despite gradual changes in ecosystem drivers as defined by the environment. Vegetation flammability and disturbance stochasticity effectively modify system behavior, determining its heterogeneity and the existence of alternative stable states in MTEs. Small variations in system flammability and fire recurrence induced by climate or vegetation changes may trigger sudden shifts in the state of such ecosystems. The existence of threshold dynamics, alternative stable states, and contrasting system responses to environmental change has broad implications for MTE management.

  12. Transfer factors of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th from soil to different types of local vegetables, radiation hazard indices and their annual doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to determine the transfer factors (TFs) of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th from soil to vegetables, because there are few surveys of them in Iraq. The samples were taken from three important agricultural areas supplying the vegetable products needed by the Iraqi population. Using NaI(Tl) technique, the average values of TFs of the above radioactive isotopes were found to be 0.60, 0.41, 0.59 and 0.05, 0.03, 0.05 from soil to dry and fresh samples, respectively. The radiation hazard indices and the total annual dose were found to be within the range of the world values. (author)

  13. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting-down levels, timings and scales of the thinning, etc., by the Monte Carlo simulation of the model.

  14. Differences in the behavior and ecology of wild type medaka (Oryzias latipes complex) and an orange commercial variety (himedaka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryohei; Kitagawa, Tadao

    2015-06-01

    Genetic disturbance in wild populations of medaka (Oryzias latipes complex) has been mainly caused by the introduction of the orange-red commercial variety medaka (himedaka) in Japan. To examine whether survival, reproduction, and species recognition would be influenced by this difference in body coloration, we conducted three laboratory experiments (predatory pressure, mate choice, schooling behavior) using wild type medaka and himedaka. In the predation experiment using dark chub (Candidia temminckii) as a predator, himedaka were predated upon more often than wild type medaka. However, individuals did not choose mates or select schooling groups based on himedaka or wild type medaka phenotypes. The results indicate that himedaka receive higher predation pressure but are able to easily mate with wild type medaka in a natural environment. To conserve the genetic diversity of wild medaka populations, we need to control the risk of genetic disturbance caused by himedaka. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 349-358, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26054930

  15. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. PMID:25475912

  16. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean Efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas de soja tipo hortaliça

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Cristina Santana; Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi; José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos Leite; Josemeyre Bonifácio da Silva; Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development) and to compare it with that on the grains harvested at the R8 stage (maturation). The pods of the BRS 267 cultivar were harvested at the R6 stage (at 8:00 AM, 12:00 AM, and 6:00 PM), the color parameters were evaluated, and the grains were analyzed for chemical compositi...

  17. Ecological Investigation of Three Geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A Alhagi graecorum, (B Cyperus capitatus, (C Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes. The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area.

  18. Modelling vegetation landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpahl, Peter; Dislich, Claudia; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Märker, Michael; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Shallow translational landslides are believed to represent a major ecosystem disturbance in the Andean rain forests of South Ecuador. Aiming at a better understanding of gap dynamics in this mega-diverse ecosystem, we investigated several landslides in an area of undisturbed tropical montane rain forest and found that in some cases almost no inorganic material was involved. Current physically-based landslide models cannot reproduce this type of process, since they focus on soil physical properties. Even though vegetation is incorporated in these models by its weight and by the contribution of roots to soil cohesion and hence to shear resistance, we think that the role of vegetation has to be viewed differently within this ecosystem: Roots do mainly grow in a thick organic layer above the mineral soil and do not penetrate sufficiently deep into the mineral soil to contribute to slope stability according to common models. To accommodate such circumstances, we formulated an extension to the widely used infinite slope model for assessing slope stability, and applied it to our research site. Biomass, root layer and soil properties before sliding events were reconstructed on and close to landslides that occurred within the preceding years. By introduction of an additional factor of safety for the organic layer, we are able to mathematically describe classical shallow translational landslides as well as vegetation slides. A high spatial and temporal variability of vegetation, root layer and soil physical properties within the research area complicate model applications. Thus we assumed spatial gradients for ranges of model parameters and stochastic parameter variations within these ranges according to our field measurements and published data. Finally we outline the model validation by comparison to historical landslide inventories. Possible applications of the model are located within undisturbed tropical montane rain forests and contribute to the fields of automated landslide classification as well as spatiotemporal modelling of landslides and forest gap dynamics.

  19. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P. subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity. PMID:24703227

  20. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J., III; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips ... need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. ...

  2. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  3. Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. I. Background and Descriptions of Flooded Conditions Related to Vegetation and Land Cover Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Roberts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper, the first in a series provides the background of the project, reports on the early phases of construction with the descriptions of the pre and post flooded conditions related to vegetation and land cover types surrounding the reservoir. Currently there are plans to develop the so called “Lower Churchill Area” by establishing new power plants at Gull Island and at Muskrat Falls with associated reservoirs. These new plants would use the discharged water of the plant from Churchill Falls and the additional water collected from some of the Churchill River Basin. The information provided by these papers could have relevance to the environmental evaluation of these new developments. The Churchill Falls Hydro Project (called the “Upper Churchill Development” in Labrador, Canada, was initiated in the late 1960s and the 5428-MW hydro generating plant constructed was then among the largest in the world. At that time, in general, not much attention was paid to the impact of such development on the flooding of vegetation especially forest stands. Both forested and un-forested terrestrial vegetation types were flooded (244 915 ha. Some islands were created and in addition portions of existing areas were flooded to form islands (74 075 ha in the Main (Smallwood Reservoir area. The flooded area of forest and un-forested land in the reservoir is 77% while the islands is 23 percent. The percentages of forested and un-forested areas lost to flooding are 64% and 36% respectively. The percent of commercial forests lost to flooding is approximately 1% and the non-commerci- al forests is 99% (with a total volume of approximately 10 million cubic meters of wood.

  4. Contribution to the Ecology of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Mashaly

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the western section of the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt provides a quantitative assessment of the vegetation structure, the main soil characteristics and an evaluation of the relationships between the recognized vegetation groups and environmental attributes. Vegetation and soil were sampled in 75 stands representing the physiographic variation and/or different habitat types in the study area. Relative values of frequency, density and cover for each perennial and the annuals were also recorded. The soil characteristics of collected samples were determined for each stand. 75 sampled stands were classified according to multivariate analysis (classification & ordination into nine defined vegetational groups, namely: group A dominated by Alhagi graecorum Boiss., group B codominated by Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. and Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pallas M. Bieb, group C dominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric. Moris et Delponte, group D dominated by Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl Kunth, groups E & F dominated by Sporobolus viriginicus (L. Kunth, group G dominated by Stipagrostis scoparia (Trin. & Rupr. De Winter, group H dominated by Echium sericeum Vahl and group I dominated by Lotus creticus L. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used to evaluate vegetation-environment relationships. Moisture content, soil texture (coarse & fine sand, soil reaction (pH, calcium carbonate content, sodium adsorption ratio, extractable cations (calcium and potassium and electrical conductivity were highly correlated with the first and second ordination axes. Thus, these soil variables seem to be the main important environmental factors affecting the distribution of vegetation in the study area.

  5. Ecological Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Bruce H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a summary of the research literature on students' ecological conceptions and the implications of misconceptions. Topics include food webs, ecological adaptation, carrying capacity, ecosystem, and niche. (Contains 35 references.) (MKR)

  6. Variación de la estructura y composición de comunidades de árboles y arbustos entre tipos de vegetación en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, Michoacán / Structural and composition variation of tree and shrub communities among vegetation types in the Cuitzeo Basin, Michoacán, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Maza-Villalobos; Franceli, Macedo-Santana; Jorge, Rodríguez-Velázquez; Ken, Oyama; Miguel, Martínez-Ramos.

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variación estructural de comunidades de árboles y arbustos presentes en diferentes tipos de vegetación (matorral subtropical, bosque de encino, bosque mixto, bosque de pino y bosque de oyamel) a través de gradientes de altitud y profundidad del suelo en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo, Michoacán. [...] La cuenca cubre 4,000 km² y un ámbito altitudinal de 1,700 a 3,420 m s.n.m. En toda la cuenca se muestrearon 50 sitios de 1,000 m² cada uno, se registró un total de 4,941 plantas con diámetro a la altura del pecho ? 1 cm, que representaron 164 especies, 88 géneros y 47 familias. Las familias con más especies fueron Asteraceae (30; 18.4% del total de especies) y Fagaceae (16; 9.8%). Por arriba de los 2,500 m s.n.m. se encontraron los bosques de pino, oyamel y mixto (pino-encino); por debajo de 2,300 m s.n.m. se encontraron el bosque de encino y el matorral subtropical. La densidad de plantas fue semejante entre los tipos de vegetación, pero diferentes indicadores de la biomasa aumentaron con la altitud y la profundidad del suelo. El matorral subtropical y el bosque mixto fueron los más diversos en especies, mientras que el bosque de coníferas fue el menos diverso. Existió un elevado recambio de especies dentro y entre los tipos de vegetación (índice de similitud de Bray-Curtis, ámbito: 5.4-25.4%). La composición de especies varió notablemente asociada con la altitud y la profundidad del suelo. Se ofrecen lineamientos para la conservación del importante complejo vegetal presente en la Cuenca de Cuitzeo. Abstract in english This work analyzed the structural variation of tree and shrub communities present in different vegetation types (subtropical scrub, oak forest, mixed forest, pine and fir forest) across altitudinal gradients and soil depth at the Cuitzeo Basin, Michoacán. The basin covers 4,000 km² and altitudinal r [...] ange of 1,700 to 3,420 m a.s.l. In the entire basin we sampled 50 sites 1,000 m² each, recording a total of 4,941 plants with a diameter at breast height ? 1 cm, representing 164 species, 88 genera and 47 families. Families with more species were Asteraceae (30, 18.4% of total species) and Fagaceae (16, 9.8%). Above 2,500 m a.s.l. were found pine, fir and mixed (pine-oak) forests; below 2,300 m a.s.l. were found the oak forest and subtropical scrub. Plant density was similar among vegetation types but different indicators of community biomass increased with altitude and soil depth. The subtropical scrub and mixed forest were the most diverse in species and coniferous forest the less diverse. There was a high turnover of species within and among vegetation types (index of Bray-Curtis similarity, range: 5.4-25.4%). The vegetation composition varied significantly associated with altitude and soil depth. We offer some guidelines for the conservation of the important vegetation complex present in the Cuitzeo Basin.

  7. Biomass-the task of ecology and factor in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly decreasing primary energy sources and environmental issues are part of the reason to seek alternatives by developing new technologies. Biomass as organic matter of vegetable origin and animals can be recycled, processed and used for the extraction of energy. In the presented work looking at the different types of biomass as a potential source for energy. A rating of the energy potential of different types of biomass. Furthermore, an overview of the main methods for processing and to generate energy. The final result of the work is a classification of different types of biomass and grouping in terms of their efficient processing to produce energy on a particular method. Key words: biomass energy, bioenergy, potential, ecology, bio-product, processing, gasification, pyrolysis, fermentation., burning

  8. Cuantificación del carbono almacenado en formaciones vegetales amazónicas en "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Perú) / Quantification of the carbon storage in amazon vegetation types at "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Peru)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Martel; Lianka, Cairampoma.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La llanura amazónica peruana se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples formaciones vegetales. Éstas cada vez reciben mayor impacto por actividades antropogénicas tales como la minería y tala. Todo esto, sumado al cambio climático global, genera desconcierto sobre el futuro de los bosques. La iden [...] tificación de los niveles de almacenamiento de carbono en áreas boscosas, y específicamente en cada formación vegetal, permitiría un mejor manejo de las zonas de conservación, así como identificar las áreas potenciales que servirían para el financiamiento de la absorción de carbono y otros servicios ambientales. El presente estudio fue desarrollado en la estación Biológica del Centro de Investigación y Capacitación Río Los Amigos (CICRA). En el CICRA se identificaron tres formaciones vegetales principales, el bosque de terraza, el bosque inundable y el aguajal. Siendo los bosques de terraza los de mayor extensión y mayor cantidad de carbono acumulado. Como resultado se valorizó la vegetación presente en el CICRA, en alrededor de 11 millones de dólares americanos. El ingreso a la oferta de los bonos de carbono promovería la conservación de los bosques. Abstract in english The Peruvian Amazon Basin is characterized by the presence of multiple vegetation types. They are being given great impact by human activities such as mining and, logging. All this, coupled with global climate change, creates confusion about the future of our forests. The identification of levels of [...] carbon storage in forested areas, and specifically in each vegetation type, would allow better management of conservation areas, and then identify potential areas that could serve to finance carbon sequestration and other environmental services. This study was conducted at the Biological Station for Research and Training Center Rio Los Amigos (CICRA, Spanish acronym). At the station three main formations were identified, alluvial terrace forests, flood terrace forests and Mauritia swamps. The alluvial terrace forest presents the most extensive area and the highest amount of carbon stored. As result, CICRA vegetations were valued at approx. 11 millions U.S. dollars. Admission to the supply of carbon credits could promote Amazon forest conservation.

  9. Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Jane Resende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource and honey (carbohydrate resource baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1 preserved native forest, (2 forest in regeneration (capoeira with many invasive plants and (3 a mixed agroystem of rubber and cocoa tree plantation. We recorded 69 ant species attracted to the baits, 21 of them exclusive to honey bait and 25 exclusive to the sardine baits. The vegetation physiognomies preserved forest and rubber/cacao agrosystem showed higher species richness in relation to the forest in regeneration (capoeira, suggesting that rubber tree plantations can be a good matrix for the maintenance of some ant species typical of the forest matrix. The type of resource used is important for the structuring of the arboreal ant assemblages. The ants that were attracted to protein resources showed a guild composition that is more differentiated between vegetation types that of ants attracted to glucose resources.

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit very dilute solutions of organic matter and their potential growth rates are very high. Bacteria do not have a cytoskeleton and they are covered by a rigid cells wall. Therefore they can only take up dissolved low-molecular-weight compounds from their surroundings; when bacteria exploit polymeric compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity or pH. Key Concepts:Key Concepts: * Fundamental properties of bacteria are related to their small size and lack of cytoskeleton. * Bacteria display a great diversity in types of metabolism. * Bacteria play a key role in the biosphere in terms of transfer of matter and energy. * A number of fundamental biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life.

  11. Ethnoecology of traditional leafy vegetables of the Luo people of Bondo district, western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orech, F O; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Friis, H

    2007-11-01

    Diversity of traditional leafy vegetables consumed by the Luo people of Nyang'oma, Bondo District, western Kenya, was evaluated in relation to their ecological habitats. The study generally revealed high species diversity within different ecological areas. A total of 60 leafy vegetable species (domesticated and wild) belonging to 47 genera and 29 families were collected. Most of the vegetable species were gathered from the wild but a few were domesticated on farmlands and kitchen gardens. Plant families that comprised most leafy vegetable species were Fabaceae, Amaranthaceae, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae and Solanaceae. PMID:17852469

  12. Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brasil Spiders diversity and richness estimates in four vegetations types of Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janael Ricetti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Um inventário da fauna de aranhas foi realizado na Serra do Cachimbo, no Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso, município de Novo Progresso, Pará. As coletas ocorreram em duas expedições, uma na estação seca (agosto e setembro de 2003 e outra na chuvosa (março e abril de 2004. Cada expedição contou com a participação de três coletores. O esforço de amostragem foi de 240 amostras, sendo 96 através de guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura, 96 através de coleta manual noturna e 48 por triagem manual e extratores de Winkler. Foi comparada a diversidade de aranhas de quatro tipos de vegetação, Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, mata de galeria, áreas de Cerrado (Savana Arbórea e de Campina. As coletas resultaram em um total de 4.990 indivíduos, dos quais 2.750 adultos. Foram identificadas 427 morfoespécies em 37 famílias, sendo as mais abundantes Theridiidae, Salticidae e Araneidae e as mais ricas em espécies Araneidae, Salticidae e Theridiidae. As espécies representadas por apenas um indivíduo somaram 40% do total e apenas duas ultrapassaram cem indivíduos. A curva de riqueza específica estimada (ACE atingiu 614 espécies. A maior diversidade alfa (índice de Shannon-Wiener foi encontrada em Floresta Ombrófila, seguida pela mata de galeria, Campina e Cerrado. Tais diferenças entre as vegetações podem ser explicadas devido a variações na complexidade da vegetação e na disponibilidade de microhábitats em cada fitofisionomia.An inventory of the spider fauna was carried out at Serra do Cachimbo, inside the "Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso", municipality of Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil. Two expeditions were made, during both dry (August and September, 2003 and wet (March and April, 2004 seasons. Three collectors participated in each expedition. The sampling effort, represented by 240 samples, was divided into the following methods: beating tray and sweeping net (96 samples; nocturnal hand search (96 samples and concentrated litter sorted by a combination of hand search and Winkler extractors (48 samples. The spiders assemblages from four vegetation types (open rainforest, riparian forest, arboreal savanna and white sand vegetation were compared. A total of 4,990 spiders were obtained, from which 2,750 adults, resulting in 427 morphospecies of 37 families. The most abundant families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae and the ones with more species were Salticidae, Araneidae, and Theridiidae. Singletons represented 40% of the total species richness and only two species presented more than 100 individuals. The estimated species richness curve produced by ACE reached 614 species. The highest alpha-diversity (Shannon-Wiener index was observed in open rainforest, followed by riparian forest, white sand vegetation and arboreal savanna. These differences among the various vegetations can be explained by variations in vegetation complexity and micro-habitat availability in each vegetation type.

  13. Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brasil / Spiders diversity and richness estimates in four vegetations types of Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janael, Ricetti; Alexandre B., Bonaldo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Um inventário da fauna de aranhas foi realizado na Serra do Cachimbo, no Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso, município de Novo Progresso, Pará. As coletas ocorreram em duas expedições, uma na estação seca (agosto e setembro de 2003) e outra na chuvosa (março e abril de 2004). Cada expedição contou c [...] om a participação de três coletores. O esforço de amostragem foi de 240 amostras, sendo 96 através de guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura, 96 através de coleta manual noturna e 48 por triagem manual e extratores de Winkler. Foi comparada a diversidade de aranhas de quatro tipos de vegetação, Floresta Ombrófila Aberta, mata de galeria, áreas de Cerrado (Savana Arbórea) e de Campina. As coletas resultaram em um total de 4.990 indivíduos, dos quais 2.750 adultos. Foram identificadas 427 morfoespécies em 37 famílias, sendo as mais abundantes Theridiidae, Salticidae e Araneidae e as mais ricas em espécies Araneidae, Salticidae e Theridiidae. As espécies representadas por apenas um indivíduo somaram 40% do total e apenas duas ultrapassaram cem indivíduos. A curva de riqueza específica estimada (ACE) atingiu 614 espécies. A maior diversidade alfa (índice de Shannon-Wiener) foi encontrada em Floresta Ombrófila, seguida pela mata de galeria, Campina e Cerrado. Tais diferenças entre as vegetações podem ser explicadas devido a variações na complexidade da vegetação e na disponibilidade de microhábitats em cada fitofisionomia. Abstract in english An inventory of the spider fauna was carried out at Serra do Cachimbo, inside the "Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso", municipality of Novo Progresso, state of Pará, Brazil. Two expeditions were made, during both dry (August and September, 2003) and wet (March and April, 2004) seasons. Three collec [...] tors participated in each expedition. The sampling effort, represented by 240 samples, was divided into the following methods: beating tray and sweeping net (96 samples); nocturnal hand search (96 samples) and concentrated litter sorted by a combination of hand search and Winkler extractors (48 samples). The spiders assemblages from four vegetation types (open rainforest, riparian forest, arboreal savanna and white sand vegetation) were compared. A total of 4,990 spiders were obtained, from which 2,750 adults, resulting in 427 morphospecies of 37 families. The most abundant families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae and the ones with more species were Salticidae, Araneidae, and Theridiidae. Singletons represented 40% of the total species richness and only two species presented more than 100 individuals. The estimated species richness curve produced by ACE reached 614 species. The highest alpha-diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) was observed in open rainforest, followed by riparian forest, white sand vegetation and arboreal savanna. These differences among the various vegetations can be explained by variations in vegetation complexity and micro-habitat availability in each vegetation type.

  14. Effects of pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices on the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 type strain vegetative cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the growth characteristics of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores after inoculation into apple, pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices (10, 20, 40 and 80%, v/v). Also, the effect of sporulation medium was tested using mineral [Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA) and Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA)] and non-mineral containing media [potato dextrose agar (PDA) and malt extract agar (MEA)]. The juice samples were inoculated separately with approximately 10(5)CFU/mL cells or spores from different sporulation media and then incubated at 37°C for 336 h. The number of cells decreased significantly with increasing pomegranate juice concentration in the blend juices and storage time (p<0.001). Based on the results, 3.17, 3.53, and 3.72 log cell reductions were observed in 40%, 80% blend and pomegranate juices, respectively while the cell counts attained approximately 7.17 log CFU/mL in apple juice after 336 h. On the other hand, the cell growth was inhibited for a certain time, and then the numbers started to increase after 72 and 144 h in 10% and 20% blend juices, respectively. After 336 h, total population among spores produced on PDA, BATA, BAA and MEA indicated 1.49, 1.65, 1.67, and 1.28 log reductions in pomegranate juice; and 1.51, 1.38, 1.40 and 1.16 log reductions in 80% blend juice, respectively. The inhibitory effects of 10%, 20% and 40% blend juices varied depending on the sporulation media used. The results obtained in this study suggested that pomegranate and pomegranate-apple blend juices could inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 vegetative cells and spores. PMID:25676243

  15. Distinguishing land use types using surface albedo and normalized difference vegetation index derived from the SEBAL model for the Atankwidi and Afram sub-catchments in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Tayari Salifu; Wilson Agyei Agyare

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing land use types is mostly done through field surveys which does not easily capture the spatial changes in the land use/cover types. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model was used to estimate surface albedo and NDVI, for different land use/cover types for two sub-catchments (i.e., Atankwidi and Afram) in the Volta Basin of Ghana. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for individual land use/cover types compared to the mean CV for a given site...

  16. Distinguishing land use types using surface albedo and normalized difference vegetation index derived from the SEBAL model for the Atankwidi and Afram sub-catchments in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayari Salifu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing land use types is mostly done through field surveys which does not easily capture the spatial changes in the land use/cover types. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL model was used to estimate surface albedo and NDVI, for different land use/cover types for two sub-catchments (i.e., Atankwidi and Afram in the Volta Basin of Ghana. The mean coefficient of variation (CV for individual land use/cover types compared to the mean CV for a given site was then used to distinguish among the land use/cover types. It was found that these parameters derived from the SEBAL model can be used to distinguish among different land use/cover types in the two sub-catchments. SEBAL estimates for surface albedo and NDVI across the different land use/cover types varied from 0.05 to 0.22 and -0.41 to 0.38, respectively. The range of CVs for surface albedo and NDVI, were 5-22% and 7-175%, respectively across the different land use/cover types for the two catchments. The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL’s derived surface albedo and NDVI can be used to distinguish land use/cover types in catchments similar to those of the study areas with few ground measurements.

  17. Assessment of the environmental effects of mining using SPOT-Vegetation NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tote, C.; Swinnen, E.; Goossens, M.; Reusen, I.; Delalieux, S.

    2012-04-01

    Within the ImpactMin project, funded by the Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission, new methods for the environmental impact monitoring of mining operations are being developed. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of mining on soil properties through assessment of the vegetation status using time series analysis of low resolution Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images derived from SPOT-Vegetation. The study focuses on the surroundings of mining areas in the Orenburg region in the Russian Urals. Karabash has been a centre for mining and metal production for well over 3000 years, and environmental impact of (historical) mining in the area is extremely severe. The area was characterized as an 'ecological disaster zone', based on chemical analysis of soil samples in the area [1]. The mining activities were intensified in the early to mid-20th century, but the old smelter was modernized in the 1990s. A time series of 10-daily NDVI images from SPOT-Vegetation (S10 April/1998-December/2010 at 1km2 resolution, http://www.vgt.vito.be/) is analyzed. Different land cover types clearly show different phenology. To remove seasonal vegetation changes and thus to facilitate the interpretation through the historical record, a Standardized Difference Vegetation Index (SDVI) was calculated for each pixel and for each record of the time series. The first results of trend analyses indicate a strong recovery of open forests in the Karabash region in the last decade. To what extent this can be related to reduced mining impact or climate factors, still needs to be assessed. Further research will also focus on the spatial heterogeneity of phenological parameters, in relation to distance to and wind direction of the smelters and soil properties. [1] V. Nestersnko, "Urban associations of elements- environmental pollutants in Karabash city (Chelyabinsk oblast) as a reflection of ore-chemical descriptions of mineral raw material", Proceedings of the Chelyabinsk Scientific Center, vol. 3, pp. 58-62, 2006.

  18. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  20. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  1. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera) no sul do Brasil: relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat / Composition of the Arctiidae species (Lepidoptera) in southern Brazil: relationship among vegetation types and among habitat spatial configuration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Gianluppi, Ferro; José Augusto, Teston.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o padrão de diversidade beta das mariposas Arctiidae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS) e avalia se esse padrão é relacionado com o tipo de vegetação ou com a distância geográfica entre as áreas. A partir da observação de 9420 espécimes depositados em 13 coleções científicas [...] e de duas listas publicadas na literatura, obteve-se registro de 329 espécies de arctiídeos em 55 localidades do RS. Essa riqueza corresponde a 5,6% da fauna Neotropical e 16,5% da fauna estimada para o Brasil. Cinqüenta e duas espécies (15,8%) foram registradas pela primeira vez no Estado. Não houve relação entre a diversidade beta (distância de Sorensen) e a distância geográfica entre as localidades, sugerindo que a configuração espacial do ambiente não influencia de forma significativa a locomoção das mariposas Arctiidae entre as paisagens. As análises multivariadas indicaram que a fauna de Arctiidae apresenta uma composição diferente em cada tipo de vegetação. A composição da fauna de áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (Mata de Araucária) difere da fauna dos demais tipos de vegetação. Além disso, verificou-se uma maior riqueza de espécies em ambientes florestais do que em campestres. Abstract in english We describe the beta-diversity pattern of the Arctiidae in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS) and assess whether this pattern is related to similarities in vegetation type or geographic distance among areas. We analysed 9420 specimens in 13 scientific collections, as well as two published checklists. Thre [...] e hundred twenty nine arctiid species were recorded for 55 localities. This richness corresponded to 5.6% of the Neotropical fauna, and 16.5% of the estimated Brazilian fauna. Fifty two species (15.8%) were recorded for the first time in the state. There was no relationship between beta-diversity (Sorensen distance) and geographic distance among the localities, suggesting that the spatial configuration of the habitat did not influence significantly the locomotion of the Arctiidae moths among landscapes. The multivariate analysis suggested that the Arctiidae fauna differ among vegetation types. The composition of the fauna at the Floresta Ombrófila Mista (Araucaria forest) is very distinct from other vegetation type faunas. Species richness was higher on forest habitats than in open habitats.

  2. Composição de espécies de Arctiidae (Lepidoptera no sul do Brasil: relação entre tipos de vegetação e entre a configuração espacial do hábitat Composition of the Arctiidae species (Lepidoptera in southern Brazil: relationship among vegetation types and among habitat spatial configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve o padrão de diversidade beta das mariposas Arctiidae no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e avalia se esse padrão é relacionado com o tipo de vegetação ou com a distância geográfica entre as áreas. A partir da observação de 9420 espécimes depositados em 13 coleções científicas e de duas listas publicadas na literatura, obteve-se registro de 329 espécies de arctiídeos em 55 localidades do RS. Essa riqueza corresponde a 5,6% da fauna Neotropical e 16,5% da fauna estimada para o Brasil. Cinqüenta e duas espécies (15,8% foram registradas pela primeira vez no Estado. Não houve relação entre a diversidade beta (distância de Sorensen e a distância geográfica entre as localidades, sugerindo que a configuração espacial do ambiente não influencia de forma significativa a locomoção das mariposas Arctiidae entre as paisagens. As análises multivariadas indicaram que a fauna de Arctiidae apresenta uma composição diferente em cada tipo de vegetação. A composição da fauna de áreas de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (Mata de Araucária difere da fauna dos demais tipos de vegetação. Além disso, verificou-se uma maior riqueza de espécies em ambientes florestais do que em campestres.We describe the beta-diversity pattern of the Arctiidae in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS and assess whether this pattern is related to similarities in vegetation type or geographic distance among areas. We analysed 9420 specimens in 13 scientific collections, as well as two published checklists. Three hundred twenty nine arctiid species were recorded for 55 localities. This richness corresponded to 5.6% of the Neotropical fauna, and 16.5% of the estimated Brazilian fauna. Fifty two species (15.8% were recorded for the first time in the state. There was no relationship between beta-diversity (Sorensen distance and geographic distance among the localities, suggesting that the spatial configuration of the habitat did not influence significantly the locomotion of the Arctiidae moths among landscapes. The multivariate analysis suggested that the Arctiidae fauna differ among vegetation types. The composition of the fauna at the Floresta Ombrófila Mista (Araucaria forest is very distinct from other vegetation type faunas. Species richness was higher on forest habitats than in open habitats.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of vegetation after timber production in forest Babske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution we have summarized the results of research a season dynamic of vegetation which was realized in the locality of the Bab forest (village Velky Bab, Nitra loess upland) in the vegetative period of 2013. The Bab forest is a lowland oak-hornbeam forest in an intensively exploited agricultural country. This forest is the remnant of formerly larger indigenous forest complexes. The Bab forest represents a type of indigenous vegetation in this area. Specifically, this contribution is focused on the evaluation and comparison season dynamic of vegetation on two types of outposts - clear-cuts and forest vegetation. (author)

  4. Effects of Flow and Vegetation States on River Roughness Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    N.G. Ebrahimi; M. Fathi-Moghadam; S.M. Kashefipour; M. Saneie; K. Ebrahimi

    2008-01-01

    Vegetation roughness coefficients are the main parameters used to determine river flow characteristics and are known to depend on the flow condition (depth and velocity) as well as vegetation condition (type and density). Flume experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of roughness coefficients with flow conditions and vegetation density for submerged vegetation in river bed, banks and flood plains. Artificial plastic plants, for a length of 0.2 m, were laid on the floor of a 14...

  5. Vegetation of Werakata National Park, Hunter Valley, New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Stephen A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Werakata National Park (32° 50 S, 151° 25 E), near Cessnock in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, conserves 2145 ha of mostly open forest vegetation, which was formerly widespread in the lower Hunter Valley. Six vegetation communities are delineated; Lower Hunter Spotted Gum – Ironbark Forest occupies most of the Park. All communities present are considered to be poorly conserved in the region and Werakata plays a critical role in the protection of these vegetation types. Two vegetation co...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in...

  7. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  8. Research on Chengdu Vegetables Marketing Based on STP Model

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Liu; Xiumin Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we take the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market as samples, in the form of questionnaires and interviews, to study the consumer motivations and psychology, and make market segmentation of consumers. Results show that the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market can be divided into four types: the safety-pursuing type, the convenient and economical type, the family healthy type, and the fashionable type, among which the safety-pursuing type is the largest. Finally, authors put ...

  9. Final vegetative cover for closed waste sites. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Salvo, S.K.

    1993-01-22

    Low-level, hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the final closure cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation into and through the waste material. Turf type grasses are currently being used as an interim vegetative cover for most sites. This coverage allows for required monitoring of the closure cap for settlement and maintenance activities. The purpose of this five year study was to evaluate plant materials for use on wastes sites after the post-closure care period that are quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retard water infiltration, provide maximum year-round evapotranspiration, are ecologically acceptable and do not harm the closure cap. The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys (P.) bissetii and P. rubromarginata) can be utilized to provide long lived, low maintenance, climax vegetation for the waste sites after surveillance and maintenance requirements have ceased.

  10. Ecologia do forrageio por Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) em vegetação de restinga no Sul do Brasil Foraging ecology of Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in sand dune vegetation at Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Benedito Cortês Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Foram amostrados 400 ninhos de Cyphomyrmex morschi Emery, 1887 entre 1997 e 1998, nas dunas da praia da Joaquina, Florianópolis, SC, para a verificação do material transportado ao ninho. Estas formigas utilizam material de origem vegetal ou animal (fezes de lagartas de Lepidoptera ou partes de corpos de besouros ou formigas) ou mesmo material não identificado que são introduzidos no ninho para o cultivo do fungo. Assim, do ponto de vista do papel ecológico desempenhado, pode-se consider...

  11. Climate change impacts on vegetation of the San Francisco Area: evaluating sensitivity of change across an ensemble of future climates (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, D.; Cornwell, W.; Weiss, S. B.; Branciforte, B.; Sandel, B.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to profoundly impact terrestrial vegetation. We present a model of the projected impacts of climate change on the distribution of vegetation types in the San Francisco Bay Area using a novel application of multinomial logistic regression. Model projections are evaluated over a wide range of possible future climates, drawn from CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. Evaluation of results across the entire ensemble of future climates provides the sensitivity of vegetation to changing climate, without having to choose specific future climate scenarios. Sensitivity is highly variable across the Bay Area. The single best predictor appears to be the location, in climate space, of each vegetation patch relative to the warm or dry edge of the corresponding climate envelope. It is critical to consider the equilibrium assumption underlying this, and related, modeling of vegetation impacts. The model projections are best interpreted as the long-term expected response to a particular degree of climate change, but they do not provide insight into how fast this equilibrium will be achieved or the transient states that may occur in response to rapid climate change. We combine model results with a literature survey of ecological mechanisms of vegetation change to better understand the challenges raised by disequilibrium dynamics.

  12. Vegetation patterns and dynamics on a rock glacier in the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaselli, M.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation colonizing a rock glacier in the north-western cirque of M. Giovo (Northern Apennines was recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Numerical methods were employed both to classify and to order the phytosociological relevés. Relevés were classified by average linkage based on the similarity ratio. Four main vegetation types were so identified. They were ecologically characterized by an indirect gradient analysis based on correspondence analysis. Furthermore, dynamic connections between vegetation types were hypothesized by principal component analysis.

    [es] Modelos de vegetación y dinámica en un glaciar rocoso de los Apeninos del Norte (Norte de Italia. Se ha muestreado, según el método fitosociológico de Braun-Blanquet, la colonización vegetal de un glaciar rocoso en el circo glaciar noroeste del M. Giovo (Norte de los Apeninos. Los muestreos han sido clasificados por métodos de análisis numérico. Se definen cuatro modelos de vegetación con la ayuda de la clasificación numérica. El estudio ecológico de los modelos de vegetación se ha realizado con la ayuda del análisis de correspondencias y se ha verificado con el empleo de los valores indicadores ecológicos de LANDOLT (1977. Las tendencias dinámicas de la vegetación se definen con el análisis de componentes principales.
    [fr] Groupements végétaux et dynamique de la végétation sur un glacier rocheux dans les Apennins du Nord (Italie du Nord. La végétation colonisant un glacier rocheux dans le cirque glaciaire nord-ouest du M. Giovo (Apennins du Nord à été relevé selon le méthode phytosociologique. Les relevés ont été classifies et ordonnés par des méthodes d'analyse numérique. 4 types de végétation ont été définis a l'aide de la classification numérique. L'étude écologique des types de végétation à été réalisée par l'analyse des correspondances et vérifié avec l'emploi des valeurs indicatrices écologiques du Landolt. Les tendances dynamiques de la végétation ont été définis à l'aide de l'analyse en composantes principales.

  13. An ecological analysis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence in Latin America Análisis ecológico de la incidencia y prevalencia en América Latina de diabetes tipo 1 con inicio en la niñez

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Collado-Mesa; Alberto Barceló; Arheart, Kristopher L; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore, for Latin America, by means of an ecological correlation analysis, the possible relationships between both the incidence and prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes and selected hypothesized etiological factors, including race/ethnicity, geographical latitude, breast-feeding rates, per capita milk supply and coffee consumption, and wealth-related indicators such as infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, and national human development index. METHODS: Recently p...

  14. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul / Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in vegetation types in the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Plínio Henrique Oliveira, Gomide; Marx Leandro Naves, Silva; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa, Soares; Evaldo Luis, Cardoso; Fernanda de, Carvalho; Patrícia Lopes, Leal; Rodrigo Magalhães, Marques; Sidney Luiz, Stürmer.

    1114-11-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Pantanal é reconhecido como uma das maiores extensões úmidas contínua do planeta, com fauna e flora de rara beleza e abundância. Estudos para acessar a diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA) nesse ambiente são inexistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de [...] FMA nas diferentes fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo no período seco e chuvoso em um Neossolo Quartzarênico, em fitofisionomias sujeitas a distintos regimes de inundação: livres de inundação - Floresta Semidecídua (FS) e Cerradão (CE); sujeitos à inundação ocasional - Campo limpo, predominando Elyonorus muticus (CLE) e Cerrado (CC); e sujeitos à inundação sazonal - Campo limpo, predominando Andropogon spp. (CLA), borda de baias (BB) e vazante/baixadas (VB). Culturas armadilhas foram estabelecidas com Brachiaria brizantha para recuperar espécies crípticas de FMA. De cada amostra de solo, foram realizadas a caracterização química do solo e extração dos esporos de FMA para determinar abundância, riqueza e identificação das espécies. Um total de 37 espécies de FMA, pertencentes a 10 gêneros e seis famílias foram detectadas nas duas estações de coleta. O número de esporos variou significativamente entre as fitofisionomias, e os maiores valores foram encontrados em CE e CLA. A maior riqueza específica foi detectada em CC (25 espécies) seguida de VB e CE com 22 e 21 espécies, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo sugeriram que a diversidade dos FMA está relacionada com a heterogeneidade existente entre as fitofisionomias, e que características químicas do solo têm influência na estruturação das comunidades desses fungos. Considerando que o bioma Pantanal é um dos ecossistemas mais conservado do planeta, o levantamento de ocorrência de FMA realizado neste trabalho forneceu informações importantes para melhor conhecimento da biodiversidade das fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia. Abstract in english The Pantanal (tropical wetland) biome is recognized as one of the largest continuous areas of natural wetlands, harboring a flora and fauna of rare beauty and abundance. Studies to assess the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are nonexistent for this environment. The goal of this study [...] was to evaluate the occurrence of AMF in different vegetation types of the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and wet season in a Neossolo Quartzarênico (Entisol) in vegetation types subject to different flooding regimes: flood-free - semi-deciduous forest (FS) and "Cerradão" (CE); subject to occasional flooding - grassland dominated by Elyonurus muticus (CLE) and "Cerrado" (CC); and subject to seasonal flooding - grasslands dominated by Andropogon spp. (CLA), the edge of bays (BB), and areas exposed at low water/lowlands (VB). Trap crops were established with Brachiaria brizantha to recover cryptic AMF species. Chemical analyses and spore extraction were carried for each soil sample to identify AMF species and determine their abundance and richness. A total of 37 AMF species, belonging to 10 genera and six families, were detected for both seasons. Spore numbers varied significantly among vegetation types, and the highest values were found in CE and CLA. The greatest richness of species was detected in CC (25 species), followed by VB, with 22 species, and CE, with 21 species. This is the first report on AMF diversity from the Pantanal biome. Results of this study suggest that AMF diversity is related to the heterogeneity among vegetation types and that soil chemical characteristics influence the structure of these fungi communities. Considering that the Pantanal is one of the most conserved biomes in the world, the survey of the occurrence of AMF in this study provides important information for better understanding the biodiversity of the phytophysiognomies of this biome.

  15. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz Schwantes, Marimon; Edson de Souza, Lima.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fi [...] tofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W), foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W) e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W). O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl.) M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas. Abstract in english This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites we [...] re selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W), one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W) and one in the middle portion of the Cristalino river (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W). Sampling was by the Rapid Survey method. Eight vegetation types were identified: Mata Inundável (swamp forest), Caapão (also swamp forest), Babaçual (Attalea speciosa forest), Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu (savanna types, closed canopy woodland and savanna grassland, respectively), Campo de Murunduns (grassland with scattered mounds bearing termites), Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana (grassland dominated by B. orbignyana) and Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa (grassland with scattered trees of V. rufa). A total of 248 species of trees, shrubs and lianas were recorded, distributed in 158 genera and 62 families. The vegetation types were heterogeneous; none of the species occurred at all sites, but Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl.) M. Arg., and others, were found at six sites. The families richest in species were Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae and Myrtaceae. The flora apparently was similar to that of the Pantanal of Paraguai river, however, further studies are needed to confirm. This Heterogeneous vegetation patterns in the study area indicate the need to protect the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers.

  16. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of the Cristalino river (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. Sampling was by the Rapid Survey method. Eight vegetation types were identified: Mata Inundável (swamp forest, Caapão (also swamp forest, Babaçual (Attalea speciosa forest, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu (savanna types, closed canopy woodland and savanna grassland, respectively, Campo de Murunduns (grassland with scattered mounds bearing termites, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana (grassland dominated by B. orbignyana and Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa (grassland with scattered trees of V. rufa. A total of 248 species of trees, shrubs and lianas were recorded, distributed in 158 genera and 62 families. The vegetation types were heterogeneous; none of the species occurred at all sites, but Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., and others, were found at six sites. The families richest in species were Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae and Myrtaceae. The flora apparently was similar to that of the Pantanal of Paraguai river, however, further studies are needed to confirm. This Heterogeneous vegetation patterns in the study area indicate the need to protect the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers.

  17. Integrating field sampling, spatial statistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arieira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the protection of wetlands, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of their structuring elements and of the identification of efficient methods to describe and monitor them. This article uses sophisticated statistical classification, interpolation and error propagation techniques, in order to describe vegetation spatial patterns, map plant community distribution and evaluate the capability of statistical approaches to produce high-quality vegetation maps. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relations between remotely sensing data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were formalized mathematically in multiple linear regression models and used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the uncertainty in mapped communities. Universal kriging has shown to be a valuable interpolation technique because parts of vegetation variability not explained by the images could be modeled as spatially correlated residuals, increasing prediction accuracy. Differences in spatial dependence of the vegetation gradients evidenced the multi-scale nature of vegetation communities. Cross validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty resulted from Monte Carlo simulations displayed the spatial variation in classification accuracy, showing that the quality of classification varies spatially, even though the proportion and arrangement of communities observed in the original map is preserved to a great extent. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including new digital images as explanatory variables in the model. By comparing the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, we verified that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. We discuss our study in the context of developing a mapping approach that is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote sensing images, providing new basis to map wetland vegetation and allowing its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  18. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmahon, Kathryn; Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and ...

  19. The influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of the rivers Lafnitz and Pinka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Formayer, Herbert; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Melcher, Andreas; Dossi, Florian

    2013-04-01

    In Central Europe freshwater ecosystems have to deal with a loss of habitat structures due to channelisation and standardisation. Unimpaired streams and rivers are very rare, which leads to a few, remaining populations of sensitive invertebrate species which are severely fragmented. This progress is mainly noticed in lowland rivers in agricultural intensely used areas, where habitat degradation and pollution affect the ecosystems. Additional pressures on the freshwater systems will be expected due to climate change effects. In the Austrian Lowlands, an increase of air temperature about 2-2.5 °C is predicted till 2040. This will in turn lead to the highest increase in water temperature in the lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains", Ecoregion 11 on which the impacts of climate change will most likely be highest in Austria. Global warming on its own may lead to severe changes in aquatic ecosystems. Human impacts increase the negative effects even more. Main factors for a sustainable survival of benthic invertebrates and fishes are closely connected with parameters like water temperature, the availability of oxygen and nutrients, or radiation and nutrients for primary production which are closely related to climate. Natural bank vegetation reduces the influx of solar radiation as well as it forms a microclimate of its own and could provide very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages. Riparian areas with trees provide direct shade for the water body and thus avoiding the corresponding increase in water temperature. Wide riparian wooded areas can even decrease evaporation and increase the relative air humidity, which contributes to reducing water temperature. Input of deadwood like trees or logs represents essential habitats for invertebrates and fish assemblages. Its presence is one essential drivers of bed-morphology creating heterogeneous instream habitat patterns. In the framework of the project BIO_CLIC the potential of riparian vegetation to mitigate effects of climate change on biological assemblages of small and medium sized running waters will be investigated. The results support river managers in implementing integrative guidelines for sustainable river restoration towards climate change adaptation, ecological services and socio-economic consequences. In this paper the influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of rivers will be highlighted. As a first step in field works habitat characteristics will be examined and described. First results show riparian vegetation datasets for different riparian vegetation types with 3D spatial distribution of vegetation, riparian vegetation composition and radiation attenuation coefficients for different vegetation types.

  20. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  1. Vegetation und Management seltener Pflanzenarten im Küstengrünland einer dänischen Ostseeinsel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimes, Christine; Kollmann, Johannes Christian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Grazed coastal grassland in eastern Denmark - Managing plant communities to preserve rare plant species This study analyzes vegetation of coastal grassland in an embanked nature reserve (c. 2000 ha) south of Copenhagen on the island Amager. The focus is on grazing effects on abundance of Iris spuria, Selinum dubium and Cerastium subtetrandrum. The main objectives are to identify plant communities and site factors related to the target species. Considering the ecological requirements of the species it is possible to estimate their potential distribution in the study area. Based on these results, management on the rare plants is discussed. Vegetation data, consisting of 73 relevés collected in summer 2008, are classified using TWINSPAN analysis and ordination by DCA. Thus, the main vegetation units and underlying environmental gradients are identified and assigned to plant communities known from the literature. Recent vegetation changes are analysed by DCA using published data from 2004 and 2006. The main factors defining the grassland vegetation of Vestamager are salinity, moisture and grazing. Nutrientpoor, salt-affected and grazed communities of the Lolio-Cynosuretum are the most common vegetation type in the study area. This association can be divided into a subtype of moist grassland, including species of wetland meadows (Molinion), and drier grassland, with floristic affinities to Mesobromion. In the southwest of the study area, with slightly higher salinity, the Lolio-Cynosuretum is replaced by 243 Juncetum gerardii salt marshes. Within the salt marshes pioneer vegetation is developed on ant hills. The transition between geo- and hydrolitoral is colonized by brackish reeds. On intensely grazed, moist to wet sites the Lolio-Cynosuretum is replaced by the Ranunculo repentis-Alopecuretum geniculati. Tall grassland dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos develops under reduced grazing pressure. Iris spuria and Selinum dubium occur with one stand each in the north of the study area. Thepopulations are associated with drier parts of the Lolio-Cynosuretum juncetosum gerardii. Smaller populations of Selinum dubium are found in Plantago major communities. Cerastium subtetrandrum is represented with several small populations on ant hills in salt-pioneer marsh. Iris spuria is sensitive to grazing, and thus the intensification of grazing on Vestamager has resulted in a decreasing population of this species in the past years. Selinum dubium is more tolerant, and vegetative individuals are able to persist in grazed areas. Cerastium subtetrandrum depends indirectly on grazing. Potential habitats of this species are maintained by grazing. Intensification of grazing and shrub clearance have reduced cover of woody species and tall grasses promoting less competitive species. Recently, a development towards open saltinfluenced grassland can be observed, albeit without increasing floristic diversity. Optimal conservation of the target species seems only feasible if a more diverse management is applied. For conservation of Iris spuria and Selinum dubium a local reduction of grazing is recommended including exclosures. Preservation of Cerastium subtetrandrum, however, depends on low vegetation, which calls for relatively intense grazing. In the long term, higher diversity will only be achieved by spatio-temporal variation of grazing intensity which would also accommodate the different demands of the target species.   Keywords: Cerastium subtetrandrum, conservation management, grazing variation, Iris spuria, salt marsh, Selinum dubium, target species.

  2. Relationships among vegetation, geomorphology and hydrology in the Bananal Island tropical wetlands, Araguaia River basin, Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, C. R.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Ferreira, L. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Bananal Plain spreading on the Middle Araguaia River basin in Central Brazil at the Cerrado-Amazonia ecotone is a unique system that sustains the largest seasonal wetlands of the Cerrado biome. The huge Bananal Plain is an intracratonic sedimentary basin filled with Pleistocene sediments of the Araguaia formation. Covering approximately two million hectares, the Bananal Island is a major geomorphologic feature of the Bananal plain. Fieldwork and the analysis of a temporal series of MODIS-VI and Landsat ETM images allowed us to discriminate Cerrado phyto-physiognomies on the Bananal Island. Maps of vegetation and geomorphologic units were created, and from the correlation between landforms and vegetation types we identified morpho-vegetation units. Our approach allowed us to postulate that Pleistocene landforms strongly influence, if not dominate, the distribution of vegetation units. For example, the distribution of current gallery forest is not only controlled by active floodplains, but also by alluvial belts abandoned by avulsion. Additionally, arboreal Cerrado vegetation is supported by laterite developed on the sediments of the Araguaia Formation. Some of these inactive landforms are in part modified by the present day geomorphologic processes and colonized by successional vegetation that varies from alluvial forest to Cerrado. Characterized by a very flat landscape with a hindered drainage, the muddy sediments of the Araguaia Formation and the high seasonal rainfall favor the development of regional seasonal wetlands. The Bananal plain is a key area for understanding the Quaternary climatic and biogeographic changes in tropical South America. The control exerted by relict Quaternary landforms on the current vegetation units demonstrates the strong links between geomorphologic aspects of the landscape and ecological patterns. This multidisciplinary approach provides a better understanding of the biogeographic patterns in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, which is useful for identifying and designing areas for conservation.

  3. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially hanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ)

  4. [Occurrence of nitrates and nitrites in certain frozen fruits, jams, stewed fruit and fruit-vegetable juices for children and in certain types of bee honey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, R; Nabrzyski, M; Szajek, L

    1989-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the method of Griess reaction, with previous reduction of nitrates to nitrites in a column filled with cadmium dust. The content of nitrates in frozen fruit (strawberries, black and red currant and plums) ranged from 2.50 to 57.38 mg KNO3/kg, with the highest content in garden strawberries. In cherry, strawberry, black and red currant jams the concentrations were from 6.30 to 97.38 mg KNO3/kg, the highest content was in cherry jam. In plum jam nitrates were found in low amounts from 11.65 to 12.09 mg/kg. In "Bobofrut" juices the nitrate content was higher than in the above products, ranging from 26.37 to 182.75 mg KNO3/kg. Nitrite content in all these groups of products was low, not exceeding 1 mg NaNO2/kg, with the exception of plum jam where the maximal value was found 1.65 mg NaNO2/kg. In stewed fruit and herb syrups and in honey nitrates ranged from 1.0 to 94.5 mg KNO3/kg. Nitrite content ranged from 0.17 to 1.92 mg/kg in herb syrups, from 0.0 to 1.20 mg/kg in stewed fruit, and from 0.0 to 0.40 mg NaNO2/kg in honey. The study showed that higher levels of nitrates were present as a rule in vegetable juices. However, the found concentrations were not harmful to the health of children, although this is possible in the case of carrot juice, especially when kept at room temperature for 24 hours. PMID:2637478

  5. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China. PMID:25509094

  6. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean / Efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas de soja tipo hortaliça

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia Cristina, Santana; Mercedes Concórdia, Carrão-Panizzi; José Marcos Gontijo, Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos, Leite; Josemeyre Bonifácio da, Silva; Elza Iouko, Ida.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas dos grãos de soja da cultivar tipo hortaliça BRS 267, colhidos no estádio R6 (desenvolvimento da semente), e comparar com os colhidos no estádio R8 (maturação). As vag [...] ens da cultivar BRS 267 foram colhidas no estádio de desenvolvimento R6 nos horários das 8, 12 e 18 horas e avaliadas a cor e os grãos analisados quanto à composição química, atividade do inibidor de tripsina, teor do ácido fítico, amido, açúcares, ácidos graxos e isoflavonas. O teor de isoflavonas não diferiu entre os diferentes horários de colheita no estádio R6. No estádio R8 foi encontrado maior teor das formas agliconas. Os diferentes horários de colheita não influenciaram na cor das vagens e nos constituintes químicos dos grãos da cultivar BRS 267 colhida no estádio R6. Os grãos colhidos no estádio R6, quando comparados com os colhidos no estádio R8, apresentaram menor teor de proteínas, ácido fítico e sacarose e maior teor de lipídios, carboidratos, amido, glicose, frutose, estaquiose e ácido linolênico. A qualidade da soja tipo hortaliça BRS 267 no estádio R6 não diferiu com os diferentes horários de colheita, contudo, como produto tipo hortaliça, recomenda-se que a colheita seja realizada no período da manhã, cuja temperatura é mais amena, para facilitar a rápida comercialização e consumo como alimento in natura. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development) and to compare it with that on the grains harvested at the R8 stage (matur [...] ation). The pods of the BRS 267 cultivar were harvested at the R6 stage (at 8:00 AM, 12:00 AM, and 6:00 PM), the color parameters were evaluated, and the grains were analyzed for chemical composition, activity inhibitor trypsin, phytic acid content, starch, sugars, fatty acids, and isoflavones. No differences were observed among the different harvest times in terms of the chemical constituents of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at the R6 stage. Isoflavones content did not change with different harvest times, and the aglycone forms (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein) were found in smaller quantities at the R6 stage compared to the R8 stage. The color of the pods of soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage did not change with different harvest times. The grains harvested at the R6 stage had lower protein content, phytic acid, and sucrose and higher levels of lipids, carbohydrates, starch, glucose, fructose, stachyose, and linolenic acids than those collected at the R8 stage. The different times of harvest did not affect the quality of the vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at stage R6. Nevertheless, it is recommended to harvest in the morning, when the temperature is milder, like other vegetables, to facilitate and optimize its marketing and in natura consumption.

  7. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean Efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas de soja tipo hortaliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Santana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development and to compare it with that on the grains harvested at the R8 stage (maturation. The pods of the BRS 267 cultivar were harvested at the R6 stage (at 8:00 AM, 12:00 AM, and 6:00 PM, the color parameters were evaluated, and the grains were analyzed for chemical composition, activity inhibitor trypsin, phytic acid content, starch, sugars, fatty acids, and isoflavones. No differences were observed among the different harvest times in terms of the chemical constituents of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at the R6 stage. Isoflavones content did not change with different harvest times, and the aglycone forms (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein were found in smaller quantities at the R6 stage compared to the R8 stage. The color of the pods of soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage did not change with different harvest times. The grains harvested at the R6 stage had lower protein content, phytic acid, and sucrose and higher levels of lipids, carbohydrates, starch, glucose, fructose, stachyose, and linolenic acids than those collected at the R8 stage. The different times of harvest did not affect the quality of the vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar harvested at stage R6. Nevertheless, it is recommended to harvest in the morning, when the temperature is milder, like other vegetables, to facilitate and optimize its marketing and in natura consumption.O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da colheita em diferentes horários do dia sobre as características químicas e físicas dos grãos de soja da cultivar tipo hortaliça BRS 267, colhidos no estádio R6 (desenvolvimento da semente, e comparar com os colhidos no estádio R8 (maturação. As vagens da cultivar BRS 267 foram colhidas no estádio de desenvolvimento R6 nos horários das 8, 12 e 18 horas e avaliadas a cor e os grãos analisados quanto à composição química, atividade do inibidor de tripsina, teor do ácido fítico, amido, açúcares, ácidos graxos e isoflavonas. O teor de isoflavonas não diferiu entre os diferentes horários de colheita no estádio R6. No estádio R8 foi encontrado maior teor das formas agliconas. Os diferentes horários de colheita não influenciaram na cor das vagens e nos constituintes químicos dos grãos da cultivar BRS 267 colhida no estádio R6. Os grãos colhidos no estádio R6, quando comparados com os colhidos no estádio R8, apresentaram menor teor de proteínas, ácido fítico e sacarose e maior teor de lipídios, carboidratos, amido, glicose, frutose, estaquiose e ácido linolênico. A qualidade da soja tipo hortaliça BRS 267 no estádio R6 não diferiu com os diferentes horários de colheita, contudo, como produto tipo hortaliça, recomenda-se que a colheita seja realizada no período da manhã, cuja temperatura é mais amena, para facilitar a rápida comercialização e consumo como alimento in natura.

  8. Research on Chengdu Vegetables Marketing Based on STP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market as samples, in the form of questionnaires and interviews, to study the consumer motivations and psychology, and make market segmentation of consumers. Results show that the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market can be divided into four types: the safety-pursuing type, the convenient and economical type, the family healthy type, and the fashionable type, among which the safety-pursuing type is the largest. Finally, authors put forward some suggestions for Chengdu vegetables market based on current conditions.

  9. Predicciones de cambios en los principales tipos de vegetación de Chile bajo cambio climático basados en un estudio preliminar: Modelos, incertidumbres y adaptación de la investigación para un mundo de biodiversidad dinámica / Changes in the main vegetation types of Chile predicted under climate change based on a preliminary study: Models, uncertainties and adapting research to a dynamic biodiversity world

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio, Pliscoff; Mary T. K, Arroyo; Lohengrin, Cavieres.

    Full Text Available Los efectos del cambio climático sobre la biodiversidad ocurren a diferentes niveles de organización (organismos, especies y ecosistemas). La vegetación se encuentra relacionada directamente con el clima, por lo que se espera que el calentamiento global altere la distribución de los tipos de vegetac [...] ión para el futuro cercano. Usando un enfoque de envoltura bioclimática, los tipos de vegetación de Chile fueron modelados y proyectados usando escenarios del IPCC para el año 2080. Los resultados presentan diferentes transiciones entre los tipos de vegetación, en relación a su distribución latitudinal y altitudinal actual. Entre los cambios principales, se identifica el avance altitudinal de la vegetación alpina, la expansión hacia el sur del desierto absoluto y del matorral desértico sobre el bosque escleróflo. Se esperan cambios en la representación relativa de las áreas protegidas dentro de los diferentes tipos de vegetación de Chile. Las limitaciones del ejercicio de modelación son discutidas junto a la necesidad de mejorar el conocimiento científico sobre procesos biológicos claves como dispersión y polinización. Abstract in english Climate change effects on biodiversity occur at different level of organization (organisms, species and ecosystems). Vegetation type bears a close relationship with climate, such that global warming is ex-pected to alter the distribution of major vegetation types in the near future. Using a bioclima [...] tic envelope modeling approach, the major vegetation types of Chile were modeled and projected using IPCC scenarios for year 2080. The results show transitions among vegetation types in relation to their current latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Major changes include an upward shift of the alpine vegetation and southward expansion of absolute desert and desert scrub into the present area of sclerophyllous forest. Changes in the relative representation of different vegetation types in Chile´s protected areas can be expected. The limitations of modeling exercises are discussed along with need for better scientific knowledge on key biological processes such as dispersal and pollination.

  10. Predicciones de cambios en los principales tipos de vegetación de Chile bajo cambio climático basados en un estudio preliminar: Modelos, incertidumbres y adaptación de la investigación para un mundo de biodiversidad dinámica Changes in the main vegetation types of Chile predicted under climate change based on a preliminary study: Models, uncertainties and adapting research to a dynamic biodiversity world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Pliscoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los efectos del cambio climático sobre la biodiversidad ocurren a diferentes niveles de organización (organismos, especies y ecosistemas. La vegetación se encuentra relacionada directamente con el clima, por lo que se espera que el calentamiento global altere la distribución de los tipos de vegetación para el futuro cercano. Usando un enfoque de envoltura bioclimática, los tipos de vegetación de Chile fueron modelados y proyectados usando escenarios del IPCC para el año 2080. Los resultados presentan diferentes transiciones entre los tipos de vegetación, en relación a su distribución latitudinal y altitudinal actual. Entre los cambios principales, se identifica el avance altitudinal de la vegetación alpina, la expansión hacia el sur del desierto absoluto y del matorral desértico sobre el bosque escleróflo. Se esperan cambios en la representación relativa de las áreas protegidas dentro de los diferentes tipos de vegetación de Chile. Las limitaciones del ejercicio de modelación son discutidas junto a la necesidad de mejorar el conocimiento científico sobre procesos biológicos claves como dispersión y polinización.Climate change effects on biodiversity occur at different level of organization (organisms, species and ecosystems. Vegetation type bears a close relationship with climate, such that global warming is ex-pected to alter the distribution of major vegetation types in the near future. Using a bioclimatic envelope modeling approach, the major vegetation types of Chile were modeled and projected using IPCC scenarios for year 2080. The results show transitions among vegetation types in relation to their current latitudinal and altitudinal distribution. Major changes include an upward shift of the alpine vegetation and southward expansion of absolute desert and desert scrub into the present area of sclerophyllous forest. Changes in the relative representation of different vegetation types in Chile´s protected areas can be expected. The limitations of modeling exercises are discussed along with need for better scientific knowledge on key biological processes such as dispersal and pollination.

  11. Comparative analysis of remotely-sensed data products via ecological niche modeling of avian influenza case occurrences in Middle Eastern poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiangming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological niche modeling integrates known sites of occurrence of species or phenomena with data on environmental variation across landscapes to infer environmental spaces potentially inhabited (i.e., the ecological niche to generate predictive maps of potential distributions in geographic space. Key inputs to this process include raster data layers characterizing spatial variation in environmental parameters, such as vegetation indices from remotely sensed satellite imagery. The extent to which ecological niche models reflect real-world distributions depends on a number of factors, but an obvious concern is the quality and content of the environmental data layers. Methods We assessed ecological niche model predictions of H5N1 avian flu presence quantitatively within and among four geographic regions, based on models incorporating two means of summarizing three vegetation indices derived from the MODIS satellite. We evaluated our models for predictive ability using partial ROC analysis and GLM ANOVA to compare performance among indices and regions. Results We found correlations between vegetation indices to be high, such that they contain information that overlaps broadly. Neither the type of vegetation index used nor method of summary affected model performance significantly. However, the degree to which model predictions had to be transferred (i.e., projected onto landscapes and conditions not represented on the landscape of training impacted predictive strength greatly (within-region model predictions far out-performed models projected among regions. Conclusion Our results provide the first quantitative tests of most appropriate uses of different remotely sensed data sets in ecological niche modeling applications. While our testing did not result in a decisive "best" index product or means of summarizing indices, it emphasizes the need for careful evaluation of products used in modeling (e.g. matching temporal dimensions and spatial resolution for optimum performance, instead of simple reliance on large numbers of data layers.

  12. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  13. DUCKWEED – A PERSPECTIVE VEGETABLE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of use duckweed as green vegetable are considered in article. The structure of types of duckweeds, their biological features, distribution in the world and in the territory of the Krasnodar region is shown. Possibility of their use as biotesters and bioindicators of the water environment, as analytical system for the analysis is shown. Questions of use of duckweed in artificial conditions as well as requirements to the content of culture are considered

  14. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type) of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Albie R., Götze; Sarel S., Cilliers; Hugo, Bezuidenhout; Klaus, Kellner.

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to id [...] entify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  15. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Beduizenhout

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  16. Effect oof some antibiotics, disinfectants, and UV light on vability of vegetative cells and spores of C1. perfringend type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells and spores of 40 strains of C1. perfringens type A, pathogenic for guinea pigs, were tested for resistance to antibiotics, drugs, disinfectants used in surgery and in bacteriological laboratories, and UV light. No correlation was found between thermoresistance of spores and their resistance to other bactericidal agents. Among the common disinfectants, iodine solution showed strong bactericidal and sporostatic activity. Good bactericidal effect was also obtained by combined action of Vescodin and UV light. Drug resistance of C1. perfringens type A strains changed clearly in the past 10 years. Strains inducing gangrene became resistant to penicillin and tetracyclines, which hitherto were commonly applied. Ampicilin can now be recommended, as the antibiotic with strong bactericidal and sporostatic action. (author)

  17. Warfare Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary E. Machlis (University of Idaho; )

    2008-09-01

    Among human activities causing ecological change, war is both intensive and far-reaching. Yet environmental research related to warfare is limited in depth and fragmented by discipline. Here we (1) outline a field of study called "warfare ecology," (2) provide a taxonomy of warfare useful for organizing the field, (3) review empirical studies, and (4) propose research directions and policy implications that emerge from the ecological study of warfare. Warfare ecology extends to the three stages of warfare - preparations, war, and postwar activities - and treats biophysical and socioeconomic systems as coupled systems. A review of empirical studies suggests complex relationships between warfare and ecosystem change. Research needs include the development of theory and methods for examining the cascading effects of warfare on specific ecosystems. Policy implications include greater incorporation of ecological science into military planning and improved rehabilitation of postwar ecosystem services, leading to increased peace and security.

  18. Recall of vegetable eating affects future predicted enjoyment and choice of vegetables in British University undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    Predictions about enjoyment of future experiences are influenced by recalling similar past experiences. However, little is known about the relationship between hedonic memories of past eating episodes and future eating behavior. We investigated recall of previous experiences of eating vegetables and the effect of recall on future predicted liking for and consumption of vegetables. British University undergraduate students were asked to retrieve memories of previous occasions when they ate vegetables and were asked to rate how enjoyable those experiences were (Study 1, n=54). The effect of different types of memory recall (including vegetable eating recall) and visualization of someone else eating vegetables (to control for priming effects) on predicted likelihood of choosing vegetables and predicted enjoyment of eating vegetables was examined (Study 2, n=95). Finally, the effect of recalling vegetable eating memories on actual food choice from a buffet was assessed (Study 3, n=63). It is reported that people recall positive memories of past vegetable consumption (P<0.05) and that reminding people of these experiences results in higher predicted future liking for vegetables (P<0.05) and choice of a larger portion size of vegetables (P<0.05) compared with recall of a personal nonfood memory, a nonvegetable food memory, or visualization of someone else enjoying eating vegetables (increase of approximately 70% in vegetable portion size compared to controls). The results suggest that recall of previous eating experiences could be a potential strategy for altering food choices. PMID:21963021

  19. Propagação vegetativa da alfavaca-cravo utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos Vegetative propagation of the wild basil using different types of cuttings and substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Aparecida D. Ehlert

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa é considerada importante ferramenta para o melhoramento de espécies lenhosas e herbáceas e vem sendo amplamente utilizada, visando melhorar e manter variedades de importância econômica e medicinal. Neste contexto utilizou-se estacas de alfavaca-cravo de 15 cm para apicais e 25 cm para as medianas, sendo estas com e sem folhas. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células, utilizando-se 10 substratos. Após 35 dias, as estacas foram retiradas com cuidado, sendo as partes aéreas e radiculares separadas e acondicionadas em saco de papel e mantidas em estufa a 70ºC por 48 h para posterior avaliação da matéria seca. Analisou-se a percentagem de enraizamento, número de folhas na estaca, peso de matéria seca de folha e de raiz. Não houve interação significativa entre os diferentes tipos de substrato e estaca para percentagem de enraizamento, sendo que os substratos de modo geral diferiram pouco entre si. Entre os tipos de estaca destacaram-se para esta variável a mediana sem folha e a apical com folha. Para as demais variáveis houve interação significativa entre o tipo de estaca e o substrato. A melhor estaca foi a mediana sem folhas plantadas em substrato arisco + esterco + húmus e vermiculita nas seguintes proporções: 20%:40%:40%; 40%:20%:40% e 40%:40%.The vegetative propagation is an important tool for the improvement of woody and herbaceous species and could be an important tool to improve and to maintain varieties of economic and medicinal importance. In this experiment cuttings 15 cm long of the apical portion and also 25 cm long cuttings of the medial portion of the stems, were used both with and without leaves. The cuttings were planted on styrofoam trays with 72 cells, using 10 different substrata. After 35 days, cuttings were carefully removed, the aerial portion being separated from the roots and conditioned in paper bags and maintained in a stove at 70ºC for 48 h, for the dry weight evaluation. There were analyzed the percentage of rooting, number of leaves per cutting and leaf and root dry weight. There was no interaction among substrata and cuttings for the percentage of rooting. Were no significant differences in the rooting among the different substrata used in the experiment there. Better rooting was observed on cuttings from the medial portion of the stem without leaves and from the apical portion with leaves. For the other variables there was significant interaction between the cuttings and the substrata. The cutting that presented best results were those from the medial portion without leaves in the substrata with A+E sandy soil + humus + vermiculite in the following proportions: (20%: 40%:40%; (40%:20%:40% and (40%:40%:20% respectively.

  20. Propagação vegetativa da alfavaca-cravo utilizando diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos / Vegetative propagation of the wild basil using different types of cuttings and substrata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Polyana Aparecida D., Ehlert; José Magno Q., Luz; Renato, Innecco.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa é considerada importante ferramenta para o melhoramento de espécies lenhosas e herbáceas e vem sendo amplamente utilizada, visando melhorar e manter variedades de importância econômica e medicinal. Neste contexto utilizou-se estacas de alfavaca-cravo de 15 cm para apicais e 2 [...] 5 cm para as medianas, sendo estas com e sem folhas. As estacas foram plantadas em bandejas de isopor de 72 células, utilizando-se 10 substratos. Após 35 dias, as estacas foram retiradas com cuidado, sendo as partes aéreas e radiculares separadas e acondicionadas em saco de papel e mantidas em estufa a 70ºC por 48 h para posterior avaliação da matéria seca. Analisou-se a percentagem de enraizamento, número de folhas na estaca, peso de matéria seca de folha e de raiz. Não houve interação significativa entre os diferentes tipos de substrato e estaca para percentagem de enraizamento, sendo que os substratos de modo geral diferiram pouco entre si. Entre os tipos de estaca destacaram-se para esta variável a mediana sem folha e a apical com folha. Para as demais variáveis houve interação significativa entre o tipo de estaca e o substrato. A melhor estaca foi a mediana sem folhas plantadas em substrato arisco + esterco + húmus e vermiculita nas seguintes proporções: 20%:40%:40%; 40%:20%:40% e 40%:40%. Abstract in english The vegetative propagation is an important tool for the improvement of woody and herbaceous species and could be an important tool to improve and to maintain varieties of economic and medicinal importance. In this experiment cuttings 15 cm long of the apical portion and also 25 cm long cuttings of t [...] he medial portion of the stems, were used both with and without leaves. The cuttings were planted on styrofoam trays with 72 cells, using 10 different substrata. After 35 days, cuttings were carefully removed, the aerial portion being separated from the roots and conditioned in paper bags and maintained in a stove at 70ºC for 48 h, for the dry weight evaluation. There were analyzed the percentage of rooting, number of leaves per cutting and leaf and root dry weight. There was no interaction among substrata and cuttings for the percentage of rooting. Were no significant differences in the rooting among the different substrata used in the experiment there. Better rooting was observed on cuttings from the medial portion of the stem without leaves and from the apical portion with leaves. For the other variables there was significant interaction between the cuttings and the substrata. The cutting that presented best results were those from the medial portion without leaves in the substrata with A+E sandy soil + humus + vermiculite in the following proportions: (20%: 40%:40%); (40%:20%:40%) and (40%:40%:20%) respectively.

  1. Bacteriophage Ecology in Commercial Sauerkraut Fermentations†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Breidt, F.; Plengvidhya, V.; Fleming, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 phage isolates, including at least 26 distinct phages, were obtained. In addition, 28 distinct host strains were isolated and identified as LAB by restriction analysis of the intergenic transcribed spacer region and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. These host strains included Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species. It was found that there were two phage-host systems in the fermentations corresponding to the population shift from heterofermentative to homofermentative LAB between 3 and 7 days after the start of the fermentations. The data suggested that phages may play an important role in the microbial ecology and succession of LAB species in vegetable fermentations. Eight phage isolates, which were independently obtained two or more times, were further characterized. They belonged to the family Myoviridae or Siphoviridae and showed distinct host ranges and DNA fingerprints. Two of the phage isolates were found to be capable of infecting two Lactobacillus species. The results from this study demonstrated for the first time the complex phage ecology present in commercial sauerkraut fermentations, providing new insights into the bioprocess of vegetable fermentations. PMID:12788716

  2. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z; Breidt, F; Plengvidhya, V; Fleming, H P

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 phage isolates, including at least 26 distinct phages, were obtained. In addition, 28 distinct host strains were isolated and identified as LAB by restriction analysis of the intergenic transcribed spacer region and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. These host strains included Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species. It was found that there were two phage-host systems in the fermentations corresponding to the population shift from heterofermentative to homofermentative LAB between 3 and 7 days after the start of the fermentations. The data suggested that phages may play an important role in the microbial ecology and succession of LAB species in vegetable fermentations. Eight phage isolates, which were independently obtained two or more times, were further characterized. They belonged to the family Myoviridae or Siphoviridae and showed distinct host ranges and DNA fingerprints. Two of the phage isolates were found to be capable of infecting two Lactobacillus species. The results from this study demonstrated for the first time the complex phage ecology present in commercial sauerkraut fermentations, providing new insights into the bioprocess of vegetable fermentations. PMID:12788716

  3. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, L. R.; Hölzer, N.; Marrs, R.; del Moral, R.; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 17, ?. 2 (2014), s. 187-192. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  4. Road–side herbaceous vegetation: life history groups and habitat preferences.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 58, ?. 1 (2010), s. 69-79. ISSN 1505-2249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 350.002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : road-side vegetation * road ecology * life form * life history * habitat preference * alien species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010

  5. Natural Plant Communities in View of Response Variables and Ecological Indices from Lalsuhanra Biosphere Reserve, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Chaudhry

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the ecology of vegetation and to see if the heterogeneity of soil is the main determining factor for the diversity of natural vegetation. Therophytes were the most prominent proportion of life-form spectrum. On the basis of highest IVI three plant communities, Ochthochloa-Cymbopogon- Community, Launaea-Aerva- Community and Lasiurus scindicus-Community were recognized at the three selected habitats. Measurements for ecological indices showed that Launaea-Aerva- Community was more diverse with regard to species number, richness and evenness as compared to the other two plant communities studied. Present results for the pearson moment correlation showed that soil chemical composition may be the main factor not only for array of vegetation but also determines that what type of plant species can grow there. Soil variables were found highly different at all the study sites. We concluded that soil heterogeneity is the major determinant for development of plant communities while climate do not differ much in the area.

  6. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE's need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. FLORA AND VEGETATION OF GRASSLANDS FROM NIRNOVA RIVER’S BOTTOMLAND

    OpenAIRE

    MIRON ALIONA

    2008-01-01

    The paper represents a synthesis of the investigation issues performed in Nârnova River’s grassland during the 2006-2007 vegetation periods. Floristic and phytocoenotic composition of vegetation’s grassland was established. Floristic Inventory of Nârnova River’s grassland includes 193 species, appertaining to 112 genus and 38 families. Flora was analyzed from taxonomic, bioform, geoelement, ecological index, economical importance points of view. 11 species with different endangered level were...

  9. Native vegetation of southeast NSW: a revised classification and map for the coast and eastern tablelands

    OpenAIRE

    Tozer, M. G.; Turner, K.; Keith, D. A.; Tindall, D.; Pennay, C.; Simpson, C; Mackenzie, B; Beukers, P.; Cox, S.

    2013-01-01

    Native vegetation of the NSW south coast, escarpment and southeast tablelands was classified into 191 floristic assemblages at a level of detail appropriate for the discrimination of Threatened Ecological Communities and other vegetation units referred to in government legislation. Assemblages were derived by a numerical analysis of 10832 field sample quadrats including 8523 compiled from 63 previous vegetation surveys. Past bias in the distribution of field data towards land under public ten...

  10. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  11. Vegetation development in central European coal mining sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 38-52. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Variability of contemporary vegetation around Petuniabukta, central Spitsbergen.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; Klimešová, Jitka; Košnar, J.; Red?enko, O.; Hais, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 33, ?. 4 (2012), 383-394. ISSN 0138-0338 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation * ordination * diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2012

  13. Discrepancies among ecological, household, and individual data on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil / Discrepância entre dados ecológicos, domiciliares e individuais sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Moreira, Claro; Patricia Constante, Jaime; Karen, Lock; Regina Mara, Fisberg; Carlos Augusto, Monteiro.

    2168-21-01

    Full Text Available Dados sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças no Brasil, em três níveis de informação, foram analisados e comparados. Dados sobre a oferta nacional foram obtidos em Folhas de Balanço de Alimentos da FAO; a disponibilidade domiciliar de frutas e hortaliças baseou-se em resultados da Pesquisa de Orçame [...] ntos Familiares (POF); informações sobre o consumo de frutas e hortaliças foram obtidas em um inquérito de consumo alimentar representativo da população adulta do Município de São Paulo. Todas as informações referem-se ao período entre 2002 e 2003. Uma subamostra dos domicílios da POF, representativa da cidade de São Paulo, foi utilizada a fim de melhorar a qualidade da comparação com dados de consumo de folhas e hortaliças. A razão entre a oferta nacional e a disponibilidade domiciliar de frutas e hortaliças foi de 2,6, enquanto a razão entre oferta nacional e o seu consumo foi de 4,0. A razão entre a disponibilidade domiciliar e o consumo foi de 1,6. Embora o uso de dados da oferta e disponibilidade de frutas e hortaliças apresente certas vantagens, como o menor custo, sua utilização deve levar em conta a tendência a superestimar o consumo de frutas e hortaliças. Abstract in english Information on fruits and vegetables consumption in Brazil in the three levels of dietary data was analyzed and compared. Data about national supply came from Food Balance Sheets compiled by the FAO; household availability information was obtained from the Brazilian National Household Budget Survey [...] (HBS); and actual intake information came from a large individual dietary intake survey that was representative of the adult population of São Paulo city. All sources of information were collected between 2002 and 2003. A subset of the HBS, representative of São Paulo city, was used in our analysis in order to improve the quality of the comparison with actual intake data. The ratio of national supply to household availability of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 while the ratio of national supply to actual intake was 4.0. The discrepancy ratio in the comparison between household availability and actual intake was smaller, 1.6. While the use of supply and availability data has advantages, as lower cost, must be taken into account that these sources tend to overestimate actual intake of fruits and vegetables.

  14. An Assessment of Mining Activities Impact on Vegetation in Bukuru Jos Plateau State Nigeria Using Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Haruna D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study area has a pathetic and deplorable condition of landuse/ landcover. The vegetal cover in the area has to be removed from the activities of tin mining which consequently resulted into adverse environmental effect such as erosion. Different forms of human induced stress such as tin mining and heavy rainfall have severely degraded soils on the Jos Plateau. Such degradation problems are also caused by deforestation, inappropriate farming system, bush burning and over-grazing which are hostile to the environment. The impact of tin mining has greatly affected the natural ecology of the study area Bukuru. Micro and macro organisms and plants have been stripped off their natural habitat due to tin mining activities. This paper therefore, assesses the mining activities impact on the vegetation in Bukuru area of Jos plateau in Nigeria. Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI techniques was adopted to Maps effect of tin mining on the vegetation for the period between 1975 and 2007 using LandSat satellite data. The result of the differential vegetation index analysis reveals a decline in vegetated surfaces in 1986 ranging from 0.04 to 0.58 indicating 0.05 and continuous loss in vegetation over the study area in 2007 (vegetated surface decrease by 0.08 between 1986 and 2007. The decrease in vegetated surface is due to intensive mining and cultivation.

  15. Trepadeiras: florística da Estação Ecológica do Caiuá e chave de identificação vegetativa para espécies do Norte do Estado do Paraná - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5892 Climbers: flora of the Caiuá Ecological Station and an identification key for the vegetative species of Northern Paraná State - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5892

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Souza Carneiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As trepadeiras são plantas com alta representatividade nas florestas tropicais e de grande importância ecológica, apontadas como um dos fatores básicos que diferencia florestas tropicais de temperadas. Este trabalho apresenta as espécies de trepadeiras da Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (EECAIUÁ, município de Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, inserida na floresta estacional semidecidual (FES submontana, situada à margem do rio Paranapanema. Foram encontradas 17 famílias, 44 gêneros e 53 espécies. As cinco famílias mais ricas em número de espécies perfazem juntas 57% do total encontrado. As trepadeiras herbáceas ocorrem em menor número quando comparadas às lianas, e quanto à estratégia utilizada para ascender, as volúveis são as mais diversas, seguidas pelas de órgãos preensores (gavinhas e escandentes. Uma chave de identificação para famílias, baseada em caracteres vegetativos, foi produzida para as famílias desta localidade com as famílias encontradas em outras duas no Norte do Paraná.Climbers are highly represented in tropical forests and are of great ecological importance, having been identified as one of the key factors that differentiate tropical forests from temperate rainforests. This paper presents the climber species of the Caiuá Ecological Station (EECAIUÁ in the City of Diamante do Norte, Paraná State; the Station is located in a submountainous seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF and is situated on the edge of the Paranapanema river. We found 17 families, 44 genera and 53 species of vines. The five families with the greatest number of species jointly accounted for 57% of the total species found. Herbaceous vines occurred less frequently than did lianas. When considering the climbing strategy used by the species, the graspers were the most diverse, followed by those that had tendrils (scramblers and climbers. An identification key based on vegetative characters of families found in other parts of northern Paraná was created for the families of this location.

  16. Vegetable communities and degradation patterns and succession in the vegetation of the Western Hills of Chia, Cundinamarca - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two physiognomic plant communities were characterized: open vegetation which include the associations Dichondro repentis - Cupheetum serpyllifoliae (meadows), Baccharido rupicolae - Dodonaeetum viscosae (low shrubby vegetation), Andropogono aequatoriensis - Epidendretum elongatae (casmophytic vegetation) and Chaetolepido microphyllae-Espeletiopsietum corymbosae (shrubby vegetation-type with rosette plants). The closed vegetation includes two kinds of forests, Miconio ligustrinae- Weinmannietum tomentosae and Daphnopsio caracasanae - Xylosmetum spiculiferae. According to the floristic composition, depth of the soil, slope climate, relief and the anthropic influence (including degradation and natural succession), two trends in plant succession were defined

  17. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouveia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI, with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  18. Modeling vegetation diversity types in mexico based upon topographic features / Modelado da diversidade de tipos de vegetação no méxico baseado em atributos topográficos / Modelado de la diversidad de tipos de vegetación en méxico basado en atributos topográficos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Azucena, Pérez; Jean, François Mas; Alejandro, Velázquez; Lorenzo, Vázquez.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o papel da topografia como variável substituta para explicar padrões de diversidade de tipos de vegetação (DTV). Calculou-se o índice de diversidade de vegetação de Simpson para todo o território mexicano utilizando mapas de uso do solo e vegetação por meio de SIG. Determinou-se a correla [...] ção entre diversidade de vegetação e alguns atributos topográficos (altitude, faixa de elevação, inclinação, rugosidade e exposição), encontrando-se correlação significativa entre as variáveis topográficas e a diversidade de vegetação (Coeficiente de Spearman >0,4, p=0,01 com três variáveis: faixa e média de elevação, e inclinação) com uma ventana otima de 80×80km². Logo se modelou os DTV com base nos atributos topográficos usando um enfoque de redes neurais artificiais. A comparação entre os mapas de DTV modelados e reais mostrou que o modelo é uma boa estimação da diversidade de vegetação. A análise de erros sugere que os DTV não podem explicar-se totalmente por atributos topográficos, ainda que estes joguem um papel fundamental nos DTV a escala regional e continental. As coberturas do solo e a vegetação refletem os padrões de distribuição da biodiversidade, pelo que a modelação dos DTV é um enfoque prometedor para avaliar a biodiversidade. A conclusão principal é que as variáveis topográficas, disponíveis em diferentes escalas de resolução para a maior parte do mundo, podem ser utilizadas para representar padrões regionais de biodiversidade. Este aspecto é crucial em países tropicais, os quais apresentam alta biodiversidade mas, freqüentemente carecem de bases de dados sobre coberturas do solo confiáveis e atualizadas Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el papel de la topografía como variable sustituta para explicar patrones de diversidad de tipos de vegetación (DTV). Se calculó el índice de diversidad de vegetación de Simpson para todo el territorio mexicano utilizando mapas de uso del suelo y vegetación por medio de SIG. Se determinó la [...] correlación entre diversidad de vegetación y algunos atributos topográficos (altitud, rango de elevación, pendiente, rugosidad y exposición), encontrándose correlación significativa entre las variables topográficas y la diversidad de vegetación (Coeficiente de Spearman >0,4, p=0,01 con tres variables: rango y promedio de elevación, y pendiente) con una ventana óptima de 80×80km². Luego se modeló los DTV con base en los atributos topográficos usando un enfoque de redes neurales artificiales. La comparación entre los mapas de DTV modelados y reales mostró que el modelo es una buena estimación de la diversidad de vegetación. El análisis de errores sugiere que los DTV no pueden explicarse totalmente por atributos topográficos, aunque éstos juegan un papel fundamental en los DTV a escala regional y continental. Las coberturas del suelo y la vegetación reflejan los patrones de distribución de la biodiversidad, por lo que la modelación de los DTV es un enfoque prometedor para evaluar la biodiversidad. La conclusión principal es que las variables topográficas, disponibles en diferentes escalas de resolución para la mayor parte del mundo, pueden ser utilizadas para representar patrones regionales de biodiversidad. Este aspecto es crucial en países tropicales, los cuales presentan alta biodiversidad pero frecuentemente carecen de bases de datos sobre coberturas del suelo confiables y actualizadas Abstract in english The role played by topography as a surrogate variable to explain vegetation diversity types (VDT) was evaluated. Using GIS, a Simpson vegetation diversity index for the entire Mexican territory was computed based on land use and vegetation maps. Then, the correlation between VDT and topographical at [...] tributes (elevation, range of elevation, slope, roughness and diversity of aspect) was calculated using different sizes of analysis windows. A significant correlation between topographical variables and vegetation diversity was found (Spearman coefficient of

  19. Material-Efficient Utilization of Waste Oils—Biodegradability and Other Chemical Properties of Vegetable Recycling Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Prokkola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is nowadays an essential topic to promote the sustainable use of natural resources, waste materials and industrial by-products, in agreement with the principle of sustainable development and LCA (life cycle assessment. In this research it was determined the biodegradation of used vegetable oil based products and their important physico- chemical properties for their suitability in different applications such as chain oil in the forestry equipment and mold oil in concrete casting etc. Biodegradability is a measure of the ecological nature of products, and thus from an environ- mental point of view, is the most important evaluated property in this research. As a result, all measured properties of the studied recycled vegetable oils show that the products are environmentally friendly. Two types of vegetable oil were studied; three chain oils and two mold oils. The degree of biodegradation (BOD28 of the mold oils, was about 77 % and the biodegradation of chain oils was about 60% - 62%. In addition, this paper also presents a process outline for manu- facturing recycling vegetable oils.

  20. Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and Composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for Biophysical Characterization and Discrimination of Crop Types Using Field Reflectance and Hyperion-EO-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mariotto, Isabella; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Landis, David R.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy approx. 70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using approx. 20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was approx. 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or "the curse of high dimensionality") in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysical characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI. Index Terms-Hyperion, field reflectance, imaging spectroscopy, HyspIRI, biophysical parameters, hyperspectral vegetation indices, hyperspectral narrowbands, broadbands.

  1. Identifying Droughts by Modeling the Hydrologic and Ecologic Responses in the Medjerda River Basin, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Koike, T.; Jaranilla-sanchez, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drought brings severe damage to water and agricultural resources, and both of hydrological and ecological responses are important for understanding droughts. However, the ecological contributions to drought characteristics at the basin scale have not been quantified. To address this issue, we developed an eco-hydrological model that can calculate vegetation dynamics as a diagnostic valuable in a distributed-hydrological modeling framework and identified different drought types in the Medjerda River Basin where drought is a predominant issue. From the inputs and outputs of the model, we calculate drought indices for different drought types. The model shows reliable accuracy in reproducing the observed river discharge and the satellite observed leaf area index in the long-term (19-year) simulation. Moreover, the drought index calculated from model estimated annual peak of leaf area index is well correlated (correlation coefficient; r = 0.89; see Figure) with drought index from nationwide annual crop production, which show the modeled leaf area index has enough capacity to reproducing agricultural droughts that can be related with historical food shortage on 1988-1989 and 1993-1995. Our model can estimate vegetation dynamics and water cycle simultaneously in the enough accuracy to analyze the basin-scale agricultural and hydrological droughts separately. We clarify that vegetation dynamics has quicker response to meteorological droughts than river discharge and groundwater dynamics in Medjerda River Basin because vegetation dynamics is sensitive to soil moisture in surface layers while soil moisture in deeper layers strongly contributes to stream flow and depth of groundwater level. Therefore, historical agricultural droughts predominantly occurred prior to hydrological droughts and in the 1988-1989 drought, the hydrological drought lasted much longer even after crop production recovered. Standardized anomaly index (SA) for estimated annual maximum leaf area index (green line) from model and observed annual crop production in Tunisia (orange line).

  2. Successional Pattern, Stand Structure and Regeneration of Forest Vegetation According to Local Environmental Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay R. Dyakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attempted botanical and ecological studies so far, integrated picture of successional and regenerative pattern of the forest vegetation in the studied area have not been achieved. Moreover, stand composition and development of these forests have never been studied in the context of environmental gradients. This study aims to integrate and clarify the accumulated knowledge about the successional pattern, stand structure and regeneration in the studied territory. It has also attempted to test some classical viewpoints about the forest vegetation pattern, placed in the context of environmental gradients. We hypothesized that most forest stands will follow the normal diameter distribution. Gradient-transect sampling procedure was used. Accumulated field samples were classified using TWINSPAN clustering method. Obtained forest community types were tested for consistency. Distribution of stand stem number by diameter classes was tested with Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Stand successional distribution followed its own trajectory and no convergence has been found. All stands had normal diameter distribution and compromised seed regeneration, i.e. they were in “stagnant” condition. Dominant trees also had normal stem distribution except beech stands from the most xeric habitats, but this was due to their sprouting regeneration. We hypothesized that this regeneration pattern is due to erroneous management and lack of major natural disturbances in the area during the last decades, which could have drew the stands from “stagnancy” and restart the seed regeneration. If this tendency is maintained we suppose that it will lead to continuing degradation of local forest vegetation.

  3. Quantifying the Resilience of Vegetation and Soil Moisture During Dry Spells Using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Andreadis, K.; Granger, S. L.; Fisher, J. B.; Behrangi, A.; Das, N. N.; Turk, J.

    2014-12-01

    Manifestations of the constantly intensifying hydrological cycle differ substantially among the various regions of the globe. The spatial distribution, magnitude, as well as timing of precipitation events are being altered globally, resulting in significant biotic implications. Motivated by the pressing need to understand how the different components of natural habitats behave under extreme hydrologic conditions, we quantitatively assessed the response of two major hydrological attributes, namely soil moisture (SM) and vegetation water content (VWC) to rainfall deficiencies. More specifically, using multi-year microwave remote sensing observations, we quantified the changes of VWC and SM during dry spells, as well as their resilience during those periods. Differences among vegetation types, as well as the effect of the duration of the dry spells were also investigated. Finally, spatial patterns and characteristics of the response of VWC and SM to sustained precipitation deficits were identified across the study area, and within each of the major vegetation regimes of the region. This hydro-ecological study provides critical insight into the behavior of two crucial components of the natural ecosystems during prolonged dry periods, which in turn yields useful information on the role of the hydrologic regimes in determining biotic composition and patterns, as well as the regional micro-climatology. Furthermore, this information can significantly contribute towards the achievement of more efficient and precise farming practices at the local level, resulting in the increase of food security and societal well-being.

  4. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  5. Urban Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    When people think about the concept and idea of ecology, they may not immediately picture a bustling urban street or a network of interconnected bike paths. Since 1975, a group of architects and activists have been thinking about exactly those things in terms of urban ecology (and a good deal more to boot), coupling it with a conviction that urban ecology can draw on ecology, public participation and urban planning "to help design and build healthier cities." Given these ideas, it seems logical that this organization has its roots in the Bay Area, and continues to offer up interesting plans and proposals, many of which can be found on the website. One such document is the Walkable Streets Toolkit, which is designed for use by communities that seek to make their streets more pedestrian friendly. Additionally, visitors will want to look at current and past editions of The Urban Ecologist, which is the group's quarterly newsletter.

  6. Campus Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation

    This website from the National Wildlife Federation showcases environmental conservation projects that have been successfully undertaken by various universities. The site features example projects and resources for doing your own campus project. Topics include building design, energy, environmental literacy, habitat restoration, water, transportation and waste reduction. Links to the online Campus Ecology Yearbook and the Campus Ecology Research Station and other resources are also included.

  7. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in 2012. Once compiled and quality controlled, all of our data are freely available online via the Arctic Observing Network's Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS). Here we present some of our findings to show how our results can be advantageous to various disciplines including plant ecology, hydrology, geology, atmospheric sciences, and remote sensing. For instance, we found that albedo decreases with increasing NDVI after initial green-up and loss of dead standing litter (DOY 174-184), displaying an r2 of 0.90 in 2012 at Toolik Lake. This relationship is vital for determining phonological events via remote sensing and understanding the surface energy balance that impacts atmospheric processes, weather and climate, the hydrologic cycle, and ecophysiological progression throughout the short arctic growing season. Scaling these data to larger scales, which is critical to future monitoring of the potential impacts of climate change on arctic vegetation, is facilitated by linkage of measurements along the NIMS transects and manual vegetation measurements in the 1 km2 sample grids with frequent low-altitude aerial photography.

  8. Role of vegetation on erosion processes: experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Investigations on soil-system ecology are ever more oriented toward quantitative information based on the study of the linkages between physical processes and ecological response in rivers. As it is known, in presence of vegetation, the hydrodynamics characteristics of flow are principally determined by the mutual interrelation between the flow velocity field and the hydraulic behavior (completely submerged or emergent) of the vegetation elements. Much effort has been made toward identifying the theoretical law to interpret the vertical profile of flow longitudinal velocity in vegetated channels. Many theoretical and experimental studies in laboratory channels have been carried out and especially the case of submerged flexible vegetation has been examined (Termini, 2012). The effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion. Vegetation has a complex effect on walls roughness and the study of the hydrodynamic conditions of flow is difficult. Although most studies based on the "boundary layer" scheme so that the hydrodynamic conditions inside and above the vegetated layer are considered separately, some authors (Ghisalberti and Nepft, 2002; Carollo et al., 2008) claim that the "mixing layer" scheme is more appropriate to define the velocity profile both inside and outside the vegetated layer. Experimental program has been recently carried out in two laboratory flumes constructed at the laboratory of Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali - University of Palermo (Italy) with real and flexible vegetation on the bed. In this paper, attention is paid to the influence of vegetation on the erosion processes both on the bed and on the channel banks. The structure of the detailed flow velocity field is analyzed and compared with that obtained in absence of vegetation. Attention is then devoted to the analysis of soil erosion mechanism. Carollo F.G., Ferro V., Termini D. (2008). Flow velocity profile and turbulence characteristics in a vegetated straight flume. International Congress Riverflow 2008- Cesnme - Izmir (Turkey) 3-5 September Ghisalberti, M. & Nepf, H. M. 2002. Mixing layer and coherent structures in vegetated acquatic flows. Journal of Geophysical Reseach 107(2). Termini D. (2012). Experimental investigation on the role of vegetation on sediment transport mechanism: review of recent results - 9th ISE - International Symposium on Ecohydraulics - 2012, ISSN 0945-358X Vienna - CD proceedings-

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  10. Temporal changes in endmember abundances, liquid water and water vapor over vegetation at Jasper Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Green, Robert O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry offers a new way of deriving ecological information about vegetation communities from remote sensing. Applications include derivation of canopy chemistry, measurement of column atmospheric water vapor and liquid water, improved detectability of materials, more accurate estimation of green vegetation cover and discrimination of spectrally distinct green leaf, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV: litter, wood, bark, etc.) and shade spectra associated with different vegetation communities. Much of our emphasis has been on interpreting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data spectral mixtures. Two approaches have been used, simple models, where the data are treated as a mixture of 3 to 4 laboratory/field measured spectra, known as reference endmembers (EM's), applied uniformly to the whole image, to more complex models where both the number of EM's and the types of EM's vary on a per-pixel basis. Where simple models are applied, materials, such as NPV, which are spectrally similar to soils, can be discriminated on the basis of residual spectra. One key aspect is that the data are calibrated to reflectance and modeled as mixtures of reference EM's, permitting temporal comparison of EM fractions, independent of scene location or data type. In previous studies the calibration was performed using a modified-empirical line calibration, assuming a uniform atmosphere across the scene. In this study, a Modtran-based calibration approach was used to map liquid water and atmospheric water vapor and retrieve surface reflectance from three AVIRIS scenes acquired in 1992 over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. The data were acquired on June 2nd, September 4th and October 6th. Reflectance images were analyzed as spectral mixtures of reference EM's using a simple 4 EM model. Atmospheric water vapor derived from Modtran was compared to elevation, and community type. Liquid water was compare to the abundance of NPV, Shade and Green Vegetation (VG) for select sites to determine whether a relationship existed, and under what conditions the relationship broke down. Temporal trends in endmember fractions, liquid water and atmospheric water vapor were investigated also. The combination of spectral mixture analysis and the Modtran based atmospheric/liquid water models was used to develop a unique vegetation community description.

  11. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, HONGYAN; HAO Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. W...

  12. Vegetation characteristics of geobiocoenological units of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mlýn NNR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Štykar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings results from the research of vegetation in forest geobiocenoses of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mlýn National Nature Reserve. The research was made on permanent and complementary research plots. Synthetic phytocoenological tables were presented for six most frequently occurring groups of geobiocoene types only with a brief description of their ecological and chorological character- istics (Sorbi-Piceeta humilia, Sorbi-Piceeta, Abieti-Fageta piceae typica, Fageta abietino-pi- ceosa, Abieti-Fageta piceae and Abieti-Fageta aceris superiora. The occurrence of Sorbus aucuparia is characteristic of all groups of geobiocoene types. Species with a high constancy in all groups of geobiocoene types are for example Athyrium distentifo- lium, Avenella ?exuosa, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Dryopteris dilatata, Luzula sylvatica, Oxalis acetosella, Polygonatum verticillatum and Rubus idaeus and species with a high coverage are Athyrium distentifolium, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Oxalis acetosella, Rubus idaeus and Vaccinium myrtillus. The results show that vegetation structure is a good indicator of abiotic conditions.

  13. Practical aspects of analyzing vegetable oils in fire debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Lisa M; Reardon, Michelle R

    2009-07-01

    Vegetable oils undergo burning, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition, resulting in their presence in fire debris. As these processes can affect the fatty acid content of vegetable oils, it is important that debris be properly handled in order to obtain reliable and informative data. This research investigated changes in vegetable oil content as a result of storage conditions and different types of burning. Material spiked with vegetable oils and burned was stored under various long-term conditions, and debris was tested by heating overnight using passive headspace concentration. Results indicated that refrigeration is ideal for fire debris samples suspected of containing vegetable oils and that including passive headspace concentration in the analytical scheme would not affect oils. Spontaneous ignition experiments were conducted to compare the effects of various burning processes on vegetable oil content. Vegetable oils that experienced nonpiloted ignition, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition produced noticeably different chromatograms from those that underwent piloted ignition. PMID:19467135

  14. Vegetation Dynamics and Community Assembly in Post-Agricultural Heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Summary This PhD study aims at understanding how biotic, abiotic and stochastic factors interact to structure a heathland vegetation community managed under different traditional land-use practices for centuries prior to abandonment ca. 120 years ago. This study is part of one of the longest spontaneous successional studies of heathland vegetation, where tree colonization and understory vegetation patterns were measured in successive vegetation surveys initiated in 1921. This data was complemented with an intensive survey of the current vegetation patterns and ecological factors. I found that land-use legacies are still present in the soil and were important determinants of vegetation dynamics and community assembly. However, the effects of land-use legacies were mostly mediated by the understory vegetation and differed according to the functional groups. The distance to the edge, a proxy for the proximity to external seed sources, was an important factor affecting different components of the structure of the vegetation, demonstrating the importance of dispersal in the development of the community. My results indicate that the effect of the biotic interactions varies along abiotic gradients (e.g. soil fertility) and interacts with the functional strategies of species to determine the establishment of colonizing species, species’ performances and diversity patterns in the local community. These results have implications for understanding the maintenance of biodiversity, the coexistence of species and the stability of heathland communities, which can be helpful when designing conservation and management actions.

  15. [Ecology suitability study of Cistanche deserticola in Alxa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-hua; Wang, Yan-fang; Yi, Le-tai; Zhang, Ai-hua; Ren, Kai; Zhang, Chun-hong; Bi, Ya-qiong; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    The distribution information of Cistanche deserticola was collected by interview investigation and field survey, and 55 related environmental factors were collected, the habitat suitability study was conducted based on geographic information system (GIS) and Maximum entropy model. The AUCs of ROC curve were both above 0.9, indicating that the predictive results with the maxent model were highly precise. The results showed that 14 major environmental factors have obvious influence on ecology suitability distributions of C. deserticola, including vegetation type et al, the suitable distribution areas are mainly concentrated in the central of Alxa Youqi, the north of Alxa Zouqi and the south-east of Ejin Banner, including Tamusu towns, Alateng towns et al, The zoning results basically coincide with the genuine producing areas, and further afford new suitable distribution areas, which can provide reference for the siting of introduction and cultivation of C. deserticola. PMID:26087534

  16. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  17. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  18. Parallel Vegetation Stripe Formation Through Hydrologic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yiwei; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg; Engel, Victor

    2010-05-01

    It has long been a challenge to theoretical ecologists to describe vegetation pattern formations such as the "tiger bush" stripes and "leopard bush" spots in Niger, and the regular maze patterns often observed in bogs in North America and Eurasia. To date, most of simulation models focus on reproducing the spot and labyrinthine patterns, and on the vegetation bands which form perpendicular to surface and groundwater flow directions. Various hypotheses have been invoked to explain the formation of vegetation patterns: selective grazing by herbivores, fire, and anisotropic environmental conditions such as slope. Recently, short distance facilitation and long distance competition between vegetation (a.k.a scale dependent feedback) has been proposed as a generic mechanism for vegetation pattern formation. In this paper, we test the generality of this mechanism by employing an existing, spatially explicit, advection-reaction-diffusion type model to describe the formation of regularly spaced vegetation bands, including those that are parallel to flow direction. Such vegetation patterns are, for example, characteristic of the ridge and slough habitat in the Florida Everglades and which are thought to have formed parallel to the prevailing surface water flow direction. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a simple model encompassing a nutrient accumulation mechanism along with biomass development and flow is used to demonstrate the formation of parallel stripes. We also explore the interactive effects of plant transpiration, slope and anisotropic hydraulic conductivity on the resulting vegetation pattern. Our results highlight the ability of the short distance facilitation and long distance competition mechanism to explain the formation of the different vegetation patterns beyond semi-arid regions. Therefore, we propose that the parallel stripes, like the other periodic patterns observed in both isotropic and anisotropic environments, are self-organized and form as a result of scale dependent feedback. Results from this study improve upon the current understanding on the formation of parallel stripes and provide a more general theoretical framework for future empirical and modeling efforts.

  19. Selection of hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) and composition of hyperspectral twoband vegetation indices (HVIs) for biophysical characterization and discrimination of crop types using field reflectance and Hyperion/EO-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Mariotto, I.; Gumma, M.K.; Middleton, E.M.; Landis, D.R.; Huemmrich, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy ~70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using ~20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was ~ 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or “the curse of high dimensionality”) in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysi- al characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI.

  20. Modeling hydrologic and ecologic responses using a new eco-hydrological model for identification of droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio; Jaranilla-Sanchez, Patricia Ann

    2014-07-01

    Drought severely damages water and agricultural resources, and both hydrological and ecological responses are important for its understanding. First, precipitation deficit induces soil moisture deficiency and high plant water stress causing agricultural droughts. Second, hydrological drought characterized by deficit of river discharge and groundwater follows agricultural drought. However, contributions of vegetation dynamics to these processes at basin scale have not been quantified. To address this issue, we develop an eco-hydrological model that can calculate river discharge, groundwater, energy flux, and vegetation dynamics as diagnostic variables at basin scale within a distributed hydrological modeling framework. The model is applied to drought analysis in the Medjerda River basin. From model inputs and outputs, we calculate drought indices for different drought types. The model shows reliable accuracy in reproducing observed river discharge in long-term (19 year) simulation. Moreover, the drought index calculated from the model-estimated annual peak of leaf area index correlates well (correlation coefficient r = 0.89) with the drought index from nationwide annual crop production, which demonstrates that the modeled leaf area index is capable of representing agricultural droughts related to historical food shortages. We show that vegetation dynamics have a more rapid response to meteorological droughts than river discharge and groundwater dynamics in the Medjerda basin because vegetation dynamics are sensitive to soil moisture in surface layers, whereas soil moisture in deeper layers strongly contributes to streamflow and groundwater level. Our modeling framework can contribute to analyze drought progress, although analyses for other climate conditions are needed.

  1. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  2. Modelling groundwater-dependent vegetation patterns using ensemble learning

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J.; Baets, B.; Samson, R.; Verhoest, N. E. C.

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation patterns arise from the interplay between intraspecific and interspecific biotic interactions and from different abiotic constraints and interacting driving forces and distributions. In this study, we constructed an ensemble learning model that, based on spatially distributed environmental variables, could model vegetation patterns at the local scale. The study site was an alluvial floodplain with marked hydrologic gradients on which different vegetation types developed. The model ...

  3. Using Vegetation, Precipitation, and Surface Temperature to Study Climate Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The type of climate present in a particular location depends on several variables, including surface temperature and annual precipitation. One indicator of a locale' s climate is the vegetation present, a relationship used by the Koeppen system of climate classification. Using a microset of satellite data to investigate vegetation of a particular climate zone, students will identify factors that influence an area's climate. They will explore the relationship between amount of vegetation, precipitation, and surface temperature to study Earth's climate zones.

  4. GIS Analysis of Changes in Ecological Vulnerability Using a SPCA Model in the Loess Plateau of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kang; Li, Xuxiang; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Changes in ecological vulnerability were analyzed for Northern Shaanxi, China using a geographic information system (GIS). An evaluation model was developed using a spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) model containing land use, soil erosion, topography, climate, vegetation and social economy variables. Using this model, an ecological vulnerability index was computed for the research region. Using natural breaks classification (NBC), the evaluation results were divided into five types: potential, slight, light, medium and heavy. The results indicate that there is greater than average optimism about the conditions of the study region, and the ecological vulnerability index (EVI) of the southern eight counties is lower than that of the northern twelve counties. From 1997 to 2011, the ecological vulnerability index gradually decreased, which means that environmental security was gradually enhanced, although there are still some places that have gradually deteriorated over the past 15 years. In the study area, government and economic factors and precipitation are the main reasons for the changes in ecological vulnerability. PMID:25898407

  5. Environmental gradients across wetland vegetation groups in the arid slopes of Western Alborz Mountains, N. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Kamrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mountain wetlands are unique ecosystems in the arid southern slopes of Alborz range, the second largest range in Iran. The spatial distribution characteristics of wetland vegetation in the arid region of the Alborz and the main factors affecting their distributional patterns were studied. A classification of vegetation and ecological characteristics were carried out using data extracted from 430 relevés in 90 wetland sites. The data were analyzed using Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA. The wetland vegetation of Alborz Mountain was classified into four large groups. The first vegetation group was calcareous rich vegetation, mainly distributed in the river banks and characterized by helophytes such as Bolboschoenus affinis as indicator species. The second group was saline transitional vegetation, distributed in the ecotone areas and dominated by Phragmites australis. The third vegetation group is wet meadow vegetation which mainly consists of geophytes, endemic and Irano-Turanian species, distributed in the higher altitudes. This vegetation is mainly characterized by indicator species such as Carex orbicularis, high level concentration of Fe2+ and percentage of organic matter in the soil. The fourth vegetation group is aquatic vegetation, distributed in the lakeshores. The aquatic group species are mainly hydrophytic such as Batrachium trichophyllum. The TWINSPAN vegetation groups could be also recognized in the DCA graphs and ecologically differentiated by ANOVA of studied variables. Four vegetation groups can be differentiated on two first axes of indirect ordination. There is a gradient of pH, EC and organic matter associated with altitude on the DCA diagram. Correlation analysis between the axes of DCA and environmental factors shows that altitude, soil texture and other dependant environmental variables (e.g. pH are the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of wetland vegetation groups.

  6. Recent ecological transitions in China: greening, browning, and influential factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yihe; Zhang, Liwei; Feng, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yuan; Fu, Bojie; Yao, Xueling; Li, Junran; Wu, Bingfang

    2015-03-01

    Ecological conservation and restoration are necessary to mitigate environmental degradation problems. China has taken great efforts in such actions. To understand the ecological transition during 2000-2010 in China, this study analysed trends in vegetation change using remote sensing and linear regression. Climate and socioeconomic factors were included to screen the driving forces for vegetation change using correlation or comparative analyses. Our results indicated that China experienced both vegetation greening (restoration) and browning (degradation) with great spatial heterogeneity. Socioeconomic factors, such as human populations and economic production, were the most significant factors for vegetation change. Nature reserves have contributed slightly to the deceleration of vegetation browning and the promotion of greening; however, a large-scale conservation approach beyond nature reserves was more effective. The effectiveness of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program lay between the two above approaches. The findings of this study highlighted that vegetation trend detection is a practical approach for large-scale ecological transition assessments, which can inform decision-making that promotes vegetation greening via proper socioeconomic development and ecosystem management.

  7. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  8. Ecologia da paisagem: mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brasil Landscape ecology: vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o mapeamento da vegetação da Reserva Biológica (REBIO Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, por meio de fotointerpretação analógica, em escala 1:30.000. O mapa foi digitalizado e transferido para computador pelo sistema de informação geográfica (Idrisi e posteriormente para o programa Corel Draw. Foram identificadas, mapeadas e descritas oito unidades de paisagem (UP sendo três antrópicas (solo exposto, campo antrópico e reflorestamento homogêneo e cinco naturais (floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - microfanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - mesofanerófitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel emergente; floresta estacional semidecidual aluvial dossel emergente e refúgio montano arbustivo. As unidades naturais somaram 98,46% do total dos 2.071,20 ha da área, indicando que a Reserva vem cumprindo seu papel na preservação do ecossistema em questão. No entanto, como algumas unidades não tem expressiva representatividade na área, e como existe grande extensão de floresta no entorno da Reserva, sugere-se a ampliação e a transformação da mesma em uma unidade que contemple inclusive a visitação pública como forma de auxiliar no processo de conservação. Sugere-se que a área seja transformada em parque estadual, cujo nome poderia ser Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.It was realized the vegetation map of the Reserva Biológica Municipal da Serra do Japi, at Jundiaí, São Paulo State, by analogical photointerpretation, on the scale 1:30.000. The map was digitized and changed to computer by the geographical information system - Idrisi, and then to the Corel Draw program. Eight landscape units, three anthropic - bare earth, anthropic prairie, homogeneous reforestation, and five natural units - mountainseasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and microphanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and mesophanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, alluvial seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, and shrubby mountain refuges, were identified, mapped, and described. The natural units added 98,46% of the total area, showing that the Reserve is carrying out this role in the ecosystem conservation, but as some units are not significantly represented, and since of the large forest extension outside Reserve, it was offered the suggestion that the Reserve with the enlarged area be changed to another conservation unit-category and that contemplate the public visitation, to help in the conservation process. The conservation unit more appropriated is a Park, and could be denominated Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.

  9. Vegetation against dune mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Duran, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index $\\theta$ which is the ratio between dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index $\\theta_c$ below which the dunes are stabilized characterized by scaling laws.

  10. Forest vegetation in view of some scenarios of climate change in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignatti G

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the relationship between the distribution of the main Italian forest vegetation types and the conditions during average temperature of the coldest month, at present and those predicted for scenarios A2a and B2a of the GCM HADCM3 until the year 2080. With an increased average temperature of the coldest month up to 4.4 °C in 2080, current temperature values for the main forest species will change greatly, creating favorable preconditions for an increased presence of broadleaved deciduous species in mountain altitudes of the Alps, more termophilous broadleaved species on those of the Appennines and more Mediterranean species on lower mountains, hills and lowlands of the country. The results are compared with previsional models of tree species distribution due to predicted climate changes, and the possible influence of some ecological factors is discussed.

  11. Radiocesium cycling in vegetation and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on cesium dynamics in vegetation and soils are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on typical environments in the southeastern United States. Clay minerals of soil, especially micaceous types, effectively fix cesium and remove it from biotic components of ecosystems. Fallout 137Cs enters food chains principally by direct deposition on vegetation; uptake by the root pathway is usually less than direct contamination of plant foliage. Cesium-137 levels in vegetation of the southeastern U. S. Coastal Plain are estimated on the basis of direct deposition from the atmosphere and root uptake from soil. Estimated concentrations, based on current concepts of 137Cs dynamics in vegetation and fixation in soil, are in good agreement with observed values of 137Cs in vegetation collected in 1969 and 1970. Mechanisms of direct deposition and of increased uptake by roots due to the absence of micaceous clays adequately explain the higher levels of 137Cs in vegetation of the Coastal Plain and thus are responsible for the elevated 137Cs reported for milk of the Tampa, Fla., milkshed

  12. Fiscal year 1991 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the status of the ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during Fiscal Year 1991. These ecological investigations provide a basic description of the flora and fauna that inhabit the operable units, emphasizing species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws. The 1991 Westinghouse Hanford Company field investigations have concentrated on the following: (1) bird surveys, (2) mammal and insect surveys, (3) vegetation surveys, and (4) vegetation sampling. Work being conducted as part of the vegetation surveys includes a biological assessment of threatened and endangered plants, which is being prepared as a separate document. Similar ecological investigations will be conducted at 100- N, K, and F operable units in 1992

  13. [Vegetation change in Shenzhen City based on NDVI change classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Jing; Zeng, Hui; Wel, Jian-Bing

    2008-05-01

    Based on the TM images of 1988 and 2003 as well as the land-use change survey data in 2004, the vegetation change in Shenzhen City was assessed by a NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) change classification method, and the impacts from natural and social constraining factors were analyzed. The results showed that as a whole, the rapid urbanization in 1988-2003 had less impact on the vegetation cover in the City, but in its plain areas with low altitude, the vegetation cover degraded more obviously. The main causes of the localized ecological degradation were the invasion of built-ups to woods and orchards, land transformation from woods to orchards at the altitude of above 100 m, and low percentage of green land in some built-ups areas. In the future, the protection and construction of vegetation in Shenzhen should focus on strengthening the protection and restoration of remnant woods, trying to avoid the built-ups' expansion to woods and orchards where are better vegetation-covered, rectifying the unreasonable orchard constructions at the altitude of above 100 m, and consolidating the greenbelt construction inside the built-ups. It was considered that the NDVI change classification method could work well in efficiently uncovering the trend of macroscale vegetation change, and avoiding the effect of random noise in data. PMID:18655594

  14. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH)

  15. Ecology, Microbial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-05-15

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  16. Ecology, Microbial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-03-19

    Microbial ecology is a relatively young discipline within the field of microbiology. Its modern history spans just the past 60 years, and the field is defined by its emphasis on understanding the interactions of microbes with their environment, rather than their behavior under artificial laboratory conditions. Because microbes are ubiquitous, microbial ecologists study a broad diversity of habitats that range from aquatic to terrestrial to plant- or animal-associated. This has made it a challenge to identify unifying principles within the field. One approach is to recognize that although the activity of microbes in nature have effects at the macroscale, they interact with their physical, chemical and biological milieu at a scale of micrometers. At this scale, several different microbial ecosystems can be defined, based upon association with particles, the presence of environmental gradients and the continuous availability of water. Principles applicable to microbial ecology reflect not only their population ecology and physiological ecology, but also their broad versatility and quantitative importance in the biosphere as biogeochemical catalysts and capacity for rapid physiological and evolutionary responses.

  17. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  18. Vegetation Drought Response Index

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VegDRI, short for Vegetation Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought...

  19. Non-Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains ... org > Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat > Making Healthy Food Choices Share: Print Page Text Size: A ...

  20. Economic and ecological evaluation of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under contract with OEMV-AG, a comparative evaluation of biogenic fuels (ethanol, butanol, vegetable oil and methylester of fatty acids ) was carried out from technicoeconomic, agricultural and ecological points of view with special regard to the Austrian conditions of production. Investigations were made for the raw materials starch (corn, wheat, barley, peas and beans), sugar (sugar beet and sweet sorghum) and vegetable oil (rape seed and sunflower). In accordance with the customer, cellulose was excluded from the present investigation. Data for the economic analyses were deduced from the statistics of the financial year 1989/90. (Authors)

  1. Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, MengRu

    2015-04-01

    Application of remote sensing technology in the study of vegetation: Example of vegetation of zhejiang province in China Remote sensing technology , is one of the pillars of the space information technology in the 21st century ,play an important role in the study of vegetation. Vegetation coverage as an important parameter reflecting surface information, has been an important research topic in the field of vegetation remote sensing. Administrative region in zhejiang Province as the study area, use of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing technology, combined with the related data, to survey the area of forest resources in zhejiang Province, establishes an index system of sustainable forest resources management ability in zhejiang, and to evaluate its ability. Remote Sensing is developed in the 1960 s of the earth observation technology, comprehensive instruments refers to the application, not contact with the object detection phase, the target characteristics of electromagnetic waves recorded from a distance, through the analysis, reveals the characteristics of the object properties and changes of comprehensive detection technology. Investigation of vegetation is an important application field of remote sensing investigation. Vegetation is an important factor of environment, and also is one of the best sign to reflect the regional ecological environment, at the same times is the interpretation of soil, hydrological elements such as logo, individual or prospecting indicator plant. Vegetation imaging and interpretation of research results for environmental monitoring, biodiversity conservation, agriculture, forestry and other relevant departments to provide information services.Microwave remote sensing hyperspectral remote sensing technology and application in the research of vegetation is an important direction of remote sensing technology in the future. This paper introduces the principle of microwave remote sensing and hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in vegetation studies as an example, the microwave remote sensing and the development direction and prospect of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  2. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  3. METHANE PHYTOREMEDIATION BY VEGETATIVE LANDFILL COVER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill gas, consisting of methane and other gases, is produced from organic compounds degrading in landfills, contributes to global climate change, is toxic to various types of vegetation, and may pose a combustion hazard at higher concentrations. New landfills are required to ...

  4. Vegetation controls on the maximum size of coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Orencio; Moore, Laura J

    2013-10-22

    Coastal dunes, in particular foredunes, support a resilient ecosystem and reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. In contrast to dry desert dunes, coastal dunes arise from interactions between biological and physical processes. Ecologists have traditionally addressed coastal ecosystems by assuming that they adapt to preexisting dune topography, whereas geomorphologists have studied the properties of foredunes primarily in connection to physical, not biological, factors. Here, we study foredune development using an ecomorphodynamic model that resolves the coevolution of topography and vegetation in response to both physical and ecological factors. We find that foredune growth is eventually limited by a negative feedback between wind flow and topography. As a consequence, steady-state foredunes are scale invariant, which allows us to derive scaling relations for maximum foredune height and formation time. These relations suggest that plant zonation (in particular for strand "dune-building" species) is the primary factor controlling the maximum size of foredunes and therefore the amount of sand stored in a coastal dune system. We also find that aeolian sand supply to the dunes determines the timescale of foredune formation. These results offer a potential explanation for the empirical relation between beach type and foredune size, in which large (small) foredunes are found on dissipative (reflective) beaches. Higher waves associated with dissipative beaches increase the disturbance of strand species, which shifts foredune formation landward and thus leads to larger foredunes. In this scenario, plants play a much more active role in modifying their habitat and altering coastal vulnerability than previously thought. PMID:24101481

  5. Data Paper – High Resolution Vegetation Cover Data for the Southern Western Ghats of India. (IFP_ECODATA_VEGETATION)

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Quentin; B. R. Ramesh; Muthusankar, G.; Pelissier, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    The Western Ghats form a 1,600 km long escarpment that runs parallel to the southwestern coast of Peninsular India. This relief barrier, which orographically exacerbates the summer monsoon rains, is responsible for steep bioclimatic gradients that have long been recognized as one of the major ecological determinants for the forest vegetation of the region. We report here girded vegetation data at 30' lat/long (ca. 1 km) resolution that cover an area of about 70,000 km2 of the southern Western...

  6. Ecologism in Interior Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhou Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of our mankind, great changes have taken place in economy as well as our society, so have the natural environment and ecological system in which we live. Nowadays, we are faced with decreasing natural environment, forest, species, clean water, air and cultivable land. In addition, some urgent issues such as global warming, exhausted energy and widespread rubbish force us to reflect on our future life style. In this situation, interior designers are expected to introduce ecological ideas into their design to push it to a higher and advanced level, which will consequently promote the transformation of the employment of resources in architecture from the consumptive type to the recycled one.

  7. Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston; Mills; Biggs; Richardson

    1998-12-01

    In the Kruger National Park, male lions, Panthera leo, acquire most of their food by hunting rather than scavenging. This study, the most intensive to date of male lion ecology, showed that in savanna woodlands, with high buffalo, Syncerus caffer, densities, male lions were frequent and successful hunters. The main prey species of all male group types, but particularly nonterritorial males, was buffalo. By contrast, females preyed more frequently on the most abundant medium-sized ungulates, such as wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and zebra, Equus burchelli. Thus intraspecific prey selection separation was based primarily on intersexual and, to a lesser extent, social differences. Furthermore, both nonterritorial males and pride females located their favoured prey, buffalo and medium-sized ungulates, respectively, more often than other prey. We investigated the influence of several ecological variables on the socioecology of male lions, particularly as we had determined that territorial males spent little time with their pride females and tended to hunt by themselves in their respective male coalitions. Further analysis showed that in a range of ecosystems in southern and eastern Africa the proportion of time territorial males spent with, and thus scavenged from, their pride females was strongly influenced by vegetation structure, and therefore probably by the assemblage of available ungulates. In open systems, territorial males were, therefore, likely to be encountered with pride females, whereas in more wooded areas they were likely to be encountered away from their pride females. We suggest that this is because vegetation structure influences food/prey availability and hunting success and influences territory maintenance and/or cub defence. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933529

  8. Detecting and Tracking Shifts in National Vegetation Composition,Including Donors and Recipients, Across the MODIS Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Forested landscapes are ecologically and economically important, and understanding their dynamics is important for land--management decision making. Forest ecosystems are also under stress, and may be changing due to interannual variability and long term change in climate, natural and anthropogenic disturbance, including human use and management. Detecting and tracking shifts in vegetation is important for land--management, conservation planning, monitoring recovery, managing and monitoring forest structure and composition, maintaining species and habitat diversity and many other purposes.We used MODIS NDVI to create phenological ecoregions, or "phenoregions" having similar annual phenology using a unsupervised clustering method over the period 2000--2012. These statistically derived phenoregions were reclassified to National Land Cover Database (NLCD) classes using the "Mapcurves" algorithm. Interannual transitions in phenologically defined classes are indicator of disturbance and recovery. Because the area within the CONUS is fixed, land cover area changes are a zero-sum game. Changes in one land cover class must be accompained by compensating changes in other classes.We demonstrate a full-circle national-scale accounting system which can track not only area changes in land cover classes, but can show which other compensatory land cover class area changes accompanied them. Area changes in the vegetation distributions, as well as compensatory gains, losses, and trades in area of other land cover types, were mapped and tracked annually during 2000--2012 period at MODIS resolution. The types or labels of the classes used in the accounting can easily be changed to sets of land cover types that maximize the utility of the tracking. For any particular "focus" land cover type, results show which other land covers were donors or recipients of area changes, showing ecologists and land managers alike what vegetation types were given up or gained to offset particular increases or losses.

  9. The pasture-type approach for mountain pasture description and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pastoral resources can take different approaches with the main goal of characterizing pasture vegetation and its potential carrying capacity. In recent times, the pasture-type approach has been developed in several Alpine areas – on a regional and on a district scale – starting from sward surveys carried out taking the approach formerly developed by the French pastoral school. The pasture-type approach may play an important role in defining the management of mountain and marginal environments where grazing pressure reduction remarkably affects the agro-ecosystems functions (production, landscape, wildlife, recreation, etc.. This approach is based on the concept of pasture type, which could be defined as a semi-natural vegetation (mainly exploited by grazing animals, rather homogeneous in terms of botanic composition and influenced by environmental factors and agro-pastoral management. This paper presents the pasture-type approach by discussing the results of two large studies carried out in two areas of the south side of the Alps (Piedmont and Veneto. In order to identify pasture types, the vegetation composition was assessed with a point quadrat method. It allowed the computation of species-specific contribution, and of sward forage value and carrying capacity, after a multivariate statistical procedure for type classification and ordination. The site conditions (altitude, slope, aspect and other environmental variables were surveyed. Moreover, to characterize the pasture types from the point of view of the ecological and management factors affecting vegetation composition, the Landolt indicators were used. The results achieved in the two areas were synthesised and organised into reference technical tools with the aim of using the pasture-type approach for pastoral planning. For each study area an identification key to recognize pasture types was drafted, and a handbook containing the technical sheets for pasture type identification, description and management was published. The approach here described enhances the knowledge on mountain pastoral resources, laying the foundations for their conservative management.

  10. Post-wildfire natural restoration of riparian vegetation under stable hydro-geomorphic conditions: Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are common to the Mediterranean region due to its defined dry season and long historical anthropogenic activities. Most of post-wildfire studies focus on mountains areas and thus refer to the hill-slope and its physical characteristics, e.g. morphology, length, angles, and aspect; its soil characteristics, e.g. type, infiltration rate, repellency; and its vegetative covers, e.g. planted trees vs. natural forest or native vs. exotic vegetation. In contrary there is very limited literature focusing on ecological and hydro-geomorphic aspects of post-wildfire of riparian vegetation / zone probably because of its negligible burned area relative to the spread of the fire, sometimes, over the whole watershed area. The limited literature on the topic is surprising given the fact that riparian vegetation zone has been acknowledged as a unique and important habitat supporting rich biodiversity. Herein we report on a wildfire event occurred on October 14th 2009 in a river section of Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel. The wildfire although was limited in its area (only 3 hectare) extended over the channel alone from bank to bank and thus provide a unique case study of completely burn down of riparian vegetation, mainly dense stands of Common Red (Australis Phragmites. Therefore a detailed study of this event provides an opportunity to tackle one of the basics questions which is determining the rate of natural restoration process that act at the immediate time after the wildfire event occurred. This type of information is most valuable to professional and stakeholders for better management of post-fire riparian zones. The results of the study suggest that under stable conditions, i.e. no major flood events occurred; disturbance time was short and ranged over 200 days due to, almost, immediate recovery of the riparian vegetation. However the re-growth of the riparian vegetation was not even but rather deferential and more complex then reported in the literature. In addition during that period no morphological changes were measured in the channel bed and banks; similarly no changes observed to base flow discharge though slight changes were measured to water pH probably due to the large quantities of ash on river bed.

  11. Response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment to permafrost degradation in the upstream regions of the Shule River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengyun; Liu, Wenjie; Qin, Xiang; Liu, Yushuo; Zhang, Tongzuo; Chen, Kelong; Hu, Fengzu; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation exhibits striking and profound influences on the alpine ecosystem, and response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment to such degradation inevitably differ during the entire degraded periods. However, up to now, the related research is lacking in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). For this reason, twenty ecological plots in the different types of permafrost zones were selected in the upstream regions of the Shule River Basin on the northeastern margin of the QTP. Vegetation characteristics (species diversity, community coverage and biomass etc) and topsoil environment (temperature (ST), water content (SW), mechanical composition (SMC), culturable microorganism (SCM), organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and so on), as well as active layer thickness (ALT) were investigated in late July 2009 and 2010. A spatial-temporal shifts method (the spatial pattern that is represented by different types of permafrost shifting to the temporal series that stands for different stages of permafrost degradation) has been used to discuss response characteristics of vegetation and topsoil environment throughout the entire permafrost degradation. The results showed that (1) ST of 0-40 cm depth and ALT gradually increased from highly stable and stable permafrost (H-SP) to unstable permafrost (UP). SW increased initially and then decreased, and SOC content and the quantities of SCM at a depth of 0-20 cm first decreased and then increased, whereas TN content and SMC showed obscure trends throughout the stages of permafrost degradation with a stability decline from H-SP to extremely unstable permafrost (EUP); (2) further, species diversity, community coverage and biomass first increased and then decreased in the stages from H-SP to EUP; (3) in the alpine meadow ecosystem, SOC and TN contents increased initially and then decreased, soil sandy fractions gradually increased with stages of permafrost degradation from substable (SSP) to transitional (TP), and to UP. Meanwhile, SOC/TN storages increased in the former stage, while they decreased in the latter stage. This study indicated that the response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment varied throughout the entire permafrost degradation, and SW was the dominant ecological factor that limited vegetation distribution and growth. Therefore, SSP and TP phases could provide a favourable environment for plant growth, mainly contributing to high SW.

  12. Response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment to permafrost degradation in the upstream regions of the Shule River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permafrost degradation exhibits striking and profound influences on the alpine ecosystem, and response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment to such degradation inevitably differ during the entire degraded periods. However, up to now, the related research is lacking in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau (QTP). For this reason, twenty ecological plots in the different types of permafrost zones were selected in the upstream regions of the Shule River Basin on the northeastern margin of the QTP. Vegetation characteristics (species diversity, community coverage and biomass etc) and topsoil environment (temperature (ST), water content (SW), mechanical composition (SMC), culturable microorganism (SCM), organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents and so on), as well as active layer thickness (ALT) were investigated in late July 2009 and 2010. A spatial–temporal shifts method (the spatial pattern that is represented by different types of permafrost shifting to the temporal series that stands for different stages of permafrost degradation) has been used to discuss response characteristics of vegetation and topsoil environment throughout the entire permafrost degradation. The results showed that (1) ST of 0–40 cm depth and ALT gradually increased from highly stable and stable permafrost (H-SP) to unstable permafrost (UP). SW increased initially and then decreased, and SOC content and the quantities of SCM at a depth of 0–20 cm first decreased and then in–20 cm first decreased and then increased, whereas TN content and SMC showed obscure trends throughout the stages of permafrost degradation with a stability decline from H-SP to extremely unstable permafrost (EUP); (2) further, species diversity, community coverage and biomass first increased and then decreased in the stages from H-SP to EUP; (3) in the alpine meadow ecosystem, SOC and TN contents increased initially and then decreased, soil sandy fractions gradually increased with stages of permafrost degradation from substable (SSP) to transitional (TP), and to UP. Meanwhile, SOC/TN storages increased in the former stage, while they decreased in the latter stage. This study indicated that the response characteristics of vegetation and soil environment varied throughout the entire permafrost degradation, and SW was the dominant ecological factor that limited vegetation distribution and growth. Therefore, SSP and TP phases could provide a favourable environment for plant growth, mainly contributing to high SW. (letter)

  13. Vegetation description, rare plant inventory, and vegetation monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals