WorldWideScience

Sample records for vegetation types ecological

  1. Fuel ecological description in calcareous Provence: effects of wildfire recurrence and vegetation types

    OpenAIRE

    Ganteaume, A; Jappiot, M.; Borgniet, L.; Lampin-Maillet, C.; Curt, T.; Martin, W.; Esteve, R; N'Diaye Boubacar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about fuel vegetation is a fundamental part of the fire management that is necessary to both conserve biodiversity and reduce the negative impacts of wildland fires. On the framework of the European programme FireParadox, live and dead fuels were described in Calcareous Provence (Southern France) to assess if their characteristics were influenced by the past fire regime, influencing in turn the vegetation dynamics. The sampling was performed on three types of vegetation representati...

  2. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  3. Effect of ecological factors on the zonation of wetland vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some ecological factors to aquatic and marsh vegetation was studied during 1998-2000. Three basic vegetation units (Caricetum buekii, Typhetum latifoliae and Ceratophylletum submersi and three transitional communities were defined in the belt transect, which was established along the moisture gradient. The content of available soil nutrients in individual vegetation types differed only in case of the Ceratophyllum submersum community, where a higher magnesium and nitrogen content accumulated due to specific environmental conditions. Water and marsh vegetation is usually characterised by a pronounced spatial and temporal dynamics. In the studied area, its zonation was dependent from the terrain morphology, and both depth and duration of floods. The fluctuation of ground and surface water table during a three-year period caused changes in the occurrence and cover of several species (e.g. Carex buekii, Typha latifolia, aquatic macrophytes. Pronounced changes in the cover of some species occurred even within a single vegetation season due to the long-term sink of water table below the ground surface.

  4. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL METHOD TO STUDY AGRICULTURAL VEGETATION: SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE PO VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation is the most important landscape component, as regards to its ability to catch solar energy and to transform it, but also to shape the landscape, to structure the space, to create the fit environment for different animal species, to contribute to the maintenance of a correct metastability level for the landscape, etc. It is a biological system which acts under the constraints of the principles of the System Theory and owns the same properties of any other living system: so, it is a complex adaptive, hierarchical, dynamic, dissipative, self-organizing, self-transcendent, autocatalytic, self-maintaining system and follows the non-equilibrium thermodynamic. Its ecological state can be investigated through the comparison between “gathered data” (pathology and “normal data” (physiology for analogous types of vegetation. The Biological Integrated School of Landscape Ecology provides an integrated methodology to define ecological threshold limits of the different Agricultural Landscape types and applies to agricultural vegetation the specific part of the new methodology already tested to studying forests (the Landscape Biological Survey of Vegetation. Ecological quality, better and worst parameters, biological territorial capacity of vegetated corridors, agricultural field, poplar groves, orchards and woody remnant patches are investigated. Some examples from diverse agricultural landscapes of the Po Valley will be discussed. KEY WORDS: agricultural landscape, vegetation, landscape ecology, landscape health, Biological Integrated Landscape Ecology, Landscape Biological Survey of vegetation.

  5. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-29

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot.

  6. The vegetation of Yucca Mountain: Description and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was monitored over a six-year period, from 1989 through 1994. Yucca Mountain is located at the northern limit of the Mojave Desert and is the only location being studied as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. Site characterization consists of a series of multidisciplinary, scientific investigations designed to provide detailed information necessary to assess the suitability of the Yucca Mountain Site as a repository. This vegetation description establishes a baseline for determining the ecological impact of site characterization activities; it porvides input for site characterization research and modeling; and it clarifies vegetation community dynamics and relationships to the physical environment. A companion study will describe the impact of site characterization of vegetation. Cover, density, production, and species composition of vascular plants were monitored at 48 Ecological Study Plots (ESPs) stratified in four vegetation associations. Precipitation, soil moisture, and maximum and minimum temperatures also were measured at each study plot

  7. Ecological investigations: vegetation studies, preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgeirson, E.R.; Martin, R.B.

    1978-09-01

    The objective of the vegetation studies conducted on the research site is to produce a descriptive data base that can be applied to determinations of carrying capacity of the site and surrounding area. Additional information obtained about parameters that influence vegetation growth and maintenance of soil nutrients, and moisture and temperature regimes help define dynamic relationships that must be understood to effect successful revegetation and habitat rehabilitation. The descriptive vegetation baseline also provides a point of departure for design of future monitoring programs, and predictive models and strategies to be used in dealing with impact mitigation; in turn, monitoring programs and predictive modeling form the bases for making distinctions between natural trends and man-induced perturbations.

  8. Ecological problems and nitrogen balance in vegetable crops growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsetska Simeonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to focus on the nitrogen balance and losses in agricultural system. The influence of precipitation, irrigation and fertilizer application on some soil parameters, N-uptake by plant production and N-output by lysimetric water are evaluated in this paper.The study is carried out on Fluvisol, near Plovdiv in Southern Bulgaria under the conditions of field experiments with different vegetable crops (eggplant, green beans and carrots over the period 2009-2011. The experimental design includes 3 treatments with nitrogen application –N0, N80 and N160 on the background of P80K80 kg.ha-1. The field plots are equipped with modification of Ebermayer type of lysimeters, which collect water from 100 cm depth of soil profile.According the received data it was observed that compensation between the amounts of N input and output was achieved in two variants (N80, N160 for all crops growing. Reducing the nitrogen input to the amount applied by precipitation and irrigation waters is the most ecological-friendly technological decision and very important factor for environment protection.

  9. Alternative Ecology of Human Pathogenic Bacteria in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of illness due to human enteric pathogenic bacteria via fresh vegetables warrant intensive research on changing strategies of these bacteria in alterning their hosts for survival. The systemic infection of human pathogenic bacteria in plants and the plant growth stage at which they establish endophytic relationship is poorly understood. The issue is magnified in countries like India where the dietary habits are changing and consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables as salad has become a part in the everyday menu of most people. Most of the human pathogenic enteric bacteria are generally characterized by broad host ranges and these pathogens seem to exploit almost any change in human ecology that provides new opportunities for transmission. Because plants are not traditionally considered as hosts for human enteric pathogens, recent produce-associated outbreaks highlight important deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of enteric pathogens outside of their human and animal hosts. This review focuses on understanding the human enteric pathogens that have developed abilities to colonize internal tissues of vegetables and fruits popularly consumed as salads, how and when do they enter plants and where do they localize in plant tissues. In addition, we have also highlighted the attempts made in detection and control of these bacteria in plant hosts. This understanding will help develop strategies towards vegetable food safety in a joint effort by agriculturalists, environmentalists, food processing agencies, whole salers and retailers, which will ultimately benefit every consumer.

  10. The vegetation ecology of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area. 2. Floristic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Deall

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous vegetation of the Eastern Transvaal Escarpment in the Sabie area is classified with the aid of the PHYTOTAB program package. Four ecological-formation classes (efc based on floristics. physiognomy and climate correspond to four data subsets. Plant communities in each efc are defined by means of 46 differential species-groups distributed amongst forest, thicket, woodland, shrubland and grassland structural types. Environmental correlation is facilitated by means of 21 habitat types.

  11. Technology versus Agro-Ecology in Designing Vegetable Production Systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, J.J. de; Sukkel, W.; Stilma, E.S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Current open field vegetable production systems in the Netherlands do not meet market and societal demands. These demands could not be fulfilled by adapting current production systems. Other kinds of production systems are needed and therefore two types of systems are designed by 1) a technological and 2) an agro-ecological vision. The technological vision aims at excluding and predicting external influences with the focus on control. Variants of this vision are production systems with fertig...

  12. PROPOSAL OF A NEW METHOO OF ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF VEGETATION: THE CASE STUDY OF THE VEGETATION OF THE VENICE LAGOON LANDSCAPE ANO OF ITS SALT MARSHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GIGLIO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In frequent case studies, the heterogeneity of vegetation formation is very high, because of the frequency of both natural and human disturbances. Consequently, the phytosociological approach .and the auto-ecological one are not completely adequate for the evaluation or the ecological state of this vegetation in a landscape.

    So, this evaluation needs the integration with a landscape ecological method of vegetation survey through schedules, as indicated by Ingegnoli (2002. Each type of schedule has been designed to check the organisation level and to estimate the metastability of a tessera of a certain type of vegetation, considering both general ecological and landscape ecological characters: (A Landscape e1ement characters (e.g. tessera, corridor, (8 Plant, biomass above ground, (C Ecocoenotope pararneters. (D Relation among the elements and their landscape parameters. There are four evaluation classes, the weights per class depending on an evaluation model designed as shown later on. The principal aim of this research is to design a new schedule, available for the main coenosis of salt marshes vegetation, which allows to complete a preliminary study on the Venice lagoon landscape dynamics, based on its vegetation. The landscape of the Venice lagoon is very complex and articulated, its main vegetation formations are the following: Underwater, Salt marshes. Littoral. Reclamation colonisations, Wet areas. Wooded patches and corridors. Agricultural cultivations, Urban green. The most important typc of vegetation is represented by salt marshes prairies called "barene", especially by Limonietum venetum (Pignani. 1966, This association can be divided into three sub-associations, the first with three facies: but the reality presents a large quantity of tesserae in intermediate or ecotonal states, even mixed with other associations (e,g, Spartinetum maritimae. The design and control of the schedule, the first measure of the community plant biomasses are a part of this study, me results of which will be discussed in this work.

  13. Predicting Ecologically Important Vegetation Variables from Remotely Sensed Optical/Radar Data Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Daniel S.; Nelson, Ross F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of satellite sensor systems will collect large data sets of the Earth's surface during NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) era. Efforts are being made to develop efficient algorithms that can incorporate a wide variety of spectral data and ancillary data in order to extract vegetation variables required for global and regional studies of ecosystem processes, biosphere-atmosphere interactions, and carbon dynamics. These variables are, for the most part, continuous (e.g. biomass, leaf area index, fraction of vegetation cover, vegetation height, vegetation age, spectral albedo, absorbed photosynthetic active radiation, photosynthetic efficiency, etc.) and estimates may be made using remotely sensed data (e.g. nadir and directional optical wavelengths, multifrequency radar backscatter) and any other readily available ancillary data (e.g., topography, sun angle, ground data, etc.). Using these types of data, neural networks can: 1) provide accurate initial models for extracting vegetation variables when an adequate amount of data is available; 2) provide a performance standard for evaluating existing physically-based models; 3) invert multivariate, physically based models; 4) in a variable selection process, identify those independent variables which best infer the vegetation variable(s) of interest; and 5) incorporate new data sources that would be difficult or impossible to use with conventional techniques. In addition, neural networks employ a more powerful and adaptive nonlinear equation form as compared to traditional linear, index transformations, and simple nonlinear analyses. These neural networks attributes are discussed in the context of the authors' investigations of extracting vegetation variables of ecological interest.

  14. New vegetation type map of India prepared using satellite remote sensing: Comparison with global vegetation maps and utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. S.; Behera, M. D.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Roy, Arijit; Singh, Sarnam; Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Jha, C. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Joshi, P. K.; Reddy, Ch. Sudhakar; Gupta, Stutee; Pujar, Girish; Dutt, C. B. S.; Srivastava, V. K.; Porwal, M. C.; Tripathi, Poonam; Singh, J. S.; Chitale, Vishwas; Skidmore, A. K.; Rajshekhar, G.; Kushwaha, Deepak; Karnatak, Harish; Saran, Sameer; Giriraj, A.; Padalia, Hitendra; Kale, Manish; Nandy, Subrato; Jeganathan, C.; Singh, C. P.; Biradar, C. M.; Pattanaik, Chiranjibi; Singh, D. K.; Devagiri, G. M.; Talukdar, Gautam; Panigrahy, Rabindra K.; Singh, Harnam; Sharma, J. R.; Haridasan, K.; Trivedi, Shivam; Singh, K. P.; Kannan, L.; Daniel, M.; Misra, M. K.; Niphadkar, Madhura; Nagabhatla, Nidhi; Prasad, Nupoor; Tripathi, O. P.; Prasad, P. Rama Chandra; Dash, Pushpa; Qureshi, Qamer; Tripathi, S. K.; Ramesh, B. R.; Gowda, Balakrishnan; Tomar, Sanjay; Romshoo, Shakil; Giriraj, Shilpa; Ravan, Shirish A.; Behera, Soumit Kumar; Paul, Subrato; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Ranganath, B. K.; Singh, T. P.; Sahu, T. R.; Shankar, Uma; Menon, A. R. R.; Srivastava, Gaurav; Neeti; Sharma, Subrat; Mohapatra, U. B.; Peddi, Ashok; Rashid, Humayun; Salroo, Irfan; Krishna, P. Hari; Hajra, P. K.; Vergheese, A. O.; Matin, Shafique; Chaudhary, Swapnil A.; Ghosh, Sonali; Lakshmi, Udaya; Rawat, Deepshikha; Ambastha, Kalpana; Malik, Akhtar H.; Devi, B. S. S.; Gowda, Balakrishna; Sharma, K. C.; Mukharjee, Prashant; Sharma, Ajay; Davidar, Priya; Raju, R. R. Venkata; Katewa, S. S.; Kant, Shashi; Raju, Vatsavaya S.; Uniyal, B. P.; Debnath, Bijan; Rout, D. K.; Thapa, Rajesh; Joseph, Shijo; Chhetri, Pradeep; Ramachandran, Reshma M.

    2015-07-01

    A seamless vegetation type map of India (scale 1: 50,000) prepared using medium-resolution IRS LISS-III images is presented. The map was created using an on-screen visual interpretation technique and has an accuracy of 90%, as assessed using 15,565 ground control points. India has hitherto been using potential vegetation/forest type map prepared by Champion and Seth in 1968. We characterized and mapped further the vegetation type distribution in the country in terms of occurrence and distribution, area occupancy, percentage of protected area (PA) covered by each vegetation type, range of elevation, mean annual temperature and precipitation over the past 100 years. A remote sensing-amenable hierarchical classification scheme that accommodates natural and semi-natural systems was conceptualized, and the natural vegetation was classified into forests, scrub/shrub lands and grasslands on the basis of extent of vegetation cover. We discuss the distribution and potential utility of the vegetation type map in a broad range of ecological, climatic and conservation applications from global, national and local perspectives. We used 15,565 ground control points to assess the accuracy of products available globally (i.e., GlobCover, Holdridge's life zone map and potential natural vegetation (PNV) maps). Hence we recommend that the map prepared herein be used widely. This vegetation type map is the most comprehensive one developed for India so far. It was prepared using 23.5 m seasonal satellite remote sensing data, field samples and information relating to the biogeography, climate and soil. The digital map is now available through a web portal.

  15. Ecological Study on Vegetation of Abu Tartur Plateau, the New Valley, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abu Ziada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the ecology of the vegetation inhabiting Abu Tartur plateau, a part of the rainless region extending between Kharga and Dakhla oases in Western desert of Egypt including recognition of the plant communities. There were six community types dominated by: Astragalus vogelii, Bassia muricata, Morettia philaeana, Alhagi graecorum, Farsetia aegyptia and Schouwia purpurea. For each community the vegetation analysis and habitat conditions are given. A total 56 plant species belonging to 23 families were identified from the six communities. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the predominant families. The majority of the species were of Irano-Turanian (24%, Saharo-Sidian (19% and Saharo-Arabian (17% distribution. Therophytes and chamaephytes had the highest contribution to the life forms spectra. Soil moisture is the main environmental factor governing the pattern of plant growth. It is affected by depth of underground water, depth of surface deposits and soil texture. These findings may lead to a better understanding of the vegetation of the different habitats found in Abu Tartur area which was not described before in other ecological work.

  16. Next generation dynamic global vegetation models: learning from community ecology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiter, S.; Higgins, S.; Langan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are a powerful tool to project past, current and future vegetation patterns and the associated biogeochemical cycles. However, most models are limited by their representation of vegetation by using static and pre-defined plant functional types and by their simplistic representation of competition. We discuss how concepts from community assembly theory and coexistence theory can help to improve dynamic vegetation models. We present a trait- and individual-based dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM2, that allows individual plants to adopt a unique combination of trait values. These traits define how individual plants grow, compete and reproduce under the given biotic and abiotic conditions. A genetic optimization algorithm is used to simulate trait inheritance and reproductive isolation between individuals. These model properties allow the assembly of plant communities that are adapted to biotic and abiotic conditions. We show (1) that the aDGVM2 can simulate coarse vegetation patterns in Africa, (2) that changes in the environmental conditions and disturbances strongly influence trait diversity and the assembled plant communities by influencing traits such as leaf phenology and carbon allocation patterns of individual plants and (3) that communities do not necessarily return to the initial state when environmental conditions return to the initial state. The aDGVM2 deals with functional diversity and competition fundamentally differently from current models and allows novel insights as to how vegetation may respond to climate change. We believe that the aDGVM2 approach could foster collaborations between research communities that focus on functional plant ecology, plant competition, plant physiology and Earth system science.

  17. Vegetation types and surface soils of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1956 the newly formed Ecology Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), now called the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under the Department of Energy, initiated a project, using aerial photos taken in 1949, 1953, and 1954 to prepare a vegetation map of the site. This area was designated a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in 1975. The first map prepared by N. R. French and Ray McBride was produced in 1958, and differentiated vegetation types on the basis of the two most prominent species of plants occurring in each type. This map gave adequate resolution between major vegetation types only in the complex mosaic of types at the northern end of the site, designating everything else as one homogeneous vegetation classification: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) and Chrysothamnus viscidifluorus (green rabbitbrush). To improve the resolution of the vegetation map and thereby make it more useful in distinguishing habitats in all parts of the site, efforts were immediately begun to reclassify the vegetation types on the basis of the three (instead of two) most prominent species of plants representative of each type. This effort was continued on a low-priority basis for several years. In 1965 a vegetation map, according to the three species designation, was prepared by Ray McBride. The map was never documented in a formal report, but was reproduced in a thesis by Harniss (1968) and was referenced by Harniss and West (1973a) in their outline of the vegetation types of the NRTS. It is the purpose of this report to document the original vegetation type map prepared by the late Ray McBride and to provide general descriptions of the different vegetation types. The map has been revised and redrawn, and is appended to this report. Because vegetation is intimately related to soil development, a preliminary soil type map prepared and discussed by Adrian H. Dahl is included in this report

  18. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.

    2009-02-01

    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from coarse-resolution (GLC2000) and high-resolution imagery (Africover).

  19. Vegetation Classification, Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA), Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment at Camas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project includes a pilot study to map the vegetation of Camas National Wildlife Refuge and a report on the overall ecological integrity of the refuge, how it...

  20. Re-launch of Phytocoenologia: new profile for the classic vegetation ecology journal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bergmeier, E.; Dengler, J.; Janišová, M.; Jansen, F.; Krestov, P.; Roleček, Jan; Walker, D. A.; Willner, W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1-2 (2015), s. 1-10. ISSN 0340-269X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation classification * new journal policy * editorial Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2014

  1. NatureServe International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications of Vegetation Alliances and Associations at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This subset of the International Ecological Classification Standard represents the National Vegetation Classification Standard NVCS and covers vegetation alliances...

  2. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa - ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate-vegetation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, V. P.; Claussen, M.; Reick, C.

    2015-10-01

    We critically reassess a conceptual model here, dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate-vegetation feedback, and we provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past 2 decades using a wide range of model and palaeo-proxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013) introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate-vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. In the light of recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, the conceptual model by Claussen et al. (2013) reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate, but it does not capture the reconstructed diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. With a new model version adjusted to AHP vegetation, we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as reconstructed from pollen, and we observe a stabilizing effect of high functional diversity on vegetation cover and precipitation. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single plant type may inherit. The model's simplicity limits its application; however, it provides a useful tool to study the roles of real plant types in an ecosystem and their combined climate-vegetation feedback under changing precipitation regimes.

  3. Effects of aquatic vegetation type on denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Veraart, A.J.; Bruijne, W.J.J., de; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Klein, J.J.M., de; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a microcosm 15N enrichment experiment we tested the effect of floating vegetation (Lemna sp.) and submerged vegetation (Elodea nuttallii) on denitrification rates, and compared it to systems without macrophytes. Oxygen concentration, and thus photosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating denitrification rates and therefore the experiments were performed under dark as well as under light conditions. Denitrification rates differed widely between treatments, ranging from 2.8 to 20.9 ?...

  4. Ecological-agricultural perspective on the quality of pasture vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlina Hakrova; Katerina Novotná; Zuzana Sykorova; Jan FRELICH

    2015-01-01

    One of the important goals of current research is to find a balance between the diversity of grass covers and their economically sustainable use for farming purposes. The aim of this study was to find relationships between the number of species (N), the Shannon-Wiener index (H), the forage value of vegetation (FV) and the proportion of grasses (G), legumes (L) and other forbs (F). Eleven extensively grazed pasture vegetations, located at the foothills of Šumava and Nové Hrady mountain ranges ...

  5. ECOLOGICAL CONTROL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY OF UNDERWATER VEGETATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TITINSCHNEIDER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The excess of aquatic submerse vegetation development carries to the reduction of the real rearing area for the piscicultural material from the production farms and allow nestling of the ichthyophages bird species that decrease the fish production. Aquatic submerse vegetation stumble the utilization of aquatic zones for recreation and also wright function of basins utilized for the electric energy production, of micro electricity works through obstruction of the dams grid. The control of the aquatic submerse vegetation development, for Myriophyllum verticillatum, Ceratophyllum submersum, Urticularia vulgaris, Potamogeton natans, Nimphoides peltata species it is accomplish through the removing of some parts of these, preferably with all the stump system. Usually, these its accomplish with the floating equipments fit up with the thermic engines and the propulsion and governating elements who have harm over the fish and some others aquatic organisms through the noise, the displacing a large quality of water caused of propulsion systems and through the noxes elimination (flue, carburant trails, etc.. These technologies reside from the evacuation of the aquatic submerse vegetation and the stump systems of these with the help of an adjustable rake, hang up from the coast by a rope, wrapped to a drummer, who is trained by a motto-propeller group with a small installed power.

  6. Ecological problems and nitrogen balance in vegetable crops growing

    OpenAIRE

    Tsetska Simeonova; Dimitranka Stoicheva; Petra Alexandrova

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the nitrogen balance and losses in agricultural system. The influence of precipitation, irrigation and fertilizer application on some soil parameters, N-uptake by plant production and N-output by lysimetric water are evaluated in this paper.The study is carried out on Fluvisol, near Plovdiv in Southern Bulgaria under the conditions of field experiments with different vegetable crops (eggplant, green beans and carrots) over the period 2009-2011. The exp...

  7. Vegetation, population and ecological track as sustainability indicators in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biophysical sustainability, namely natural capabilities to sustain human development in Colombia, is explored through environmental indicators based on land cover and demographic variables. Remnant vegetation index (IVR in Spanish) uses cover as a measure of ecosystem functionality. Population pressure index (IPD) applies population density to environmental demand analysis. Footprint index (IHE) relates the inverse of density with sustainability. Environmental criticality index combines IVR and IPD to detect offer/demand unbalances. Results suggest Colombia is sustainable although many places in it could be in danger; this could be related with social and economical features of the country

  8. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. I - Theory and hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution space of an approximate statistical-dynamic model of the average annual water balance is explored with respect to the hydrologic parameters of both soil and vegetation. Within the accuracy of this model it is shown that water-limited natural vegetation systems are in stable equilibrium with their climatic and pedologic environments when the canopy density and species act to minimize average water demand stress. Theory shows a climatic limit to this equilibrium above which it is hypothesized that ecological pressure is toward maximization of biomass productivity. It is further hypothesized that natural soil-vegetation systems will develop gradually and synergistically, through vegetation-induced changes in soil structure, toward a set of hydraulic soil properties for which the minimum stress canopy density of a given species is maximum in a given climate. Using these hypotheses, only the soil effective porosity need be known to determine the optimum soil and vegetation parameters in a given climate.

  9. Classification of vegetation types in military region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Silva, Jose Silvestre; Bioucas-Dias, Jose

    2015-10-01

    In decision-making process regarding planning and execution of military operations, the terrain is a determining factor. Aerial photographs are a source of vital information for the success of an operation in hostile region, namely when the cartographic information behind enemy lines is scarce or non-existent. The objective of present work is the development of a tool capable of processing aerial photos. The methodology implemented starts with feature extraction, followed by the application of an automatic selector of features. The next step, using the k-fold cross validation technique, estimates the input parameters for the following classifiers: Sparse Multinomial Logist Regression (SMLR), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Linear Classifier using Principal Component Expansion on the Joint Data (PCLDC) and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine (MSVM). These classifiers were used in two different studies with distinct objectives: discrimination of vegetation's density and identification of vegetation's main components. It was found that the best classifier on the first approach is the Sparse Logistic Multinomial Regression (SMLR). On the second approach, the implemented methodology applied to high resolution images showed that the better performance was achieved by KNN classifier and PCLDC. Comparing the two approaches there is a multiscale issue, in which for different resolutions, the best solution to the problem requires different classifiers and the extraction of different features.

  10. Future vegetation types and related main processes for Olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working report summarizes current knowledge of the land up-lift induced vegetation succession and future vegetation types on Olkiluoto Island and its surroundings. The report is based on generic literature and site-specific studies concerning Olkiluoto Island. Current vegetation on Olkiluoto Island and typical succession lines on different soil types are described, as well as main factors affecting the succession. Most relevant materials on hand are listed. Some problems and possible areas to be emphasized before using the data in modelling work are pointed out. (orig.)

  11. Ecological Land Type Associations of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the fourth level of the Ecological Classification System. Polygon boundaries were delineated at a scale of 1:100,000 with a...

  12. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa – ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climate–vegetation interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Groner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climate–vegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP. Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. While some studies indicated an abrupt collapse of vegetation at the end of the AHP, others suggested a gradual decline. Claussen et al. (2013 introduced a new aspect in the discussion, proposing that plant diversity in terms of moisture requirements could affect the strength of climate–vegetation feedback. In a conceptual model study, the authors illustrated that high plant diversity could stabilize an ecosystem, whereas a reduction in plant diversity might allow for an abrupt regime shift under gradually changing environmental conditions. Based on recently published pollen data and the current state of ecological literature, we evaluate the representation of climate–vegetation feedback in this conceptual approach, and put the suggested conclusions into an ecological context. In principle, the original model reproduces the main features of different plant types interacting together with climate although vegetation determinants other than precipitation are neglected. However, the model cannot capture the diversity of AHP vegetation. Especially tropical gallery forest taxa, indirectly linked to local precipitation, are not appropriately represented. In order to fill the gaps in the description of plant types regarding AHP diversity, we modify the original model in four main aspects. First, the growth ranges in terms of moisture requirements are extended by upper limits to represent full environmental envelopes. Second, data-based AHP plant types replace the hypothetical plant types. Third, the tropical gallery forest type follows the gradual insolation forcing with a linear approximation because it relies more on large scale climate than on regional precipitation amounts. Fourth, we replace the dimensionless vegetation cover fractions with individual effective leaf areas to capture different contributions to climate–vegetation feedback. These adjustments allow for the consideration of a broader spectrum of plant types, plant-climate feedbacks, and implicitly for plant-plant interactions. With the consideration of full environmental envelopes and the prescribed retreat of the tropical gallery forest type we can simulate a diverse mosaic-like environment as it was reconstructed from pollen. Transient simulations of this diverse environment support the buffering effect of high functional diversity on ecosystem performance and precipitation, concluded by Claussen et al. (2013 from the simple approach. Sensitivity studies with different combinations of plant types highlight the importance of plant composition on system stability, and the stabilizing or destabilizing potential a single functional type may inherit. In a broader view, the adjusted model provides a useful tool to study the roles of real plant types in an ecosystem and their combined climate–vegetation feedback under changing precipitation regimes.

  13. Emergence of Indigenous Vegetation Classifications Through Integration of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Remote Sensing Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Robin; Hill, Kim

    2006-09-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) can play an important role in the understanding of ecological systems. Although TEK has complemented scientific and managerial programs in a variety of contexts, its formal incorporation into remote sensing exercises has to date been limited. Here, we show that the vegetation classifications of the Ache, an indigenous hunter-gatherer tribe of the Mbaracayu Forest Reserve in Paraguay, are reflected in a supervised classification of satellite imagery of the reserve. Accuracy of classification was toward the low end of the range of published values, but was reasonable given the difficult nature of separating forest classes from satellite images. Comparison of the resultant map with a more traditionally elaborated vegetation map highlights differences between the two approaches and the gain in information obtained by considering TEK classifications. We suggest that integration of TEK and remote sensing may provide alternative insights into the ecology of vegetation communities and land cover, particularly in remote and densely forested areas where ecological field research is often limited by roads and/or trail systems.

  14. Changes of ecologicals conditions and factors in peak spruce stands of the 7 altitudinal vegetation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ni?

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural spruce stands of the Low Tatras and Po?ana consist of communities of the 6th and the 7th altitudinal vegetation zone, mainly of the group of the forest type /gft/ Sorbeto Piceetum /SP/. In the year 2006, the repeated phytocoenological research was carried out on 48 areas under monitoring. These areas were founded in the year 1982. The goal of the research was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative changes of basic phytocoenoses, changes of abudance and dominance parameters of shelterwood synusia complex and changes of basic ecological factors as well /light, temperature, continentality, moisture, soil acidity and content of nitrogen in soil/. At the same time we have also evaluated the change of diversity of individual taxa in the examined communities. The results pointed out that the communities were heavily acidified during the period of last 24 years and this fact is manifested in the increase of dominant occurence of mesophytic acidophilic species and in the decline of mesotrophic species. The stands of the communities have been opened up considerably and this resulted in the decline of the genuine forest sciophytes. All these influnced diversity of individual taxa during the examined period of time.

  15. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevs from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms. PMID:23961246

  16. The vegetation of the northeastern Orange Free State, South Africa: physical environment and plant communities of the Ea land type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Eckhart

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the Ea land type of the northeastern Orange Free State, with the objective of reclassifying and refining Acockss veld types. TWINSPAN classification results were further refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The 100 relev^s distributed over the Ea land type resulted in the recognition of four major vegetation types which may be divided into nine plant communities. The communities were hierarchically classified, described and ecologically interpreted. DECORANA ordination was used to determine vegetation/environmental gradients and relationships.

  17. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Edcarlos Mannfredini; Deonisio Destro; Martin Homechin; Gustavo Sachsida; Édison Miglioranza

    1998-01-01

    Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cu...

  18. Sampling design in large-scale vegetation studies: Do not sacrifice ecological thinking to statistical purism!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roleček, J.; Chytrý, M.; Hájek, Michal; Lvončík, S.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2007), s. 199-208. ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6163303; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Ecological methodology * Large-scale vegetation patterns * Macroecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007

  19. Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kapusta-Duch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radical. Results.All these species of cruciferous vegetables contained similar total polyphenols amounts regardless of its origin. Only red cabbage from organic farms was characterized by significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to vegetables purchased from local retailers in Cracow and similar or those cultivated near the steelworks. In white cabbage from farms located in a former steelworks protection zone a higher antioxidant activity was found than in organically grown vegetables and similar to that in vegetables available in retail. Brussels sprouts was characterised by a similar antioxidant activity regardless of its origin. Conclusions. On the basis of the present study, it cannot be concluded that organically grown cruciferous vegetables generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones.

  20. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias para a maturidade; Altura da planta na maturidade; Número de sementes por planta; Produtividade por planta individual; Peso de cem sementes. Para implantar as lavouras de soja com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu, pode se utilizar três maneiras: semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis ou semeadura em canteiros com posterior transplantio e semeadura direta no campo.

  1. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  2. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baudena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. Model outcomes, obtained including different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna occurrences in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings, and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  3. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modeling. The outcomes of the models, which include different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. By drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need improved representation in the examined DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna presence in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant forest trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant savanna trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  4. Tropical Forests, Savannas and Grasslands: Bridging the Knowledge Gap Between Ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudena, M.; Dekker, S. C.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S. I.; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.; Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    Due to global climate change, tropical forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are largely used to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we present the results of a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM) with regard to their different representations of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. We compared model outcomes to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism encompasses water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna occurrence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savannas in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings), and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate conditions but also and especially under future scenarios.

  5. Ecological study for refrigerator use, salt, vegetable, and fruit intakes, and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Ma, Seung Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ha; Gwack, Jin; Jung, En-Joo; Cho, Lisa Y; Yang, Jae Jeong; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-11-01

    We used an ecological approach to determine the correlation between vegetable, fruit and salt intakes, refrigerator use, and gastric cancer mortality in Korean population. Information on fruit and vegetable intakes per capita from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, death certificate data from the National Statistical office, refrigerator per household data from Korean Statistical Information Service, and salt/sodium intake data from a cross-sectional survey were utilized. Correlation coefficients were calculated between vegetable and fruit intakes, refrigerator per household, and gastric cancer mortality and between salt and sodium intakes, and gastric cancer mortality and incidence in the four areas. With 5, 10, and 15 years lag time, refrigerator usage and fruit intake were negatively associated with gastric cancer mortality (p < 0.01), but vegetable intake was not associated with gastric cancer mortality. When estimates of salt/sodium intake evaluated by 24-h urine collection in four areas of Korea were compared to the gastric cancer mortality and incidence in these regions, positive correlation was shown between salt/sodium intake, and gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Negative associations between refrigerator use, fruit intake, and gastric cancer mortality and positive associations between salt/sodium intake and gastric cancer mortality and incidence were suggested. PMID:21805052

  6. Using ecological forecasting of future vegetation transition and fire frequency change in the Sierra Nevada to assess fire management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Schwartz, M. W.; Holguin, A. J.; Moritz, M.; Batllori, E.; Folger, K.; Nydick, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ecological systems may respond in complex manners as climate change progresses. Among the responses, site-level climate conditions may cause a shift in vegetation due to the physiological tolerances of plant species, and the fire return interval may change. Natural resource managers challenged with maintaining ecosystem health need a way to forecast how these processes may affect every location, in order to determine appropriate management actions and prioritize locations for interventions. We integrated climate change-driven vegetation type transitions with projected change in fire frequency for 45,203 km2 of the southern Sierra Nevada, California, containing over 10 land management agencies as well as private lands. This Magnitude of Change (MOC) approach involves classing vegetation types in current time according to their climate envelopes, and identifying which sites will in the future have climates beyond what that vegetation currently occurs in. Independently, fire models are used to determine the change in fire frequency for each site. We examined 82 vegetation types with >50 grid cell occurrences. We found iconic resources such as the giant sequoia, lower slope oak woodlands, and high elevation conifer forests are projected as highly vulnerable by models that project a warmer drier future, but not as much by models that project a warmer future that is not drier than current conditions. Further, there were strongly divergent vulnerabilities of these forest types across land ownership (National Parks versus US Forest Service lands), and by GCM. For example, of 50 giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) groves and complexes, all but 3 (on Sierra National Forest) were in the 2 highest levels of risk of climate and fire under the GFDL A2 projection, while 15 groves with low-to-moderate risk were found on both the National Parks and National Forests 18 in the 2 under PCM A2. Landscape projections of potential MOC suggest that the region is likely to experience strong upslope shifting of open grassland, chaparral and hardwood types, which may be initiated by increased fire frequencies, particularly where fires have not recently burned within normal fire recurrence interval departures (FRID). An evaluation of four fire management strategies (business as usual; resist change; foster orderly change; protect vital resources) across four combinations of future climate and fire frequency found that no single management strategy was uniformly successful in protecting critical resources across the range of future conditions examined. This limitation is somewhat driven by current management constraints on the amount of management available to resource managers, which suggests management will need to use a triage approach to application of proactive fire management strategies, wherein MOC landscape projections can be used in decision support.

  7. Qualitative parameters of non-traditional types of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kudrnáčová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine selected quality indicators of non-traditional types of leafy vegetables. Mizuna (Brassica rapa japonica, Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa belonged among the selected species of vegetables. During the one-year experiment, spring and autumn sowing was carried out for these species of vegetables. The measured quality parameters were the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid. Sampling was done in the morning and in the laboratory, the samples were further processed according to the type of determination. To determine the content of nitrates and ascorbic acid, leaves were removed from plants. The filtrate from the leaves was then prepared. Determination of nitrates and ascorbic acid was carried out using a special test strip and device Rqflex plus 10. The results of measurement of both sowing varieties were compared. Total nitrate content was higher up to 22% in plants sown in the autumn except edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium. The highest content was recorded in arugula (Eruca sativa, which was recently implemented to the studies of the European Union and for which there were set the limits of nitrates. Overall, the nitrate content ranged from 221 to 334 ppm in spring varieties and from 249 to 384 mg/kg in autumn varieties. Ascorbic acid content was very high in Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea, edible chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium and arugula (Eruca sativa in both spring and autumn varieties. Values of ascorbic acid ranged from 839 in autumn sowing up to 2909 mg/kg in spring sowing. These non-traditional types of leafy vegetables could be included among the other importants sources of vitamin C in the future.  

  8. LBA-ECO LC-15 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 1-km, Amazon Basin: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of woody vegetation, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over the Amazon...

  9. The Role of Vegetation on the Ecosystem Radiative Entropy Budget and Trends Along Ecological Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stoy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem entropy production is predicted to increase along ecological succession and approach a state of maximum entropy production, but few studies have bridged the gap between theory and data. Here, we explore radiative entropy production in terrestrial ecosystems using measurements from 64 Free/Fair-Use sites in the FLUXNET database, including a successional chronosequence in the Duke Forest in the southeastern United States. Ecosystem radiative entropy production increased then decreased as succession progressed in the Duke Forest ecosystems, and did not exceed 95% of the calculated empirical maximum entropy production in the FLUXNET study sites. Forest vegetation, especially evergreen needleleaf forests characterized by low shortwave albedo and close coupling to the atmosphere, had a significantly higher ratio of radiative entropy production to the empirical maximum entropy production than did croplands and grasslands. Our results demonstrate that ecosystems approach, but do not reach, maximum entropy production and that the relationship between succession and entropy production depends on vegetation characteristics. Future studies should investigate how natural disturbances and anthropogenic management—especially the tendency to shift vegetation to an earlier successional state—alter energy flux and entropy production at the surface-atmosphere interface.

  10. Plant physiological ecology and the global changes Ecofisiologia vegetal e as mudanas globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global changes are marked by alteration on the normal patterns of important biochemical and biophysical processes of the Earth. However, the real effects as well as the feedbacks of the global changes over vegetation are still unclear. Part of this uncertainty can be attributed to the inattention of stakeholders and scientists towards vegetation and its complex interrelations with the environment, which drive plant physiological processes in different space-time scales. Notwithstanding, some key subjects of the global changes could be better elucidated with a more plant physiological ecology approach. We discuss some issues related to this topic, going through some limitations of approaching vegetation as a static component of the biosphere as the other sub-systems of the Earth-system change. With this perspective, this review is an initial reflection towards the assessment of the role and place of vegetation structure and function in the global changes context. We reviewed the Earth-system and global changes terminology; attempted to illustrate key plant physiological ecology researches themes in the global changes context; consider approaching plants as complex systems in order to adequately quantify systems characteristics as sensibility, homeostasis, and vulnerability. Moreover, we propose insights that would allow vegetation studies and scaling procedures in the context of the Earth-system. We hope this review will assist researchers on their strategy to identify, understand and anticipate the potential effects of global changes over the most vulnerable vegetation processes from the leaf to the global levels.As mudanas globais englobam importantes alteraes nos padres normais de processos bioqumicos e biofsicos da Terra. Os reais efeitos e retroalimentaes das mudanas globais sobre a vegetao ainda so incertos. Parte das incertezas pode ser atribuda falta de ateno de cientistas e polticos para a vegetao, enquanto componente do sistema terrestre. Entretanto, algumas questes sobre as mudanas globais poderiam ser mais bem esclarecidas por abordagens mais voltadas ecofisiologia vegetal. Nesse artigo, alguns pontos relacionados e esses problemas, como as limitaes em se abordar a vegetao como um componente esttico da atmosfera enquanto outros subsistemas do sistema terrestre so dinmicos, so discutidos. Dentro dessa perspectiva, essa reviso traz uma reflexo inicial do papel da vegetao, em termos de estrutura e funcionamento, no contexto das mudanas globais. Para isso, foi feita uma reviso das terminologias relacionadas s mudanas globais e ao sistema terrestre, buscou-se ilustrar alguns dos principais temas de pesquisa da ecofisiologia vegetal no contexto das mudanas globais. Foram feitas consideraes em relao ao tratamento de plantas como sistemas complexos, o que importante para o estudo de aspectos relacionados sensibilidade, estabilidade e vulnerabilidade a variaes ambientais. Finalmente, so discutidas alternativas que podem ser utilizadas para incorporar aspectos do funcionamento da vegetao, de forma dinmica, em estudos de mudanas globais, considerando o desafio de mudana de escalas. Espera-se que essa reviso possa auxiliar pesquisadores subsidiando suas estratgias de identificao e compreenso dos efeitos potenciais das mudanas globais sobre os processos mais vulnerveis da vegetao, da folha ao globo.

  11. Plant physiological ecology and the global changes / Ecofisiologia vegetal e as mudanas globais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joo Paulo Rodrigues Alves Delfino, Barbosa; Serge, Rambal; Angela Maria, Soares; Florent, Mouillot; Joana Messias Pereira, Nogueira; Giordane Augusto, Martins.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As mudanas globais englobam importantes alteraes nos padres normais de processos bioqumicos e biofsicos da Terra. Os reais efeitos e retroalimentaes das mudanas globais sobre a vegetao ainda so incertos. Parte das incertezas pode ser atribuda falta de ateno de cientistas e polticos [...] para a vegetao, enquanto componente do sistema terrestre. Entretanto, algumas questes sobre as mudanas globais poderiam ser mais bem esclarecidas por abordagens mais voltadas ecofisiologia vegetal. Nesse artigo, alguns pontos relacionados e esses problemas, como as limitaes em se abordar a vegetao como um componente esttico da atmosfera enquanto outros subsistemas do sistema terrestre so dinmicos, so discutidos. Dentro dessa perspectiva, essa reviso traz uma reflexo inicial do papel da vegetao, em termos de estrutura e funcionamento, no contexto das mudanas globais. Para isso, foi feita uma reviso das terminologias relacionadas s mudanas globais e ao sistema terrestre, buscou-se ilustrar alguns dos principais temas de pesquisa da ecofisiologia vegetal no contexto das mudanas globais. Foram feitas consideraes em relao ao tratamento de plantas como sistemas complexos, o que importante para o estudo de aspectos relacionados sensibilidade, estabilidade e vulnerabilidade a variaes ambientais. Finalmente, so discutidas alternativas que podem ser utilizadas para incorporar aspectos do funcionamento da vegetao, de forma dinmica, em estudos de mudanas globais, considerando o desafio de mudana de escalas. Espera-se que essa reviso possa auxiliar pesquisadores subsidiando suas estratgias de identificao e compreenso dos efeitos potenciais das mudanas globais sobre os processos mais vulnerveis da vegetao, da folha ao globo. Abstract in english The global changes are marked by alteration on the normal patterns of important biochemical and biophysical processes of the Earth. However, the real effects as well as the feedbacks of the global changes over vegetation are still unclear. Part of this uncertainty can be attributed to the inattentio [...] n of stakeholders and scientists towards vegetation and its complex interrelations with the environment, which drive plant physiological processes in different space-time scales. Notwithstanding, some key subjects of the global changes could be better elucidated with a more plant physiological ecology approach. We discuss some issues related to this topic, going through some limitations of approaching vegetation as a static component of the biosphere as the other sub-systems of the Earth-system change. With this perspective, this review is an initial reflection towards the assessment of the role and place of vegetation structure and function in the global changes context. We reviewed the Earth-system and global changes terminology; attempted to illustrate key plant physiological ecology researches themes in the global changes context; consider approaching plants as complex systems in order to adequately quantify systems characteristics as sensibility, homeostasis, and vulnerability. Moreover, we propose insights that would allow vegetation studies and scaling procedures in the context of the Earth-system. We hope this review will assist researchers on their strategy to identify, understand and anticipate the potential effects of global changes over the most vulnerable vegetation processes from the leaf to the global levels.

  12. Flora and ecological profile of native and exotic estuarine wetland vegetation by hydrogeomorphic setting at Rush Ranch, Suisun Marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript includes a profile of the ecology and distribution of estuarine wetland vegetation at the Rush Ranch reserve site in the brackish Suisun Marsh reach of San Francisco Estuary The data and analyses will serve as a baseline for future scientific research and conservation management. A ...

  13. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  14. Phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau based on vegetation and water indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant phenology is considered one of the most sensitive and easily observable natural indicators of climate change, though few studies have focused on the heterogeneities of phenology across the different vegetation types. In this study, we tried to find the phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau. MCD12Q1 images over the Tibetan Plateau from 2001 to 2010 were used to extract the main vegetation types. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) were calculated using surface reflectance values from the blue, red, near-infrared, short-wave infrared (SWIR) 6 (for LSIW6), and SWIR7 (for LSIW7) bands derived from MOD09A1 and used to explore the phenological characteristics of the main vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that there were eight constant vegetation types on the Tibetan Plateau from 2001 to 2010 demonstrating multiple phenological characteristics. Evergreen needleleaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, and permanent wetland had the minimum NDVI values during the summer season, while open shrubland and grassland had the maximum NDVI/EVI values during this period. NDVI and EVI of cropland/natural vegetation had two peaks for their seasonal variations. EVI showed a more significant correlation with LSWI6/LSWI7 than NDVI. Compared to LSWI7, larger EVI values occurred in evergreen needleleaf forest, evergreen broadleaf forest, mixed forest, and permanent wetland, while smaller values occurred in shrubland and barren or sparsely vegetated cover, and nearly equal values occurred in grassland and cropland

  15. The influence of organic-mineral complexes on micro-elements dynamic in ecological systems of vegetables cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, D.; Buzgar, N.; Bulgariu, L.; Rusu, C.; Munteanu, N.

    2009-04-01

    In ecological systems of vegetable cultivation (hortic antrosols; soils from greenhouses), exists an ensemble of equilibriums between organic-mineral combinations, very sensitive even to relatively small variations of physical-chemical conditions in soils. As such, these can manifest a strong influence on organic matter, clay minerals and microelements from soil, which in turn impacts on the productivity of these soils and the quality of obtained products (vegetables, fruit). Although many studies consider these organic-mineral combinations are meta-stable combinations, our work has shown that the stability of organic-mineral combinations in hortic antrosols (especially for clay-humic, clay-ironhumic combinations and chelates) is higher. We believe that this is due to the higher flexibility of these combinations' structures with the variation of chemical-mineralogical composition and physical-chemical conditions in soil. This paper highlights the results of our research on the differentiation possibility of organic-mineral complexes, depending on their structure and composition (using Raman and FT-IR spectrometry) and the influences manifested by the organic-mineral complexes on the micro-elements dynamic from ecological systems of fresh vegetable cultivation. The non-destructive separation of organic-mineral compounds from soil samples was carried out through iso-dynamic magnetic separation and extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (PEG-based). The Raman and FT-IR spectrometry analyses on raw soil samples, extracts obtained from soil samples and separated mineral fractions have been supplemented by the results obtained through chemical, microscopic and thermal analyses and by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. Ours experimental studies have been done on representative samples of hortic antrosol from Copou glasshouse (Iasi, Romania), and was studied five micro-elements: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Cr and P. The total contents of the five microelements and their fractions differential bonded on mineral and organic components of hortic antrosols, have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after combined sequential extraction in solid phase extraction - aqueous biphasic (PEG based) systems. The specific mechanisms of the microelements interaction with organic components have been estimated on the basis of studies realized on fractions obtained after each extraction step by Raman and FTIR spectrometry. These data have been correlated with those obtained by chemical analysis and UV-VIS spectrometry. In conditions of hortic antrosol, from total contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cr, more than 65 % are binding on organic components. A specific phenomenon of hortic antrosols is the microelements complexation exclusively with the functional groups of organic macromolecules. This phenomenon has two important consequences: (i) the strong fixation of microelements (these can be extracted only in very extremely conditions, which implied the organic part destroying) and (ii) their presence determined major modifications in the structure, conformation and stability of organic macromolecules. Under these conditions, the type and structure of organic-mineral compounds represent determinant factors for the dynamic of micro-elements and organic compounds in ecological systems of vegetables cultivation. Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 51045/07 an Project PNCDI 2-D5 no. 52141 / 08).

  16. Vegetation change and emerging research feedback for Korean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chan Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various responses of forest ecosystems to climate change underscore the need to improve our understanding of theenvironmentally-driven changes in forests, most effectively by long-term monitoring protocols. We have explored vegetationdynamics based on changes in community structure, species composition, diversity and demographics in fourKorean National Long Term Ecological Research (KNLTER sites--Mt. Nam, Mt. Jeombong, Mt. Worak, and Mt. Jiri--between 2004 and 2009. Most of the sites and forests studied exhibited increments in total basal area, but this was notobserved in Quercus mongolica forests in Mt. Nam and Mt. Worak. Stem density exhibited various changes. Altitudegradient was the representative factor in differences in species composition. Two patterns of compositional change--convergence and divergence--were detected. The vegetation of Mt. Nam and Q. mongolica community of Mt. Workshowed relatively larger changes in composition. However, in the other sites, few changes were observed. Changes ofspecies richness were not notable except for Mt. Nam, where three species were added in the pine forest, whereas onespecies disappeared in the oak forest. In the oak forests, mortality rate was as follows (in descending order: Mt. Nam(25.5%, Mt. Jeombong (24.3%, Mt. Worak (16.4% and Mt. Jiri (0.8%. In the pine forest, the recruitment rate was as follows(in descending order: Mt. Nam (63.7%, Mt. Worak (12.9%, Mt. Jeombong (7.6% and Mt. Jiri (7.3%. The mortalityrate and change rate of basal area were strongly negatively correlated (r = -0.9, P = 0.002, and the recruitment rate andchange rate of density were positively correlated (r = 0.77, P = 0.026. In the KNLTER sites, larger vegetation changes wereattributed to anthropogenic activities such as salvage logging. Suppression or competition for resources would also affectthese changes. Research suggestions such as monitoring to clarify the causes of species mortality were discussed.

  17. Vegetation types and climate conditions reflected by the modern phytolith assemblages in the subalpine Dalaoling Forest Reserve, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Djakanibé Désiré; Gu, Yansheng; Liu, Humei; Shemsanga, Ceven; Ge, Jiwen

    2015-06-01

    This research describes modern phytolith records and distributions from subalpine surface soils in the Dalaoling Forest Reserve, and reveals its implications for local climate conditions with respect to the altitude gradient. Well-preserved phytolith morpho-types, assemblages, and climatic indices were used to study the relationship between local vegetation and climate conditions. The phytolith classification system is mainly based on the characteristics of detailed morpho-types described for anatomical terms, which are divided into seven groups: long cells, short cells, bulliform cells, hair cells, pteridophyte type, broad-leaved type, and gymnosperm type. Phytoliths originating from the Poaceae are composed of Pooideae (rondel and trapeziform), Panicoideae (bilobate, cross, and polylobate), Chloridoideae (short/square saddle), and Bambusoideae (oblong concave saddle). Based on the altitudinal distribution of the phytolith assemblages and the indices of aridity (Iph), climate (Ic), and tree cover density (D/P), five phytolith assemblage zones have revealed the five types of climatic conditions ranging from 1,169 m to 2,005 m in turn: warm-wet, warm-xeric to warm-mesic, warm-xeric to cool-mesic, cool-xeric, and cool-mesic to cool-xeric. The Bambusoideae, Panicoideae, and Chloridoideae are the dominant vegetation at the lower-middle of the mountains, while Pooideae is mainly distributed in the higher mountains. The close relationship between phytolith assembleages and changes of altitude gradient suggest that vegetation distribution patterns and plant ecology in the Dalaoling mountains are controlled by temperature and humidity conditions. Our results highlight the importance of phytolith records as reliable ecoclimatic indicators for vegetation ecology in subtropical regions.

  18. Changes of ecologicals conditions and factors in peak spruce stands of the 7 altitudinal vegetation zone

    OpenAIRE

    Juraj Nič

    2008-01-01

    Natural spruce stands of the Low Tatras and Poľana consist of communities of the 6th and the 7th altitudinal vegetation zone, mainly of the group of the forest type /gft/ Sorbeto Piceetum /SP/. In the year 2006, the repeated phytocoenological research was carried out on 48 areas under monitoring. These areas were founded in the year 1982. The goal of the research was to evaluate quantitative and qualitative changes of basic phytocoenoses, changes of abudance and dominance parameters of shelte...

  19. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a sites resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  20. Vegetation Dynamics Depending on Ecological Particularities of Bozanta Mare (Maramures County-Romania Tailing Pound. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Marian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study follows an ecological demarch of reintegration in the scenary through revegetation of an anthropic ground, consisting in a waste pond formed from the flotation activity of non-ferrous ores. Problem statement: To support the formation of a compact vegetal layer, having an anti-errosion and a restoration role, a preliminary study was required regarding the spontaneous settlement of different vegetal species. We have followed the specific floristic composition and the biodiversity on the waste pond, the manner of association of plant species, and the possible interractions with other species from the biocenosis (microorganisms and fungi. We have also studied the pace at which vegetal species settle, as well as the reciprocal influence, from the point of view of vegetation, with the neighbouring area, since the desideratum is the settlement of a vegetation similar to the natural one. Approach: The aim of the research is to draw a list of the vegetal taxa installed on the pond, as well as to detect some succession stages or some possible vegetal associations. We have established the share of different species in the vegetal layer on the waste pond through an analysis of the ecological preferences, of the geographical origin of plant species, of the cariological and bioform profile. All this was done to compare the possible vegetal associations which settle on such anthropic grounds with the neighbouring vegetation. The approach used was the classical one in fitosociology, recommended by the Central European Fitosociological School adapted to the pedo-climatic conditions in Romania. Results: Over 50 species of plants and fungi spontaniously settled have been listed, and we have followed their association as well as their distribution, compared to the microclimatical conditions of the waste pond. In this way,we have distinguished species with a large potential of revegetating highly polluted with heavy metals waste ponds and sites. Conclusions/Recommendations: Starting from this study, we may establish a formula of sustaining the vegetation and using the interractions among species in order to stimulate the settlement of a dense vegetation which might ensure anti-errosion protection and landscape integration.

  1. The natural vegetation responses to the groundwater change resulting from ecological water conveyances to the lower Tarim River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailiang; Ye, Mao; Song, Yudong; Chen, Yaning

    2007-08-01

    This paper takes the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) that transfers water from the Bosten Lake, to Daxihaizi Reservoir, and finally to the Taitema Lake as a case study to analyze the dynamic change of the groundwater depth, the vegetation responses to the elevation of the groundwater depth as well as the relationship between the groundwater depth and the natural vegetation. The results from many years' monitoring in field indicate: (1) the groundwater depth has been elevating gradually with the increase in the times of watering and the elevation range has been expanding continuously in the lower reaches of Tarim River. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation has a favorable response to the elevation of the groundwater depth. The change of the natural vegetation has accordance with that of the groundwater depth. Such facts not only show that groundwater is a key factor to the growth of the native vegetation but also prove it is feasible that the degraded ecosystem can be restored and protected by the EWCP; (2) the results of analysis of the spatial-temporal response of the natural vegetation to watering reveals that the beneficial influence of the EWCP on the ecosystem in the lower Tarim River is a long-term process; (3) in terms of the function and structure of ecosystem after watering in the lower reaches of Tarim River, the EWCP does not still reach the goal of ecological restoration at a large spatial scale at present. Based on such monitoring results, some countermeasures and suggestions for the future restoration strategy are proposed so as to provide a theoretical basis for restoring and protecting the ecosystem in Tarim River, and meanwhile it can also provide some scientific references for implementing the similar ecological projects in other areas. PMID:17225962

  2. Configuration of water resources for a typical river basin in an arid region of China based on the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hongbo; Guo, Bin; Xu, Hailiang; Fu, Jinyi

    2014-11-01

    Desert riparian vegetation is a natural cover promoting the stability and development of inland river ecosystems in arid regions. Calculating the ecological water requirements (EWRs) of desert riparian vegetation is an important step in achieving reasonable water utilization. Therefore, this study examined the Tarim River, located in an extremely arid region of China, and collected relevant data on hydrology, weather and vegetation using remote sensing. Subsequently, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the desert riparian vegetation in four sections of the Tarim River and calculated the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation using the phreatic evaporation model; additionally, we determined the required runoffs at five hydrologic stations based on the water balance principle. Ultimately, the necessary protection ranges and goals for desert riparian vegetation were established according to the water resource variations in the Tarim River. Our research showed that the total area of desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River is 16,285.3 km2; this distribution area gradually decreased as the distance from the river increased, and areas varied in the different river sections. The EWRs of desert riparian vegetation from Sections 1 to 5 are 5.698 × 108, 7.585 × 108, 4.900 × 108, 4.101 × 108 m3 and 1.078 × 108 m3, respectively. Therefore, the total EWR of the study region is 23.362 × 108 m3. In terms of the transpiration law of the "unimodal type", the peak value of EWR of natural vegetation occurs in July, and the decreasing trend appears in the other months. Based on the water balance principle, the required runoffs in Alar, Xinquman, Yingbaza, Wusiman and Qiala were determined to be 47.105 × 108, 35.174 × 108, 22.734 × 108, 15.775 × 108 and 7.707 × 108 m3, respectively. According to the water resource frequency and the EWR of the desert riparian vegetation along the Tarim River, we divided the region into three protection ranges: key protection (8.9-11.8 km from the river), basic protection (15.8-21.8 km from the river) and influence protection (43.0 km from the river). This research not only provides a reasonable calculation method for EWR on the scale of a river basin but also supports the healthy development of the desert riparian vegetation ecosystem and helps to achieve the optimal water allocation for this river.

  3. Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Esprito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  4. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bittern...

  5. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the...

  6. Ecología vegetal en la Antártida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Sancho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A menudo se ha descrito la vida vegetal en la Antártida como extremadamente pobre y ecológicamente simple. Sin embargo, esto sólo es cierto si nos referimos a las localidades más inhóspitas de la Antártida continental. En la región conocida como Antártida marítima, costa occidental de la Península Antártica e islas adyacentes, la situación es bien distinta. El número de especies de líquenes supera las 350 y se han descrito más de 100 especies de musgos y hepáticas, aunque sólo existen dos plantas con flores. En el ámbito de la ecología vegetal, la cuestión fundamental que ha preocupado a los investigadores hasta ahora es si los líquenes y musgos de la Antártida presentan algún tipo de adaptación que les permita sobrevivir mejor que otras plantas en este medio. Un segundo aspecto de gran interés en la actualidad es determinar la capacidad de adaptación de la flora antártica ante el aumento de la radiación ultravioleta (UV como consecuencia del agujero de ozono, y ante el calentamiento global. Los líquenes antárticos se han mostrado muy tolerantes a amplios periodos de frío y sequía y son capaces de mantener una fotosíntesis activa a temperatura por debajo del punto de congelación, sin embargo algunas de las especies estudiadas no son capaces de mantener tasas positivas de fotosíntesis si la temperatura sube dos o tres grados. Por otra parte, tanto musgos como líquenes se muestran muy resistentes a la radiación UV. Los líquenes y comunidades microbianas de los Valles Secos y Montañas Transantárticas no parecen limitados por la más dura combinación de frío, sequedad y radiación que se produce en nuestro planeta. Estas especies son excelentes candidatos para experimentos de astrobiología en el espacio exterior, con el fin de demostrar la capacidad de supervivencia de células complejas originadas en la Tierra a posibles transferencias interplanetarias.

  7. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.; Bieniek, P.; Comiso, J.; Pinzon, J.; Raynolds, M.K.; Tucker, C.J.; Jia, G.J.; Zeng, H.; Myers-Smith, I.H.; Forbes, B.C.; Blok, Daan; Loranty, M.M.; Beck, P.S.A.; Goetz, S.J.; Callaghan, T.V.; Henry, G.H.R.; Tweedie, C.E.; Webber, P.J.; Rocha, A.V.; Shaver, G.R.; Welker, J.M.

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has incre...

  8. Temporal dynamics of spectral bioindicators evidence biological and ecological differences among functional types in a cork oak open woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasoli, Sofia; Costa e Silva, Filipe; Silva, João M. N.

    2015-10-01

    The application of spectral vegetation indices for the purpose of vegetation monitoring and modeling increased largely in recent years. Nonetheless, the interpretation of biophysical properties of vegetation through their spectral signature is still a challenging task. This is particularly true in Mediterranean oak forest characterized by a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. In this study, the temporal dynamics of vegetation indices expected to be related with green biomass and photosynthetic efficiency were compared for the canopy of trees, the herbaceous layer, and two shrub species: cistus (Cistus salviifolius) and ulex (Ulex airensis). coexisting in a cork oak woodland. All indices were calculated from in situ measurements with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder, USA). Large differences emerged in the temporal trends and in the correlation between climate and vegetation indices. The relationship between spectral indices and temperature, radiation, and vapor pressure deficit for cork oak was opposite to that observed for the herbaceous layer and cistus. No correlation was observed between rainfall and vegetation indices in cork oak and ulex, but in the herbaceous layer and in the cistus, significant correlations were found. The analysis of spectral vegetation indices with fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) and quantum yield of chlorophyll fluorescence (ΔF/Fm') evidenced strongest relationships with the indices Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)512, respectively. Our results, while confirms the ability of spectral vegetation indices to represent temporal dynamics of biophysical properties of vegetation, evidence the importance to consider ecosystem composition for a correct ecological interpretation of results when the spatial resolution of observations includes different plant functional types.

  9. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  10. Categorizing Grassland Vegetation with Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning: A Feasibility Study for Detecting Natura 2000 Habitat Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrs Zlinszky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand for reliable, high-resolution vegetation maps covering large areas. Airborne laser scanning data is available for large areas with high resolution and supports automatic processing, therefore, it is well suited for habitat mapping. Lowland hay meadows are widespread habitat types in European grasslands, and also have one of the highest species richness. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of airborne laser scanning for vegetation mapping of different grasslands, including the Natura 2000 habitat type lowland hay meadows. Full waveform leaf-on and leaf-off point clouds were collected from a Natura 2000 site in Sopron, Hungary, covering several grasslands. The LIDAR data were processed to a set of rasters representing point attributes including reflectance, echo width, vegetation height, canopy openness, and surface roughness measures, and these were fused to a multi-band pseudo-image. Random forest machine learning was used for classifying this dataset. Habitat type, dominant plant species and other features of interest were noted in a set of 140 field plots. Two sets of categories were used: five classes focusing on meadow identification and the location of lowland hay meadows, and 10 classes, including eight different grassland vegetation categories. For five classes, an overall accuracy of 75% was reached, for 10 classes, this was 68%. The method delivers unprecedented fine resolution vegetation maps for management and ecological research. We conclude that high-resolution full-waveform LIDAR data can be used to detect grassland vegetation classes relevant for Natura 2000.

  11. Effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on glucose excursions in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Saeko; Fukui, Michiaki; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review was to evaluate whether eating vegetables before carbohydrates could reduce the postprandial glucose, insulin, and improve long-term glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of eating vegetables before carbohydrates on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, and glycemic control for 2.5 y in patients with type 2 diabetes. The postprandial glucose and insulin levels decreased significantly when the patients ate vegetables before car...

  12. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 2. The D land type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a research programme on the synthesis of the vegetation of the western Grassland Biome, the plant communities of the D land type of the north-western Orange Free State were investigated. The results of a numerical classification (TWINSPAN of 59 reievs were refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The analyses revealed eight plant communities which may be grouped into two major communities. A hierarchical classification, description and ecological interpretation of the plant communities, and an ordination (DECORANA with associated environmental gradients, are presented.

  13. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 8664550m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies. PMID:26406985

  14. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies. PMID:26406985

  15. LBA-ECO LC-15 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 1-km, Amazon Basin: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of woody vegetation, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over the Amazon Basin for...

  16. Ejin Oasis Land Use and Vegetation Change between 2000 and 2011: The Role of the Ecological Water Diversion Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ejin Oasis, located in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB, has experienced severe ecosystem decline between the 1960s and 1990s. In response, the Chinese Government implemented the Ecological Water Diversion Project (EWDP in 2000. To evaluate the effects of the EWDP, this study monitored changes in land use and vegetation in the Ejin Oasis since 2000 and examined driving factors behind such changes. Results demonstrated that the Ejin Oasis ecosystem generally improved between 2000 and 2011. Water body area significantly increased. Lake area of once dried-up Sogo Nuur increased to 45 km2. Accordingly, vegetation cover restoration has also significantly increased. For example, the Seasonally Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (SINDVI has shown that 31.18% of the entire study area experienced an increase in vegetation area. On the other hand, even though the EWDP has been successful in driving vegetation recovery and lake restoration, farmland reclamation has counteracted such restoration initiatives. Farmland area almost doubled between 2000 and 2011. Thus, farmland expansion management is necessary for the full restoration of the Ejin Oasis ecosystems as well as HRB sustainable development. The results of this study can provide a reference for the management of the HRB.

  17. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M; Dekker, S. C.; Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S I; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSB...

  18. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M; Dekker, S. C.; Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S I; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GU...

  19. Forests, savannas and grasslands : bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, Mara; Dekker, Stefan C.; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cuesta, Barbara; Higgins, Steven I.; Lehsten, Veiko; Reick, Christian H.; Rietkerk, Max; Scheiter, Simon; Yin, Zun; Zavala, Miguel Ángel de; Brovkin, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GU...

  20. Forests, savannas, and grasslands : bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and dynamic global vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, Mara; Dekker, Stefan C.; Van Bodegom, Peter M.; Cuesta, Barbara; Higgins, Steven I.; Lehsten, Veiko; Reick, Christian H.; Rietkerk, Max; Scheiter, Simon; Yin, Zun; Zavala, Miguel Ángel de; Brovkin, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSB...

  1. Forests, savannas, and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M; Dekker, S. C.; Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S I; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future due to global climate change. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are very useful for understanding vegetation dynamics under the present climate, and for predicting its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three di...

  2. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Baudena, M; Dekker, S. C.; Bodegom, P. M.; Cuesta, B.; Higgins, S I; Lehsten, V.; Reick, C. H.; Rietkerk, M.; Scheiter, S.; Yin, Z.(Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China); Zavala, M. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2014-01-01

    The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different ...

  3. Palaeo plant diversity in subtropical Africa ecological assessment of a conceptual model of climatevegetation interaction

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Groner; Claussen, M.; C. Reick

    2015-01-01

    We here critically re-assess a conceptual model dealing with the potential effect of plant diversity on climatevegetation feedback, and provide an improved version adjusted to plant types that prevailed during the African Humid Period (AHP). Our work contributes to the understanding of the timing and abruptness of vegetation decline at the end of the AHP, investigated by various working groups during the past two decades using a wide range of model and palaeoproxy reconstruction approaches. ...

  4. Associations of Phlebotomus orientalis and other sandflies with vegetation types in the eastern Sudan focus of kala-azar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaiem, D A; Hassan, H K; Ward, R D

    1999-05-01

    Abundances of Phlebotomus orientalis, P. papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) and other sandflies were investigated in relation to different types of vegetation associated with endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in eastern Sudan. Sandfly collection sites were in Umsalala Village (Galabat Province) and Dinder National Park (Dinder Province). Sandfly species found in the area were P. orientalis, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia africana, S. antennata, S. clydei, S. schwetzi and S. squamipleuris. Among the types of trees in the Dinder area, P. orientalis was more abundant in forests dominated by Acacia seyal than where Combretum kordofanum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Hyphaena thaibaica or Ziziphus spinachristi were the dominant trees. At Umsalala, P. papatasi was more abundant in the village than at any site with dense vegetation, but P. orientalis was uncommon. Sergentomyia spp. were distributed fairly evenly amongst most types of vegetation investigated at both localities. The ecological distribution of sandflies and epidemiology of kala-azar in Sudan are discussed with emphasis on the association of P. orientalis with A. seyal woodlands. PMID:10484166

  5. Ecological economic evaluation of the degraded natural vegetation restoration after water transfer to the lower Tarim River, Xinjiang region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ye; Hailiang, Xu

    2013-04-01

    The emergency ecological water transfer has been implemented for 12 years since 2000 in the lower Tarim River with the goal of restoring the impaired ecosystem and protected habitat environment. It is necessary to evaluate the ecological economic benefits of the vegetative system in order to measure the success of the rehabilitated ecosystem. Based on a hypothesis that the growth of the natural vegetation has a hysteresis with increased groundwater level, this paper suggests that the ecological economic value of the natural vegetation response to groundwater level elevation theoretically includes two parts: the direct value resulting from the increased aboveground biomass of the natural vegetation and the potential value resulting from the natural vegetative restoration in the future. The ecological economic analysis method is applied to calculate assess the ecological economic benefits of the natural vegetative restoration in Kaogan area. The total investment cost of increased groundwater level after seven years is 867 US Dollars in the 100-metre-wide, 2000-metre-long sample belt. The direct value is 1491 US Dollars and the direct input-output ratio is 1:1.7. While the potential value is 4989 US Dollars and the total input-output ratio is 1:7.5. The results indicate that the ecological economic benefits of natural vegetative response are significant after seven years of groundwater level elevation in the lower Tarim River. It also provides a theoretical reference for quantifying the benefits of the degraded ecosystem restoration. Keywords: The lower reaches of Tarim River; ecological water transfer project; ecological economic value; the potential value

  6. Water retention and evapotranspiration of green roofs and possible natural vegetation types

    OpenAIRE

    Metselaar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Matching vegetation to growing conditions on green roofs is one of the options to increase biodiversity in cities. A hydrological model has been applied to match the hydrological requirements of natural vegetation types to roof substrate parameters and to simulate moisture stress for specific substrate properties and substrate depth as a matching criterion. Additionally the model simulations allow quantifying effects of roof vegetation on the water balance of a roof, thus providing informatio...

  7. Effects of vegetation types on soil moisture estimation from the normalized land surface temperature versus vegetation index space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dianjun; Zhou, Guoqing

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key variable that has been widely used in many environmental studies. Land surface temperature versus vegetation index (LST-VI) space becomes a common way to estimate SM in optical remote sensing applications. Normalized LST-VI space is established by the normalized LST and VI to obtain the comparable SM in Zhang et al. (Validation of a practical normalized soil moisture model with in situ measurements in humid and semiarid regions [J]. International Journal of Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1055610). The boundary conditions in the study were set to limit the point A (the driest bare soil) and B (the wettest bare soil) for surface energy closure. However, no limitation was installed for point D (the full vegetation cover). In this paper, many vegetation types are simulated by the land surface model - Noah LSM 3.2 to analyze the effects on soil moisture estimation, such as crop, grass and mixed forest. The locations of point D are changed with vegetation types. The normalized LST of point D for forest is much lower than crop and grass. The location of point D is basically unchanged for crop and grass.

  8. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hoon Hong; Hyun-Ok Kim; Shimon Wdowinski; Emanuelle Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol) synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We ...

  9. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Man; Adriana Paucean

    2013-01-01

    Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s ch...

  10. Impacts of ecological water conveyance on groundwater dynamics and vegetation recovery in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xingming; Li, Weihong

    2014-11-01

    The ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River provided a valuable opportunity to study hydro-ecological processes of desert riparian vegetation. Ecological effects of the EWCP were assessed at large spatial and temporal scales based on 13 years of monitoring data. This study analyzed the trends in hydrological processes and the ecological effects of the EWCP. The EWCP resulted in increased groundwater storage-expressed as a general rise in the groundwater table-and improved soil moisture conditions. The change of water conditions also directly affected vegetative cover and the phenology of herbs, trees, and shrubs. Vegetative cover of herbs was most closely correlated to groundwater depth at the last year-end (R = 0.81), and trees and shrubs were most closely correlated to annual average groundwater depth (R = 0.79 and 0.66, respectively). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) responded to groundwater depth on a 1-year time lag. Although the EWCP improved the NDVI, the study area is still sparsely vegetated. The main limitation of the EWCP is that it can only preserve the survival of existing vegetation, but it does not effectively promote the reproduction and regeneration of natural vegetation. PMID:25074365

  11. Mapping vegetation types with the multiple spectral feature mapping algorithm in both emission and absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Koch, Christopher; Ager, Cathy

    1992-01-01

    Vegetation covers a large portion of the Earth's land surface. Remotely sensing quantitative information from vegetation has proven difficult because in a broad sense, all vegetation is similar from a chemical viewpoint, and most healthy plants are green. Plant species are generally characterized by the leaf and flower or fruit morphology, not by remote sensing spectral signatures. But to the human eye, many plants show varying shades of green, so there is direct evidence for spectral differences between plant types. Quantifying these changes in a predictable manner has not been easy. The Clark spectral features mapping algorithm was applied to mapping spectral features in vegetation species.

  12. The variation of components in the radiation balance over different fynbos vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this research is to test whether fynbos vegetation has a high reflection coefficient, and the secondary aim is to consider the vegetation at the sites where the radiation measurements were carried out in order to determine whether similar vegetation structural types have similar radiation regimes. In order to do this six sites were selected in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. At each site the radiation fluxes were measured for three days during the late summer, giving a total of eighteen days of observation. In addition to the radiation measurements structural data was collected for the vegetation at each site so that comparisons between the radiation fluxes and vegetation could be made. Floristic data was also collected, to typify the vegetation at each site. It has been found that fynbos vegetation, as represented by this study, has an unusually low reflection coefficient which varies from 0,08 -0,13. These values are below those recorded in the literature for other heathland vegetation. On the basis of a numerical classification of the vegetation structural data, it has been found that there is no clear relationship between the vegetation and the various components of the radiation balance

  13. Vegetation and Vertebrates of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Outline of Ecology and Annotated Lists 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior This is an extensive list of vegetation and vertebrates at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center based on information gathered during the years 19361946.

  14. Vegetation Classification, Inventory, and Ecological Integrity Assessment of the Wet Meadow Habitats: Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project was funded through the Region 1 Inventory and Monitoring Initiative RFP in 2011. The primary objectives of this project were to develop a vegetation...

  15. Using Dehydrated Vegetables in Some Brown Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Expanding the range of bakery products in terms of producing supplemented or dietetic products has been an increasingly important trend in contemporary baking. Bakery products as basic and popular food, could be used in the prevention of nutritive deficiencies of many important nutrients, by supplementing the products with biologically valuable ingredients. Such ingredients are dehydrated vegetables in the form of powder. For establishing the bread quality, a special importance shows it’s chemical composition, because the substances that enter in it’s constitution serve to obtaining the energy necessary to the human body. Beside the chemical composition, the bread quality and alimentary use, respectively, depends a large measure on a series of signs: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, breads’ volume. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aims are obtaining some bread assortments with high nutritional value, and improving their sensorial and rheological features, by adding dehydrated vegetables at different levels 4% potato flakes, 2% dehydrated onion, 0.5% dehydrated garlic and 2% dehydrated leek.

  16. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long-term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claire M.; Bunce, Robert G. H.

    2016-02-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large-scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the Shetland survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry, a range of socio-economic impacts, and perhaps climate change. Currently no such figures are available, although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  17. Survey of the terrestrial habitats and vegetation of Shetland, 1974 - a framework for long term ecological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-10-01

    A survey of the natural environment was undertaken in Shetland in 1974, after concern was expressed that large scale development from the new oil industry could threaten the natural features of the islands. A framework was constructed by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology on which to select samples for the survey. The vegetation and habitat data that were collected, along with the sampling framework, have recently been made public via the following DOIs: doi:10.5285/06fc0b8c-cc4a-4ea8-b4be-f8bd7ee25342 (Terrestrial habitat, vegetation and soil data from Shetland, 1974) and doi:10.5285/f1b3179e-b446-473d-a5fb-4166668da146 (Land Classification of Shetland 1974). In addition to providing valuable information about the state of the natural environment of Shetland, the repeatable and statistically robust methods developed in the survey were used to underpin the Countryside Survey, Great Britain's national long-term integrated environmental monitoring programme. The demonstration of the effectiveness of the methodology indicates that a repeat of the survey would yield statistics about ecological changes in the islands, such as those arising from the impacts of the oil industry. Currently no such figures are available although there is much information on the sociological impacts, as well as changes in agriculture.

  18. Noise- and delay-induced regime shifts in an ecological system of vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the stationary probability distribution (SPD) and mean first passage time (MFPT) in a vegetation model with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation dynamics is assumed to be disturbed by both intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The impacts of the intrinsic noise strength α, extrinsic noise strength D, time delay τ and cross-correlation strength q between two noises on the SPD and MFPT of the regime shifts between the sustainable vegetation and barren states are discussed, respectively. Our main results are as follows. (i) The increase of α will cause regime shifts from the barren state to the sustainable vegetation state, while the increase of D or τ will cause regime shifts from the sustainable vegetation state to the barren state. (ii) The MFPT as a function of the noise intensities (i.e., α and D) exhibits one maximum value in the case of q 0.0), the presence of time delay can also cause the existence of extrinsic noise enhanced stability. (paper)

  19. Productive vegetation: relationships between net primary productivity, vegetation types and climate change in the Wet Tropics bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: There is now ample evidence demonstrating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and human society (Walther ef a/. 2002). Numerous studies have shown climate change is one of the most significant threats to tropical forests, such as the Wet Tropics Heritage Area, due to their high biodiversity and endemism (Pounds ef al. 1999; Hughes 2000; Parmesan and Yohe 2003). Williams ef al. (2003) suggested that small shifts in net primary productivity (NPP) as a result of climate change could lead to potentially massive follow-on effects for the extremely diverse and vulnerable rainforest flora and fauna. It is therefore crucial to explore the relationships between NPP and local biodiversity, especially to create models for different climate change scenarios. Nevertheless, NPP in the Wet Tropics has yet to be estimated. This is the first study to provide a general NPP estimate for the Wet Tropics bioregion using climate surrogates (Schuur 2003). This technique estimates NPP in an accurate, repeatable, and cost-effective way. NPP values were linked to vegetation types and examined under various climatic and environmental conditions. Results show a significant difference in productivity according to vegetation types and climatic variables, with temperature and rainfall seasonality as the most important determining variables. Additionally, lowland and upland vegetations showed a significant difference in productivity patterns throughout the year. Vegetation types located above 1000 metres in altitude had the lowest values of mean annual productivity due to their high rainfall and low temperatures; vegetation types located below 600 metres showed increased productivity values during the wet season (December-March). Net primary productivity will certainly be impacted by changes in temperature and rainfall, due to climate change. Although an increase in NPP values can be predicted for upland areas, the more widely distributed lowlands will drastically decrease their productivity values. Information regarding the variability of net primary productivity across the Wet Tropics bioregion and its possible modifications due to climate change is crucial for management of future scenarios. The results from this study will help management agencies and conservation groups to plan accordingly

  20. Aquatic vegetation in response to increased eutrophication and degraded light climate in Eastern Lake Taihu: Implications for lake ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Deng, Jianming; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem degradation is widely recognized as a major global environmental and development problem. Although great efforts have been made to prevent aquatic ecosystem degradation, the degree, extent and impacts of this phenomenon remain controversial and unclear, such as its driving mechanisms. Here, we present results from a 17-year field investigation (1998–2014) of water quality and a 12-year remote sensing mapping (2003–2014) of the aquatic vegetation presence frequency (VPF) in Eastern Lake Taihu, a macrophyte-dominated bay of Lake Taihu in China. In the past 17 years, nutrient concentrations and water level (WL) have significantly increased, but the Secchi disk depth (SDD) has significantly decreased. These changes were associated with increased lake eutrophication and a degraded underwater light climate that further inhibited the growth of aquatic vegetation. In Eastern Lake Taihu, increased nutrients, chlorophyll a and WL, and a decreased SDD were all significantly correlated with a decreased VPF. NH4+-N concentration and SDD/WL were the most important controlling factors for VPF. Therefore, increased anthropogenic nutrient inputs and a degraded underwater light climate surely result in a decreased VPF. These results elucidate the driving mechanism of aquatic vegetation degradation and will facilitate Lake Taihu ecological restoration.

  1. Diversity in a complex ecological network with two interaction types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melián, C. J.; Bascompte, J.; Jordano, P.; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2009), s. 122-130. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Grant ostatní: University of California(US) DEB-0553768; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-04774; The Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology(ES) REN2003-00273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : complex ecological network Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.147, year: 2009

  2. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculat...

  3. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Goetz, Scott J, E-mail: pbeck@whrc.org [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  4. Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

  5. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: Effects of vegetation type and anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Newton, W.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of the six most abundant alien species at Theodore Roosevelt National Park had distributions unrelated to disturbance. We recommend that vegetation type be explicitly taken into account when designing monitoring plans for alien species in natural areas.

  6. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  7. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-22 Vegetation Cover Types from MODIS, 500-m, South America: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains proportional estimates for the vegetative cover types of tree cover, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground over South America for the period...

  9. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  10. Spreading Topsoil Encourages Ecological Restoration on Embankments: Soil Fertility, Microbial Activity and Vegetation Cover

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Desire; Mejas, Violeta; Juregui, Berta M.; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; Lpez-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoa

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoi...

  11. Tropical alpine treelines : how ecological processes control vegetation patterning and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, M

    2007-01-01

    The alpine treeline, defined as the transition between upper montane forest and alpine vegetation, can be a gradual transition, an abrupt boundary, or a patchy mosaic. The position of the treeline in the landscape also varies between regions. These different spatial patterns are caused by processes that also determine the dynamic properties of the treeline, such as its response to changes in climate or landuse. Spatial patterns may therefore serve to indicate the temporal dynamics that a tree...

  12. Catastrophic Shifts in Wetland Geomorphology and Ecology in Response to Hydrology-Vegetation-Sediment Transport Feedbacks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, L. G.; Harvey, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal marshes and long-hydroperiod floodplain wetlands exhibit strong bi-directional feedback between hydrology, vegetation, and sediment that impacts landscape dynamics and ecosystem services. In these ecosystems, vegetation responds to and also influences the distribution of topography, with effects on habitat provision, biological diversity, landscape connectivity, surface-subsurface exchange, and microbial and redox reactions. Topography evolves both autogenically and allogenically. Autogenically, peat accretes under reducing conditions as a function of local water levels, vegetation community, and nutrient concentrations. Concurrently, an allogenic sediment redistribution feedback process involves erosion of sediment from low, sparsely vegetated areas and deposition of sediment within dense vegetation that resists flow. It is well documented that these feedback processes are dominantly responsible for evolution of tidal marsh morphology and response of coastal marshes to sea level rise. Less well understood is the role these feedbacks play in the evolution of more slowly flowing interior marshes and in the response of these systems to perturbations in flow velocity as well as water level. We developed a cellular automata model that physically simulates both sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks. Because of the efficiency of this simplified modeling technique, we ran the model over a broad range of environmental conditions in a generalized sensitivity analysis. As a result of the two feedback processes, simulated landscapes reflected a variety of morphologies found in coastal and interior wetlands worldwide, with differences attributable to relative dominance of physical (e.g., surface-water flow, water level) or biological (e.g., vegetation productivity and colonization) drivers. Significantly, under moderate surface-water flow velocities (4-6 cm s-1), a class of patterned wetlands with regular ridges and sloughs oriented parallel to the dominant flow direction emerged, which mimics the patterned, flow-parallel topography found in the Florida Everglades. Sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks constitute the first description of a viable mechanism for formation of this ecologically important landscape structure and provide guidance for restoration efforts. We show that because of vegetative resistance to flow, this patterned landscape structure is prone to shift to an alternate stable state, dominated by a monoculture of emergent vegetation, under changes in surface-water flow velocity or water level. Results suggest that twentieth-century degradation of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape is attributable primarily to changes in water level and, secondarily, to diminished surface-water flow velocities. Because hydrology-vegetation-sediment feedbacks cause hysteresis in landscape evolution trajectories, restoration of historic flow velocities and water levels will not necessarily produce a return to historic landscape structure. Understanding the dynamics of sediment redistribution and differential peat accretion feedbacks will be essential in predicting how wetlands worldwide will respond to changes in climate or water management.

  13. Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Khumayni, S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecology is the study of interaction of living organisms in the environment. However the modern meaning of the concept of ecology has a wider meaning than in the early decades of the development of this science. Currently, most often under the mistaken environmental issues are understood, above all, the protection of the environment. In many ways, this shift is due to sense more tangible consequences of human impact on the environment. When you are citing the document, use the following lin...

  14. The impact of vegetation type on the shortwave radiation balance of the Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszak, Inge; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Profound changes in vegetation composition in the Arctic tundra have been observed and are predicted in a warmer future climate. Shrub expansion may positively feed back to climate warming by decreasing the shortwave albedo. On the other hand, permafrost protection through soil shading by shrubs has been discussed in literature. Several studies compared the average radiation balance across vegetation zones. However, variation within vegetation zones may be as important as differences between vegetation zones. The lowland tundra ecosystem at the Kytalyk research site (NE Siberia) is dominated by two vegetation types (dwarf shrub (Betula nana) and wet sedge (Eriophorum angustifolium)) organised in patches at a scale of about 10m. We investigated the shortwave radiation balance of both types separately and related it to the 11 year data set of the fluxtower with a mixed footprint. In addition to canopy albedo, we measured canopy transmittance below dwarf shrubs and wet sedges to quantify the often discussed effect of soil shading. Our results show that at our field site, wet sedge vegetation is shading the soil more efficiently than dwarf shrubs due to multi-year standing litter. While we measured an average transmission of 36% of the incoming shortwave radiation below dwarf shrubs, the transmission of wet sedge was 28%. Wet sedge summer albedo was on average 16% higher than dwarf shrub albedo. Additionally, the snow melted 10 days later in the sedge patches, leading to large albedo differences in the second half of May 2014. Our analysis shows, that cloud cover is the second most important control on albedo and transmittance of both vegetation types. Clouds reduced the summer albedo of both vegetation types across all zenith angles. On average, the growing season albedo was about 11% higher on clear sky days as compared to overcast days whereas the transmittance was about 23% lower. As cloud cover is expected to change with climate change, field studies of the cloud effects on the surface radiation balance are important to assess potential climate feedbacks. The results of our study reveal considerable variation of the shortwave energy balance at the local scale depending on vegetation type and cloud cover. Such detailed measurements at the local scale are important to complement satellite data in the parameterisation and validation of land-surface and climate models. They are contributing to a better understanding of the impact of vegetation type on the land surface and permafrost energy and carbon cycle in highly patterned tundra wetlands.

  15. Vegetation type modifies the cycling and aromaticity of DOC and N in small-scale urban stormwater basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Dolliver, H.; Balster, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban land use can cause ecological degradation of surface waters through stormwater inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). Green infrastructure practices such as small-scale (m2) vegetated stormwater basins (e.g. bioretention basins, rain gardens, bioswales) have been implemented for the past 20 years to reduce stormwater quantity and improve water quality in urban ecosystems. Although the efficacy of these practices rests on an ecological assumption that plant-soil interactions will alter the C and N cycles relative to surrounding urban infrastructure, the impact of vegetation type on the biogeochemistry of urban stormwater basins is not well understood. We hypothesized that the two most prevalent types of vegetation planted in stormwater basins in the Midwestern United States, native prairie and woody shrubs, differ in their cycling and export of C and N due to differences in relative woody and parenchymatic tissue inputs to soil organic matter, root morphology, and root exudation. We tested this hypothesis in an open-air field laboratory consisting of 9 vegetated mesocosms (3 native prairie, 3 woody shrub, 3 bare soil) designed in 2005 according to WI-DNR specifications for residential stormwater basin construction. During precipitation events in July-October 2011, we collected stormwater runoff from an adjacent tin roof (417 m2) and conducted 9 runoff applications that mimicked the rate and intensity of runoff that would be received by a small-scale (5.9 m2) stormwater basin in the urban environment during a 2.54 cm rain event. We instrumented each mesocosm to quantify (1) first flush and peak flow concentration of DOC and TDN during gravitational soil water flux (2) DOC and TDN concentration in soil pore space after gravitational water flux ceased, and (3) SUVA254 as an optical proxy for aromaticity in the first flush and peak flow of gravitational soil water flux. Results show significant differences (pwater, where the shrub and prairie had significantly higher DOC:TDN ratios than bare soil. DOC:TDN soil pore water ratios were 8.78 0.87, 9.69 0.87, and 4.49 0.87 for prairie, shrub, and bare soil, respectively. We speculate that observed biogeochemical differences in drainage are due to differences in organic matter composition of root-formed macropores in the native prairie and woody shrubs, which may have been the primary pathway of DOC and TDN contributions during preferential flow processes.

  16. Experimental restoration of a salt marsh with some comments on ecological restoration of coastal vegetated ecosystems in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Je, Jong Geel; Woo, Han Jun

    2011-03-01

    Since the 1980s, the coastal wetlands in Korea have been rapidly degraded and destroyed mainly due to reclamation and landfills for coastal development. In order to recover damaged coastal environments and to develop wetland restoration technologies, a 4-year study on ecological the restoration of coastal vegetated ecosystems was started in 1998. As one of a series of studies, a small-scale experiment on salt marsh restoration was carried out from April 2000 to August 2001. The experiment was designed to find effective means of ecological restoration through a comparison of the changes in environmental components and species structure between two different experimental plots created using sediment fences, one with and one without small canals. Temporal variation in surface elevation, sedimentary facies, and benthic species were measured seasonally in each plot and in the adjacent natural reference sites. Monthly exposure occurred from 330 cm to mean sea level, which represents the critical tidal level (CTL) at which salt marsh plants colonize. Vegetation, especially Suaeda japonica, colonized the site the following spring and recovered to a similar extent in the natural marshes 16 months later. The sedimentary results indicated that the sediment fences had effects on particle size and sediment accumulation, especially in the plot with small canals. This experiment also showed that tidal height, especially that exceeding the CTL, is an important factor in the recovery of the benthic fauna of salt marshes. From these results, we suggested that designs for the restoration of salt marsh ecosystems must consider the inclusion of a tidal height exceeding CTL, as this may allow reconstruction of the previous natural ecosystem without artificial transplanting.

  17. Evaluation of Mediterranean-type vegetation for weedicide activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L. S.; Pereira, I.P.; A. S. Dias

    1995-01-01

    Important differences were found in the response of wheat and lettuce to the treatments, with wheat being generally unaffected. Conversely, a better agreement was found between the sensitivity of lettuce and P. minor. In three (C. villosa, C. ladanifer, and L. stoechas) out of the five donors bioassayed in both species, the same type of answer was found, with an amplification of the effect when P. minor was used. These results support the use of lettuce as a allelopathin indicator speci...

  18. Effects of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport through a dense vegetation saturated soil system: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Congrong; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Gao, Bin; Perez-Ovilla, Oscar

    2013-08-01

    Colloids are widely distributed in agricultural runoff, especially from croplands with manure applications. Dense vegetation has been suggested to be effective to reduce surface runoff contaminants, including colloidal particles. In this work, small scale laboratory experiments were used to determine the influence of physical and chemical factors (i.e. solution ionic strength, particle size, surface flow rate, and vegetation type) on the surface transport and removal of colloids in a dense vegetation system without drainage. Conservative tracer studies of bromide were conducted as a control to quantify the deposition of colloids onto grass surfaces and the mass exchange of colloids between the overland flow and soil underneath under various experimental conditions. The deposition of colloids enhanced with increases in solution ionic strength and particle size, and with decreases in flow rate. We also found vegetation type played an important role on colloid transport with more deposition onto Ryegrass than onto Bahia grass under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model combining overland flow, convection-dispersion equations and exchange layer theory was developed to simulate the transport of colloids in overland flow through the dense vegetation. Simulations of the model fitted the experimental data well and helped to understand the effect of ionic strength, particle size, flow rate, and vegetation type on colloid transport and removal in dense vegetation. Although additional investigations are still needed, findings from this study can inform the installation and maintenance of dense vegetation systems, such as vegetative filter strips, to reduce the loading of colloids in surface runoff.

  19. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a fivefold variation in tundra LUE was observed. LUE calculated from the functional type cover fractions was also correlated to a spectral vegetation index developed to detect vegetation chlorophyll content. The concurrence of these alternate methods suggest that hyperspectral remote sensing can distinguish functionally distinct vegetation types and can be used to develop regional estimates of photosynthetic LUE in tundra landscapes.

  20. [Characteristics of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-yan; Lin, Wen-xiong; Chen, Zhi-fang; Fang, Chang-xun; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wu, Lin-kun; Zhou, Ming-ming; Shen, Li-hua

    2013-08-01

    By using Biolog Ecoplate system, this paper studied the structure and functional diversity of soil microbial community under different vegetation types in Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, aimed to probe into the effects of vegetation type on the diversity of soil microbial community. The results showed that the soil chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and average well color development (AWCD) were higher in natural forest than in planted forest, and were the lowest in abandoned field. The AWCD reflecting soil microbial activity and functional diversity was increased with increasing incubation time, but there existed significant differences among different vegetation types. The carbon sources mostly used by soil microbes were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids, followed by amino acids, phenolic acids and polymers, and amines had the lowest utilization rate. The Simpson index, Shannon index, Richness index and McIntosh index in natural forest were holistically higher than those in planted forest. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified 2 principal component factors in relation to carbon sources, explaining 56.3% and 30.2% of the variation, respectively. The carbon sources used by soil microbial community differed with vegetation types. Amino acids and amides were the two main carbon sources separating the 2 principal component factors. The results of this study could provide basis for further approaching the relationships between vegetation diversity and soil microbial community diversity. PMID:24380352

  1. Vegetation Impact and Recovery from Oil-Induced Stress on Three Ecologically Distinct Wetland Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Shapiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available April 20, 2010 marked the start of the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the largest marine oil spill in US history, which contaminated coastal wetland ecosystems across the northern Gulf of Mexico. We used hyperspectral data from 2010 and 2011 to compare the impact of oil contamination and recovery of coastal wetland vegetation across three ecologically diverse sites: Barataria Bay (saltmarsh, East Bird’s Foot (intermediate/freshwater marsh, and Chandeleur Islands (mangrove-cordgrass barrier islands. Oil impact was measured by comparing wetland pixels along oiled and oil-free shorelines using various spectral indices. We show that the Chandeleur Islands were the most vulnerable to oiling, Barataria Bay had a small but widespread and significant impact, and East Bird’s Foot had negligible impact. A year later, the Chandeleur Islands showed the strongest signs of recovery, Barataria Bay had a moderate recovery, and East Bird’s Foot had only a slight increase in vegetation. Our results indicate that the recovery was at least partially related to the magnitude of the impact such that greater recovery occurred at sites that had greater impact.

  2. Spreading topsoil encourages ecological restoration on embankments: soil fertility, microbial activity and vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Desire; Mejas, Violeta; Juregui, Berta M; Costa-Tenorio, Marga; Lpez-Archilla, Ana Isabel; Peco, Begoa

    2014-01-01

    The construction of linear transport infrastructure has severe effects on ecosystem functions and properties, and the restoration of the associated roadslopes contributes to reduce its impact. This restoration is usually approached from the perspective of plant cover regeneration, ignoring plant-soil interactions and the consequences for plant growth. The addition of a 30 cm layer of topsoil is a common practice in roadslope restoration projects to increase vegetation recovery. However topsoil is a scarce resource. This study assesses the effects of topsoil spreading and its depth (10 to 30 cm) on two surrogates of microbial activity (?-glucosidase and phosphatase enzymes activity and soil respiration), and on plant cover, plant species richness and floristic composition of embankment vegetation. The study also evaluates the differences in selected physic-chemical properties related to soil fertility between topsoil and the original embankment substrate. Topsoil was found to have higher values of organic matter (11%), nitrogen (44%), assimilable phosphorous (50%) and silt content (54%) than the original embankment substrate. The topsoil spreading treatment increased microbial activity, and its application increased ?-glucosidase activity (45%), phosphatase activity (57%) and soil respiration (60%). Depth seemed to affect soil respiration, ?-glucosidase and phosphatase activity. Topsoil application also enhanced the species richness of restored embankments in relation to controls. Nevertheless, the depth of the spread topsoil did not significantly affect the resulting plant cover, species richness or floristic composition, suggesting that both depths could have similar effects on short-term recovery of the vegetation cover. A significant implication of these results is that it permits the application of thinner topsoil layers, with major savings in this scarce resource during the subsequent slope restoration work, but the quality of topsoil relative to the original substrate should be previously assessed on a site by site basis. PMID:24984137

  3. Soil Respiration Responses to Variation in Temperature Treatment and Vegetation Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Pavao-zuckerman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Complex linkages exist between terrestrial vegetation, soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), local climate, and soil microorganisms. Thus, large-scale changes in vegetation, such as the woody plant encroachment observed in many historically semiarid and arid grasslands worldwide, could potentially alter the flux of carbon from soil reserves to the atmosphere. Mathematical models that attempt to project the long-term impact of vegetative shifts on soil fluxes largely rely on assumptions such as first-order donor control rather than incorporate the biological aspects of soil respiration such as microbial activity. To examine the impact of vegetation type on soil physicochemical properties and soil microbial respiration and provide experimental data to refine existing predictive models, we compared soil (ground basalt from northern Arizona) in mesocosms established with no vegetation, velvet mesquites (Prosopis velutina; woody shrub), or sideoats gramas (Bouteloua curtipendula; grass) for 2 years, The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was examined by incubating soil (0-10 and 10-30 cm depth fractions) from each vegetation treatment at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for 24 hours. Vegetated soils contained more SOM (~0.1% for mesquite and grass mesocosms) than non-vegetated soils (~0.02%). Respiration rates were generally highest from grass-established soils, intermediate from mesquite-established soils, and lowest from non-vegetated soils. Respiration rates of samples incubated without the addition of substrate peaked at approximately 30 °C, whereas respiration rates of samples incubated with dextrose were highest at 40 °C. Further, the respiration assays suggest that while respiration rates are overall higher in grass-established soils, mesquite-established soils are more temperature sensitive which may have significant implications in the context of global warming and current fire management practices.

  4. A comparative framework for broad-scale plot-based vegetation classification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Cáceres, M.; Chytrý, M.; Agrillo, E.; Attorre, F.; Botta-Dukát, Z.; Capelo, J.; Czúcz, B.; Dengler, J.; Ewald, J.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Feoli, E.; Franklin, S. B.; Gavilán, R.; Gillet, F.; Jansen, F.; Jiménes-Alfaro, B.; Krestov, P.; Landucci, F.; Lengyel, A.; Loidi, J.; Mucina, L.; Peet, R. K.; Roberts, D. W.; Roleček, Jan; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Schmidtlein, S.; Theurillat, J. P.; Tichý, L.; Walker, D. A.; Wildi, O.; Willner, W.; Wiser, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2015), s. 543-560. ISSN 1402-2001 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vegetation classification * phytosociology * vegetation type Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2014

  5. Does vegetation type matter? Plant-soil interactions change urban rain garden hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Residential infiltration basins or rain gardens are being installed at an ever-increasing rate across the urban landscape, yet their impact on the urban hydrologic cycle remains largely untested. Specifically, because rain garden design varies considerably, we know little about how plant-soil dynamics control their hydrologic function. In a controlled field experiment with closed-system rain gardens, we tested the hydrologic response of three vegetation treatments common in rain garden design (shrubs, wet-mesic prairie, turfgrass). We used a complete, randomized block design in which each vegetative treatment was replicated three times. Each rain garden represented 17% of a contributing roof area where stormwater was collected and then applied following precipitation events. We continuously monitored stormwater input, soil water content, and soil exfiltration to assess differences in the hydrologic function of each rain garden. Overall, vegetation type significantly changed the magnitude and timing of the hydrologic response. During the months of June and July, 2009, the rain gardens planted with shrubs, prairie, and turfgrass all reduced the volume of soil exfiltration by 50%, 30%, and 17%, respectively, relative to the non-vegetated controls. Similarly, depending on storm magnitude and antecedent soil moisture, vegetation type significantly decreased the mean peak flow rate of exfiltration (p gardens. We explain these vegetative-mediated responses in hydrology relative to differences in infiltration, aboveground dry mass, root dynamics, and transpirative loss. Our data suggest that changing the vegetation type of urban rain gardens yields marked differences in the hydrologic budget via shifts in ecohydrological processes.

  6. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion processes of vegetable and fruit residues: process and microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Peña, E I; Parameswaran, P; Kang, D W; Canul-Chan, M; Krajmalnik-Brown, R

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of methane production from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) obtained from the central food distribution market in Mexico City using an anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Batch systems showed that pH control and nitrogen addition had significant effects on biogas production, methane yield, and volatile solids (VS) removal from the FVW (0.42 m(biogas)(3)/kg VS, 50%, and 80%, respectively). Co-digestion of the FVW with meat residues (MR) enhanced the process performance and was also evaluated in a 30 L AD system. When the system reached stable operation, its methane yield was 0.25 (m(3)/kg TS), and the removal of the organic matter measured as the total chemical demand (tCOD) was 65%. The microbial population (general Bacteria and Archaea) in the 30 L system was also determined and characterized and was closely correlated with its potential function in the AD system. PMID:21865034

  7. Vegetation ecological restoration during geothermic exploratory perforation: A case study in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Rubio, A.; Salinas, F.; Naranjo, A. [and others

    1997-12-31

    At Las Tres Virgenes, B.C.S., Mexico developed the Geothermic exploratory drilling of the area. One of the main recommendations of our Environmental Impact Assessment Study includes transplantation of the plant individuals found in the zones of roads and drilling platforms. In this work we describe the methodologies used to transplant the vegetal individuals found in such zones. We listed the species selected and the survivorship rate obtained for every one of them. From a total of 4,266 transplanted individuals, including many endemic species, a total of 2349 survived. Members of the Agavaceae and Cactaceae families show the maximum survivorship rate, meanwhile the members of the Burseraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fouqueriaceae families exhibited the minimum survivorship rate (between 12.7% and 20%).

  8. An ecological approach to the assessment of vegetation cover on inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular plants have been collected from abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in three mining areas in Canada. The collection was evaluated to determine some characteristics of vegetation development and to identify the plants which will persist on the sites. A total of 170 species were identified. Many of the species are widely distributed in North America, none has been reported as rare in any of the locations from which they were collected. Species richness was highest on Bancroft sites and lowest on Uranium City sites, though values were variable between sites. Forty-four per cent of the total number of species were found on only a single site. Only seven species occurred on more than half of the tailings sites and in all three mining areas. There was no difference between amended and unamended sites in terms of either species richness or species composition. There was no apparent relationship between species richness and either site size, site age or amendment history. The results of this survey suggest that the uranium mill tailings sites are at an early stage of colonization where the seed input from surrounding areas and the heterogeneity of the sites are factors determining species composition and species richness. The fate of an individual once it has reached the site will be determined by its ability to establish on the sites. A perennial growth habit and the ability to expand clonally are important characteristics of the species on the tailings. The species on the tailings are commonly found in a variety of habitats. Consistent with the observation that the tailings sites are at a stage of early colonization, we find that the few species widely distributed across sites are all characteristic pioneering species with wide environmental tolerances. These species included Populus tremuloides, P. balsamifera, Scirpus cyperinus, Equisetum arvense, Betula papyrifera, Achillea millefolium and Typha spp. The vegetation on the tailings is likely to be characterized by these species for a long period of time. (author)

  9. Assessment of the transfer of 137Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic food chain model has been built for the modeling of the transfer of 137Cs in three types of vegetables consumed in Hong Kong, namely, white flowering cabbage (Brassica chinensis), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and celery (Apium graveolens). Some parameters have been estimated from the experimental data obtained in this work. The experimental data include the transfer factors of 137Cs from soil to the different vegetable species which are determined through high resolution gamma spectrometry, maximum crop biomasses for the vegetable species, the dry-to-fresh ratios for the vegetable species, the bulk density of soil layers and the average concentration of 137Cs in air. The derived parameters include the deposition rate and the root uptake rate, information for tillage, the logistic growth model and radionuclide concentrations in vegetables. The dynamic food chain model is solved by the Birchall-James algorithm to give the 137Cs concentration in subsurface soil, from the 0.1-25 cm soil layer, and the 137Cs concentration in harvested and unwashed vegetables. As validation of the model and parameters, the concentrations obtained experimentally and from the model are compared and are found to be in good agreement

  10. Estimation of vegetation LAI from hyperspectral reflectance data: Effects of soil type and plant architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew; Atzberger, Clement; van Wieren, Sip

    2008-09-01

    The retrieval of canopy biophysical variables is known to be affected by confounding factors such as plant type and background reflectance. The effects of soil type and plant architecture on the retrieval of vegetation leaf area index (LAI) from hyperspectral data were assessed in this study. In situ measurements of LAI were related to reflectances in the red and near-infrared and also to five widely used spectral vegetation indices (VIs). The study confirmed that the spectral contrast between leaves and soil background determines the strength of the LAI-reflectance relationship. It was shown that within a given vegetation species, the optimum spectral regions for LAI estimation were similar across the investigated VIs, indicating that the various VIs are basically summarizing the same spectral information for a given vegetation species. Cross-validated results revealed that, narrow-band PVI was less influenced by soil background effects (0.15 ≤ RMSE cv ≤ 0.56). The results suggest that, when using remote sensing VIs for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of VI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using hyperspectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  11. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There is a risk of misinterpreting C stocks in Amazonia when such great pedological variability is not taken into account. PMID:17846909

  12. Vegetation ecology meets ecosystem science: Permanent grasslands as a functional biogeography case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Cyrille; Choler, Philippe; Borgy, Benjamin; Garnier, Eric; Amiaud, Bernard; Debarros, Guilhem; Diquelou, Sylvain; Gachet, Sophie; Jolivet, Claudy; Kattge, Jens; Lavorel, Sandra; Lemauviel-Lavenant, Servane; Loranger, Jessy; Mikolajczak, Alexis; Munoz, François; Olivier, Jean; Viovy, Nicolas

    2015-11-15

    The effect of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning has been widely acknowledged, and the importance of the functional roles of species, as well as their diversity, in the control of ecosystem processes has been emphasised recently. However, bridging biodiversity and ecosystem science to address issues at a biogeographic scale is still in its infancy. Bridging this gap is the primary goal of the emerging field of functional biogeography. While the rise of Big Data has catalysed functional biogeography studies in recent years, comprehensive evidence remains scarce. Here, we present the rationale and the first results of a country-wide initiative focused on the C3 permanent grasslands. We aimed to collate, integrate and process large databases of vegetation relevés, plant traits and environmental layers to provide a country-wide assessment of ecosystem properties and services which can be used to improve regional models of climate and land use changes. We outline the theoretical background, data availability, and ecoinformatics challenges associated with the approach and its feasibility. We provide a case study of upscaling of leaf dry matter content averaged at ecosystem level and country-wide predictions of forage digestibility. Our framework sets milestones for further hypothesis testing in functional biogeography and earth system modelling. PMID:25908020

  13. Ecological divergence and evolutionary transition of resprouting types in Banksia attenuata

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tianhua

    2014-01-01

    Resprouting is a key functional trait that allows plants to survive diverse disturbances. The fitness benefits associated with resprouting include a rapid return to adult growth, early flowering, and setting seed. The resprouting responses observed following fire are varied, as are the ecological outcomes. Understanding the ecological divergence and evolutionary pathways of different resprouting types and how the environment and genetics interact to drive such morphological evolution represen...

  14. Selection of candidate salad vegetables for controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Guo, S.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.

    Higher plants, as one of the essential biological components of CELSS, can supply food, oxygen and water for human crews during future long-duration space missions and Lunar/Mars habitats. In order to select suitable leaf vegetable varieties for our CELSS Experimental Facility (CEF), five varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng”, “Naichoutai”, “Dongfangkaixuan” and “Siji”), two of spinach (“Daye” and “Quanneng”), one of rape (“Jingyou No. 1”) and one of common sowthistle were grown and compared on the basis of edible biomass, and nutrient content. In addition, two series of experiments were conducted to study single leaf photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates at 30 days after planting, one which used various concentrations of CO2 (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol mol-1) and another which used various light intensities (100, 300, 500 and 700 μmol m-2 s-1). Results showed that lettuce cvs. “Nenlvnaiyou”, “Siji” and “Dasusheng” produced higher yields of edible biomass; common sowthisle would be a good source of β-carotene for the diet. Based on the collective findings, we selected three varieties of lettuce (“Nenlvnaiyou”, “Dasusheng” and “Siji”) and one of common sowthistle as the candidate crops for further research in our CEF. In addition, elevated CO2 concentration increased the rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and elevated light intensity increased the rate of photosynthesis for these varieties. These results can be useful for determining optimal conditions for controlling CO2 and water fluxes between the crops and the overall CELSS.

  15. An approach for detecting five typical vegetation types on the Chinese Loess Plateau using Landsat TM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie; Jiao, Ju-Ying; Lei, Bo; Su, Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Remote sensing can provide large-scale spatial data for the detection of vegetation types. In this study, two shortwave infrared spectral bands (TM5 and TM7) and one visible spectral band (TM3) of Landsat 5 TM data were used to detect five typical vegetation types (communities dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum, Artemisia gmelinii, Hippophae rhamnoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Quercus liaotungensis) using 270 field survey data in the Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau. The relationships between 200 field data points and their corresponding radiance reflectance were analyzed, and the equation termed the vegetation type index (VTI) was generated. The VTI values of five vegetation types were calculated, and the accuracy was tested using the remaining 70 field data points. The applicability of VTI was also tested by the distribution of vegetation type of two small watersheds in the Yanhe watershed and field sample data collected from other regions (Ziwuling Region, Huangling County, and Luochuan County) on the Loess Plateau. The results showed that the VTI can effectively detect the five vegetation types with an average accuracy exceeding 80 % and a representativeness above 85 %. As a new approach for monitoring vegetation types using remote sensing at a larger regional scale, VTI can play an important role in the assessment of vegetation restoration and in the investigation of the spatial distribution and community diversity of vegetation on the Loess Plateau. PMID:26289648

  16. [CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBINED ANESTHESIA WITH EPIDURAL COMPONENTE DEPENDING ON VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM TYPE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanov, F J; Aslanov, A A; Muradov, N F; Namazova, K N

    2016-01-01

    The research objective was to study the characteristics of combined anesthesia with epidural componente (CAEC) depending on vegetative nervous system type (VNS) in patients who underwent large scale traumatic surgical operations on abdominal cavity organs. The scientific research was conducted in Anaesthesiology--Reanimation Department of the Scientific Surgical Centre named after acad. MA. Topchubashev, the Ministry of Health of the Azerbaijan Republic. The research objects were 69 patients who underwent operations in conditions of CAEC due to different serious surgical pathologies of abdominal cavity organs. VNS type was identified based on electroencephalogram, Cerdo Vegetative Index (CVI), Hildebrandt coefficient (HC) and single neurophysiological tests. The patients were divided into three groups depending on VNS type: I--normotonics--17 patients (24.7%), II--sympathatonics--25 patients (36.2%), and III--vagotonics--27 patients (39.1%). Blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration were studied in 3 stages: I -preoperative, II--operation traumatic stage, III--the 1st postoperative days. The other indicators (heart rate, systolic blood pressure--SBP, dyastolic blood pressure--DBR average blood pressure--BP ave., pulse oximetry SpO₂, ECG, gases in blood and acid-base balance, electrolytes, blood glucose level, myocardium oxygen demand--MOD) were registered after 20 minutes and the 2nd day after operation besides the above stages. The research results indicated that it is possible to define the vegetative nervous system type superiority based on complex of single tests data, EEG, ECG, Cerdo Vegetative Index, Hildebrandt coefficient. CAEC can be considered optimun alternative of general anesthesia ensuring neurohumoral and hemodynamic stability in large scale, traumatic operations on abdominal cavity organs. Clinical course of CAEC is characterized by firmer hemodynamic and humoral stability in patients with functional balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of vegetative nervous system, that is in normotonics in comparison with sympathico-, and parasympathotonics. PMID:27192850

  17. Biological soil crust community types differ in key ecological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrasiak, N; Regus, JU; Johansen, JR; LAM, D.; Sachs, JL; Santiago, LS

    2013-01-01

    Soil stability, nitrogen and carbon fixation were assessed for eight biological soil crust community types within a Mojave Desert wilderness site. Cyanolichen crust outperformed all other crusts in multi-functionality whereas incipient crust had the poorest performance. A finely divided classification of biological soil crust communities improves estimation of ecosystem function and strengthens the accuracy of landscape-scale assessments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 1. The Than-Droogeveld section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bezuidenhout

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed classification, description and mapping of the Than-Droogeveld section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape Province, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as an ecological basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. A hierarchical classification, as well as description, ecological interpretation and a vegetation map are presented. In the phytosociological table 11 major plant communities are recognised.

  19. Dry grassland vegetation of Central Podolia (Ukraine) : a preliminary overview of its syntaxonomy, ecology and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzemko, Anna A.; Becker, Thomas; Didukh, Yakiv P.; Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Becker, Ute; Beldean, Monica; Dolnik, Christian; Jeschke, Michael; NAQINEZHAD, Alireza; U?urlu, Emin; nal, Aslan; Vassilev, Kiril; Vorona, Evgeniy I.; Yavorska, Olena H.; Dengler, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    We present the data of the 2nd research expedition of the European Dry Grassland Group (EDGG), which was conducted in 2010 in Central Podolia, Ukraine. The aim was to collect plot data to compare Ukrainian dry grasslands with those of other parts of Europe in terms of syntaxonomy and biodiversity. We sampled 21 nested-plot series (0.0001100 m2) and 184 normal plots (10 m2) covering the full variety of dry grassland types occurring in the study region. For all plots, we recorded species compo...

  20. Comparison of the Continuity of Vegetation Indices Derived from Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ Data among Different Vegetation Types

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun She; Lifu Zhang; Yi Cen; Taixia Wu; Changping Huang; Muhammad Hasan Ali Baig

    2015-01-01

    Landsat 8, the most recently launched satellite of the series, promises to maintain the continuity of Landsat 7. However, in addition to subtle differences in sensor characteristics and vegetation index (VI) generation algorithms, VIs respond differently to the seasonality of the various types of vegetation cover. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of these variations on VIs between Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Ground spectral dat...

  1. Type D personality and cardiovascular reactivity to an ecologically valid multitasking stressor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Hughes, Denise; Wetherell, Mark; Smith, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Previous research investigating the influence of Type D personality on cardiovascular reactivity to stress in healthy young adults is somewhat mixed. The present study sought to investigate this question using an ecologically valid laboratory stressor. Beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 77 healthy young adults during exposure to multitasking stress. Mood and background stress were both associated with Type D personality when Type D was conceptualised as a dimensional ...

  2. Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed. Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

  3. Relationships between NDVI, canopy structure, and photosynthesis in three California vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a range of plant species from three Californian vegetation types, we examined the widely used ''normalized difference vegetation index'' (NDVI) and ''simple ratio'' (SR) as indicators of canopy structure, light absorption, and photosynthetic activity. These indices, which are derived from canopy reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavebands, highlighted phenological differences between evergreen and deciduous canopies. They were poor indicators of total canopy biomass due to the varying abundance of non-green standing biomass in these vegetation types. However, in sparse canopies (leaf area index (LAI) apprxeq 0-2), NDVI was a sensitive indicator of canopy structure and chemical content (green biomass, green leaf area index, chlorophyll content, and foliar nitrogen content). At higher canopy green LAI values ( gt 2; typical of dense shrubs and trees), NDVI was relatively insensitive to changes in canopy structure. Compared to SR, NDVI was better correlated with indicators of canopy structure and chemical content, but was equivalent to the logarithm of SR. In agreement with theoretical expectations, both NDVI and SR exhibited near-linear correlations with fractional PAR intercepted by green leaves over a wide range of canopy densities. Maximum daily photosynthetic rates were positively correlated with NDVI and SR in annual grassland and semideciduous shrubs where canopy development and photosynthetic activity were in synchrony. The indices were also correlated with peak springtime canopy photosynthetic rates in evergreens. However, over most of the year, these indices were poor predictors of photosynthetic performance in evergreen species due to seasonal reductions in photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency that occurred without substantial declines in canopy greenness. Our results support the use of these vegetation indices as remote indicators of PAR absorption, and thus potential photosynthetic activity, even in heterogeneous landscapes. To provide accurate estimates of vegetation atmosphere gas fluxes, remote NDVI and SR measurements need to be coupled with careful estimates of canopy photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency. (author)

  4. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N) pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle). Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should ...

  5. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  6. Presence of pesticide residues in different types of fruits and vegetables originated from the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kostik, Vesna; Bauer, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia is an agricultural developing country with a large production of different types of vegetables and fruits in open fields as well in greenhouses. Most fruits and vegetables are treated with pesticides on several occasions during the growing season. At the same time, pesticides can pose risks if they are not applied according to Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). The present study investigates pesticide residues in samples of fresh fruits and vegetables produced in ...

  7. A Broad Approach to Abrupt Boundaries: Looking Beyond the Boundary at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on boundaries between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a boundary, but does not compare boundary to non-boundary vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetati...

  8. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, D.D.; Cobb, N.S.; Rich, P.M.; Price, K.P.; Allen, C.D.; Balice, R.G.; Romme, W.H.; Kastens, J.H.; Floyd, M. Lisa; Belnap, J.; Anderson, J.J.; Myers, O.B.; Meyer, Clifton W.

    2005-01-01

    Future drought is projected to occur under warmer temperature conditions as climate change progresses, referred to here as global-change-type drought, yet quantitative assessments of the triggers and potential extent of drought-induced vegetation die-off remain pivotal uncertainties in assessing climate-change impacts. Of particular concern is regional-scale mortality of overstory trees, which rapidly alters ecosystem type, associated ecosystem properties, and land surface conditions for decades. Here, we quantify regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002-2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. At an intensively studied site within the region, we quantified that after 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a pin??on) died. The die-off was reflected in changes in a remotely sensed index of vegetation greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), not only at the intensively studied site but also across the region, extending over 12,000 km2 or more; aerial and field surveys confirmed the general extent of the die-off. Notably, the recent drought was warmer than the previous subcontinental drought of the 1950s. The limited, available observations suggest that die-off from the recent drought was more extensive than that from the previous drought, extending into wetter sites within the tree species' distribution. Our results quantify a trigger leading to rapid, drought-induced die-off of overstory woody plants at subcontinental scale and highlight the potential for such die-off to be more severe and extensive for future global-change-type drought under warmer conditions. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  9. [Soil microbial properties under different vegetation types in Loess hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Yan; Qu, Lai-Ye; Chen, Li-Ding; Wei, Wei

    2010-01-01

    By using fumigation-extract (FE) method and Biolog Ecoplate, this paper investigated the microbial biomass and diversity in 0-20 cm soil layer under five vegetation types, including artificial woodland, shrubland, cropland, abandoned farmland, and natural grassland, in Dingxi of Gansu Province. In the meanwhile, the relationships between soil microbes and soil nutrients were studied by path analysis, and the five typical vegetation types were evaluated from the aspect of soil microbes. Relative to cropland, "grain for green" project played a key role in improving soil microbial resources. Microbial biomass carbon was the highest in ridge grassland, abandoned farmland, and pine woodland, followed by in Caragana korshinskii land, Medicago sativa land, restored land, and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Microbial biomass nitrogen was the highest in ridge land, abandoned farmland, Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, Caragana korshinskii land, and Medicago sativa land, followed by in restored land and roadside land, and in wheat field and potato field. Caragana korshinskii land and Medicago sativa land, due to the existence of N-fixing rhizobium, had the highest ratio of soil microbial biomass nitrogen to soil total nitrogen. Owing to the continual biomass loss and rare feedback, cropland had the lowest quantity and activity of soil microbes. Through planting trees, shrubs and grasses or through fallowing, soil microbial biomass and activity were recovered, and the effect was increased with time. In 20-year old Caragana korshinskii land, the quantity and activity of soil microbes were similar to those in 50-year old Pinus tabulaeformis woodland, and the microbial community catabolic activity and soil nutrient use efficiency were higher. Considering the features of soil microbes under test vegetation types, Caragana korshinskii would be a good choice for local vegetation restoration. PMID:20387439

  10. Role of vegetation type on hydraulic conductivity in urban rain gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, K.; Balster, N. J.; Johnston, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    Although case studies report improved control of urban stormwater within residential rain gardens, the extent to which vegetation type (shrub, turf, prairie) affects the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of these depressions has yet to be investigated in a controlled experiment. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in hydraulic conductivity by vegetation type due to differences in soil physical characteristics and rooting dynamics such that Ksat of shrub gardens would exceed that of prairie, followed by turf. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in Ksat relative to the above vegetation types as well as non-vegetative controls, each of which were replicated three times for a total of 12 rain gardens. Ksat was calculated using a published method for curve-fitting to single-ring infiltration with a two-head approach where the shape factor is independent of ponding depth. Constant-head infiltration rates were measured at two alternating ponding depths within each garden twice over the growing season. Root core samples were also taken to qualify belowground characteristics including soil bulk density and rooting dynamics relative to differences in Ksat. We found the control and shrub gardens had the lowest mean Ksat of 3.56 (SE = 0.96) and 3.73 (1.22) cm3 hr-1, respectively. Prairie gardens had the next highest mean Ksat of 12.18 (2.26) cm3 hr-1, and turf had the highest mean value of 23.63 (1.81) cm3 hr-1. These data suggest that a denser rooting network near the soil surface may influence saturated hydraulic conductivity. We applied our observed flow rates to a Glover solution model for 3-dimensional flow, which revealed considerably larger discrepancies in turf gardens than beneath prairie or shrub. This indicated that lateral flow conditions in the turf plots could be the explanation for our observed infiltration rates.

  11. [Correspondence analysis between occurrence type of Dendrolimus punctatus and topographical and vegetative features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingzi; Gu, Dexiang; Zhang, Wenqing; Liang, Chengfeng; Lin, Yuhong; Chen, Zhanfang; Li, Nanlin

    2002-09-01

    The relationship between the occurrence type of Dendrolimus punctatus and the geographical and vegetative features in subcompartments was analyzed using correspondence analysis and shown by a figure of cluster. The results showed that the majority subcompartments in which D. punctatus occurred frequently were at low elevation and low slope, and distributed among low hills or middle hills, while the subcompartments at high elevation or high slopes, or in low mountains or middle mountains were safe-type. The subcompartments with only one dominant species, especially Pinus elliottii, were easily attacked by D. punctatus. The subcompartments in conifer and broadleaf mixed forest had less insect pests than those in conifer mixed forest. PMID:12561192

  12. Inclusion of ecologically based trait variation in plant functional types reduces the projected land carbon sink in an earth system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Brovkin, Victor; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kattge, Jens; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-08-01

    Earth system models demonstrate large uncertainty in projected changes in terrestrial carbon budgets. The lack of inclusion of adaptive responses of vegetation communities to the environment has been suggested to hamper the ability of modeled vegetation to adequately respond to environmental change. In this study, variation in functional responses of vegetation has been added to an earth system model (ESM) based on ecological principles. The restriction of viable mean trait values of vegetation communities by the environment, called 'habitat filtering', is an important ecological assembly rule and allows for determination of global scale trait-environment relationships. These relationships were applied to model trait variation for different plant functional types (PFTs). For three leaf traits (specific leaf area, maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C, and maximum electron transport rate at 25 °C), relationships with multiple environmental drivers, such as precipitation, temperature, radiation, and CO2 , were determined for the PFTs within the Max Planck Institute ESM. With these relationships, spatiotemporal variation in these formerly fixed traits in PFTs was modeled in global change projections (IPCC RCP8.5 scenario). Inclusion of this environment-driven trait variation resulted in a strong reduction of the global carbon sink by at least 33% (2.1 Pg C yr(-1) ) from the 2nd quarter of the 21st century onward compared to the default model with fixed traits. In addition, the mid- and high latitudes became a stronger carbon sink and the tropics a stronger carbon source, caused by trait-induced differences in productivity and relative respirational costs. These results point toward a reduction of the global carbon sink when including a more realistic representation of functional vegetation responses, implying more carbon will stay airborne, which could fuel further climate change. PMID:25611824

  13. The influence of distinct types of aquatic vegetation on the flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Barcroft, Stephen; Yagci, Oral

    2014-05-01

    The Sustainable management of fluvial systems dealing with flood prevention, erosion protection and restoration of rivers and estuaries requires implementation of soft/green-engineering methods. In-stream aquatic vegetation can be regarded as one of these as it plays an important role for both river ecology (function) and geomorphology (form). The goal of this research is to offer insight gained from pilot experimental studies on the effects of a number of different elements modeling instream, aquatic vegetation on the local flow field. It is hypothesized that elements of the same effective "blockage" area but of distinct characteristics (structure, porosity and flexibility), will affect both the mean and fluctuating levels of the turbulent flow to a different degree. The above hypothesis is investigated through a set of rigorous set of experimental runs which are appropriately designed to assess the variability between the interaction of aquatic elements and flow, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this investigation three elements are employed to model aquatic vegetation, namely a rigid cylinder, a porous but rigid structure and a flexible live plant (Cupressus Macrocarpa). Firstly, the flow field downstream each of the mentioned elements was measured under steady uniform flow conditions employing acoustic Doppler velocimetry. Three-dimensional flow velocities downstream the vegetation element are acquired along a measurement grid extending about five-fold the element's diameter. These measurements are analyzed to develop mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles for all velocity components. A detailed comparison between the obtained results is demonstrative of the validity of the above hypothesis as each of the employed elements affects in a different manner and degree the flow field. Then a flow visualization technique, during which fluorescent dye is injected upstream of the element and images are captured for further analysis and comparison, was employed to visualize the flow structures shed downstream the aquatic elements. This method allows to further observe qualitatively and visually identify the different characteristics of the eddies advected downstream, conclusively confirming the results of the aforementioned experimental campaign.

  14. Measuring vegetation type, biomass and moisture for integration into fire spread models using hyperspectral and radar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Philip Eugene

    This dissertation investigates remote sensing measures of three fuel properties important for determining fire danger in Southern California chaparral. Measures derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data of the Santa Barbara Front Range and Santa Monica Mountains were used to map vegetation type and were compared to biomass and moisture. Vegetation type, at the species- or genus-level for chaparral, was mapped using a new technique for selecting endmembers for multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA). Time series data demonstrated that selected endmembers and map accuracy changed with soil water balance. Accuracy decreased and the expression of senesced vegetation increased as soil water balance changed from surplus to deficit. Potential optical and active microwave measures of vegetation biomass were compared. Equivalent water thickness (EWT), a hyperspectral measure of liquid water absorption, exhibited the strongest relationship with vegetation biomass. A modified normalized difference water index (mNDWI) time series was used to examine temporal changes in vegetation moisture. Parameters of the modeled time series demonstrated correlations with vegetation type, biomass, and elevation. Remote sensing measures of vegetation type and biomass were integrated into a fire spread model. Simulations of the 1996 Calabasas Fire demonstrate the potential utility of these measures for describing regional fire danger.

  15. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    Estimation of the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of a landscape is considered important to describe the ecosystems activity and is used as an important input parameter in hydrological and biogeochemical models related to water and carbon cycle, desertification risk, etc. The measurement of LAI in the field is a laborious and costly process and is mainly done by indirect methods, such as hemispherical photographs that are processed by specialized software. For this reason there have been several attempts to estimate LAI with multispectral satellite images, using theoretical biomass development models, or empirical equations using vegetation indices and land cover maps. The aim of this work is to study the relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation type, and hydrological regime. This was achieved by studying 120 maps of EVI and LAI which cover a hydrological year and five hydrologically diverse areas: river Nestos in Greece, Queimados catchment in Brazil, Rijnland catchment in The Netherlands, river Tamega in Portugal, and river Umbeluzi in Mozambique. The following Terra MODIS composite datasets were downloaded for the hydrological year 2012-2013: MOD13A2 "Vegetation Indices" and MCD15A2 "LAI and FPAR", as well as the equivalent quality information layers (QA). All the pixels that fall in a vegetation land cover (according to the MERIS GLOBCOVER map) were sampled for the analysis, with the exception of those that fell at the border between two vegetation or other land cover categories, to avoid the influence of mixed pixels. Using linear regression analysis, the relationship between EVI and LAI was identified per date, vegetation type and study area. Results show that vegetation type has the highest influence in the variation of the relationship between EVI and LAI in each study area. The coefficient of determination (R2) is high and statistically significant (ranging from 0.41 to 0.83 in 90% of the cases). When plotting the EVI factor from the regression equation across time, there is an evident temporal change in all test sites. The sensitivity of EVI to LAI is smaller in periods of high biomass production. The range of fluctuation is different across sites, and is related to biomass quantity and type. Higher fluctuation is noted in the winter season in Tamega, possibly due to cloud infected pixels that the QA and compositing algorithms did not successfully detect. Finally, there was no significant difference in the R2 and EVI factor when including in the analyses pixels indicated as "low and marginal quality" by the QA layers, thus suggesting that the use of low quality pixels can be justified when good quality pixels are not enough. Future work will study the transferability of these relations across scales and sensors. This study is supported by the Research Committee of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki project "Improvement of the estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) at basin scale using satellite images". MODIS data are provided by USGS.

  16. Satellite monitoring of different vegetation types by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS in the red spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the satellite remote sensing of different types of vegetation and ocean colour is presented. In contrast to existing algorithms relying on the strong change of the reflectivity in the red and near infrared spectral region, our method analyses weak narrow-band (few nm reflectance structures (i.e. "fingerprint" structures of vegetation in the red spectral range. It is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS, which is usually applied for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas absorptions. Since the spectra of atmospheric absorption and vegetation reflectance are simultaneously included in the analysis, the effects of atmospheric absorptions are automatically corrected (in contrast to other algorithms. The inclusion of the vegetation spectra also significantly improves the results of the trace gas retrieval. The global maps of the results illustrate the seasonal cycles of different vegetation types. In addition to the vegetation distribution on land, they also show patterns of biological activity in the oceans. Our results indicate that improved sets of vegetation spectra might lead to more accurate and more specific identification of vegetation type in the future.

  17. Climate and vegetation study using environmental isotope types of stalactite at Seropan Cave, Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate and vegetation study using environmental isotopes (i.e., 13C, 14C and 18O) variations of stalactite has been conducted at Seropan cave, Gunung Kidul Karst area. The stalactite samples were collected from Seropan Cave at Semanu, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The objective of study is to understand the climate change, and vegetation types, temperature of atmosphere, age and stalactite growth rate through the interpretation of environmental isotopes (i.e., 13C, 14C and 18O) of stalactite samples. The environmental isotope content of stalactite samples were analysed through CaCO3 compound that was found at the stalactite samples. The 13C content of samples is important to understand climate undulation and also vegetation variation. On the other hand, the variation of 18O and 14C contents is important to predict past temperature of atmosphere, and the age as well as stalactite growth rate, respectively. The result of environmental 13C isotope analysis showed that Gunung Kidul area in general can be classified as dry climate. It is also indicated that almost 87.5 % of local vegetation can be classified as dry vegetation C4 as can be seen from the variation of δ13C content that is -6 ‰ to +2 ‰ vs PDB. This can also mean that only 12.5 % of the time that the vegetation in the area is wet in which the variation of δ13C content is in the range -14 ‰ to -6 ‰ vs PDB. The variations of 18O contents of the samples (carbonate stalactite, or drip water) showed that the average temperature since 1621 to 2011 was around 19.5 °C. On the other hand, the variations of 14C contents of the samples showed that stalactite growth rate was around 0.1 mm/year or one mm in ten years. The result shows that the stalactite growth is very slow as generally expected in tropical area such as Gunung Kidul. (author)

  18. Major Vegetation Types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo H.C. Mostert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence ANAlysis (DECORANA and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN. The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the BraunBlanquet floristicsociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVTs were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmannianaSclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorumAcacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanumCombretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitataAcacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulisFlueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarponBurkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigidaRhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monosporaRhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  19. Major vegetation types of the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Theo H.C., Mostert; George J., Bredenkamp; Hannes L., Klopper; Cornie, Verwey; Rachel E., Mostert; Norbert, Hahn.

    Full Text Available The Major Megetation Types (MVT) and plant communities of the Soutpansberg Centre of Endemism are described in detail, with special reference to the Soutpansberg Conservancy and the Blouberg Nature Reserve. Phytosociological data from 442 sample plots were ordinated using a DEtrended CORrespondence [...] ANAlysis (DECORANA) and classified using TWo-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN). The resulting classification was further refined with table-sorting procedures based on the Braun-Blanquet floristic-sociological approach of vegetation classification using MEGATAB. Eight MVT's were identified and described as Eragrostis lehmanniana var. lehmanniana-Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Blouberg Northern Plains Bushveld, Euclea divinorum-Acacia tortilis Blouberg Southern Plains Bushveld, Englerophytum magalismontanum-Combretum molle Blouberg Mountain Bushveld, Adansonia digitata-Acacia nigrescens Soutpansberg Arid Northern Bushveld, Catha edulis-Flueggia virosa Soutpansberg Moist Mountain Thickets, Diplorhynchus condylocarpon-Burkea africana Soutpansberg Leached Sandveld, Rhus rigida var. rigida-Rhus magalismontanum subsp. coddii Soutpansberg Mistbelt Vegetation and Xymalos monospora-Rhus chirendensis Soutpansberg Forest Vegetation.

  20. Caribou occurrence on landsat vegetation types on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, May-June, 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Caribou Rangifer tarandus granti occurred on LANDSAT vegetation types LVT f loaded tundra, intermediate wetmoist, and sedge tundra most often during precalving. It...

  1. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photointerpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  2. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only...... respiration, suggesting that spatial variations in maximum snowdepth may be a primary determinant of regional patterns of wintertime CO2 release. Together, our results have important implications for predictions of how the distribution of tundra vegetation types and the carbon balances of arctic ecosystems...

  3. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, M D; Palencia, G; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L

    2007-06-01

    Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese. PMID:17517711

  4. Performance Evaluation and Field Application of Porous Vegetation Concrete Made with By-Product Materials for Ecological Restoration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Hee Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of porous vegetation concrete block made from blast furnace slag cement containing industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag aggregate and powder. The blocks were tested for void ratio, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance to determine the optimal mixing ratio for the porous vegetation block. An economic analysis of the mixing ratio showed that the economic efficiency increased when blast furnace slag aggregate and cement were used. Porous vegetation concrete blocks for river applications were designed and produced. Hydraulic safety, heavy metal elution and vegetation tests were completed after the blocks were applied in the field. The measured tractive force ranged between 7.0 kg/m2 for fascine revetment (vegetation revetment and 16.0 kg/m2 for stone pitching (hard revetment, which ensured sufficient hydraulic stability in the field. Plant growth was measured after the porous vegetation concrete block was placed in the field. Seeds began to sprout one week after seeding; after six weeks, the plant length exceeded 300 mm. The average coverage ratio reached as high as 90% after six weeks of vegetation. These results clearly indicated that the porous vegetation concrete block was suitable for environmental restoration projects.

  5. On the potential vegetation feedbacks that enhance phosphorus availability – insights from a process-based model linking geological and ecological timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2014-07-01

    We find that active P uptake is an essential mechanism for sustaining P availability on long timescales, whereas biotic de-occlusion might serve as a buffer on timescales shorter than 10 000 yr. Although active P uptake is essential for reducing P losses by leaching, humid lowland soils reach P limitation after around 100 000 yr of soil evolution. Given the generalized modelling framework, our model results compare reasonably with observed or independently estimated patterns and ranges of P concentrations in soils and vegetation. Furthermore, our simulations suggest that P limitation might be an important driver of biomass production efficiency (the fraction of the gross primary productivity used for biomass growth, and that vegetation on old soils has a smaller biomass production rate when P becomes limiting. With this study, we provide a theoretical basis for investigating the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to P availability linking geological and ecological timescales under different environmental settings.

  6. Links between archaeal community structure, vegetation type and methanogenic pathway in Alaskan peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, Juliette N; Giewat, Michael W; Duddleston, Khrystyne N; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Hines, Mark E

    2007-05-01

    Although northern peatlands contribute significantly to natural methane emissions, recent studies of the importance and type of methanogenesis in these systems have provided conflicting results. Mechanisms controlling methanogenesis in northern peatlands remain poorly understood, despite the importance of methane as a greenhouse gas. We used 16S rRNA gene retrieval and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to analyse archaeal communities in 15 high-latitude peatland sites in Alaska and three mid-latitude peatland sites in Massachusetts. Archaeal community composition was analysed in the context of environmental, vegetation and biogeochemical factors characterized in a parallel study. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Alaskan sites were dominated by a cluster of uncultivated crenarchaeotes and members of the families Methanomicrobiaceae and Methanobacteriaceae, which are not acetoclastic. Members of the acetoclastic family Methanosarcinaceae were not detected, whereas those of the family Methanosaetaceae were either not detected or were minor. These results are consistent with biogeochemical evidence that acetoclastic methanogenesis is not a predominant terminal decomposition pathway in most of the sites analysed. Ordination analyses indicated a link between vegetation type and archaeal community composition, suggesting that plants (and/or the environmental conditions that control their distribution) influence both archaeal community activity and dynamics. PMID:17316328

  7. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed. PMID:24699917

  8. An ecological study of the major vegetation communities of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape. 2. The Graspan-Holpan section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bezuidenhout

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed classification, description and mapping of the Graspan-Holpan section of the Vaalbos National Park, Northern Cape, were initiated. This classification is intended to serve as a basis for the establishment of an efficient wildlife management programme as well as conservation policies for the Vaalbos National Park. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. A hierarchical plant community clas- sification, description, ecological interpretation and a vegetation map are presented. In the phytosociological table nine major plant communities are recognised.

  9. Relationship of young-of-the-year northern pike to aquatic vegetation types in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L.E.; Huston, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The association of young-of-the-year northern pike (Esox lucius) with different aquatic plant types (e.g., submerged, emergent, floating) was studied to evaluate the impacts of a potential loss of backwaters on available fish nursery habitats in the upper Mississippi River. Eight biweekly collections were made at each of six representative lentic habitats in Navigation Pool 7. In the spring, average catches of northern pike from areas with submerged vegetation were nearly three times greater than from areas with emergent vegetation, and more than 10 times greater than from an area with no vegetation. This pattern was consistent until late summer, when the young became more common in the more highly oxygenated, less heavily vegetated waters. Food and growth were examined as possible indicators for the selection of areas with submerged vegetation over other habitats. Food varied among fish in the different vegetation types; however, no significant patterns of improved growth or condition were apparent. Young northern pike apparently were successful, opportunistic feeders. Although preference for habitats with submerged vegetation was seemingly not related to food, the overall production of young was clearly best in these habitats.

  10. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRAW MULCHES ON WEED-CONTROL IN VEGETABLES CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in 20102012. The effect of different kinds of straw and its dose applied to soil mulching on the amount and fresh mass of weeds and yield level of broccoli and tomato was investigated. The type of straw mulch applied to the soil mulching influenced number and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc. or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weed species. The most efficient for limiting infestation was mulch from buckwheat and rye straw. Soil mulching, regardless of its kind, causes a decrease in the number and mass of weeds at the beginning of growing period of vegetables. The application of straw at a dose of 20 t?ha-1 had higher weed-suppressing effect than at a dose of 10 t?ha-1. When assessing the infestation before harvest the influence of straw mulch was lower but still significant. The application in higher dose of rye and buckwheat straw in broccoli, corn and rape in tomato cultivation reduced a number of weeds compared to dose of 10 t?ha-1. The better yielding effect in both vegetable species had soil mulching with straw at a dose of 10 t?ha-1.

  11. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  12. Pool-type fishways: two different morpho-ecological cyprinid species facing plunging and streaming flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Santos, José M; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to study the behaviour and performance of two species with different ecological characteristics (Iberian barbel Luciobarbus bocagei-bottom oriented, and Iberian chub Squalius pyrenaicus-water column) in a full-scale experimental pool-type fishway that offers two different flow regimes-plunging and streaming. Results showed that both species passed through the surface notch more readily during streaming flow than during plunging flow. The surface oriented species used the surface notch more readily in streaming flow, and both species were more successful in moving upstream in streaming flow than in plunging flow. Streaming flow enhances upstream movement of both species, and seems the most suitable for fishways in river systems where a wide range of fish morpho-ecological traits are found. PMID:23741465

  13. Diversification of Nitrogen Sources in Various Tundra Vegetation Types in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Richter, Dorota; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Low nitrogen availability in the high Arctic represents a major constraint for plant growth, which limits the tundra capacity for carbon retention and determines tundra vegetation types. The limited terrestrial nitrogen (N) pool in the tundra is augmented significantly by nesting seabirds, such as the planktivorous Little Auk (Alle alle). Therefore, N delivered by these birds may significantly influence the N cycling in the tundra locally and the carbon budget more globally. Moreover, should these birds experience substantial negative environmental pressure associated with climate change, this will adversely influence the tundra N-budget. Hence, assessment of bird-originated N-input to the tundra is important for understanding biological cycles in polar regions. This study analyzed the stable nitrogen composition of the three main N-sources in the High Arctic and in numerous plants that access different N-pools in ten tundra vegetation types in an experimental catchment in Hornsund (Svalbard). The percentage of the total tundra N-pool provided by birds, ranged from 0-21% in Patterned-ground tundra to 100% in Ornithocoprophilous tundra. The total N-pool utilized by tundra plants in the studied catchment was built in 36% by birds, 38% by atmospheric deposition, and 26% by atmospheric N2-fixation. The stable nitrogen isotope mixing mass balance, in contrast to direct methods that measure actual deposition, indicates the ratio between the actual N-loads acquired by plants from different N-sources. Our results enhance our understanding of the importance of different N-sources in the Arctic tundra and the used methodological approach can be applied elsewhere. PMID:26376204

  14. GIS-based analysis of relationships between ecological factors and forest vegetation in the Prealps (North-east Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfanti PL

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest communities distribution in mountainous areas is strongly related to some primary ecological factors (e.g. water, temperature, geology and to some other factors derived from the soil morphology (e.g. slope, aspect and solar radiation. The aim of this study is to investigate and express quantitatively the relationships between ecological factors and forest communities through geospatial analysis in a GRASS GIS. There are significant statistical differences between forest communities according to environmental factors (Kruskal-Wallis test, T2 of Tamhane, PCA. Some ecological factors studied (e.g. solar potential radiation are useful to describe forest communities in indirect gradient analysis. The study area is located in the Eastern Prealps of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy and is characterized by a large environmental variability (climate, natural and human disturbances.

  15. Survey to determine the adequacy of existing conserved areas in relation to vegetation types. A preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Edwards

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The report is a broad survey of the conservation status of South African vegetation. Data and maps show the distribution and total areas of conserved lands by the various conservation agencies, the size structure of nature reserves, the areas and percentages of conserved areas in relation to the 70 veld types and seven main vegetation types into which South Africa was divided by Acocks (1953, and important conservation requirements in the Bantu Homelands. Major conservation deficiencies lie in the Karoo and Karroid Bushveld and Grassland Types of vegetation, where 42 veld types have none or virtually no conservation, and in the Tropical Bush and Savanna Types to which-belong nine of the 10 remaining veld types extremely lacking in conservation. Additional reserves are needed' to conserve certain important and local ecosystems and species in the remaining 18 veld types, especially the Sclerophyllous Bush (Macchia or Fynbos and Temperate and Transitional Forest and Scrub Types, and in certain Coastal Tropical Forest and Thornveld Types. Apart from minor deficiencies, the conservation status is outstanding for six of these 18 veld types (up to 47 per cent under conservation, and very good for another six veld types.

  16. Effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czaikoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage time and temperature on the characteristics of vegetable-type soybean grain (cultivar BRS 267 minimally processed and to define the best conditions for its storage. The evaluation was performed by measurement of vitamin C levels, weight loss and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*. The time of storage of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in Styrofoam trays and wrapped with PVC film, caused a decreased in vitamin C levels and color parameters and increased weight loss. This process was intensified with higher temperature at 25 °C than 5°C. To maintain appropriate levels of vitamin C, weight and color of vegetable-type soybean grains minimally processed and storage in trays wrapped in plastic wrap, recommended storage for 3 days at 5°C.

  17. A new quantitative classification of ecological types in the bromeliad genus Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae based on trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosti Stefano

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using collection specimens, we measured the density and wing area of trichomes in 37 species of the bromeliad genus Tillandsia, specifically the abaxial proximal, abaxial distal, adaxial proximal and adaxial distal parts of the leaf. The product of the trichome "wing" area by the number of trichomes (means produced a pure number (T that was correlated to ecological features. The correlation was positive with respect to arid environments (xeric Tillands and negative with respect to humid environments (mesic Tillands. Bulbous, and particularly myrmecophytic species and species with tanks, represented particular categories. Other intermediate types were identified based on the T number, totalling five ecological types. In comparison with other systems of ecological typification for Tillands and other Bromeliaceae, the present system offers measurable data whose analysis is reproducible. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 191-203. Epub 2008 March 31.Medimos el nmero por milmetro cuadrado y el rea del "ala" (parte mvil de los tricomas en las partes adaxial prxima y distal, y adaxial prxima y distal, de la hoja de 37 especies de bromelias del gnero Tillandsia. El producto del rea del ala para el nmero de los tricomas (promedio produjo un nmero puro (T. Hallamos que T se correlaciona con las caractersticas ecolgicas de las tilandsias investigadas. La correlacin es positiva con respecto a ambientes ridos (especies xricas y negativa con respecto a los ambientes hmedos (especies msicas. Las especies con bulbo, y particularmente las asociadas con hormigas y especies con de tanque representan categoras particulares. Identificamos otros tipos intermedios, agradando as cinco tipos ecolgicos. En comparacin con otros sistemas de tipificacin ecolgica, este sistema ofrece la ventaja de ser reproducible y cuantitativo.

  18. An eco-hydrological approach to predicting regional vegetation and groundwater response to ecological water convergence in dryland riparian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve the management strategy of riparian restoration, better understanding of the dynamic of eco-hydrological system and its feedback between hydrological and ecological components are needed. The fully distributed eco-hydrological model coupled with a hydrology component was developed based o...

  19. The diversity changes of soil microbial communities stimulated by climate, soil type and vegetation type analyzed via a functional gene array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Tan, Min; Yang, Yongjun; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Shaoliang; Li, Gang

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of soil microbial communities stimulated by climate, soil type and vegetation type using a functional gene array. The dataset GSE51592 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 54 soil samples. Genetic diversity variation of samples under different sites, soil and vegetation types was examined by calculating the percentage of specific gene number in each sample. Furthermore, gene functional categories and microorganism species in samples under different environmental factors were respectively divided. Gene number in samples with cropping was higher than in samples without cropping. When site, soil type and vegetation type were as the sole variable, respectively, the percentage of specific genes in samples from Yingtan, in phaeozem samples and in samples with cropping was higher. Furthermore, the percentage of gene number in organic remediation for phaeozem and cambisol samples was significant at pCyanobacteria, the percentage of gene number in cambisol samples was significantly higher (pdiversity of soil was cooperatively driven by climate, soil type and vegetation type. PMID:26296414

  20. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

  1. Estado ecolgico de ros y vegetacin riberea en el contexto de la nueva Ley General de Aguas de Mxico / Ecological status of rivers and riparian vegetation within the new General Mexican Water's Law context

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra, MENDOZA CARIO; Abel, QUEVEDO NOLASCO; ngel, BRAVO VINAJA; Hctor, FLORES MAGDALENO; Mara de Lourdes, DE LA ISLA DE BAUER; Francisco, GAVI REYES; Bertha Patricia, ZAMORA MORALES.

    Full Text Available Los ros son unidades vitales en el funcionamiento de las cuencas que, debido al transporte y a la circulacin cclica del agua, permiten la existencia de los seres vivos. Poseen gran valor ecolgico y ambiental dada su influencia sobre otros ecosistemas y los beneficios que proporcionan al hombre, [...] tanto para consumo como para riego y uso en los mbitos agrcola e industrial. Sin embargo, casi todos los ros de Mxico presentan algn tipo de deterioro. Alrededor de 73 % de los sistemas acuticos muestran contaminacin, lo que empobrece la salud de estos ecosistemas. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer que en la formulacin de la nueva ley general de aguas se considere la regulacin de la vegetacin riberea, pues su influencia en el mantenimiento y en la rehabilitacin del estado ecolgico de los ros es fundamental. Se sugiere que la nueva ley contenga una seccin de proteccin ambiental en la que se incluya a la vegetacin riberea como elemento clave para proteger, conservar y restaurar los ros. Asimismo, que la delimitacin de dicha vegetacin se apegue a las condiciones naturales de inundacin del cauce, con una frecuencia de una vez cada ocho aos, de acuerdo con la variabilidad del flujo. Adems, su manejo debe tomar en cuenta la reforestacin y el mantenimiento de especies vegetales nativas de cada regin. Abstract in english Rives are vital units in the functioning of the watersheds that, due to the transportation and circulation of water, allow the existence of life. They are of great ecological and environmental value because of their influence on other ecosystems as well as the benefits they give to humankind, not on [...] ly in the consumption for irrigation but also in the use in the agricultural and industrial areas. However, almost all the rivers in Mexico show a certain type of deterioration. About 70 % of the aquatic systems shows contamination which diminishes the health of these ecosystems. The objective of this work is to propose that the riparian vegetation should be included in the making of the new general law of water because its influence on the maintenance and rehabilitation of the ecological state of rivers is fundamental. It has been suggested a new law that contains a section of environmental protection which includes the riparian vegetation as a key element to protect, preserve, and restore rivers. Likewise, the boundaries of this vegetation should be according to the natural conditions of flooding in the bed of the river, with a once-in-every eight years- frequency, according to the variability of flow. In addition, its handling must consider the reforestation and maintenance of native vegetation species in each region.

  2. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that......, forb vegetation will become colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  3. Vertical and horizontal vegetation structure across natural and modified habitat types at Mount Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 8664550m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tan...

  4. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro

    OpenAIRE

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus; Lucas C. R. Silva

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866–4550m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tan...

  5. The historical ecology of Namibian rangelands: vegetation change since 1876 in response to local and global drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Richard F; Hoffman, M Timm

    2012-02-01

    The influence of both local and global drivers on long-term changes in the vegetation of Namibia's extensive rangelands was investigated. Fifty-two historical photographs of the Palgrave Expedition of 1876 were re-photographed and used to document changes over more than 130 years, in grass, shrub and tree cover within three major biomes along a 1200km climatic gradient in central and southern Namibia. We showed that patterns of change are correlated with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and that below a threshold of around 250mm, vegetation has remained remarkably stable regardless of land-use or tenure regime. Above this threshold, an increase in tree cover is linked to the rainfall gradient, the legacies of historical events in the late 19th century, subsequent transformations in land-use and increased atmospheric CO(2). We discuss these findings in relation to pastoral and settler societies, paleo- and historical climatic trends and predictions of vegetation change under future global warming scenarios. We argue that changes in land-use associated with colonialism (decimation of megaherbivores and wildlife browsers; fire suppression, cattle ranching), as well as the effects of CO(2) fertilisation provide the most parsimonious explanations for vegetation change. We found no evidence that aridification, as projected under future climate change scenarios, has started in the region. This study provided empirical evidence and theoretical insights into the relative importance of local and global drivers of change in the savanna environments of central and southern Namibia and global savanna ecosystems more generally. PMID:22188617

  6. Using Vegetation near CO2 Mediated Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) Activities for Monitoring Potential Emissions and Ecological Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiongwen; Roberts, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    however, the decrease in RGR ratio was significantly less in the oilfield area compared to the reference area overall and by subcategories of pine, tree and shrub. Based on data from plant plots, RGR decreased in the reference and oilfield areas except one plot, which increased in RGR. Within the oilfield and reference areas, several species decreased significantly in RGR, but American olive increased in RGR. Vegetation monitoring could provide parameters related to the modeling potential eff...

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia: interactions of ecological and social factors affecting the Arctic normalized difference vegetation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes of a greening trend detected in the Arctic using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are still poorly understood. Changes in NDVI are a result of multiple ecological and social factors that affect tundra net primary productivity. Here we use a 25 year time series of AVHRR-derived NDVI data (AVHRR: advanced very high resolution radiometer), climate analysis, a global geographic information database and ground-based studies to examine the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation greenness on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. We assess the effects of climate change, gas-field development, reindeer grazing and permafrost degradation. In contrast to the case for Arctic North America, there has not been a significant trend in summer temperature or NDVI, and much of the pattern of NDVI in this region is due to disturbances. There has been a 37% change in early-summer coastal sea-ice concentration, a 4% increase in summer land temperatures and a 7% change in the average time-integrated NDVI over the length of the satellite observations. Gas-field infrastructure is not currently extensive enough to affect regional NDVI patterns. The effect of reindeer is difficult to quantitatively assess because of the lack of control areas where reindeer are excluded. Many of the greenest landscapes on the Yamal are associated with landslides and drainage networks that have resulted from ongoing rapid permafrost degradation. A warming climate and enhanced winter snow are likely to exacerbate positive feedbacks between climate and permafrost thawing. We present a diagram that summarizes the social and ecological factors that influence Arctic NDVI. The NDVI should be viewed as a powerful monitoring tool that integrates the cumulative effect of a multitude of factors affecting Arctic land-cover change.

  8. Vegetation and carbon gas dynamics under a changed hydrological regime in central European peatlands

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanov, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The effect of drainage and restoration on the ecology of different types of peatlands in the umava Mountains was investigated. The study was focused primarily vegetation dynamics, carbon gas fluxes and their linkages under the affected hydrological regimes.

  9. Ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map presents ecological carrying capacity of current land use assessed according to types of abiotic complexes on the territory of the Slovak Republic. Ecological carrying capacity is the purpose-linked property of landscape, which expresses the rate of admissible (suitable) land use through anthropic activities without damaging or disturbing the natural properties, processes, and relationships between the landscape elements (abiotic, biotic, and socio-economic) and the environmental quality. Ecological limits represent the tool for assessment of ecological carrying capacity of the landscape. The rate of suitability of land use of the particular type of abiotic complex is assessed pursuing the levels of the ecological carrying capacity of landscape (CCL). Based on the comparison of the existing and the proposed use, the following was assessed: · Suitable use (1st level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use. Areas with no necessity to alter the ecological development are marked in the map. Their present use is below the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Moderately suitable (still sustainable) use (2nd level of CCL) - the category covers all areas where it is not necessary to change the present land use although it does not entirely respond to the landscape-ecological conditions of the territory. The areas with the possibility of conditional ecological development in some cases complemented by protective measures are marked in the map. The present use approximates the threshold of ecological carrying capacity. · Unsuitable (unsustainable) use (3rd level of CCP) - this category covers all areas where it is not possible to maintain the existing way of use either from the ecological or technological points of view. The map shows the areas with necessary changes of use accompanied by proposal of measures, as the present use exceeds ecological carrying capacity (above the threshold of ecological carrying capacity). The resulting proposal has been assessed on the basis of abiotic limits and it requires further modifications pursuing the biotic, abiotic and socio-economic limits. (authors

  10. Regular, high, and moderate intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants may reduce cataract risk in Central African type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mvitu M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Moise Mvitu,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Dieudonné Tulomba,3 Augustin Nge31Department of Ophthalmology, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa; 3Biostatistics Unit, Lomo Medical Center and Heart of Africa Center of Cardiology, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of CongoBackground: Antioxidant nutrients found in popularly consumed vegetables, including red beans, are thought to prevent diabetic complications. In this study, we assessed the frequency and contributing factors of intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants, and we determined their impact on the prevention of diabetes-related cataract extraction.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, run in Congo among 244 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An intake of ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants/day, intake of red beans, consumption of fruit, and cataract extraction were considered as dependent variables.Results: No patient reported a fruit intake. Intake of red beans was reported by 64 patients (26.2%, while 77 patients (31.6% reported ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. High socioeconomic status (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–12.5; P = 0.030 and moderate alcohol intake (OR = 4; 95% CI: 1.1–17.4; P = 0.049 were the independent determinants of eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants. Red beans intake (OR = 0.282; 95% CI: 0.115–0.687; P > 0.01 and eating ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants (OR = 0.256; 95% CI: 0.097–0.671; P = 0.006 were identified as independent and protective factors against the presence of cataracts (9.8% n = 24, whereas type 2 diabetes mellitus duration ≥3 years was the independent risk factor for cataract extraction (OR = 6.3; 95% CI: 2.1–19.2; P > 0.001 in the model with red beans intake and OR = 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3–22.2; P > 0.001 in the model with ≥three servings of vegetables rich in antioxidants.Conclusion: Red beans intake and adequate quantity of intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants were found to be associated with reduced risk of cataract in these Congolese with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Education on nutrition and health promotion programs are needed to encourage people to eat vegetables and fruit.Keywords: red beans, cataract extraction, socioeconomic status, public health implications

  11. Plant Traits Demonstrate That Temperate and Tropical Giant Eucalypt Forests Are Ecologically Convergent with Rainforest Not Savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J.; Bowman, David M.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the...

  12. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm-1) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  13. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  14. The effect of vegetation type and snow depth on annual CO2 efflux in a high arctic tundra region

    OpenAIRE

    Morgner, Elke

    2009-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of vegetation type and increased snow depth on soil temperature and annual CO2 efflux in an arctic tundra region. Snow fences were set up to manipulate snow accumulation in heath and meadow vegetation on Spitsbergen. Field campaigns lasted from July 2007 - July 2008. CO2 efflux, measured by means of a dark and closed-dynamic soil flux chamber, showed seasonal variation and was lowest in winter time. Soil temperature had a strong influence on efflux year-round,...

  15. Seasat synthetic aperture radar ( SAR) response to lowland vegetation types in eastern Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Milton, N.M.; Segal, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of Seasat SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with the 30-digital number (DN) increase observed in the digital Seasat data. The density, morphology, and relative geometry of the lowland vegetation with respect to standing water can all affect the strength of the return L band signal.-from Authors

  16. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites. PMID:18930578

  17. Altering Their Ecological Niche: Investigating the Response of Avian Migrants to Changes in Vegetation Phenology at Northern Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Ward, D. H.; Ely, C. R.; Handel, C. M.; Hupp, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    The impacts of global climate change are expected to be most severe at high northern latitudes. There is now strong evidence to support the hypothesis that such changes have had dramatic effects on the phenology of spring vegetative growth in these areas. One aspect of this change that has not been thoroughly investigated is how these changes vary across habitats and whether sub-Arctic and Arctic avifauna have adapted to shifts in plant phenology by modifying the timing of migration and nesting. A recent study showed that certain bird species have experienced population decline due to the varied timing of seasonal events and points to the fact that the degree of risk facing migratory birds is not well quantified. Plant phenology is especially sensitive to annual variation in temperature and precipitation and is a major determinant of plant species distribution, making it a good indicator of climate change effects. Migratory birds are considered one of the most vulnerable groups to the impacts of climate change because climate affects bird movement and distribution through species-specific physiological tolerances and changes in food and habitat resources. In this study we analyze the evidence for long-term plant phenology changes across different biomes of Alaska using satellite remote sensing techniques. We correlate this variability with ground-based measurements of avian migration and breeding. Specifically, we try to determine if the timing of spring green-up is synchronized across breeding areas or whether the process has become fractured across intervening biomes, potentially disrupting the timing of migration and breeding, putting species at risk. Using satellite-based time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, we create spatially explicit maps of seasonal vegetation metrics and correlate those with the timing and distribution of avian migrant populations. Preliminary investigation focused on the last 10 year period (2000-2009) and utilized Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at a 250m spatial resolution to characterize variability in the start of season and magnitude of NDVI at different times throughout the migration period. NDVI seasonality measurements are compared with avian chronology metrics (i.e., first arrival date, peak nest initiation, etc.) for each species at each site. Results are evaluated and spatially explicit trends are identified, including temporal shifts in start of season, variability in seasonal production, and altered migratory activities. The findings of this study, coupled with other historical analysis of this relationship, will aid in predicting future impacts of climate-induced habitat change on avian migration patterns.

  18. Soil permeability as a function of vegetation type and soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil permeability is important for estimating the rate of mass transport of 222Rn through soils and into basements. We measured permeability and soil water content on a set of nine plots consisting of three plots vegetated with common barley (Hordeum vulgare), three plots vegetated with Russian thistle (Salsola kali), and three bare plots. Soil moisture was consistently highest on the bare plots and lowest on the Russian thistle plots. Plots with vegetation had lower soil water content during the growing season. Permeability was consistently higher on Russian thistle plots. ANOVA showed that both soil water content and presence of Russian thistle had a significant impact on permeability but that presence of barley did not. The effect of vegetation and moisture on permeability may have significant effects on 222Rn transport in soils. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Vegetation Cover Types of St. Vincent Island N.W.R.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this vegetative study on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge were to: 1 identify and describe the major plant communities and associations on the...

  20. The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    J. Khairiah; M.K. Zalifah; Yin, Y.H.; A. Aminah

    2004-01-01

    A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum) and long beans (Vigna sinensis) from the soil. Heavy metals studied were Pb, Cd and Zn. Wet digestion method was used for heavy metals analysis in the vegetables. Heavy metals from soil samples were extracted by sequential extraction method, which extract ...

  1. Small scale photo probability sampling and vegetation classification in southeast Arizona as an ecological base for resource inventory. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The broad scale vegetation classification was developed for a 3,200 sq mile area in southeastern Arizona. The 31 vegetation types were derived from association tables which contained information taken at about 500 ground sites. The classification provided an information base that was suitable for use with small scale photography. A procedure was developed and tested for objectively comparing photo images. The procedure consisted of two parts, image groupability testing and image complexity testing. The Apollo and ERTS photos were compared for relative suitability as first stage stratification bases in two stage proportional probability sampling. High altitude photography was used in common at the second stage.

  2. Resource type influences the effects of reserves and connectivity on ecological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Nicholas A; Olds, Andrew D; Connolly, Rod M; Martin, Tyson S H; Gilby, Ben L; Maxwell, Paul S; Huijbers, Chantal M; Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A

    2016-03-01

    Connectivity is a pivotal feature of landscapes that affects the structure of populations and the functioning of ecosystems. It is also a key consideration in conservation planning. But the potential functional effects of landscape connectivity are rarely evaluated in a conservation context. The removal of algae by herbivorous fish is a key ecological function on coral reefs that promotes coral growth and recruitment. Many reef herbivores are harvested and some use other habitats (like mangroves) as nurseries or feeding areas. Thus, the effects of habitat connectivity and marine reserves can jointly promote herbivore populations on coral reefs, thereby influencing reef health. We used a coral reef seascape in eastern Australia to test whether seascape connectivity and reserves influence herbivory. We measured herbivore abundance and rates of herbivory (on turf algae and macroalgae) on reefs that differed in both their level of connectivity to adjacent mangrove habitats and their level of protection from fishing. Reserves enhanced the biomass of herbivorous fish on coral reefs in all seascape settings and promoted consumption of turf algae. Consumption of turf algae was correlated with the biomass of surgeonfish that are exploited outside reserves. By contrast, both reserve status and connectivity influenced herbivory on macroalgae. Consumption of macroalgae was greatest on fished reefs that were far from mangroves and was not strongly correlated with any fish species. Our findings demonstrate that landscape connectivity and reserve status can jointly affect the functioning of ecosystems. Moreover, we show that reserve and connectivity effects can differ markedly depending on resource type (in this case turf algae vs. macroalgae). The effectiveness of conservation initiatives will therefore depend on our ability to understand how these multiple interactive effects structure the distribution of ecological functions. These findings have wider implications for the spatial conservation of heterogeneous environments and strengthen the case that the impact of conservation on ecosystem functioning is contingent on how reserves are positioned in landscapes. PMID:26476209

  3. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (pvegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (pwater-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (pvegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  4. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest with different vegetation types (Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Quercus faginea, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea) in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 38,449 ha forested area in southern Spain. Sixty-eight sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed as soil control section with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and the major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The total SOCS in The Cardeña-Montoro Natural Park was higher in MEOW with olive grove (111,69 Mg ha-1) and lower in MEOW with Quercus faginea (93,57 Mg ha-1). However, when the top soil (superficial section control) was analyzed, the SOCS was the highest in MEOW with olive grove (70,12 Mg-1) and the lowest in MEOW with Pinus (47,82 Mg ha-1). This research is a preliminary assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Hontoria, C., Rodríguez-Murillo, J., and Saa, A.: Contenido de carbono orgánico en el suelo y factores de control en la España Peninsular, Edafología, 11, 149-155, 2004. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B: Organic farming affects C and N in soils under olive groves in Mediterranean areas, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2231, 2013. Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., Lozano-García, B., Fernández Rebollo, P., Moreno Elcure, F., Carbonero Muñoz, M.D.: Organic farming has little effect on carbon stock in a Mediterranean dehesa (southern Spain). Catena 113 (2014) 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.09.002 Parras-Alcántara, L., Díaz-Jaimes, L., and Lozano-García, B.: Management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean open rangelands -- treeless grasslands, Land Degrad. Develop., in press, available online: in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2269, 2015.

  5. Seed ecology in dry sandy grasslands - an approach to patterns and mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Dry sandy grasslands occur throughout Central Europe and Southern Germany, and they host many rare and endangered plant species. To date, insufficient data on seed ecological aspects of this endangered vegetation type exist. Seed ecological studies attempt to develop ecological knowledge by identifying patterns and underlying mechanisms. To bring all results together, it can be pointed out that environmental factors strongly shape seed ecological patterns. Species with special mechanisms like...

  6. Significance of diet type and diet quality for ecological diversity of African ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codron, Daryl; Lee-Thorp, Julia A; Sponheimer, Matt; Codron, Jacqui; DE Ruiter, Darryl; Brink, James S

    2007-05-01

    1. We test two nutritional hypotheses for the ecological diversity of ungulates, the browser/grazer (diet type) and diet quality models, among free-ranging herbivores in a South African savanna, the Kruger National Park. Tests are based on assessment of relationships between diet type and diet quality with body mass and hypsodonty, two morphological features that have been associated with both elements. 2. We use stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces to reconstruct diet in terms of proportions of C(3) plants (browse) and C(4) plants (grass) consumed by different species in different seasons. These data are combined with proxies for diet quality (per cent nitrogen, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin) from faeces to track changes in diet quality. 3. Two statistical approaches are used in model selection, i.e. tests of significant correlations based on linear regression analyses, and an information-theory approach (Akaike's Information Criterion) providing insight into strength of evidence for models. 4. Results of both methods show that, contrary to many predictions, body mass and diet type are not related, but these data confirm predictions that diet quality decreases with increasing body size, especially during the dry season. Hypsodonty, as expected, varies with diet type, increasing with increased grass intake. 5. These findings support both a diet type and diet quality model, implying some degree of exclusivity. We propose that congruence between models may be achieved through addition of diet quality proxies not included here, because hypsodonty is more likely a reflection of the abrasive properties of consumed foods, i.e. related to food quality, rather than food type. This implies that adaptation to diets of varying quality, through changes in body size and dental features, has been the primary mechanism for diversification in ungulates. 6. Our interpretation contrasts with several recent studies advocating diet type as the primary factor, exemplifying that further reconciliation between the two models is needed. We discuss the implications of this study for future approaches to achieve a more cohesive understanding of the evolutionary outcomes of herbivore nutrition. PMID:17439469

  7. Fuzzy logic merger of spectral and ecological information for improved montane forest mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Running, Steven W.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Key, Carl H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat?5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These data were combined utilizing fuzzy logic where assignment of each pixel to a single vegetation category was derived comparing the partial membership of each vegetation category within spectral and environmental classes. Partial membership was assigned from canopy cover for forest types measured from field sampling. Initial classification of spectral and ecological data produced map accuracies of less than 50% due to overlap between spectrally similar vegetation and limited spatial precision for predicting local vegetation types solely from the ecological information. Combination of environmental data through fuzzy logic increased overall mapping accuracy (70%) in coniferous forest communities of northwestern Montana, USA.

  8. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Palacz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom–coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  9. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz, A. P.; St. John, M. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W. W.

    2013-11-01

    Modeling and monitoring plankton functional types (PFTs) is challenged by the insufficient amount of field measurements of ground truths in both plankton models and bio-optical algorithms. In this study, we combine remote sensing data and a dynamic plankton model to simulate an ecologically sound spatial and temporal distribution of phyto-PFTs. We apply an innovative ecological indicator approach to modeling PFTs and focus on resolving the question of diatom-coccolithophore coexistence in the subpolar high-nitrate and low-chlorophyll regions. We choose an artificial neural network as our modeling framework because it has the potential to interpret complex nonlinear interactions governing complex adaptive systems, of which marine ecosystems are a prime example. Using ecological indicators that fulfill the criteria of measurability, sensitivity and specificity, we demonstrate that our diagnostic model correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high-latitude areas and indicate seasonal coexistence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ and remote sensing measurements, has so far not been captured by state-of-the-art dynamic models, which struggle to resolve this "paradox of the plankton". We conclude that an ecological indicator approach is useful for ecological modeling of phytoplankton and potentially higher trophic levels. Finally, we speculate that it could serve as a powerful tool in advancing ecosystem-based management of marine resources.

  10. Perceived social-ecological factors associated with fruit and vegetable purchasing, preparation, and consumption among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dan J; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa N

    2013-10-01

    Most young adults do not consume recommended levels of fruits and vegetables (F/V), and interventions to increase F/V-related behaviors among this understudied population are needed. Therefore, it is important to identify correlates of F/V intake among young adults to guide intervention development. This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey to identify factors related to young adults' F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and to explore between-factor relationships using mediation analysis. In 2010, 1,201 college students in Minnesota completed questionnaires assessing F/V behaviors as well as perceptions of F/V-related individual, social, and environmental factors. Factor analysis identified questionnaire items assessing similar constructs. Seven factors were identified (personal barriers, F/V knowledge, family, friends, neighborhood, access barriers, and campus) and evaluated for relationships with F/V purchasing, preparation, and consumption using linear regression. Results revealed that perceived personal barriers (eg, lacking cooking skills) were inversely related to all F/V outcomes. Perception that family and friends eat healthfully and neighborhood access to F/V were positively related to all outcomes. Individual-, social-, and environment-level perceptions were related to purchasing, preparation, and consumption, and the effects of these factors were similar when accounting for mediated effects. Factors at all three levels and the ways in which these various factors operate together may be important to consider in future efforts to improve F/V behaviors among young adults. PMID:23958116

  11. Seasonality, Rather than Nutrient Addition or Vegetation Types, Influenced Short-Term Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Qi; He, Feng-Peng; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The response of microbial respiration from soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition to environmental changes plays a key role in predicting future trends of atmospheric CO2 concentration. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a universal trend in the response of microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition among different vegetation types. In this study, soils were sampled in spring, summer, autumn and winter from five dominant vegetation types, including pine, larch and birch forest, shrubland, and grassland, in the Saihanba area of northern China. Soil samples from each season were incubated at 1, 10, and 20°C for 5 to 7 days. Nitrogen (N; 0.035 mM as NH4NO3) and phosphorus (P; 0.03 mM as P2O5) were added to soil samples, and the responses of soil microbial respiration to increased temperature and nutrient addition were determined. We found a universal trend that soil microbial respiration increased with increased temperature regardless of sampling season or vegetation type. The temperature sensitivity (indicated by Q10, the increase in respiration rate with a 10°C increase in temperature) of microbial respiration was higher in spring and autumn than in summer and winter, irrespective of vegetation type. The Q10 was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass and the fungal: bacterial ratio. Microbial respiration (or Q10) did not significantly respond to N or P addition. Our results suggest that short-term nutrient input might not change the SOC decomposition rate or its temperature sensitivity, whereas increased temperature might significantly enhance SOC decomposition in spring and autumn, compared with winter and summer. PMID:27070782

  12. Invasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in California

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Sara Jo Myrtle

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONInvasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in CaliforniaBy Sara Jo DickensDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Plant BiologyUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2010Dr Edith B. Allen, ChairpersonEcosystem processes are strongly dependant on plant-soil feedbacks. The invasion of exotic plant species can result in the introduction of novel traits capable of de-coupling native plant-soil ...

  13. Investigating mechanisms maintaining plant species diversity in fire prone Mediterranean-type vegetation using spatially-explicit simulation models

    OpenAIRE

    Esther, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Fire prone Mediterranean-type vegetation systems like those in the Mediterranean Basin and South-Western Australia are global hot spots for plant species diversity. To ensure management programs act to maintain these highly diverse plant communities, it is necessary to get a profound understanding of the crucial mechanisms of coexistence. In the current literature several mechanisms are discussed. The objective of my thesis is to systematically explore the importance of potential mechanisms f...

  14. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and deforestation in Rano Aroi: Implications for Easter Island's ecological and cultural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Margalef, Olga; Sáez, Alberto; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Giralt, Santiago

    2015-10-01

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) has been considered an example of how societies can cause their own destruction through the overexploitation of natural resources. The flagship of this ecocidal paradigm is the supposed abrupt, island-wide deforestation that occurred about one millennium ago, a few centuries after the arrival of Polynesian settlers to the island. Other hypotheses attribute the forest demise to different causes such as fruit consumption by rats or aridity but the occurrence of an abrupt, island-wide deforestation during the last millennium has become paradigmatic in Rapa Nui. We argue that such a view can be questioned, as it is based on the palynological study of incomplete records, owing to the existence of major sedimentary gaps. Here, we present a multiproxy (pollen, charcoal and geochemistry) study of the Aroi core, the first gap-free sedimentary sequence of the last millennia obtained to date in the island. Our results show changing vegetation patterns under the action of either climatic or anthropogenic drivers, or both, depending on the time interval considered. Palm forests were present in Aroi until the 16th century, when deforestation started, coinciding with fire exacerbation -likely of human origin- and a dry climate. This is the latest deforestation event recorded so far in the island and took place roughly a century before European contact. In comparison to other Easter Island records, this record shows that deforestation was neither simultaneous nor proceeded at the same pace over the whole island. These findings suggest that Easter Island's deforestation was a heterogeneous process in space and time, and highlights the relevance of local catchment traits in the island's environmental and land management history.

  15. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATENA ESLAMI FAROUJI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Farouji AE, Khodayari H. 2016. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran. Biodiversita 17: 1-10. The accurate identification of plant communities and their distribution are classical tools for mapping and classification of plants. Plants are strongly sensitive against changing environmental conditions. Moreover, Iran has a special position in Asia which has been creating a diverse ecosystem. Close floristic studies are necessary for precise determination of diversity and uniformity. To determine plant species in different vegetation types in Beiran shahr region, modified multi-scale Whittaker plots were constructed. This studied area was about 20000 ha and located in Northwest to Southwest of Iran. Eighty-nine plots were made in different longitude and latitudes. The minimum and maximum heights were 1101 and 2489 m asl., respectively. Within each modified multi-scale plots, each species was explored. Of 608 species, 498 and 97 are belonging to dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and remained 13 species were Pteridophytes. As measured, Therophyte and Champhyte are the dominant and recessive form of life in studied area. Based on species of each plot and subplots, mean Jaccard's coefficient, number of unique species and mean unique species/plot were estimated for each vegetation type. It is obvious that there is a clear correlation between Slopes of the species-log area curve and Mean number of unique species per plot.

  16. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  17. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds...... medium-growing genotype had an intake of 9 g for females and 20 g for males. In conclusion, limitation of supplemented protein feed in the finishing period may be acceptable for broilers that have access to highly nutritious vegetation.......A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds....... Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences in the...

  18. Radio-capacity of different types of natural ecosystems (without man) and their ecological standardization principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the theory of radio-capacity of natural ecosystems (excluding mankind) is applied to the definition of ecological standards for permissible releases in the environment. A specific limit of radionuclide contamination of wild life which can be considered as the basis of an ecological standardization (64-640 kb kg-1) is proposed. BAsic equations for evaluation of maximum permissible releases into a lake ecosystem are presented. Ecological standards for benthos are 10 to 100 times less than the ecological standards for inhabitants of the water column. It is shown that the existing levels of radionuclide contamination of terrestrial slope ecosystems in the 30-km zone around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) exceed the proposed ecological standards. (authors)

  19. Vegetation types of East Ladakh: species and growth form composition along main environmental gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, Miroslav; Doležal, Jiří; de Bello, Francesco; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2011), 132-147. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * Classification * Trans-Himalaya Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  20. Ecology of Nematodes Under Influence of Cucurbita spp. and Different Fertilizer Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porazinska, D L; Coleman, D C

    1995-12-01

    In a field study conducted in Georgia, cucurbit plants with high (Cucurbita andreana) and low (Cucurbita maxima) concentrations of cucurbitacins were used in combination with two types of fertilizers to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity, trophic group proportions, fungivore/bacterivore ratio, and modified maturity index were assessed and compared among treatments. In general, poultry manure (an organic source of nitrogen) and synthetic fertilizer (a nonorganic source of nitrogen) did not differ in their effects on the nematode communities throughout one growing season. Few differences between the two plant species were found for any of the nematode community measurements. Bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes were the most abundant trophic groups, averaging 60% and 20% of the nematode community, respectively. Trophic diversity, nematode maturity index, and fungivore/ bacterivore values were lowest at the beginning and highest at the end of the experiment. PMID:19277330

  1. Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2001), s. 351-358. ISSN 1061-2971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : soil microfungi * frequency of species occurrence * post-mining dumps Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2001

  2. Preliminary estimation of bryophyte biomass and carbon pool from three contrasting different vegetation types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M.K.; Juhász, A.; Csintalan, Z.; Kaligaric, M.; Marek, Michal V.; Urban, Otmar; Tuba, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2005), s. 267-270. ISSN 0133-3720 Grant ostatní: EU(CZ) HPRI-CT-2002-00197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : bryophyte * carbon pool * rain forest Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.320, year: 2005

  3. Plant seedlings in a species-rich meadow: effect of management, vegetation type and functional traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Doležal, Jiří; Hájek, M.; Dančák, M.; Klimeš, Leoš; Klimešová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2013), s. 286-295. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Bile Karpaty Mountains * Litter * Mowing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2013

  4. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  5. Physical rehabilitation of students of medical groups with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia for mixed type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlchovik Alina Vitalievna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Consider the problem of declining levels of health of students I-II courses that are assigned to special medical group. Substantiated the importance of including health improvement-rehabilitation program for students with the disease vegetative-vascular dystonia of mixed type. Define oriented content rehabilitation programs for this group of individuals. The program improves the functional and psychological status of students, to carry out prevention of autonomic crises. Proved the prevalence and increase with each passing year the number of people with vascular dystonia of mixed type of students - 50-55%.

  6. Ecological recovery of vegetation on a coke-factory soil: role of plant antioxidant enzymes and possible implications in site restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazy, Marc; Jung, Vincent; Frard, Jean-Franois; Masfaraud, Jean-Franois

    2008-12-01

    The present paper investigated the short-term colonization by plants of a highly degraded soil in field conditions. The objectives were to identify, through phytosociological analysis, the plant species able to grow on such polluted areas and to characterize pollutant effects at different biological levels through analyses of plant oxidative status, plant growth or community indexes of richness and biodiversity. Our results showed that among the plants present in the uncontaminated surrounding area, only few species were able to colonize the polluted soil. These species were typical of the first years of grassland successions. Ecological indexes proved that the polluted soil vegetation presented a lower degree of species richness and biodiversity than the control area. These discrepancies were partly explained by pollutant phytotoxicity. Indeed, for several species including Erigeron canadensis and Oenothera biennis, we observed toxic effects of the polluted soil on plant height and biomass. Moreover, at the cellular level, changes in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, APX, GPX and GRD) and lipid peroxidation level (MDA) were observed. Such biochemical changes seemed to play an important role on plant sensitivity/tolerance to pollutants and thus to render them more or less competitive for colonization of such disturbed areas. PMID:18977011

  7. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect. PMID:24289011

  8. Eddy covariance and scintillation measurements of atmospheric exchange processes over different types of vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Nieveen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction and objectivesGood comprehension of the energy and mass cycles and their effect on climate dynamics is crucial to understanding, predicting and anticipating ecological changes due to possible future climate perturbations. Here direct and long-term flux density measurements of greenhouse gases from various ecosystems provide means to supply such fundamental knowledge. For the global water vapour and carbon cycles, however, the interactions between different spatial scales become i...

  9. The Uptake of Heavy Metals by Fruit Type Vegetables Grown in Selected Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Khairiah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the uptake of heavy metals by fruit vegetables from agricultural areas was conducted at Agrotek, Sepang and Bangi, Selangor. The objective of the study was to determine the uptake of heavy metals by chilies (Capsicum annum and long beans (Vigna sinensis from the soil. Heavy metals studied were Pb, Cd and Zn. Wet digestion method was used for heavy metals analysis in the vegetables. Heavy metals from soil samples were extracted by sequential extraction method, which extract heavy metals from easily and freely leachable fraction (EFLE, acid reduction (AR, organic oxidation (OO and resistant fraction (RR. The results of the study showed that the level of Zn content in long beans (Vigna sinensis was higher than in chilies (Capsicum annum. However the concentrations of heavy metals studied in these vegetables were still below the maximum level allowed by the Malaysian Food Act (1983 and Food Regulations (1985 for Pb (2.00 mg kg-1, Cd (1.00 mg kg-1 and Zn (30.00 mg kg-1.

  10. Does sleep aggravate tension-type headache?: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki Gen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both insufficient sleep and oversleeping have been reported as precipitating and aggravating factors of tension-type headache (TTH. However, previous studies relied on recalled self-reports, and the relationship has not been confirmed prospectively and objectively in a daily life situation. Recently, ecological momentary assessment (EMA using electronic diaries, i.e., computerized EMA, is used to record subjective symptoms with the advantages of avoiding recall bias and faked compliance in daily settings. In addition, actigraphy has become an established method to assess sleep outside laboratories. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the within-individual effect of sleep on the following momentary headache intensity in TTH patients during their daily lives utilizing EMA and actigraphy. Methods Twenty-seven patients with TTH wore watch-type computers as electronic diaries for seven consecutive days and recorded their momentary headache intensity using a visual analog scale of 0-100 approximately every six hours, on waking up, when going to bed, and at the time of headache exacerbations. They also recorded their self-report of sleep quality, hours of sleep and number of awakenings with the computers when they woke up. Physical activity was continuously recorded by an actigraph inside the watch-type computers. Activity data were analyzed by Cole's algorithm to obtain total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake time after sleep onset and number of awakenings for each night. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effect of each subjective and objective sleep-related variable on momentary headache intensity on the following day. Results Objectively measured total sleep time was significantly positively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day, while self-reported sleep quality was significantly negatively associated with momentary headache intensity on the following day. Conclusions Using computerized EMA and actigraphy, longer sleep and worse sleep quality were shown to be related to more intense headache intensity on within-individual basis and they may be precipitating or aggravating factors of TTH.

  11. Vegetation types, dominant compositions, woody plant diversity and stand structure in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Koushik; Datta, B K

    2015-03-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the vegetation types, diversity and phytosociological status of woody plants in Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary of Tripura, Northeast India. Vegetation data was derived by 25 line transects (10 m wide and 500 m length, each 0.5 ha size). All woody species at >10 cm gbh (Girth at Breast Height) within each plots were measured and counted. A total of six forest types were classified by cluster analysis using Importance Value Index (IVI) of 289 woody species. Species diversity, forest structure and woody community associations were evaluated and discussed. One way ANOVA revealed significant differences in all species diversity measures and stand structure along the forest types. Distribution of stem density at ten different gbh classes showed reverse J-shaped curves. Population status of woody plants was also examined through grouping of all individuals into four population age stages viz. sapling ( or = 30 - 120 - 210 cm gbh) and old (> or =210 cm). To observe dominant composition and species population trend, IVI of top ten dominant species from all forest types were tabulated. The present study suggested that Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary is an important habitat in Tripura from floristic point of view and it should be conserved on priority basis for remaining wildlife endurances and monitor for forest livelihoods products for sustainable biodiversity conservation in this region. PMID:25895264

  12. Land Cover Types Differentiation through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in the Lowland Rainforests of Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez Cornelio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate estimation of above ground biomass in the natural forests of Papua New Guinea is a key componentfor the successful implementation of the REDD policy in the country. Biomass densities in a lowland rainforestsite located at the northeast of the country were differentiated with Landsat digital images throughout normalizeddifference vegetation index (NDVI. Submaps of 4,377.69 ha of bands 3 and 4 were georeferenced with affinetransformation and a RMSE of 0.529. The calculated NDVI map was sliced to separate its pixel values into 5classes as they are distributed in the histogram with the assistance of ground truth points. The method is simple,fast and reliable, however swampy palm forest could not be discriminated from dense forests; and different bareland types had to be grouped into a single major class. Therefore other vegetation indexes and/or band ratiosare recommended to be tested using images of higher spatial resolution to accurately differentiate more classes.Keywords: land cover, biomass, normalized difference vegetation index, lowland rainforest, Papua New Guinea

  13. The effect of vegetation type and fire on permafrost thaw: An empirical test of a process based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Aaron; Estop-Aragones, Cristian; Fisher, James; Hartley, Iain; Murton, Julian; Phoenix, Gareth; Street, Lorna; Williams, Mathew

    2015-04-01

    As conditions become more favourable for plant growth in the high latitudes, most models predict that these areas will take up more carbon during the 21st century. However, vast stores of carbon are frozen in boreal and arctic permafrost, and warming may result in some of this carbon being released to the atmosphere. The recent inclusion of permafrost thaw in large-scale model simulations has suggested that the permafrost feedback could potentially substantially reduce the predicted global net uptake of carbon by terrestrial ecosystems, with major implications for the rate of climate change. However, large uncertainties remain in predicting rates of permafrost thaw and in determining the impacts of thaw in contrasting ecosystems, with many of the key processes missing from carbon-climate models. The role that different plant communities play in insulating soils and protecting permafrost is poorly quantified, with key groups such as mosses absent in many models. But it is thought that they may play a key role in determining permafrost resilience. In order to test the importance of these ecological processes we use a new specially acquired dataset from sites in the Canadian arctic to develop, parameterise and evaluate a detailed process-based model of vegetation-soil-permafrost interactions which includes an insulating moss understory. We tested the sensitivity of modelled active layer depth to a series of factors linked to fire disturbance, which is common in boreal permafrost areas. We show how simulations of active layer depth (ALD) respond to removals of (i) vascular vegetation, (ii) moss cover, and (iii) organic soil layers. We compare model responses to observed patterns from Canada. We also describe the sensitivity of our modelled ALD to changes in temperature and precipitation. We found that four parameters controlled most of the sensitivity in the modelled ALD, linked to conductivity of organic soils and mosses.

  14. Avaliao nutricional da glicerina vegetal semipurificada para codornas de corte / Nutritional evaluation of vegetable semi-purified glycerin of meat type quail

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Batista; A.C., Furlan; A.P.S., Ton; T.J., Pasquetti; T.C.O., Quadros; D.O., Grieser; V., Zancanela.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos trs experimentos com o objetivo de determinar a composio qumica e os valores de energia metabolizvel da glicerina vegetal semipurificada e verificar o desempenho e as caractersticas de carcaa de codornas de corte alimentadas com raes contendo nveis crescentes de glicerina. [...] No experimento 1, foram utilizadas 50 codornas, alojadas em gaiolas de metabolismo. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma rao referncia e de uma rao teste contendo nvel de substituio de 10% de glicerina, com cinco repeties de cinco codornas por repetio. O valor de energia metabolizvel aparente corrigida para balano de nitrognio da glicerina foi de 3.069kcal/kg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas 640 codornas, distribudas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (rao controle e nveis de glicerina = 4, 8, 12 e 16%) e quatro repeties com 32 aves em cada repetio. No foram observadas diferenas (P>0,05) para consumo de rao e ganho de peso. A incluso de glicerina, na fase de um a 14 dias de idade, piorou a converso alimentar. No experimento 3, foram utilizadas 440 codornas, distribudas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repeties com 22 aves em cada repetio. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os mesmos do experimento 2. O consumo de rao aumentou linearmente (P Abstract in english Three experiments were carried out to determine the chemical composition and metabolizable energy values of vegetable semi-purified glycerin and verify the performance and carcass yeild of meat type quai, fed with diets containing increasing levels of glycerin. In the first experiment 50 quails were [...] used, housed in metabolism cages. The treatments consisted of a reference diet and a test diet containing the replacement level of 10% glycerin, with five replications of five quails per replication. The value of apparent metabolisable energy corrected by nitrogen balance of glycerin was 3.069 kcal/kg. In the second experiment 640 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (control diet and four levels = 4, 8, 12 and 16% of glycerin), four replications with 32 birds per replication. There were no differences (P>0.05) on feed intake and weight gain. The inclusion of glycerin (1 - 14 days of age) decrease feed:gain ratio. In the third experiment, 440 quails were used, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments, with four replications with 22 birds per repetition. The treatments used were the same as the second trial. The feed intake increased linearly (P

  15. Untangling the role of elevation, aspect, and vegetation type on ecohydrological dynamics along a climate gradient in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Rimkus, S.; Caporali, E.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics and performance are strongly influenced by environmental conditions. Specifically, light, precipitation, and air temperature exert a predominant role. These climatic variables covariate with elevation and aspect in areas of complex terrain. Quantification of specific elevation and aspect effects on vegetation productivity and mass and energy fluxes can lead to a better understating of environment-driven distribution of vegetation and parsimonious up-scaling parameterizations useful in hydrological applications. A detailed characterization of climatic differences with elevation is however a daunting task. In this study, two synthetic climate gradients, constructed using hourly meteorological data and a stochastic weather generator, AWE-GEN, are used to force a mechanistic ecohydrological model, Tethys-Chloris, and quantify energy, carbon, and water fluxes for three generic Plant Functional Types (PFTs). One gradient is representative of a dry, sheltered alpine valley (Valais), whereas the other one characterizes a wet, exposed mountain side (Bernese Oberland). Thirty year long time series of cross-correlated precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and atmospheric pressure for elevation bands from 500 up to 3500 m a.s.l. are generated to represent the climatic differences. The incoming radiation is successively recalculated for different combinations of aspect and slope. Under these specific climatic forcing conditions, the response of deciduous and evergreen trees, and grass typical of the Alpine system is investigated. The parameterization of the ecohydrological model was tested to reproduce vegetation productivity and energy fluxes for several locations in an Alpine climate or similar conditions (Fluxnet dataset) and to correctly simulate snowpack dynamics for forested and open sites worldwide (Snowmip-2 dataset). The three PFTs evolve at different elevations and aspects for dry and wet conditions. Results indicate that differences in hydrological fluxes across PFTs are more evident for the dry, water-limited scenario, rather than for the wet scenario. The optimum for vegetation productivity shifts from low elevations of 500-1000 m in wet conditions to higher elevations (of about 1800-2200 m) for the dry altitudinal gradient. By intercepting snow and shading ground surface, PFTs affect differently snow cover distribution and seasonal duration. The overall role of elevation was found to be predominant when compared to the role of aspect, regardless of the climate type. Nonetheless, we speculate that this is not always the case and the role of aspect, or contributing area might become the dominant control for different ecosystems.

  16. Landscape object-based analysis of wetland plant functional types: the effects of spatial scale, vegetation classes and classifier methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Gong, P.; Wang, L.; Clinton, N.; Fu, W.; Qi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Remote sensing-based vegetation classifications representing plant function such as photosynthesis and productivity are challenging in wetlands with complex cover and difficult field access. Recent advances in object-based image analysis (OBIA) and machine-learning algorithms offer new classification tools; however, few comparisons of different algorithms and spatial scales have been discussed to date. We applied OBIA to delineate wetland plant functional types (PFTs) for Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China and Ramsar wetland conservation site, from 30-m Landsat TM scene at the peak of spring growing season. We targeted major PFTs (C3 grasses, C3 forbs and different types of C4 grasses and aquatic vegetation) that are both key players in system's biogeochemical cycles and critical providers of waterbird habitat. Classification results were compared among: a) several object segmentation scales (with average object sizes 900-9000 m2); b) several families of statistical classifiers (including Bayesian, Logistic, Neural Network, Decision Trees and Support Vector Machines) and c) two hierarchical levels of vegetation classification, a generalized 3-class set and more detailed 6-class set. We found that classification benefited from object-based approach which allowed including object shape, texture and context descriptors in classification. While a number of classifiers achieved high accuracy at the finest pixel-equivalent segmentation scale, the highest accuracies and best agreement among algorithms occurred at coarser object scales. No single classifier was consistently superior across all scales, although selected algorithms of Neural Network, Logistic and K-Nearest Neighbors families frequently provided the best discrimination of classes at different scales. The choice of vegetation categories also affected classification accuracy. The 6-class set allowed for higher individual class accuracies but lower overall accuracies than the 3-class set because individual classes differed in scales at which they were best discriminated from others. Main classification challenges included a) presence of C3 grasses in C4-grass areas, particularly following harvesting of C4 reeds and b) mixtures of emergent, floating and submerged aquatic plants at sub-object and sub-pixel scales. We conclude that OBIA with advanced statistical classifiers offers useful instruments for landscape vegetation analyses, and that spatial scale considerations are critical in mapping PFTs, while multi-scale comparisons can be used to guide class selection. Future work will further apply fuzzy classification and field-collected spectral data for PFT analysis and compare results with MODIS PFT products.

  17. The influence of slope and peatland vegetation type on riverine dissolved organic carbon and water colour at different scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, L E; Chapman, P J; Palmer, S M; Wallage, Z E; Wynne, H; Holden, J

    2015-09-15

    Peatlands are important sources of fluvial carbon. Previous research has shown that riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations are largely controlled by soil type. However, there has been little work to establish the controls of riverine DOC within blanket peatlands that have not undergone major disturbance from drainage or burning. A total of 119 peatland catchments were sampled for riverine DOC and water colour across three drainage basins during six repeated sampling campaigns. The topographic characteristics of each catchment were determined from digital elevation models. The dominant vegetation cover was mapped using 0.5m resolution colour infrared aerial images, with ground-truthed validation revealing 82% accuracy. Forward and backward stepwise regression modelling showed that mean slope was a strong (and negative) determinant of DOC and water colour in blanket peatland river waters. There was a weak role for plant functional type in determining DOC and water colour. At the basin scale, there were major differences between the models depending on the basin. The dominance of topographic predictors of DOC found in our study, combined with a weaker role of vegetation type, paves the way for developing improved planning tools for water companies operating in peatland catchments. Using topographic data and aerial imagery it will be possible to predict which tributaries will typically yield lower DOC concentrations and which are therefore more suitable and cost-effective as raw water intakes. PMID:26003614

  18. Forecasts of future terrain and vegetation types at Olkiluoto and implications for spatial and temporal aspects of biosphere modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, a nuclear repository site is situated on the western coast where the current land uplift rate is 6 mm/yr. A set of tools has been developed for predicting the future terrain and vegetation types, and for producing estimates of the site-specific parameter values for use in simplified radionuclide transport models. Although the landscape will change considerably within the next millennia, the likely changes are relatively predictable. By comparing the results to the site data, the effect of human activities can be at least partially quantified

  19. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  20. An expert system shell for inferring vegetation characteristics: Changes to the historical cover type database (Task F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    All the options in the NASA VEGetation Workbench (VEG) make use of a database of historical cover types. This database contains results from experiments by scientists on a wide variety of different cover types. The learning system uses the database to provide positive and negative training examples of classes that enable it to learn distinguishing features between classes of vegetation. All the other VEG options use the database to estimate the error bounds involved in the results obtained when various analysis techniques are applied to the sample of cover type data that is being studied. In the previous version of VEG, the historical cover type database was stored as part of the VEG knowledge base. This database was removed from the knowledge base. It is now stored as a series of flat files that are external to VEG. An interface between VEG and these files was provided. The interface allows the user to select which files of historical data to use. The files are then read, and the data are stored in Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) units using the same organization of units as in the previous version of VEG. The interface also allows the user to delete some or all of the historical database units from VEG and load new historical data from a file. This report summarizes the use of the historical cover type database in VEG. It then describes the new interface to the files containing the historical data. It describes minor changes that were made to VEG to enable the externally stored database to be used. Test runs to test the operation of the new interface and also to test the operation of VEG using historical data loaded from external files are described. Task F was completed. A Sun cartridge tape containing the KEE and Common Lisp code for the new interface and the modified version of the VEG knowledge base was delivered to the NASA GSFC technical representative.

  1. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  2. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  3. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  4. Evaluation of sensor types and environmental controls on mapping biomass of coastal marsh emergent vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; O'Connell, Jessica L.; Di Tommaso, Stefania; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to quantify large-scale plant productivity in coastal marshes to understand marsh resilience to sea level rise, to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits, and to monitor impacts from land use, eutrophication and contamination. Remote monitoring of aboveground biomass of emergent wetland vegetation will help address this need. Differences in sensor spatial resolution, bandwidth, temporal frequency and cost constrain the accuracy of biomass maps produced for management applications. In addition the use of vegetation indices to map biomass may not be effective in wetlands due to confounding effects of water inundation on spectral reflectance. To address these challenges, we used partial least squares regression to select optimal spectral features in situ and with satellite reflectance data to develop predictive models of aboveground biomass for common emergent freshwater marsh species, Typha spp. and Schoenoplectus acutus, at two restored marshes in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA. We used field spectrometer data to test model errors associated with hyperspectral narrowbands and multispectral broadbands, the influence of water inundation on prediction accuracy, and the ability to develop species specific models. We used Hyperion data, Digital Globe World View-2 (WV-2) data, and Landsat 7 data to scale up the best statistical models of biomass. Field spectrometer-based models of the full dataset showed that narrowband reflectance data predicted biomass somewhat, though not significantly better than broadband reflectance data [R2 = 0.46 and percent normalized RMSE (%RMSE) = 16% for narrowband models]. However hyperspectral first derivative reflectance spectra best predicted biomass for plots where water levels were less than 15 cm (R2 = 0.69, %RMSE = 12.6%). In species-specific models, error rates differed by species (Typha spp.: %RMSE = 18.5%; S. acutus: %RMSE = 24.9%), likely due to the more vertical structure and deeper water habitat of S. acutus. The Landsat 7 dataset (7 images) predicted biomass slightly better than the WV-2 dataset (6 images) (R2 = 0.56, %RMSE = 20.9%, compared to R2 = 0.45, RMSE = 21.5%). The Hyperion dataset (one image) was least successful in predicting biomass (R2 = 0.27, %RMSE = 33.5%). Shortwave infrared bands on 30 m-resolution Hyperion and Landsat 7 sensors aided biomass estimation; however managers need to weigh tradeoffs between cost, additional spectral information, and high spatial resolution that will identify variability in small, fragmented marshes common to the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and elsewhere in the Western U.S.

  5. Ecological characteristics and polyphasic taxonomic classification of stable pigment-types of the genus Chroococcus (Cyanobacteria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, L.; Jezberová, Jitka; Komárková, Jaroslava; Kopecký, Jiří; Komárek, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2011), s. 145-166. ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA525/07/0338; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : chromatic adaptation * Chroococcus * cyanobacteria * ecology * phylogeny * pigment content * pigment mutants * Slovakia * taxonomy * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2011

  6. Evolutionary Branching and Sympatric Speciation Caused by Different Types of Ecological Interactions [Revised 18 September 2000

    OpenAIRE

    M. Doebeli; Dieckmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Evolutionary branching occurs when frequency-dependent selection splits a phenotypically monomorphic population into two distinct phenotypic clusters. A prerequisite for evolutionary branching is that directional selection drives the population towards a fitness minimum in phenotype space. This paper demonstrates that selection regimes leading to evolutionary branching readily arise from a wide variety of different ecological interactions within and between species. We use classical ecologica...

  7. Pool-Type Fishways: Two Different Morpho-Ecological Cyprinid Species Facing Plunging and Streaming Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Paulo; José M. Santos; Katopodis, Christos; Pinheiro, António; Ferreira, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Fish are particularly sensitive to connectivity loss as their ability to reach spawning grounds is seriously affected. The most common way to circumvent a barrier to longitudinal connectivity, and to mitigate its impacts, is to implement a fish passage device. However, these structures are often non-effective for species with different morphological and ecological characteristics so there is a need to determine optimum dimensioning values and hydraulic parameters. The aim of this work is to s...

  8. Some Ecological Aspects of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F. and Type of Sugar Contents in Honey in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Onlamai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out at Khon Kaen and Maha Sarakham Provinces in northeastern region of Thailand. The work designed to investigate ecological locations and types of sugar in honey of Little Honeybee (Apis florea F.. The results showed that there were four types of ecological locations found, i.e. cropland and degradation forest, orchard farm, villages, and housing area of government�s official. Five types of sugar contents in honey were found with majority of fructose followed by glucose, lactose, maltose, and least with sucrose. The highest amounts of sugar in honey were highest in June followed by February, December, January, March, September, April, October and November. All types of sugar had no effect on egg rate, worker, and drone cells except fructose where it had highly significant effect on number of queen cells. A range of 1-1.05 (g ml-1 of total sugar had highly significant effect on number of queen cells, but with higher range number of queen cells was declined

  9. Four types of interference competition and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations and communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Andersen, Ken Haste; Dieckmann, Ulf; Brännström, Åke Ke

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how four types of interference competition - which alternatively affect foraging, metabolism, survival, and reproduction - impact the ecology and evolution of size-structured populations. Even though all four types of interference competition reduce population biomass, interference...... competition at intermediate intensity sometimes significantly increases the abundance of adult individuals and the population[U+05F3]s reproduction rate. We find that foraging and metabolic interference evolutionarily favor smaller maturation size when interference is weak and larger maturation size when...... interference is strong. The evolutionary response to survival interference and reproductive interference is always larger maturation size. We also investigate how the four types of interference competition impact the evolutionary dynamics and resultant diversity and trophic structure of size...

  10. An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: system development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Sun, Feiyun; Li, Pu; Zhao, Ke

    2016-05-01

    An environment-friendly decentralized wastewater treatment process that is comprised of activated sludge process (ASP) and wetland vegetation, named as vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP), was developed for decentralized wastewater treatment. The long-term experimental results evidenced that the vegetation sequencing batch reactor (V-SBR) process had consistently stable higher removal efficiencies of organic substances and nutrients from domestic wastewater compared with traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The vegetation allocated into V-SBR system could not only remove nutrients through its vegetation transpiration ratio but also provide great surface area for microorganism activity enhancement. This high vegetation transpiration ratio enhanced nutrients removal effectiveness from wastewater mainly by flux enhancement, oxygen and substrate transportation acceleration, and vegetation respiration stimulation. A mathematical model based on ASM2d was successfully established by involving the specific function of vegetation to simulate system performance. The simulation results on the influence of operational parameters on V-ASP treatment effectiveness demonstrated that V-SBR had a high resistance to seasonal temperature fluctuations and influent loading shocking. PMID:26880524

  11. Comparison between two vegetation indices for measuring different types of forest damage in the north-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the Landsat TM-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and the short-wave IR to NIR ratio (SWIR/NIR) index was examined in measurements of different types of damage in several forest communities. The forests examined included a site with well-defined fir waves in New Hampshire, a site undergoing well-documented coniferous forest decline in Vermont, and predominantly deciduous regions in Vermont and northwestern Massachusetts seriously impacted by pear thrips. Both NDVI and SWIR/NIR images were produced for each area. Results demonstrated that the SWIR/NIR index was superior to NDVI in distinguishing between high and low conifer damage at both fir-wave and forest decline sites; high and low deciduous-forest damage sites were easily separable using either NDVI or SWIR/NIR, but the NDVI was superior in separation between medium and low deciduous damage.

  12. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica land was the most obvious among them, with soil pH increasing by 0.43. The effects of fertilization and vegetation type on pH and exchangeable acidity decreased with the increasing soil depth from all plots. PMID:26785544

  13. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRAW MULCHES ON WEED-CONTROL IN VEGETABLES CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Edyta Kosterna

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in 2010–2012. The effect of different kinds of straw and its dose applied to soil mulching on the amount and fresh mass of weeds and yield level of broccoli and tomato was investigated. The type of straw mulch applied to the soil mulching influenced number and fresh mass of weeds. This effect could be the result of the properties of the mulch (colour, structure, etc.) or the allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of individual weed species. The most e...

  14. Nitrogen–use efficiency in different vegetation type at Cikaniki Research Station, Halimun-Salak Mountain National Park, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARNO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A research about nitrogen–use efficiency (NUE and trees identification was conducted at different vegetation type at Cikaniki, Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. Plot quadrate methods (20 x 50 m was used to analyze trees vegetation and Kjeldahl methods was used to analyze leaf nitrogen. The width and length of the leaf was also measured to obtain the leaf surface area. The result showed that there are 61 individual trees which consisted of 24 species was identified. The species which have 5 highest important value are Altingia excelsa (64,657, Castanopsis javanica (39,698, Platea latifolia (27,684, Garcinia rostrata (21,151, and Schima walichii (16,049. Futhermore Eugenia lineata (13,967, Melanochyla caesa (12,241, Quercus lineata (10,766, platea excelsa (10,766 have lower important value. Other trees have important value less than 10. Morphological and nitrogen content analyze were done on 4 species : Quercus lineata, G. rostrata, A. excelsa, and E. lineata. Among them, Quercus lineata has highest specific leaf area (SLA (0,01153, followed by G. rostrata (0,00821, A. excelsa (0,00579, and E. lineata (0,00984 g/cm2. The highest number of stomata was found on A. excelsa (85,10/mm2, followed by E. lineata (74,40/mm2, Q. lineata (53,70/mm2, and G. rostrata (18,4 /mm2. The emergent species (A. excelsa and Q. lineata have higher nitrogen content than the underlayer species (G. rostrata and E. lineata. A. excelsa have highest nitrogen use efficiency (28,19% compare to E. lineata (23,81% , Q. lineata (19,09%, and G. rostrata (14,87%. Although not significant, emergen species have higher NUE than underlayer species.

  15. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. There still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 72 site-years for 58 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SR MAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This convergence is to be theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SR MAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it is sufficient to measure SR MAT for obtaining a highly constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution and interannual variation of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatio-temporal resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  16. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  17. Variation of Combined Heat-Irradiation Effects on Cell Inactivation in Different Types of Vegetative Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effects of irradiation and heating on cell inactivation were studied with E. coli K-12 derivatives of different DNA repair capacities and some thermophilic bacteria. With E. coli K-12 mutants log-phase cells of all four strains tested were sensitized to radiation by simultaneous heating. This means that the synergistic interaction between irradiation and heating is independent of pol, uvr and rec mutation. Simultaneous heating was more effective for radiosensitization than heating before or after irradiation. This combination effect was not or only weakly observed with stationary-phase cells. From recovery experiments and sedimentation analysis of DNA from E. coli cells the process of the synergistic interaction may involve the inhibition of the recovery from heat damage and the DNA repair, especially Type II repair. In respect of thermophilic bacteria, it was found that Streptococcus thermophilus becomes more sensitive to radiation under the combined treatment with heating, while other thermophilic strains do not, according to a comparison of the radiosensitivities in terms of the Dio value of the exponential slopes of the survival curves. The latter observation with thermophilic bacteria is in contrast to E. coli. The results of sedimentation analysis of DNA of thermophiles gave unique features. (author)

  18. Variation of combined heat-irradiation effects on cell inactivation in different types of vegetative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined effects of irradiation and heating on cell inactivation were studied with E. coli K-12 derivatives of different DNA repair capacities and some thermophilic bacteria. With E. coli K-12 mutants log-phase cells of all four strains tested were sensitized to radiation by simultaneous heating. This means that the synergistic interaction between irradiation and heating is independent of pol, uvr and rec mutation. Simultaneous heating was more effective for radiosensitization than heating before or after irradiation. This combination effect was not or only weakly observed with stationary-phase cells. From recovery experiments and sedimentation analysis of DNA from E. coli cells the process of the synergistic interaction may involve the inhibition of the recovery from heat damage and the DNA repair, especially Type II repair. In respect of thermophilic bacteria, it was found that Streptococcus thermophilus becomes more sensitive to radiation under the combined treatment with heating, while other thermophilic strains do not, according to a comparison of the radiosensitivities in terms of the D10 value of the exponential slopes of the survival curves. The latter observation with thermophilic bacteria is in contrast to E. coli. The results of sedimentation analysis of DNA of thermophiles gave unique features. (author)

  19. Benthic vegetation in shallow inlets of the Baltic Sea : Analysis of human influences and proposal of a method for assessment of ecological status

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Joakim P.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) has a general objective that all European waters should attain good ecological status by 2015. Shallow wave-protected inlets with soft-sediment bottoms are common environments along the Swedish and Finnish Baltic Sea coastlines. However, there is no suitable method for assessing the ecological status of this biotope. The current assessment methods based on macrovegetation for coastal waters in Sweden and Finland are mainly designed for hard-b...

  20. Effects of vegetation type on habitat use by crop-raiding Japanese macaques during a food-scarce season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Aya; Muroyama, Yasuyuki

    2010-04-01

    Habitat use by crop-raiding Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) was studied in western Japan from December 2005 to February 2006, a food-scarce season. To examine how different vegetation types affect habitat use by monkeys, two crop-raiding troops were compared: the first troop inhabited a habitat involving more wild food resources; the second troop inhabited a habitat providing fewer wild food resources. It was hypothesized that monkeys living in the habitat with fewer wild food resources are more likely to utilize human settlements and areas around them (i.e. adjacent zones), with a dependence on crop foods. Comparisons of observed and expected habitat use frequencies showed that the first troop selected evergreen broad-leaved forests and conifer plantations, and avoided adjacent zones, rice fields, and golf courses. The second troop selected adjacent zones and avoided conifer plantations, pine forests, and deciduous broad-leaved forests. Both troops moved rapidly in avoided habitat types. These results suggest that monkeys living in the habitat with fewer wild food resources are more likely to utilize areas around human settlements during a food-scarce season. PMID:20063041

  1. The results from trial operation of the ecological display for monitoring of drum-separator status at RBMK-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes procedure and results of ecological interface for monitoring of drum-separator at RBMK-type NPP. Trial operation has been carried out during four months at the full scope simulator of the leningrad NPP with participation of the licensed control room operators. The results from the trial operation demonstrate that ecological interface considerably increases efficiency of operator activity and essentially reduces protection activation rate caused by errors or untimely actions of operator compared to conventional human-machine interface

  2. The use of typed lambda calculus for comprehension and construction of simulation models in the domain of ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uschold, Michael

    1992-01-01

    We are concerned with two important issues in simulation modelling: model comprehension and model construction. Model comprehension is limited because many important choices taken during the modelling process are not documented. This makes it difficult for models to be modified or used by others. A key factor hindering model construction is the vast modelling search space which must be navigated. This is exacerbated by the fact that many modellers are unfamiliar with the terms and concepts catered to by current tools. The root of both problems is the lack of facilities for representing or reasoning about domain concepts in current simulation technology. The basis for our achievements in both of these areas is the development of a language with two distinct levels; one for representing domain information, and the other for representing the simulation model. Of equal importance, is the fact that we make formal connections between these two levels. The domain we are concerned with is ecological modelling. This language, called Elklogic, is based on the typed lambda calculus. Important features include a rich type structure, the use of various higher order functions, and semantics. This enables complex expressions to be constructed from relatively few primitives. The meaning of each expression can be determined in terms of the domain, the simulation model, or the relationship between the two. We describe a novel representation for sets and substructure, and a variety of other general concepts that are especially useful in the ecological domain. We use the type structure in a novel way: for controlling the modelling search space, rather than a proof search space. We facilitate model comprehension by representing modelling decisions that are embodied in the simulation model. We represent the simulation model separately from, but in terms of a domain mode. The explicit links between the two models constitute the modelling decisions. The semantics of Elklogic enables English text to be generated to explain the simulation model in domain terms.

  3. Trace metals in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in relation to ecological migratory types and growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Chino, Naoko; Shirai, Kotaro; Arai, Takaomi

    2010-04-01

    In order to understand the metal concentrations in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, nine elements were analyzed in the livers of different migratory types of eels collected from Tokushima region (south Japan). Migratory types were defined by examining the Sr:Ca ratio in otoliths. The results showed that there were significant differences in V, Cr, Cd, and Pb concentrations among the migratory types. Mature-sea-eels show a higher risk of metal accumulation than other migratory types of eels, and the concentrations of Mn, Cu, and Zn in mature eels were significantly higher than those in immature eels. The study suggests that the eel liver is a valuable bioindicator for trace metals; however, when using the eel as a bioindicator to reveal the pollutants in aquatic systems, life history analysis should be carried out for accurate interpretation of the results.

  4. Reconstructing Past Vegetation Types During the Late Holocene Using Stable Carbon Isotopes of Leporids from Archaeological Sites in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.; Kemp, L.; Hard, R.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) from bone collagen in leporids provide high-resolution vegetation reconstruction. Leporids [e.g., cottontails (Sylvilagus sp.), jackrabbits (Lepus sp.)] die young (ca. 2 years) and use small home ranges (diet, and their bone collagen, provides a high-resolution view of the carbon isotopic values present in their local plant community. Here we provide an example of the use of leporid bone collagen for reconstruction of past vegetation types using data from several archaeological sites as well as modern collections. All samples are from a basin and range setting within the Chihuahuan Desert in far west Texas and southern New Mexico, USA. The sites span a period back to roughly 1350 BP. Isotopic patterns in leporid collagen show clear evidence of change in vegetation from around 775 BP to the modern period, with a dramatic shift of 4.2‰ in median δ13C values over this period in jackrabbit collagen and a 7.3‰ decrease in median carbon isotopic values in cottontail rabbits. These data suggest a significant increase in C3 plants in leporid diet, and by extension a relative increase in these plant types in the local environment sampled by leporids. This shift is consistent with historic accounts of more C3 mesquite, possibly because of historic land use and ranching practices in the 1800s. However, while this shift may have been accelerated by historic land use changes, our data suggest that the vegetation shift began several hundred years earlier during the prehistoric period. The prehistoric collagen isotopic record also shows increased sample variability through time in both species, suggesting that year-to-year variability in vegetation may have increased late in that sequence. Our results, then, clearly show the potential of leporids for high resolution tracking of vegetation shifts. As leporids are common in paleontological and archaeological sites throughout the temperate zones, their use as a vegetation and climate proxy has wide application.

  5. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhegghen, A.; Mayaux, P.; de Wasseige, C.; Defourny, P.

    2012-12-01

    This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m) and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) reflectances (1 km). Four zones (north, south and two central) were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas) was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  6. A high-performance ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility for life support system in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hui; Shao, Lingzhi; Wang, Minjuan; Berkovich, Yu A.; Erokhin, A. N.; Liu, Hong

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable cultivation plays a crucial role in dietary supplements and psychosocial benefits of the crew during manned space flight. Here we developed a ground-based prototype of horn-type sequential vegetable production facility, named Horn-type Producer (HTP), which was capable of simulating the microgravity effect and the continuous cultivation of leaf-vegetables on root modules. The growth chamber of the facility had a volume of 0.12 m3, characterized by a three-stage space expansion with plant growth. The planting surface of 0.154 m2 was comprised of six ring-shaped root modules with a fibrous ion-exchange resin substrate. Root modules were fastened to a central porous tube supplying water, and moved forward with plant growth. The total illuminated crop area of 0.567 m2 was provided by a combination of red and white light emitting diodes on the internal surfaces. In tests with a 24-h photoperiod, the productivity of the HTP at 0.3 kW for lettuce achieved 254.3 g eatable biomass per week. Long-term operation of the HTP did not alter vegetable nutrition composition to any great extent. Furthermore, the efficiency of the HTP, based on the Q-criterion, was 7 × 10-4 g2 m-3 J-1. These results show that the HTP exhibited high productivity, stable quality, and good efficiency in the process of planting lettuce, indicative of an interesting design for space vegetable production.

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  9. Effect of the type of vegetative nerve system on the quality of life of the patients with itching in old and senile age

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAGIMOVA NARGIZA SAYFUTDINOVNA

    2015-01-01

    We established dependence of reactivity type of vegetative nerve system and life quality in elderly and old people. Expression of deterioration of life quality, over-tension state, and failure of adaptation adjustment mechanisms in the regulation system depends on the presence of skin itching.

  10. The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation. PMID:24463013

  11. Effects of Vegetation Type on Soil Carbon Dynamics Along the Kaidu River in the Yanqi Basin of Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Kaidu River originates from the central southern slopes of the Tian Shan from where it flows through the Yulduz Basin and the Yanqi Basin into Lake Bosten. There has been intensive agricultural development along the Kaidu River in the Yanqi Basin. Corn and pepper are two of the main crops. Here, we present a study includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC) between typical native vegtation types (e.g., Glycyrhiza uralensis Fisch, Achnatherum splendens and Sophora alopecuroides Linn) and agricultural crops (i.e., corn and pepper). Fourteen soil pits were sampled at five depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50 and 50-100 cm) in August 2010 (Figure 1). Soil organic matter are determined using the traditional Walkley and Black method and Loss-on-ignition at 375°C for 17 hours. As expected, agricultural soils contain higher SOC than non-agriculatural lands. Native vegetation has various effects on vertical distribution of SOC. We discuss how root system influences SOC dynamics along the Kaidu River in the central Xinjiang, China. Fig. 1. Map of sampling sites along the Kaidu River in northwestern China.

  12. Diurnal variation of tension-type headache intensity and exacerbation: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Tension-type headache is a common psychosomatic disease. However, diurnal variation of headache is yet to be clarified, perhaps due to the lack of an appropriate method to investigate it. Like other painful diseases, it would be helpful to know if there is diurnal variation in tension-type headaches, both for managing headaches and understanding their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine if there is diurnal variation in the intensity and exacerbation of tension-type headache. Methods Patients (N = 31 with tension-type headache recorded for one week their momentary headache intensity several times a day and their acute headache exacerbations using a watch-type computer as an electronic diary (computerized ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effects of time of day on momentary headache intensity and on the occurrence of acute exacerbations. Results A significant diurnal variation in momentary headache intensity was shown (P = 0.0005, with the weakest headaches in the morning and a peak in the late afternoon. A between-individual difference in the diurnal pattern was suggested. On-demand medication use was associated with a different diurnal pattern (P = 0.025, suggesting that headache intensity decreases earlier in the evening in subjects who used on-demand medication, while headache subtype, prophylactic medication use, and sex were not associated with the difference. The occurrence of acute headache exacerbation also showed a significant diurnal variation, with a peak after noon (P = 0.0015. Conclusions Tension-type headache was shown to have a significant diurnal variation. The relation to pathophysiology and psychosocial aspects needs to be further explored.

  13. Zinc and Other Metals Deficiencies and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: An Ecological Study in the High Risk Sardinia Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Alessandro; Pretti, Salvatore; Marcello, Alberto; Mannu, Carla; Targhetta, Clara; Bruno, Graziella; Songini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes incidence presents a decreasing gradient in Europe from the Nordic countries to the Mediterranean ones. Exception to this gradient is represented by Sardinia, the second largest Mediterranean island whose population shows the highest incidence in Europe, after Finland. The genetic features of this population have created a fertile ground for the epidemic of the disease, however, as well as being strikingly high, the incidence rate has suddenly presented a continuous increase from the ‘50s, not explainable by accumulation of new genetic variants. Several environmental factors have been taken into account, possibly interacting with the genetic/epigenetic scenario, but there are no strong evidences to date. Methods The present study investigated the hypothesis that geochemical elements could create permissive environmental conditions for autoimmune diabetes. An ecological analysis was performed to test possible correlations between the values of eight elements in stream sediments and type 1 diabetes incidence rate in Sardinia. Results Analyses revealed negative associations between elements, such as Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Zn, and type 1 diabetes incidence. Conclusions The results suggest a possible protective role of some elements against the onset of the disease. PMID:26559814

  14. Epidemiology and ecology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents of Krasnodar Region

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Yur'evna Chernyak; Viktoriya Alekseevna Shashel'

    2013-01-01

    Aims. to investigate the influence of environmental pollution on epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents of Krasnodar Region.Materials and Methos. Epidemiologic study was based on regional T1DM register data and official reports by medical facilities (form #112). Environmental survey was conducted according to the method of Shashel et al.Results. Epidemiologic study revealed increasing prevalence of T1DM among children and adolescents of Krasnodar Region fo...

  15. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Pyurko O. Ye.

    2011-01-01

    The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L.) by salinity at model ...

  16. On the Suitability of MODIS Time Series Metrics to Map Vegetation Types in Dry Savanna Ecosystems: A Case Study in the Kalahari of NE Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and evaluation of the recent status of biodiversity in Southern Africa’s Savannas is a major prerequisite for suitable and sustainable land management and conservation purposes. This paper presents an integrated concept for vegetation type mapping in a dry savanna ecosystem based on local scale in-situ botanical survey data with high resolution (Landsat and coarse resolution (MODIS satellite time series. In this context, a semi-automated training database generation procedure using object-oriented image segmentation techniques is introduced. A tree-based Random Forest classifier was used for mapping vegetation type associations in the Kalahari of NE Namibia based on inter-annual intensity- and phenology-related time series metrics. The utilization of long-term inter-annual temporal metrics delivered the best classification accuracies (Kappa = 0.93 compared with classifications based on seasonal feature sets. The relationship between annual classification accuracies and bi-annual precipitation sums was conducted using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. Increased error rates occurred in years with high rainfall rates compared to dry rainy seasons. The variable importance was analyzed and showed high-rank positions for features of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and the blue and middle infrared bands, indicating that soil reflectance was crucial information for an accurate spectral discrimination of Kalahari vegetation types. Time series features related to reflectance intensity obtained increased rank-positions compared to phenology-related metrics.

  17. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  18. MODIS Vegetation Metrics as Indicators of Hydrological Response in Watersheds of California Mediterranean-type Climate Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, D. A.; Fitch, D. T.; Hope, A. S.; Rey, S.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation characteristics of a watershed can be important in determining hydrological response variables (HRVs) such as streamflow (Q), evapotranspiration (ET), and river yield (Q/P). Quantifying the relationship between satellite-derived vegetation metrics and hydrological response to precipitation (P) has the potential to aid in the prediction of streamflow and evapotranspiration for ungauged watersheds. The utility of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data to estimate HRVs of watersheds at the regional scale (southern and central California) is tested in this study. An exhaustive statistical regression analysis was conducted, to quantify the relationship between MODIS vegetation metrics and HRVs. Both ordinary least squares and spatially varying parameter models were tested. Moderate linear relationships were found between several MODIS-derived vegetation metrics and both ET and Q. MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI) regressed on ET exhibited the strongest relationship regression coefficients of 0.50 and 0.95 for the study period mean and strongest annual mean, respectively. Results indicate that the inclusion of spatial-varying parameters can improve the fit in the relationship between MODIS vegetation metrics and HRVs relative to that of the traditional fixed parameter model. The use of a relatively novel exhaustive statistical approach to testing multiple watersheds with varying land cover and climatic characteristics shows that drought conditions in the southern watersheds (2002 and 2004) yielded the strongest fits between MODIS vegetation metrics and HRVs. Alternatively, the relationship between MODIS vegetation metrics and HRVs was weaker when sampling watersheds from similar climatic zones (i.e. humid or semi-arid). Results suggest that direct region-wide estimates of annual streamflow and evapotranspiration for ungauged watersheds can be made reliably for drier years, and that MODIS-derived vegetation metrics may be useful for aiding identification of hydrologically similar watersheds for model-based regionalization purposes.

  19. Ecological half-times of 137Cs and 90Sr in dairy milk in regions with different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr have been regularly monitored since the 1960's in dairy milk in Finland. The aim of this work was to study regional differences in long-term behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in dairy milk including the nuclear weapons tests period and the period after the Chernobyl fallout. In the milk production areas soil types vary from clayish to organic soils. Although total 137Cs deposition from nuclear weapon testings was about the same in all regions, 137Cs concentrations in dairy milk during the 1960's ranged between 5 and 35 Bq/l being highest in regions with high proportion of peat soils. The uneven deposition after the Chernobyl accident before the start of the growing season gave rise to 137Cs concentrations in dairy milk ranging from 3 Bq/l to 60 Bq/l. The ecological half-times were estimated for the decrease of 137Cs and 90Sr after the end of nuclear weapon tests period and the Chernobyl fallout for short and longer time intervals. In the milk production areas dominated by organic soils the ecological half-times for decrease of 137Cs were twice as long as in the regions with clayish soils. Half-times of 90Sr for longer time intervals were considerably longer than those for 137Cs. This long-term data on behaviour of 137Cs and 90Sr in dairy milk can be utilized in testing food chain models. The incorporation of region specific parameters in models will enhance their usefulness in case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  20. Conhecimento ecolgico tradicional da comunidade de Limpo Grande sobre a vegetao, Vrzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brasil / Traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation in the community of Limpo Grande, Vrzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de, Morais; Cintia Silva, Serrano; Fernando Ferreira de, Morais.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido na comunidade de Limpo Grande, localizada a 23 km do municpio de Vrzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Para verificar a possibilidade de os informantes organizarem o conhecimento ecolgico tradicional da vegetao de acordo com uso o trabalho, buscou-se os seguintes objetivos: i) conhe [...] cer as espcies de cada domnio cultural indicado pelos informantes; ii) verificar a existncia de consenso cultural para cada domnio cultural; iii) analisar a similaridade das espcies dos domnios culturais. Utilizou-se entrevista estruturada para obteno dos dados da lista livre e dados socioeconmicos. A lista livre foi analisada por meio do ndice de Smith, consenso cultural e escalonamento multidimensional. Os informantes definiram trs domnios culturais com base no uso da vegetao: plantas (utilizadas para o cultivo), mato (vegetao nativa que apresenta diversos usos) e plantas medicinais (utilizadas para tratamento de enfermidades). O domnio cultural de plantas foi representado por 107 espcies; mato, por 96; e plantas medicinais, por 99 espcies. Para os trs domnios, pode-se verificar a existncia de consenso cultural. Verificou-se baixa similaridade entre as espcies dos domnios. Os critrios utilizados pelas comunidades tradicionais para uso e manejo da vegetao podem contribuir para elaborao de polticas pblicas destinadas conservao da biodiversidade ecolgica e cultural. Abstract in english This study was conducted in the community of Limpo Grande, located 23 km from the city of Vrzea Grande, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In order to investigate the way informants organize traditional ecological knowledge of vegetation according to its use, our research had the following objectives: i) to iden [...] tify the species of each cultural domain indicated by the informants; ii) check for cultural consensus within each cultural domain; iii) to analyze the similarity of the species of the cultural domains. We used structured interviews to obtain socioeconomic data and data from the free list. The free list was analyzed by means of the Smith index, cultural consensus and multidimensional scaling. Informants defined three cultural domains based on the use of vegetation, whether the plants are those used for cultivation, are medicinal plants used to treat diseases, or are considered native vegetation with several different uses. The domain of cultural plants is represented by 107 species, weeds by 96 species and medicinal plants by 99 species. For the three domains, the existence of cultural consensus can be verified. There was little similarity between species from different domains. The criteria used by traditional communities for vegetation management and use may contribute to the development of public policies for the conservation of ecological and cultural biodiversity.

  1. Ecology and Management of a High Elevation Southern Range Greater Sage-Grouse Population: Vegetation Manipulation, Early Chick Survival, and Hunter Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Guttery, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    My research provided new information concerning the management, ecology, and conservation of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). I report the results of an experiment using strategic intensive sheep grazing to enhance the quality of greater sage-grouse brood-rearing habitat. Although forb cover, an important component of brood-rearing habitat, responded positively to the grazing treatment, the response of other habitat variables was suppressed because the plots were not protect...

  2. The ecology of dark matter haloes I: The rates and types of halo interactions

    CERN Document Server

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    Interactions such as mergers and flybys play a fundamental role in shaping galaxy morphology. Using the Horizon Run 4 cosmological N-body simulation, we studied the frequency and type of halo interactions, and their redshift evolution as a function of the environment defined by the large-scale density, pair separation, mass ratio, and target halo mass. Most interactions happen at large-scale density contrast $\\delta \\approx 20$, regardless of the redshift, corresponding to groups and relatively dense part of filaments. However, the fraction of interacting target is maximum at $\\delta \\approx 1000$. We provide a new empirical fitting form for the interaction rate as a function of the halo mass, large-scale density, and redshift. We also report the existence of two modes of interactions from the distributions of mass ratio and relative distance, implying two different physical origins of the interaction. Satellite targets lose their mass as they proceed deeper into the host halo. The relative importance of thes...

  3. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer

  5. Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng Ching-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter 10] and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specificity. Methods We conducted an ecological study and calculated annual average concentration of 6 air pollutants (SO2, CO, NO2, NO, O3, and PM10 using data from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration air quality monitoring stations. The Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between SO2 and age-standardized incidence rate of female lung cancer by two major pathological types (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]. In order to understand whether there is a dose-response relationship between SO2 and two major pathological types, we analyzed 4 levels of exposure based on quartiles of concentration of SO2. Results The Poisson regression results showed that with the first quartile of SO2 concentration as the baseline, the relative risks for AC/SCC type cancer among females were 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.37/1.39 (95% CI, 0.96-2.01 for the second, 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43/1.58 (95% CI, 1.06-2.37 for the third, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.06-1.52/1.80 (95% CI, 1.15-2.84 for the fourth quartile of SO2 concentration. The tests for trend were statistically significant for both AC and SCC at P = 0.0272 and 0.0145, respectively. Conclusion The current study suggests that SO2 exposure as an air pollutant may increase female lung cancer incidence and the associations with female lung cancer is much stronger for SCC than for AC. The findings of this study warrant further investigation on the role of SO2 in the etiology of SCC.

  6. An ecological type nonlinear model for the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by introducing liquid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average temperature of our planet is increasing in past several decades due to emission of global warming gases such as CO2, CH4, etc. in the atmosphere leading to undesirable environmental consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to find a mechanism by which a global warming gas can be removed from the regional atmosphere. In this paper, therefore, we proposed an ecological type nonlinear mathematical model for the removal of a global warming gas CO2 from the regional atmosphere by externally introduced liquid species, which may react with this gas and removed it by gravity. The model consists of three dependent variables namely; the concentration of carbon dioxide, the concentration of externally introduced liquid species and the concentration of particulate matters (secondary species formed due to interaction of carbon dioxide with liquid species. The local and global stability conditions are discussed using Routh-Hurwitz criteria and suitable Lyapunove's function respectively. It is shown, analytically and numerically, that the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases as the rate of introduction of externally introduced liquid species increases.

  7. Ecology of Listeria spp. in a fish farm and molecular typing of Listeria monocytogenes from fish farming and processing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Hanna; Wirtanen, Gun

    2006-11-01

    This study focused on the ecology of Listeria monocytogenes in a fish farm by following the changes in its occurrence in different types of samples for a three year period. In addition, L. monocytogenes isolates from different seafood industry areas were compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to discover possible associations between primary production, further processing and final products. Weather conditions were found to have a strong influence on the probability of finding Listeria spp. in a fish farm environment. The number of samples contaminated with Listeria spp. was typically bigger after rainy periods. Brook and river waters as well as other runoff waters seemed to be the main contamination source at the farm studied. The farmed fish originally found to carry L. monocytogenes become gradually Listeria free. The time needed for the purification of the fish was several months. The sea bottom soil samples were the ones that preserved the L. monocytogenes contamination the longest time. It can be stated that the fish and fish farm equipment studied did not spread listeria contamination. On the contrary, they were found to suffer from listeria contamination coming from outside sources like the brook water. There was a wide range of different L. monocytogenes PFGE-pulsotypes (30) found at 15 Finnish fish farms and fish processing factories. L. monocytogenes isolates from the final products often belonged to the same pulsotypes as did the isolates from the processing environment as well as from the raw fish. This suggests that, in addition to the fish processing factory environment, the fish raw materials are important sources of L. monocytogenes contamination in final products. PMID:16842875

  8. Real vegetation - southern part of the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland is one of the first territories where the real vegetation was mapped on the whole area at scale 1 : 25 000. The mapped units (43) were prepared relying on the accessible knowledge of vegetation of this territory, the proper research and aerial images. They were selected in a manner allowing for reflection of site conditions and human impact on vegetation. They are mostly at the level of vegetation associations (a complex of associations). The mapped units possess their physiognomy and groups of indicating species. The aim of mapping was not the syntaxonomic characteristics of vegetation, but the properties of sites reflected by the vegetation: the water soil regime, properties of soil and substratum and the way of use by man. This source material became part of the analyses, syntheses, interpretations, and proposals used in preparation of the Ecological optimisation of use of the Vychodoslovenska nizina Lowland by the LANDEP Methodology in 1986. The fragment represents a territory where the limiting factors of distribution of certain vegetation types are: the non calcareous sand and sand dunes with xerophilous grass, locust forests and vineyards, dead river arms and inter-dune depressions with water and swamp vegetation. Heavy clayey soils with extreme water regime represent the site of flooded and withering semi-natural meadows rich in species, and pastures. The mesophile meadows and pastures are on tillable (often meliorated) soils. They are intensively used, often sowed and of little significance from the point of view of biodiversity. (author)

  9. Two centuries of vegetation succession in an inland sand dune area, central Netherlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ujházy, K.; Fanta, J.; Prach, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2011), 316-325. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : primary succession * relief types * vegetation mapping Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2011

  10. Minimal mechanisms for vegetation patterns in semiarid regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Hernandez-Garcia, E; Lopez, C

    2014-01-01

    The minimal ecological requirements for formation of regular vegetation patterns in semiarid systems have been recently questioned. Against the general belief that a combination of facilitative and competitive interactions is necessary, recent theoretical studies suggest that, under broad conditions, nonlocal competition among plants alone may induce patterns. In this paper, we review results along this line, presenting a series of models that yield spatial patterns when finite-range competition is the only driving force. A preliminary derivation of this type of model from a more detailed one that considers water-biomass dynamics is also presented. Keywords: Vegetation patterns, nonlocal interactions

  11. Analysis of Trends of the Types of Pesticide Used, Residues and Related Factors among Farmers in the Largest Vegetable Producing Area in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of study is to provide an analysis of data trends on the type of pesticide used, exposure factors, and the pesticide-related concerns among the farmers from 2005 to 2010 in one of the largest vegetable producing areas in the Philippines. This is to determine and analyze changes that have occurred for the last five years in order to provide necessary basis in promoting safe usage of pesticides. It is shown in the studies that the most commonly used type of pesticide was Tamaron (...

  12. Physiolgical and ecological studies of the vegetation on ore deposits, 3; Radioecological symptoms of plants over uranium ore deposits in Koisan, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1975 to 1981, the survey was carried out to find out radioecological effects of uranium ore deposits on natural vegetation in Koisan, Korea. The symptoms of spotty and mosaic chlorosis, and necrosis were observed in flowering plants in the areas of uranium ore deposits at Deok-Peung-Ri A, B, and C in Koisan. Although 13 species were found to be chlorosis and necrosis, foliages observed are small and very rare. The features of these symptoms closely resemble those occured by the effects of heavy metals. The amount of transparent radiation throughout the depth of soils from uranium radiation sources decreases exponentially. The mean contents in leaves of spotty and mosaik chlorotic plants, and soils were 1.36∼1.53 and 5.3∼7.4ppm, respectively

  13. Projected impacts of 21st century climate change on the distribution of potential habitat for vegetation, forest types and major conifer species across Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezda; Parfenova, Elena; Cantin, Alan; Shvetsov, Eugene; Soja, Amber; Conard, Susane

    2013-04-01

    Global simulations have demonstrated the potential for profound effects of GCM-projected climate change on the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems and individual species at all hierarchical levels. We modeled progressions of potential vegetation cover, forest cover and forest types in Russia in the warming climate during the 21st century. We used large-scale bioclimatic models to predict zonal vegetation (RuBCliM), and forest cover (ForCliM) and forest types. A forest type was defined as a combination of a dominant tree conifer and a ground layer. Distributions of vegetation zones (zonobiomes), conifer species and forest types were simulated based on three bioclimatic indices (1) growing degree-days above 5oC ; (2) negative degree-days below 0oC; and (3) an annual moisture index (ratio of growing degree days to annual precipitation). Additionally, the presence/absence of continuous permafrost, identified by active layer depth of 2 m, was explicitly included in the models as limiting the forests and tree species distribution in Siberia. All simulations to predict vegetation change across Russia were run by coupling our bioclimatic models with bioclimatic indices and the permafrost distribution for the baseline period 1971-2000 and for the future decades of 2011-2020, 2041-2050 and 2091-2100. To provide a range of warming we used three global climate models (CGCM3.1, HadCM3 and IPSLCM4) and three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1). The CGCM model and the B1 scenario projected the smallest temperature increases, and the IPSL model and the A2 scenario projected the greatest temperature increases. We compared the modeled vegetation and the modeled tree species distributions in the contemporary climate to actual vegetation and forest maps using Kappa (K) statistics. RuBioCliM models of Russian zonal vegetation were fairly accurate (K= 0.40). Contemporary major conifer species (Pinus sibirica, Pinus sylvestris, Larix spp., Abies sibirica and Picea obovata) distributions also showed good match with the modeled ranges for the major conifer species from 41% to 78%. Those matches would be higher if only later seral stages were considered, because historically part of the primary conifer forests have been replaced by secondary birch and aspen forests after large disturbances (clearcuts and wildfire). With these projected climates, the zonobiomes would need to shift far to the north in order to reach equilibrium with the change in climate. Under the warmer and drier projected future climate climate, most of Russia would be suitable for the forest-steppe ecotone and grasslands rather than for forests. Water stress tolerant light-needled taiga (Pinus sylvestris and Larix spp.) would have an increased advantage over water-loving dark-needled taiga (Pinus sibica, Abies sibirica, Picea obovata) in a new climate. The permafrost-tolerant L. dahurica taiga would remain the dominant forest type in the many current permafrost areas. Accumulated surface fuel loads due to increased tree mortality from drought, insects and other factors, especially at the southern forest border and in interior Siberia (Yakutia), together with an increase in severe fire weather would also lead to increases in large, high-severity fires, which are expected to facilitate vegetation progression towards equilibrium with the climate.

  14. Relationships among depth to frozen soil, soil wetness, and vegetation type and biomass in Tundra near Bethel, Alaska, U. S. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.F. (Gettysburg Coll., PA (United States)); Hardisky, M.A. (Univ. of Scranton, PA (United States)); Doolittle, J.A. (Soil Conservation Service, Chester, PA (United States)); Klemas, V. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1990-08-01

    Vegetation was sampled in three types of tundra habitat (upland, wet meadow, and lake) in southwestern Alaska. Aboveground and belowground biomass were measured by harvesting, and the depth to frozen soil was measured using ground-penetrating radar. Live and dead aboveground biomass increased, and dead belowground biomass decreased, as habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil increased. The proportion of live aerial biomass that was graminoid increased as habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil increased, whereas the proportion that was woody shrub biomass decreased with increases in habitat wetness and depth to frozen soil. The results indicate that information pertaining to either vegetation type/biomass, habitat wetness, or depth to frozen soil, could be used to infer information about the other two variables. Vegetation and frozen soil depth could be monitored remotely for large areas using tools such as satellite images and radar. Since the cycling of carbon is related to carbon storage (biomass) and depth of the biologically active (thawed) layer, it should be possible to study carbon cycles in tundra remotely, based on the relationships stated above.

  15. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  16. La ecología espacial como punto de encuentro entre la ecología animal y vegetal. Modelos espacialmente explícitos de dispersión endozoócora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santamaría

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos espacialmente explícitos de dispersión endozoócora. En este artículo, utilizamos los sistemas de dispersión de semillas como ejemplo para exponer la importancia de la ecología espacial en las interacciones planta-animal. Estos sistemas han recibido la atención prioritaria de los ecólogos vegetales, lo que ha conllevado tanto una simplificación excesiva del papel que juegan el comportamiento y fisiología de los animales dispersantes. Además, el enfoque casi exclusivo en los "kernel de dispersión" unidimensionales involucra asunciones que son generalmente violadas en los sistemas de estudio, como la isometría del kernel dispersivo o la ausencia de heterogeneidad espacial en dicho kernel. La mayoría de estas limitaciones pueden corregirse mediante la inclusión explícita del componente espacial, pasando de modelos de dispersión unidimensionales a modelos bi- o tri-dimensionales. Este enfoque se ilustra con dos ejemplos: la dispersión de semillas de Ephedra fragilis por la lagartija balear, Podarcis lilfordii, y el papel del elefante asiático, Oliphas maximus, en la dispersión de especies nativas e invasoras del bosque tropical seco de Sri Lanka.

  17. Vegetation type and the presence of ash as factors in the evolution of soil water repellency after a forest fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jiménez-Pinilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After wildfires, burning may induce the occurrence of soil water repellency. Soil water repellency may vary in space and time in function of vegetation, the presence of ash and soil moisture. This study analyzes the evolution of fire-induced soil water repellency in function of these factors, and proposes measures to promote the restoration of fire-affected soils. Burnt and unburnt (control soil plots under pine and shrub from a recently burned area (Gorga, Alicante, SE Spain were established. Three treatments were applied: in some of the plots, the original ash layer was kept on the ground; in a second group, the ash layer was removed for simulating the effects of erosion; finally, in a third group, percolating irrigation was conducted to simulate a possible good input of water into the soil profile after burning, that could occur if the first rains were with high quantity but low intensity. During the dry season, soil moisture content was significantly lower in burned plots due to fire-induced water repellency and reduced vegetation cover. During the wet season, soil moisture decreased in the control unburnt plots due to direct evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation and consumption by roots. Fire increased soil water repellency only in plots under pine. Water repellency decreased during the wet season, disappearing in January and reappearing after declining rainfalls. This baseline recovery of soil water repellency was lower where ash removal was simulated. In unburned plots, seasonal fluctuations were less important. In general, ash removal promotes a rapid reduction of water repellency, since it can induce washing of hydrophobic compounds. Irrigation performed immediately after the fire also contributed to decreased water repellency.

  18. The sensitivity of simulated competition between different plant functional types to subgrid-scale representation of vegetation in a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Arora, V. K.; Melton, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme coupled to the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model is used to simulate competition between the model's seven non-crop plant functional types (PFTs) for available space. Our objective is to assess if the model is successfully able to reproduce the observed mix of PFTs and their fractional coverages and to what extent the simulated competition is affected by the manner in which the subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. The model can be run either in a composite (single tile) configuration, where structural vegetation attributes of PFTs are aggregated for use in grid-averaged energy and water balance calculations, or a mosaic (multiple tiles) configuration, where separate energy and water balance calculations are performed for each PFT. The model realistically simulates the fractional coverages of trees, grasses, and bare ground, as well as that of individual tree and grass PFTs and their succession patterns. Our results show that the model is not overly sensitive to the manner in which subgrid-scale variability of vegetation is represented. Of the seven sites chosen across the globe to illustrate the difference between the two configurations, the simulated fractional coverage of PFTs are generally very similar (root-mean-square difference, RMSD, 5%).

  19. Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

  20. The classification, mapping and description of the vegetation of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve, Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Bezuidenhout

    2009-01-01

    The need for a scientifically-based wildlife management plan and for more knowledge on vegetation led to an investigation into the plant ecology of the Rooipoort Nature Reserve. The main aim of this study was therefore to classify, describe and map the vegetation of the reserve. The floristic data were analysed according to the Braun-Blanquet procedure using the BBPC suite. The data analysis resulted in the identification of 15 communities that can be grouped into ten major community types. T...

  1. Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Janete Jane Resende; Paulo Enrique Cardoso Peixoto; Evandro Nascimento Silva; Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie; Gilberto M. M. Santos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest) domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource) and honey (carbohydrate resource) baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1) preserved native forest, (2) forest in regeneration (capoeira) with many invasive plants and (3) a mixed agr...

  2. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated mineral group mapping products described in this study are ideal for application to mineral resource and mineral-environmental assessments at regional and national scales.

  3. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology that integrates the dynamics of biocultural interactions. PMID:12179860

  4. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetacin del estado de Hidalgo, Mxico Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, Mxico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Cruz-Elizalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetacin, como el bosque mesfilo de montaa, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analiz la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetacin presentes en la zona sureste. Durante el periodo de recoleccin, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duracin de 3 das cada una. La diversidad de reptiles est compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesfilo de montaa (BMM present la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP, con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE, con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la ms alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribucin de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetacin del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetacin de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservacin de este grupo.The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF, with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF, with 12 species. The associations between the CF-PF and CF-POF showed the highest dissimilarity in species, and the lowest the POF-PF. This study shows the richness and distribution species of the reptiles in the different vegetation types from southeast of the state, presents new records of species from the state and provides the basis for future studies on the biology of some species of reptiles in the area. The knowledge of species richness by vegetation types from this study provides the basis on the biodiversity that help to raise studies directed to the conservation of this group.

  5. Changes in Growing Season Vegetation and Their Associated Driving Forces in China during 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the monitoring of vegetation dynamics has become crucial because of its important role in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, a satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was combined with climate factors to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of vegetation change during the growing season, as well as their driving forces in China from 2001 to 2012. Our results showed that the growing season NDVI increased continuously during 2001–2012, with a linear trend of 1.4%/10 years (p < 0.01. The NDVI in north China mainly exhibited an increasing spatial trend, but this trend was generally decreasing in south China. The vegetation dynamics were mainly at a moderate intensity level in both the increasing and decreasing areas. The significantly increasing trend in the NDVI for arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China was attributed mainly to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the spring, whereas that for the north and northeast of China was due to an increasing trend in the NDVI during the summer and autumn. Different vegetation types exhibited great variation in their trends, where the grass-forb community had the highest linear trend of 2%/10 years (p < 0.05, followed by meadow, and needle-leaf forest with the lowest increasing trend, i.e., a linear trend of 0.3%/10 years. Our results also suggested that the cumulative precipitation during the growing season had a dominant effect on the vegetation dynamics compared with temperature for all six vegetation types. In addition, the response of different vegetation types to climate variability exhibited considerable differences. In terms of anthropological activity, our statistical analyses showed that there was a strong correlation between the cumulative afforestation area and NDVI during the study period, especially in a pilot region for ecological restoration, thereby suggesting the important role of ecological restoration programs in ecological recovery throughout China in the last decade.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of

  7. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  8. Distribution of phytoplankton functional types in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters in a new diagnostic ecological indicator model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacz, Artur; St. John, Michael; Brevin, R.J.W.; Hirata, T.; Gregg, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    correctly interprets some basic ecological rules similar to ones emerging from dynamic models. Our time series highlight a dynamic phyto-PFT community composition in all high latitude areas, and indicate seasonal co-existence of diatoms and coccolithophores. This observation, though consistent with in situ...

  9. Influence of the type of vegetable oil on the drug release profile from lipid-core nanocapsules and in vivo genotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Lucas Almeida; Frescura, Viviane; Fiel, Luana; Coradini, Karine; Ourique, Aline Ferreira; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Quatrin, Andria; Tedesco, Solange; Silva, Cristiane B da; Guterres, Silvia Staniuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver

    2014-11-01

    The use of rice bran (RB), soybean (SB) or sunflower seed (SF) oils to prepare lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) as controlled drug delivery systems was investigated. LNCs were prepared by interfacial deposition using the preformed polymer method. All formulations showed negative zeta potential and adequate nanotechnological characteristics (particle size 220-230? nm, polydispersity index Clobetasol propionate (CP) was selected as a model drug to evaluate the influence of the type of vegetable oil on the control of the drug release from LNCs. Biphasic drug release profiles were observed for all formulations. After 168? h, the concentration of drug released from the formulation containing SF oil was lower (0.36 ?mg/mL) than from formulations containing SB (0.40? mg/mL) or RB oil (0.45 ?mg/mL). Good correlations between the consistency indices for the LNC cores and the burst and sustained drug release rate constants were obtained. Therefore, the type of the vegetal oil was shown as an important factor governing the control of drug release from LNCs. PMID:23978050

  10. Analyzing nonlinear variations in terrestrial vegetation in China during 1982-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxu; Liu, Xianfeng; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the long-term trends of changes in terrestrial vegetation on a large scale is an effective method for detecting the effects of global environmental change. In view of the trend towards overall restoration and local degradation of terrestrial vegetation in China, it is necessary to pay attention to the spatial processes of vegetative restoration or degradation, as well as to clarify the temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetative growth in greater geographical detail. However, traditional linear regression analysis has some drawbacks when describing ecological processes. Combining nonparametric linear regression analysis with high-order nonlinear fitting, the temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial vegetative growth in China during 1982-2012 were detected using the third generation of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset. The results showed that high-order curves could be effective. The region joining Ordos City and Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia on the Loess Plateau may have experienced restoration-degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth. In the Daloushan Mountains, degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth may have occurred, and the occurrence of several hidden vegetative growth processes was located in different regions of eastern China. Changes in cultivated vegetation were inconsistent with changes in other vegetation types. In southern China and some high-altitude areas, temperature was the primary driver of vegetative growth on an interannual scale, while in the north, the effect of rainfall was more significant. Nevertheless, the influence of climate on vegetation activity in large urban areas was weak. The trend types of degradation-restoration processes in several regions were inconsistent with the implements of regional land development and protection strategy. Thus, the role of human activity cannot be ignored. In future studies, it will be still necessary to quantify the effects of human management on spatial patterns, develop trend-fitting methods, and explore more refined methods of analyzing the driving forces affecting large-scale changes in vegetative growth. PMID:26514805

  11. Geophysical Applications of Vegetation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and selected applications of a global vegetation model, BIOME4. The model is applied to problems in high-latitude vegetation distribution and climate, trace gas production, and isotope biogeochemistry. It demonstrates how a modeling approach, based on principles of plant physiology and ecology, can be applied to interdisciplinary problems that cannot be adequately addressed by direct observations or experiments. The work is relevant to understanding the p...

  12. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes using HJ-1 and SPOT satellite data over Hulunbeier grassland, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Zhang; Ying Li; Sihan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Yanting Wu

    2014-03-01

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape patterns and ecological processes. With remote sensing technology, the relationships between landscape patterns and ecological processes were analyzed quantitatively from multi-scale, multitemporal and time series perspective. Firstly, the information about the current situation and change of landscape patterns and ecological processes are obtained from HJ-1 (Environmental and Disaster Small Satellite) and LANDSAT TM (Thermal Mapper) data. Secondly, SPOT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data during 20002008 are used to analyze the dynamic changes of ecological processes, and to simulate its inter-annual variety at pixel scale. Finally, the dynamic change trends of ecological processes of grassland vegetation are described. The results indicate that the unchanged ecosystem types account for most of the study area, unused land in the central part expands continuously which results in the increase of desertification, and most ecosystem types in the eastern part are changed to grassland and woodland. Furthermore, the vegetation vulnerability is the highest in the grassland-dominated region, the second in grasslandfarmlandwoodland transition, and the smallest in the woodland-dominated region, where the stability is enhanced in turn. Due to the dynamic change of vegetation, it can be concluded that the study area underwent ecological processes of vegetation cover with a negative trend and a changed phenology.

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior Vegetation map of Gateway National Recreation Area provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation Classification System...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Johnstown Flood National Memorial Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Johnstown Flood National Memorial provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation...

  15. Interaction type influences ecological network structure more than local abiotic conditions: evidence from endophytic and endolichenic fungi at a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Pierre-Luc; U'Ren, Jana M; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lutzoni, Franois; Elizabeth Arnold, A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape community assembly remains one of the most enduring and important questions in modern ecology. Network theory can reveal rules of community assembly within and across study systems and suggest novel hypotheses regarding the formation and stability of communities. However, such studies generally face the challenge of disentangling the relative influence of factors such as interaction type and environmental conditions on shaping communities and associated networks. Endophytic and endolichenic symbioses, characterized by microbial species that occur within healthy plants and lichen thalli, represent some of the most ubiquitous interactions in nature. Fungi that engage in these symbioses are hyperdiverse, often horizontally transmitted, and functionally beneficial in many cases, and they represent the diversification of multiple phylogenetic groups. We evaluated six measures of ecological network structure for >4100 isolates of endophytic and endolichenic fungi collected systematically from five sites across North America. Our comparison of these co-occurring interactions in biomes ranging from tundra to subtropical forest showed that the type of interactions (i.e., endophytic vs. endolichenic) had a much more pronounced influence on network structure than did environmental conditions. In particular, endophytic networks were less nested, less connected, and more modular than endolichenic networks in all sites. The consistency of the network structure within each interaction type, independent of site, is encouraging for current efforts devoted to gathering metadata on ecological network structure at a global scale. We discuss several mechanisms potentially responsible for such patterns and draw attention to knowledge gaps in our understanding of networks for diverse interaction types. PMID:26420599

  16. Uncertainty of establishment scheme in the Community Land Model-Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X.; Zeng, X.

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are very important tools to simulate and predict the relationship between terrestrial ecosystem processes and climate change. They usually consist of several main sub-models, such as establishment, growth, mortality due to stress, competition, reproductive and so forth. In this study, we focus on the establishment sub-model. Establishment sub-model describes the processes of germination of tree seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, due to the complexity of the ecological process and the lack of observation data, current DGVMs use different parameterization schemes of establishment, and the uncertainties of these establishment scheme as well as their impacts on vegetation distribution remain largely unknown. Our work is to introduce several new different establishment schemes, each based on different physical and ecological considerations, into a modified Community Land Model - Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (CLM-DGVM). The sensitivities of the vegetation distribution to different establishment schemes and some essential parameters in the schemes are investigated in different vegetation zones. Our research indicates that establishment scheme has remarkable effects not only on the percent of coverage and population density of different plant functional types (PFTs) but also the community structure such as coexistence of PFTs and even the dominant vegetation. Such changes will alter the ecosystem functioning, and hence have further impacts on climate through the vegetation-atmosphere feedback.

  17. PATRONES DE LA VEGETACIN Y TIPOS DE USO DE LA TIERRA EN EL VALLE DEL PATA / Vegetation patterns and land use types in the Patia valley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hernando, Vergara Varela.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La vegetacin del ecosistema de bosque seco del Valle del ro Pata en el departamento del Cauca ha sido alterada y sustituida por cultivos y pastizales. Los remanentes boscosos se caracterizaron en funcin de su estructura y composicin florstica en altitudes comprendidas entre 500 m y 800 m de al [...] titud. Se evaluaron los cambios de cobertura usando fotografas areas y una imagen satlite y se relacionaron con los tipos de uso. Los datos fueron analizados a travs de procedimientos multivariados usando el programa TWINSPAN con el fin de producir una clasificacin de la vegetacin, determinando seis tipos estructurales y seis tipos florsticos. El gradiente florstico arrojado por el programa describe tipos estructurales que van desde bosques y arbustales hasta herbazales. Las comunidades vegetales reflejan estados sucesionales de los fragmentos, la comunidad de Citharexylum kunthianum contrasta con los bosques riparios determinados por la comunidad de Eugenia sp., especie dominante y abundante en reas intervenidas. La comunidad de Handroanthus chrysanthus muestra una transicin hacia la vegetacin de matorrales xerofticos del sur del pas. Los tipos de uso de la tierra y las clases de cobertura han permanecido desde 1961, se destaca el incremento de la cobertura de pastizal. Los estratos identificados muestran que los bosques secos tropicales se encuentran reducidos en su estructura, atendiendo a que son bosques perturbados. En la larga historia de uso y de perturbaciones que lleva esta rea, se evidencia una reduccin de los fragmentos de bosque; los factores sociales y econmicos son una fuerza de cambio de las comunidades vegetales en reas rurales. Abstract in english Vegetation of dry forest ecosystem of the Patia valley located in the department of Cauca has been altered and replaced by crops and pastures. The forest remnants were characterized in terms of their structure and floristic composition at altitudes between 500 and 800 m. This study evaluated changes [...] in land cover using aerial photographs and satellite image as input to produce land cover maps in order to assess changes associated with land use types. Data were analyzed by multivariate methods using the TWINSPAN program to produce a vegetation classification, identifying six vegetation structure types and six floristic types. The floristic gradient thrown by the program describes structural types, ranging from forests to shrublands and grasslands. Successional plant communities reflect conditions of the fragments, Citharexylum kunthianum community contrasts with riparian forests determined by Eugenia sp the dominant specie in disturbed areas. Handroanthus chrysanthus community shows a transition to xerophyte vegetation of the south of Colombia. Land use types and land cover classes have remained since 1961, increasing pasture cover. Tropical dry forests are reduced in its structure, considering that forests are disturbed. In the long history of the land use and disturbance of this area, a reduction in forest fragments is evident, social and economic factors are a force for a change in plant communities in rural areas.

  18. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  19. MODIS Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo; Didan, Kamel; van Leeuwen, Willem; Miura, Tomoaki; Glenn, Ed

    Assessments of vegetation condition, cover, change, and processes are major components of global change research programs, and are topics of considerable societal relevance. Spectral vegetation indices are among the most widely used satellite data products, which provide key measurements for climate, hydrologic, and biogeochemical studies; phenology, land cover, and land cover change detection; natural resource management and sustainable development. Vegetation indices (VI) are robust and seamless data products computed similarly across all pixels in time and space, regardless of biome type, land cover condition, and soil type, and thus represent true surface measurements. The simplicity of VIs enables their amalgamation across sensor systems, which facilitates an ensured continuity of critical datasets for long-term land surface modeling and climate change studies. Currently, a more than two decades long NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-derived consistent global normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) land record exists, which has contributed significantly to global biome, ecosystem, and agricultural studies.

  20. Vegetables and PUFA-rich plant oil reduce DNA strand breaks in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllner, Elisabeth; Brath, Helmut; Pleifer, Simone; Schiermayr, Christiane; Baierl, Andreas; Wallner, Marlies; Fastian, Theresia; Millner, Yvonne; Paller, Kristina; Henriksen, Trine; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Forster, Ernst; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial disease associated with increased oxidative stress, which may lead to increased DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a healthy diet on DNA oxidation in diabetics and nondiabetics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-six diabetic and...

  1. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))

    2007-11-15

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  2. Seasonal variation and controlling factors of soil carbon effluxes in six vegetation types in southeast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil carbon effluxes of a pine stand, a spruce stand, a lichen rock, two oak stands and a meadow in the Laxemar investigation area in south-eastern Sweden (57 deg 5 N, 16 deg 7 E) have been measured with the closed chamber technique at 14 occasions between 23 of March 2004 and 10th of March 2005. Soil temperature at 10 cm depth, air temperature, soil moisture and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were also measured. Exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature were used to estimate soil respiration between 15th of March 2004 and 14th of March 2005. A light response curve with Gross Primary Production (GPP) against PAR and a cubic regression with GPP against air temperature were used for modelling GPP in meadow for the growing season, 15th of March to 31st of October 2004. The exponential regressions with soil respiration against air and soil temperature explained on average 30.6% and 47.6% of the variation, respectively. Soil moisture had a linear limiting effect on soil respiration for all ecosystems but spruce, where soil moisture was the limiting factor above a threshold value of about 50%vol. In the forest ecosystems, GPP of the ground vegetation were not reducing soil carbon effluxes, while in meadow it was. In meadow, the light response curve with GPP against PAR explained 32.7% of the variation in GPP while the cubic regression against air temperature explained 33.9%. No significant effect of soil moisture on GPP was detected. The exponential regression equations with air and soil temperature against soil respiration could be used to temporally extrapolate the occasional field measurements. The light response curve with GPP against PAR and the cubic regression with GPP against air temperature could also be used for temporal extrapolation. From the modelled soil respiration, annual soil respiration for the ecosystems in Laxemar, during 15th of March 2004 to 14th of March 2005, were estimated to be between 0.56 and 1.18 kg C/m2/y. Annual GPP of meadow was estimated to be between 0.49 and 0.54 kg C/m2/y, which gives a net ecosystem exchange for the meadow of between 0.38 and 0.66 kg C/m2/y, i.e. a significant loss of carbon to the atmosphere

  3. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles − a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses − to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  4. Soil, Vegetation, and Seed Bank of a Sonoran Desert Ecosystem Along an Exotic Plant ( Pennisetum ciliare) Treatment Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.; Chiquoine, Lindsay P.; Backer, Dana M.

    2013-10-01

    Ecological conditions following removal of exotic plants are a key part of comprehensive environmental management strategies to combat exotic plant invasions. We examined ecological conditions following removal of the management-priority buffelgrass ( Pennisetum ciliare) in Saguaro National Park of the North American Sonoran Desert. We assessed soil, vegetation, and soil seed banks on seven buffelgrass site types: five different frequencies of buffelgrass herbicide plus hand removal treatments (ranging from 5 years of annual treatment to a single year of treatment), untreated sites, and non-invaded sites, with three replicates for each of the seven site types. The 22 measured soil properties (e.g., pH) differed little among sites. Regarding vegetation, buffelgrass cover was low (?1 % median cover), or absent, across all treated sites but was high (10-70 %) in untreated sites. Native vegetation cover, diversity, and composition were indistinguishable across site types. Species composition was dominated by native species (>93 % relative cover) across all sites except untreated buffelgrass sites. Most (38 species, 93 %) of the 41 species detected in soil seed banks were native, and native seed density did not differ significantly across sites. Results suggest that: (1) buffelgrass cover was minimal across treated sites; (2) aside from high buffelgrass cover in untreated sites, ecological conditions were largely indistinguishable across sites; (3) soil seed banks harbored ?12 species that were frequent in the aboveground vegetation; and (4) native species dominated post-treatment vegetation composition, and removing buffelgrass did not result in replacement by other exotic species.

  5. Decreased surface albedo driven by denser vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has fundamental ecological and environmental significance to China and Asia through its influence on regional and continental climates. In recent years, climate warming has caused unprecedented changes to land surface processes on the TP, which would unavoidably undermine the ecological and environmental functions of the TP. Among the numerous land surface processes potentially impacted by climate warming, the effect of vegetation greenness on surface energy balance is one of the most critical, but has been long ignored. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of land surface albedo (LSA) on the TP and evaluated the vegetation greenness in relation to patterns of LSA. We found that LSA has been decreasing in most of the vegetated grasslands on the TP from 2000 to 2013, as compared to a flat trend for desert area. The regions where LSA has been decreasing were spatially correlated to areas of increased vegetation greenness. Along rising altitude, LSA decreasing rate exhibited an overall decreasing trend. Across the TP, elevated vegetation greenness in grasslands acted as a primary factor pulling down LSA. The driving effects of vegetation greenness on LSA vary with grassland types, as revealed by a more significant relationship between vegetation greenness and LSA for the sparsely vegetated zone (i.e. steppe) than the more densely vegetated zone (i.e. meadow). Furthermore, the driving effect of vegetation greenness on LSA exhibited an obvious dependence on altitude as effects with rising altitude were relatively strong up to 3000 m, then weakened from 3500 m to 5000 m, and then the effects again increased from 5000 to 6000 m. The growing season LSA trend revealed in this study emphasizes the need to give greater attention to the growing season LSA flux in future surface energy balance studies. (letter)

  6. Lake Victoria wetlands and the ecology of the Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus linn,.

    OpenAIRE

    Balirwa, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An ecological study of wetlands was undertaken in northern Lake Victoria (East Africa) between 1993 and 1996 with a major aim of characterising shallow vegetation-dominated interface habitats, and evaluating their importance for fish, in particular, for the stocked and socio-economically important Oreochromis niloticus LINN (the Nile tilapia). From field and laboratory experiments, five major habitat types could be defined by the type of the dominant emergent macrophyte at the shore from the...

  7. Climate Change Impacts on Turkish Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew; Dönmez, Cenk; Çilek, Ahmet; Akif Erdogan, Mehmet; Buontempo, Carlo; Hickler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean has been identified as a potentially vulnerable hotspot under climate change. In Turkey, climate change projections consistently predict large temperature rises over the 21st century. With 9% of GDP and 25% of employment coming from agriculture, climate change has the potential to significantly affect both the Turkish economy and living standards. Relatively little work has been undertaken to estimate the effects and risks of climate change in Turkey, and many European studies cover do not include the whole of Turkey in their domain and so are of limited use for policy-makers. The Dynamic Global Vegetation Model LPJ-GUESS was parametrised to represent Turkish vegetation. Climate forcings were derived by interpolating meteorological data from over 600 stations from 1975-2010 to a 1km resolution. Soil depth and soil texture data from field measurements were also interpolated to a 1km grid. The model was benchmarked against vegetation type and remotely sensed biomass and tree cover data. Future climate conditions were calculated using the outputs from a set of regional model simulations. In particular the HadRM3P regional climate model was used to downscale five members of a perturbed physics ensemble of global climate projections obtained using HadCM3 general circulation model and the SRES A1B scenario. A delta change factor approach was then used in conjunction with the observed climate data to assess the impact on vegetation structure and ecological processes to the year 2100 using LPJ-GUESS. The resulting changes to productivity, vegetation structure and hydrology are discussed. Eventually these results will be combined with complementary studies concerning wildfire and erosion to produce a risk map for informing policy-makers.

  8. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002 to support development of a complete data layer describing riparian vegetation cover types on the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford Site boundaries. Included with this report are the preliminary riparian vegetation maps and the associated metadata for that GIS layer.

  9. Ecological impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative problems in accomplishing ecological impact assessment with particular reference to defining population effects are discussed with some comments on the two approaches most commonly used, e.g., the experimental and simulation models. Some alternatives are suggested because both methods will probably fail to detect real population effects mostly due to poor understanding of ecosystems or because of the limitations inherent in field census methods. Most judgments of ecological impact are not quantitatively defensible but are qualitative, subjective, or political in nature. An examination of aggregates of data from various nuclear power plant sites may be one way to obtain enough replication to judge ecological impact. Thus, currently available data from such studies as well as appropriate demographic, vegetation, census, and bibliographic material could offer an interesting challenge to computer professionals if such an undertaking were contemplated. Present research programs at PNL and computer involvement are described. Future possibilities and directions are discussed. (U.S.)

  10. Microbial ecology of watery kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Kyu Hang; Medina Pradas, Eduardo; Kim, Song Gun; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Kyong Ho; Choi, Jin Joo; Cho, Joo Hyong; Chung, Chang Ho; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Breidt, Frederick

    2015-05-01

    The biochemistry and microbial ecology of 2 similar types of watery (mul) kimchi, containing sliced and unsliced radish and vegetables (nabak and dongchimi, respectively), were investigated. Samples from kimchi were fermented at 4, 10, and 20 °C were analyzed by plating on differential and selective media, high-performance liquid chromatography, and high-throughput DNA sequencing of 16S rDNA. Nabak kimchi showed similar trends as dongchimi, with increasing lactic and acetic acids and decreasing pH for each temperature, but differences in microbiota were apparent. Interestingly, bacteria from the Proteobacterium phylum, including Enterobacteriaceae, decreased more rapidly during fermentation at 4 °C in nabak cabbage fermentations compared with dongchimi. Although changes for Proteobacterium and Enterobacteriaceae populations were similar during fermentation at 10 and 20 °C, the homolactic stage of fermentation did not develop for the 4 and 10 °C samples of both nabak and dongchimi during the experiment. These data show the differences in biochemistry and microbial ecology that can result from preparation method and fermentation conditions of the kimchi, which may impact safety (Enterobacteriaceae populations may include pathogenic bacteria) and quality (homolactic fermentation can be undesirable, if too much acid is produced) of the product. In addition, the data also illustrate the need for improved methods for identifying and differentiating closely related lactic acid bacteria species using high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:25847522

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  12. An interdisciplinary analysis of multispectral satellite data for selected cover types in the Colorado Mountains, using automatic data processing techniques. [hydrology, ecology, geology, vegetation, and mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Documentation is presented of the capability of the middle infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to spectrally differentiate clouds from snow. Other portions of the spectrum cannot provide this capability.

  13. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  14. Backyard Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems

  15. Cell type specificity of female lung cancer associated with sulfur dioxide from air pollutants in Taiwan: An ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng Ching-Yu; Huang Yi-Chia; Su Shih-Yung; Huang Jing-Yang; Lai Cheng-Hsiu; Lung Chia-Chi; Ho Chien-Chang; Liaw Yung-Po

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies have examined the association between air pollutants (including sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitric oxide [NO], ozone [O3], and particulate matter < 10 μm [PM10]) and lung cancer. However, data from previous studies on pathological cell types were limited, especially for SO2 exposure. We aimed to explore the association between SO2 exposure from outdoor air pollutants and female lung cancer incidence by cell type specific...

  16. Peculiarities of vegetative and hemodynamic homeostasis of children living in various regions of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex examination of 398 practically healthy children aged 7-16 years living under ecologically unfavourable conditions was fulfilled. The group of comparison consisted of 245 children from Braslav district of Vitebsk region. The peculiarities of the central hemodynamic vegetative regulation were studied. The sympathicotonic type of the vegetative tone as well as lack of sympathetic provision under arterial hypotension were determined to occur more frequently. A reliable reduction of the sympathicoadrenal system activity accompanied by the balance shift with the hormonal part dominating over the mediatory one was considered a possible pathogenic mechanism of the changes revealed

  17. Vegetation characteristics of geobiocoenological units of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mln NNR

    OpenAIRE

    Jan tykar

    2010-01-01

    The paper brings results from the research of vegetation in forest geobiocenoses of the Kn?hyn?-?ert?v mln National Nature Reserve. The research was made on permanent and complementary research plots. Synthetic phytocoenological tables were presented for six most frequently occurring groups of geobiocoene types only with a brief description of their ecological and chorological character- istics (Sorbi-Piceeta humilia, Sorbi-Piceeta, Abieti-Fageta piceae typica, Fageta abietino-pi- ceosa, Abi...

  18. Coevolution of hydraulic, soil and vegetation processes in estuarine wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisonno, Franco; Rodriguez, Jose F.; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia; Stenta, Hernan

    2014-05-01

    Estuarine wetlands of south eastern Australia, typically display a vegetation zonation with a sequence mudflats - mangrove forest - saltmarsh plains from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient. Estuarine wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, providing unique habitats for fish and many terrestrial species. They also have a carbon sequestration capacity that surpasess terrestrial forest. Estuarine wetlands respond to sea-level rise by vertical accretion and horizontal landward migration, in order to maintain their position in the tidal frame. In situations in which buffer areas for landward migration are not available, saltmarsh can be lost due to mangrove encroachment. As a result of mangrove invasion associated in part with raising estuary water levels and urbanisation, coastal saltmarsh in parts of south-eastern Australia has been declared an endangered ecological community. Predicting estuarine wetlands response to sea-level rise requires modelling the coevolving dynamics of water flow, soil and vegetation. This paper presents preliminary results of our recently developed numerical model for wetland dynamics in wetlands of the Hunter estuary of NSW. The model simulates continuous tidal inflow into the wetland, and accounts for the effect of varying vegetation types on flow resistance. Coevolution effects appear as vegetation types are updated based on their preference to prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. The model also considers that accretion values vary with vegetation type. Simulations are driven using local information collected over several years, which includes estuary water levels, accretion rates, soil carbon content, flow resistance and vegetation preference to hydraulic conditions. Model results predict further saltmarsh loss under current conditions of moderate increase of estuary water levels.

  19. Evidence for ecological divergence across a mosaic of soil types in an Amazonian tropical tree: Protium subserratum (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz, Tracy M; Fine, Paul V A

    2014-05-01

    Soil heterogeneity is an important driver of divergent natural selection in plants. Neotropical forests have the highest tree diversity on earth, and frequently, soil specialist congeners are distributed parapatrically. While the role of edaphic heterogeneity in the origin and maintenance of tropical tree diversity is unknown, it has been posited that natural selection across the patchwork of soils in the Amazon rainforest is important in driving and maintaining tree diversity. We examined genetic and morphological differentiation among populations of the tropical tree Protium subserratum growing parapatrically on the mosaic of white-sand, brown-sand and clay soils found throughout western Amazonia. Nuclear microsatellites and leaf morphology were used to (i) quantify the extent of phenotypic and genetic divergence across habitat types, (ii) assess the importance of natural selection vs. drift in population divergence, (iii) determine the extent of hybridization and introgression across habitat types, (iv) estimate migration rates among populations. We found significant morphological variation correlated with soil type. Higher levels of genetic differentiation and lower migration rates were observed between adjacent populations found on different soil types than between geographically distant populations on the same soil type. PST -FST comparisons indicate a role for natural selection in population divergence among soil types. A small number of hybrids were detected suggesting that gene flow among soil specialist populations may occur at low frequencies. Our results suggest that edaphic specialization has occurred multiple times in P.subserratum and that divergent natural selection across edaphic boundaries may be a general mechanism promoting and maintaining Amazonian tree diversity. PMID:24703227

  20. Comprimento da estaca e tipo de substrato na propagação vegetativa de atroveran Shoot cutting length and substrate types on vegetative propagation of atroveran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Corrêa do Bomfim Costa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A propagação vegetativa de espécies medicinais vem despertando interesse das pesquisas agronômicas, uma vez que se constitui no ponto de partida e em ferramenta básica para qualquer cultivo em escala comercial. Este trabalho objetivou determinar o comprimento de estaca e o tipo de substrato mais adequados para a propagação vegetativa de atroveran. Em condições de casa de vegetação sob nebulização intermitente, foram testados dois comprimentos de estacas (10 e 20cm e três substratos (areia lavada, casca de arroz carbonizada e substrato comercial Plantmax®, em delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e cinco estacas por parcela. Aos trinta e cinco dias, foram avaliados a porcentagem de enraizamento, o comprimento da maior raiz (cm e a biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes (mg. Os resultados indicaram que a propagação vegetativa de atroveran por meio de estaquia é viável, uma vez que o seu enraizamento médio ficou acima de 70%. As mudas de atroveran obtidas de estacas com 20cm apresentaram maior biomassa seca das folhas e das raízes, apesar de o comprimento da estaca não ter afetado a porcentagem de enraizamento e o comprimento da raiz. Os tipos de substrato não proporcionaram efeito sobre o desenvolvimento das estacas de atroveran. Recomenda-se a produção de mudas de atroveran com estacas de 20cm de comprimento, utilizando-se qualquer um dos três substratos testados.The vegetative propagation of medicinal species is in increasing agronomic interest because it is the starting point and a basic tool for any cultivation in commercial scale. The objective of this work was to determine the best shoot cutting length and the best substrate for vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi. Cuttings were placed in greenhouse conditions under intermittent mist. Two cutting sizes (10 and 20cm and three substrate types (washed sand, carbonized rice hulls and commercial substrate Plantmax® were tested. The experiment was in blocks randomly distributed in four replications and five cuttings for parcel. After thirty five days the percentage of rooting, the length of the bigger root (cm and the leaf and root dry weight (mg were analysed. The results indicated that the vegetative propagation of Ocimum selloi by cuttings is viable, once its mean rooting was over 70%. It was not observed significative interaction within the adopted treatments. The cuttings with 20cm length presented larger leaf and root dry weight but the percentage of rooting and the length of the bigger root was not affected by the cutting lenght. The substrate types did not present effect on the development of the cuttings. The production of Ocimum selloi seedlings is recommended with 20cm length cuttings using any substrate tested.

  1. A territorial classification for the ecological strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a territorial classification including at the sun, the water, the atmosphere, the vegetable earth and the vegetation of green leaf, describes each one of the elements, he refers to the micro-climates and he gives a territorial organization for the ecological emergency

  2. The relationship between vegetables and fruits intake and glycosylated hemoglobin values, lipids profiles and nitrogen status in type II inactive diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Tabesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce the glycosylated hemoglobin, therefore choosing the appropriate diet with high fruits and vegetables may help to develop antioxidant defense and reduce the HbA1C in diabetic patients but it did not have any impact on lipids profiles, BUN/creatinine and urine protein 24 h.

  3. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated corn, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of [CO2] corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated corn and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for corn, from 2000 to 2050 (–18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (–30 mm y−1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  4. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, (CO2, is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated maize, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of (CO2 corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated maize and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for maize, from 2000 to 2050 (−18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (−30 mm y−1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  5. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond

  6. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  7. Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiayong; Friedl, Mark A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Hodges, John C.F.; Gao, Feng; Reed, Bradley C.; Huete, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Accurate measurements of regional to global scale vegetation dynamics (phenology) are required to improve models and understanding of inter-annual variability in terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange and climatebiosphere interactions. Since the mid-1980s, satellite data have been used to study these processes. In this paper, a new methodology to monitor global vegetation phenology from time series of satellite data is presented. The method uses series of piecewise logistic functions, which are fit to remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data, to represent intra-annual vegetation dynamics. Using this approach, transition dates for vegetation activity within annual time series of VI data can be determined from satellite data. The method allows vegetation dynamics to be monitored at large scales in a fashion that it is ecologically meaningful and does not require pre-smoothing of data or the use of user-defined thresholds. Preliminary results based on an annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for the northeastern United States demonstrate that the method is able to monitor vegetation phenology with good success.

  8. Studies of vegetation–environment relationships and vegetation dynamics in Chinese subtropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hai-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The principal aim of this study was to investigate vegetation-environment relationships and examine patterns of changes in forest understorey vegetation in five Chinese subtropical forests. Furthermore, an Ecological Field Theory (EFT) model for single-tree influence on understorey vegetation was applied to assess the relative contributions of tree influence to variation in understorey species composition. In focus are five study areas, located in the southern and southwestern part...

  9. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land Classification inventory data and predicted effects. (author)

  10. Ecological land classification and terrestrial environment effects assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.; Wittkugel, U. [Amec Earth and Environmental, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: mark.e.taylor@amec.com; uwe.wittkugel@amec.com; Kleb, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: klebh@aecl.ca

    2006-07-01

    The Ecological Land Classification system was developed to provide a standardized methodology for describing plant communities and wildlife habitat in southern Ontario. The method employs a hierarchical classification system. It can be applied at different levels of accuracy, i.e., at regional, sub-regional, and local scales with an increasing differentiation of vegetation communities. The standardization of the approach permits a comparison of vegetation communities from different sites and an evaluation of the rarity of these communities within the province. Further, the approach facilitates the monitoring of changes in terrestrial communities with time. These characteristics make Ecological Land Classification mapping a useful tool for environmental assessment such as the ones undertaken for the Port Hope and Port Granby Long-Term Waste Management Projects, which were conducted pursuant to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 1992. In the context of the Environmental Assessment for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects, an Ecological Land Classification study was undertaken to characterize the terrestrial environment at regional, local and site levels. Vegetation patches (polygons) were delineated on the basis of air photo interpretation. The individual polygons were then visited for detailed inventory and classified to the most detailed level; that is to the vegetation type. Plant communities were then compared with those listed in the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database to determine their rarity and to determine where they rank as Valued Ecosystem Components. Ecological Land Classification mapping results were used in the assessment of effects to Valued Ecosystem Components. A spatial analysis of the digitized vegetation maps showed the geographic extent of habitat losses and impairments due to various project works and activities. Landscape rehabilitation strategies and concepts were subsequently developed based on Ecological Land Classification inventory data and predicted effects. (author)

  11. THE STUDY OF VEGETATION FOR A DIAGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES. SOME EXAMPLES FROM LOMBARDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. INGEGNOLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that a landscape is much more than a set of spatial characters, I tried to focus its ecological elements and processes, proposing (a new concepts (e.g. ecocenotope, ecotissue, (b new functions (e.g. biological and territorial aspects of vegetation (c new applications (e.g. evaluation of vegetation, etc.. To verify these applications, a study on the landscape agricultural units of the hinterland of Milan (about 45° 26’N - 09° 17E, 100 m osl is in process in these years. The characters of some forested tesserae along a transect between the Adda river and the Ticino river (East to West, passing through Milan have been expressed, using the biological integrated method of vegetation survey proposed by Ingegnoli (2002. An example of how to use the ecological characters of all the different types of vegetation existing within a landscape unit is given by the study of corridors and crop fields. A comparison among 3 landscape units has been done, to demonstrate the diagnostic evaluation method, after a parametric analysis based on landscape ecological indexes.

  12. Mapping vegetation communities in Ozark National Scenic Riverways: final technical report to the National Park Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastain, Robert A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Grabner, Keith W.; Stroh, Esther D.; He, Hong; Larsen, David R.; Nigh, Timothy A.; Drake, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation communities were mapped at two levels in Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) usign a hybrid combination of statistical methods and photointerpretation. The primary map includes 49 cover classes, including 24 cleasses that relate to vegetation associations currenly described by the United States National Vegetation Classification Standard (USNVC: The Nature Conservancy, 1994a). The remaining types include cultural features, ruderal communities on abandoned agricultural lands, and non-vegetated classes. Overall map classification accuarcy is 63 percent. The secondary mapping level aggregates communities with similar appearance and ecologically related associations into Community Types. The resultant 33-class Community Type map has an overall classification accuracy of 77 percent and identified groups of communities based on resource management goals within the park. Important additional products include 1) a general probability map for all vegetation associations, which can be used to assess final classification certainty, and 2) individual probability maps for each association, which can be used to identify areas that have a high likelihood of supporting a given type, beyond where that type was identified in the final map products. Other secondary map products include data layers derived from primary color-infrared imagery, secondary imagery data and digital elevation models. A field key and photo guide to associations and complete community descriptions were produced, along with a photo guide of fuel conditions. Wildland fuels data were used to generate a fuels map based upon Anderson's fuels models (1982).

  13. Diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to food environment sub-types: a cross-sectional analysis of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States Census, and food establishment data

    OpenAIRE

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Leslie, Timothy F; Makara, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Background Social and spatial factors are an important part of individual and community health. The objectives were to identify food establishment sub-types and evaluate prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and recommended fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to these sub-types in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used. A measure of retail food environment was calculated as the ratio of number of sources of unhealthier food options (fast food, ...

  14. Macrofossil evidence for pre-settlement vegetation of Central Otago's basin floors and gorges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of pre-settlement vegetation communities in the semi-arid Central Otago lowlands has been one of New Zealand's long-standing ecological puzzles. Uncertainty is due largely to a paucity of fossil data. Here, we provide new evidence for pre-settlement vegetation in the region based on analyses of plant macrofossils from 15 late Pleistocene and Holocene lowland sites. The assemblages represent two habitat types: wooded or partially wooded intermontane basin-floor wetlands, and low forest and/or shrubland habitats in the Kawarau and Clutha River gorges. In both habitat types, plant communities appear to have been predominantly woody, with significant components of herbaceous dicotyledons but few grasses. Both habitats seem to have undergone major post-settlement vegetation transformation. Several presently common taxa were rare or absent before human settlement, but others (including threatened spring annuals), now rare or extinct in the region, were formerly more common. (author). 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Xiang; Huang, Kaicheng; Gao, Shan; Wu, Hao; Luo, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months). When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation's responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April-October). The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages. PMID:26184243

  16. Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Martnez Alier, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Ecological economics is a recently developed field, which sees the economy as a subsystem of a larger finite global ecosystem. Ecological economists question the sustainability of the economy because of its environmental impacts and its material and energy requirements, and also because of the growth of population. Attempts at assigning money values to environmental services and losses, and attempts at correcting macroeconomic accounting, are part of ecological economics, but its main thrust ...

  17. Efectos del cambio climtico en la diversidad vegetal del corredor de conservacin comunitaria Reserva Ecolgica El ngel- Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador / The effects of climate change on vegetative diversity in the El Angel Ecological Reserve-Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor in northern Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tania, Delgado; David, Surez-Duque.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el impacto del cambio climtico en el corredor de conservacin comunitaria Reserva Ecolgica El ngel - Bosque Protector Golondrinas en el norte del Ecuador se utiliz modelos de distribucin potencial generados con MARS de 413 especies vegetales, usando 19 variables bioclimticas de Wo [...] rldclim con el clima actual y para el 2080 estas mismas variables fueron estimadas de acuerdo al modelo HadCM3-A2. En base a esta informacin se generaron mapas de riqueza tanto para el presente como para el 2080. Para el rea del corredor se han identificado zonas donde se estima que haya cambios de riqueza y donde potencialmente las especies podran colonizar nuevas reas o donde se extinguirn. Esto permite determinar el grado de perturbacin que sufrirn los ecosistemas por efecto del cambio climtico. La tendencia general de las especies estudiadas muestra que colonizarn altitudes ms elevadas, cambiando la estructura de los ecosistemas naturales actuales. Toda esta informacin muestra que para afrontar potenciales impactos en la flora de los ecosistemas de montaa es necesario formar corredores que conecten altitudinalmente reas naturales protegidas, que permitan la migracin de especies y por ende la conservacin de la biodiversidad. Abstract in english In order to estimate the impact of climate change on the El Angel Ecological Reserve - Golondrinas Protected Forest community conservation corridor, potential distribution models generated using MARS of 413 vegetative species were applied using 19 Worldclim bioclimatic variables for current climate, [...] and for the year 2080, these same variables were estimated according to the HadCM3-A2 general circulation model. Based on this information, richness maps were developed for the present and for 2080. In the area of the corridor, zones were identified where changes in richness were predicted, where species could potentially colonize, or where species could become extinct. This allows the determination of the level of disturbance that the ecosystems will suffer with climate change. The general tendency of the species studied shows that they will colonize higher altitudes thus changing the structures of current natural ecosystems. All of this information demonstrates that to deal with potential impacts on the flora of mountain ecosystems it will be necessary to create corridors that will connect protected areas located at differing altitudes and thus permit species migration that will in turn conserve biodiversity.

  18. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  19. Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology in fire degraded tropical peat swamp forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wsten, J.H.M.; Berg, J.; van Eijk, P.; Gevers, G.J.M.; Giesen, W.B.J.T.; A. Hooijer; Aswandi Idris; Leenman, P.H.; Dipa Satriadi Rais; SIDERIUS C.; Silvius, M.J.; Suryadiputra, N.; Iwan Tricahyo Wibisono

    2006-01-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology are established for the Air Hitam Laut watershed in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. The developed relational diagram shows how modelled regional groundwater levels and flooding patterns are related to the occurrence of different vegetation types in this endangered peatland watershed. In dry conditions when groundwater levels are deeper than 1 m below soil surface, fire disasters are unavoidable. When areas susceptible to fire actually burn ...

  20. Diversity of subalpine and alpine vegetation of the eastern part of the Nízke Tatry Mts in Slovakia: major types and environmental gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekulová, L.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2009), s. 908-918. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : alpine vegetation * gradients * phytosociology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  1. Influence of vegetation type and site-to-site variability on soil carbonate clumped isotope records, Andean piedmont of Central Argentina (32-34°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringham, Mallory C.; Hoke, Gregory D.; Huntington, Katharine W.; Aranibar, Julieta N.

    2016-04-01

    The clumped isotope geothermometer estimates the formation temperature (T (Δ47)) of carbonates and has great potential to enhance the extraction of environmental data from pedogenic (soil) carbonate in the geologic record. However, the influence of vegetation type and site-specific conditions on carbonate formation processes and T (Δ47) records remains poorly understood. This study examines the potential for variability in T (Δ47) data between nearby, same elevation sites with different C3/C4 biomass. Pedogenic carbonates (undercoatings and nodules) were collected from five modern soil pits in the semi-arid eastern Andean piedmont of Argentina under a summer precipitation regime. Three pits were instrumented with temperature and moisture sensors to 1 m depth, and a fourth was instrumented with additional soil CO2 and atmospheric (temperature, relative humidity, insolation, and rainfall) sensors. T (Δ47) values (mean: 30 ± 6 °C (±1SE)) are invariant with depth and are statistically indistinguishable between the four instrumented sites, though a 10 °C difference between our T (Δ47) values and those of a nearby Peters et al. (2013, EPSL) study suggests the potential for significant site-to-site variability, likely due to local soil hydrology. The results of this study suggest that deeper (≥40 cm) T (Δ47) values are consistent with carbonate formation during the early part of soil drying immediately after large mid-summer rainstorms. Carbonate formation ≤ 40 cm depth may be biased to soil drying after small, frequent precipitation events occurring throughout the spring, summer, and fall months, averaging to shallow summer T (Δ47) values and resulting in a near-isothermal T (Δ47) profile.

  2. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Bryn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server.

  3. Vegetation Dynamics and Community Assembly in Post-Agricultural Heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian

    spontaneous successional studies of heathland vegetation, where tree colonization and understory vegetation patterns were measured in successive vegetation surveys initiated in 1921. This data was complemented with an intensive survey of the current vegetation patterns and ecological factors. I found that...... land-use legacies are still present in the soil and were important determinants of vegetation dynamics and community assembly. However, the effects of land-use legacies were mostly mediated by the understory vegetation and differed according to the functional groups. The distance to the edge, a proxy...

  4. Riparian vegetation and water yield: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Luiz Felippe; Groppo, Juliano Daniel; Trevisan, Rodrigo; Marcos de Moraes, Jorge; de Paula Lima, Walter; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-08-01

    SummaryForested riparian zones perform numerous ecosystem functions, including the following: storing and fixing carbon; serving as wildlife habitats and ecological corridors; stabilizing streambanks; providing shade, organic matter, and food for streams and their biota; retaining sediments and filtering chemicals applied on cultivated/agricultural sites on upslope regions of the catchments. In this paper, we report a synthesis of a different feature of this type of vegetation, which is its effect on water yield. By synthesizing results from studies that used (i) the nested catchment and (ii) the paired catchment approaches, we show that riparian forests decrease water yield on a daily to annual basis. In terms of the treated area increases on average were 1.32 ± 0.85 mm day-1 and 483 ± 309 mm yr-1, respectively; n = 9. Similarly, riparian forest plantation or regeneration promoted reduced water yield (on average 1.25 ± 0.34 mm day-1 and 456 ± 125 mm yr-1 on daily and annual basis, respectively, when prorated to the catchment area subjected to treatment; n = 5). Although there are substantially fewer paired catchment studies assessing the effect of this vegetation type compared to classical paired catchment studies that manipulate the entire vegetation of small catchments, our results indicate the same trend. Despite the occurrence of many current restoration programs, measurements of the effect on water yield under natural forest restoration conditions are still lacking. We hope that presenting these gaps will encourage the scientific community to enhance the number of observations in these situations as well as produce more data from tropical regions.

  5. Vegetated foreshores as coastal protection strategy: Coping with uncertainties and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Bas; Bouma, Tjeerd; De Vries, Mindert; Timmermans, Jos; Vuik, Vincent; Hermans, Leon; Hulscher, Suzanne; Jonkman, Bas

    2014-05-01

    Promising Building with Nature solutions for flood protection, such as vegetated foreshores, inherently have a dynamic nature. Therefore there is a relatively large degree of uncertainty with respect to their contribution to flood protection. This hampers innovation and the implementation of vegetated foreshores in flood risk management worldwide. We aim to develop new methods to assess how, and how much vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will lead to a better understanding of (uncertainties in) the functioning and stability of these ecosystems and the development of novel governance arrangements. This requires integration of knowledge from ecology, biogeomorphology, hydraulic engineering, and governance. By field observations on several sites and flume measurements we will analyse fundamental ecological and physical processes for various types of wetland vegetations. The knowledge obtained will be applied in one implementation case study for a location in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is needed in the future. This case study integrates fundamental knowledge from all the disciplines. It is used to design governance and implementation arrangements, and to demonstrate how vegetated foreshores can contribute to flood risk reduction. The project will provide the knowledge, methods and tools (e.g. a maptable) required for the design and implementation of vegetated foreshores as a safe, ecologically desirable, and cost effective alternative in flood management. Strong cooperation with end-users from the private sector, government and non-governmental organizations is embedded in the project to enhance the implementation of our findings in practice. In the full-paper, we present a multidisciplinary research agenda how to address the uncertainties hampering application, how to develop probabilistic tools to derive failure chance in legally imposed terms and how to derive at suitable governance arrangements.

  6. Desempenho de um trator operando em solo com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal Tractor performance in soil with different types of plants covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gabriel Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência de um trator para desenvolver esforço tratório depende da interação entre o rodado e o solo, envolvendo um complexo conjunto de fatores: característica do rodado, patinagem, transferência de peso do trator, tipo de solo, umidade, estado de compactação, tipo de cobertura do solo, entre outros, que proporcionam diferentes condições de trabalho e interferem no desempenho do trator. Assim, conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o propósito de avaliar alguns desses fatores no desempenho de um trator agrícola, em área coberta com diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal (aveia, ervilhaca, nabo, aveia e nabo e sem cobertura. O trator foi submetido a cargas por meio do acoplamento a um escarificador de arrasto e instrumentado para a obtenção da força de tração, velocidade de deslocamento, patinagem e consumo de combustível sendo os dados armazenados por meio de um sistema de aquisição de dados. A patinagem foi maior onde a massa de matéria seca era maior, porém não influenciou na potência requerida na barra de tração. A melhor eficiência de tração foi obtida nas parcelas sem cobertura. O coeficiente de tração foi maior nos tratamentos com cobertura de aveia, ervilhaca e nabo comparados com a área sem cobertura. Conclui-se que a cobertura do solo interfere na capacidade do trator em desenvolver esforço para tracionar máquinas e implementos e que o tipo de cobertura pode causar mudanças na patinagem e na eficiência tratória.The efficiency of a tractor to draft development depends on the interaction among the wheeled and the soil where it moves and it involves a complex group of factors, such as: characteristic of the tire, slip, the tractor weight transfer, soil type, water texture and soil compactation, type of soil covering, among others. The aim of this work was to evaluate the acting of an agricultural tractor in an area covered with different types of plants. It was used five types of soil covering (oat, Vicia sativa, turnip, oat and V. sativa together and without cover. A load cell, pulse sensor, flow meters and a system of data acquisition, was used. The slip was larger where the mass of dry matter was larger, even so it didn't influence in the potency requested in the drawbar and in the consumption of fuel. The best traction efficiency was obtained in the portions without covering. The traction coefficient was larger in the treatments with covering of oat, Vicia sativa and turnip, when compared with the area without covering. It is ended that the covering of the soil interferes in the capacity of the tractor in developing effort for pull machines and the covering type can intervene in the slip and tractor efficiency.

  7. Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Recreationists unintentionally trample vegetation, erode soil, and disturb wildlife. Such human-related impacts present a dilemma for managers charged with the dual objectives of providing recreational opportunities and preserving natural environments. This paper presents some of the principal findings and management implications from research on visitor impacts to protected areas, termed recreation ecology research. This field of study seeks to identify the type and extent of resource impacts and to evaluate relationships between use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. The capabilities and managerial utility of recreation impact monitoring are also described.

  8. Ecological recovery in an Arctic delta following widespread saline incursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Trevor C; Kokelj, Steve V; Fraser, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are vulnerable to the combined effects of climate change and a range of other anthropogenic perturbations. Predicting the cumulative impact of these stressors requires an improved understanding of the factors affecting ecological resilience. In September of 1999, a severe storm surge in the Mackenzie Delta flooded alluvial surfaces up to 30 km inland from the coast with saline waters, driving environmental impacts unprecedented in the last millennium. In this study we combined field monitoring of permanent sampling plots with an analysis of the Landsat archive (1986-2011) to explore the factors affecting the recovery of ecosystems to this disturbance. Soil salinization following the 1999 storm caused the abrupt dieback of more than 30,000 ha of tundra vegetation. Vegetation cover and soil chemistry show that recovery is occurring, but the rate and spatial extent are strongly dependent on vegetation type, with graminoid- and upright shrub-dominated areas showing recovery after a decade, but dwarf shrub tundra exhibiting little to no recovery over this period. Our analyses suggest that recovery from salinization has been strongly influenced by vegetation type and the frequency of freshwater flooding following the storm. With increased ocean storm activity, rising sea levels, and reduced sea ice cover, Arctic coastal ecosystems will be more likely to experience similar disturbances in the future, highlighting the importance of combining field sampling with regional-scale remote sensing in efforts to detect, understand, and anticipate environmental change. PMID:26255366

  9. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  10. Ecological restoration and soil improvement performance of the seabuckthorn flexible dam in the Pisha Sandstone area of Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion of the Pisha Sandstone area of Loess Plateau is extremely severe in China. The Pisha Sandstone is very hard when it is dry, while it is very frail when wet. The seabuckthorn flexible dam (SFD, a type of ecological engineering, was proposed to control soil erosion and meliorate soil within the Pisha Sandstone area. To assess its effectiveness and the ecological restoration and soil improvement performance, a field experiment was conducted in this area. We found the strong sediment retention capacity of the SFD is the basis of using it to restore the ecosystem. We compared some certain ecological factors and soil quality between a gully with the SFD and a gully without the SFD, including soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM, soil nutrients (including Ammonia Nitrogen, available phosphorus and Potassium, vegetation coverage and biodiversity. The results showed that the SFD exhibits excellent performance for ecological restoration and soil improvement of this area. The results are as follows: (i by the sediment retention action, the deposition commonly occurred in the SFD gully, and the deposition patterns are obviously different from upper to lower gully, (ii more surprisingly, unlike trees or other shrubs, the seabuckthorn has good horizontal extending capacity by its root system, (iii soil moisture, SOM, soil nutrients, vegetation coverage and biodiversity in the vegetated gully with the SFD are all markedly increased. The results showed the SFD is both effective and novel biological measure for ecological restoration and soil improvement within the Pisha Sandstone area.

  11. Ecological restoration and soil improvement performance of the seabuckthorn flexible dam in the Pisha Sandstone area of Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F. S.; Cao, M. M.; Li, H. E.; Wang, X. H.; Bi, C. F.

    2014-09-01

    Soil erosion of the Pisha Sandstone area of Loess Plateau is extremely severe in China. The Pisha Sandstone is very hard when it is dry, while it is very frail when wet. The seabuckthorn flexible dam (SFD), a type of ecological engineering, was proposed to control soil erosion and meliorate soil within the Pisha Sandstone area. To assess its effectiveness and the ecological restoration and soil improvement performance, a field experiment was conducted in this area. We found the strong sediment retention capacity of the SFD is the basis of using it to restore the ecosystem. We compared some certain ecological factors and soil quality between a gully with the SFD and a gully without the SFD, including soil moisture, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients (including Ammonia Nitrogen, available phosphorus and Potassium), vegetation coverage and biodiversity. The results showed that the SFD exhibits excellent performance for ecological restoration and soil improvement of this area. The results are as follows: (i) by the sediment retention action, the deposition commonly occurred in the SFD gully, and the deposition patterns are obviously different from upper to lower gully, (ii) more surprisingly, unlike trees or other shrubs, the seabuckthorn has good horizontal extending capacity by its root system, (iii) soil moisture, SOM, soil nutrients, vegetation coverage and biodiversity in the vegetated gully with the SFD are all markedly increased. The results showed the SFD is both effective and novel biological measure for ecological restoration and soil improvement within the Pisha Sandstone area.

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior Vegetation map of Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  15. Apomicts in the vegetation of Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summed frequency data of apomictic taxa derived from vegetation releves from Central Europe were correlated with ecological traits water content of soil, calcium and magnesium content of soil or water, nutrient content of soil or water, environmental dynamics, hemeroby, frequency of stress-tolerant species, salt tolerance, altitude, height, and frequency of annual taxa of alliances of the Central European vegetation. The partly problematic identification of taxa where apomixis is importa...

  16. Historical and contemporary geographic data reveal complex spatial and temporal responses of vegetation to climate and land stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.; Webb, Robert H.; Turner, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation and land-cover changes are not always directional but follow complex trajectories over space and time, driven by changing anthropogenic and abiotic conditions. We present a multi-observational approach to land-change analysis that addresses the complex geographic and temporal variability of vegetation changes related to climate and land use. Using land-ownership data as a proxy for land-use practices, multitemporal land-cover maps, and repeat photography dating to the late 19th century, we examine changing spatial and temporal distributions of two vegetation types with high conservation value in the southwestern United States: grasslands and riparian vegetation. In contrast to many reported vegetation changes, notably shrub encroachment in desert grasslands, we found an overall increase in grassland area and decline of xeroriparian and riparian vegetation. These observed change patterns were neither temporally directional nor spatially uniform over the landscape. Historical data suggest that long-term vegetation changes coincide with broad climate fluctuations while fine-scale patterns are determined by land-management practices. In some cases, restoration and active management appear to weaken the effects of climate on vegetation; therefore, if land managers in this region act in accord with on-going directional changes, the current drought and associated ecological reorganization may provide an opportunity to achieve desired restoration endpoints.

  17. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  18. Social-ecological feedbacks between climate, reindeer and people - contributions to climate change adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käyhkö, Jukka; Horstkotte, Tim; Kivinen, Sonja; Johansen, Bernt

    2015-04-01

    The circumpolar tundra is experiencing significant transformations as a consequence of climate change. The anticipated changes include greening of the tundra due to a latitudinal and altitudinal progression of the tree line and range expansion of shrubs. In Northern Fennoscandia, reindeer husbandry by the indigenous Sámi people depends on large, seasonally variable grazing grounds, including the tundra. We demonstrate relationships between different vegetation types and climate conditions in Northern Fennoscandia. A generalized, seamless vegetation type map with 100 m grid, based on Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images and various ancillary data, allows examination of vegetation types in relation to current climate conditions (1950-2000). Downscaled GCMs with different RCPs for 2050 and 2070 allow estimating future vegetation changes. Recently, the potential of herbivores has been recognized in slowing down this regime shift of vegetation composition with its feedbacks e.g. on the atmospheric energy balance, biodiversity and local livelihoods that depend on the tundra ecosystem. However, ecology alone is not the answer. We need comprehensive scenarios for adaptive ecosystem management for this social-ecological system to slow down the unfavourable impacts of climate change and excessive grazing pressure by reindeer in space and time, as well as across country borders. Possible adaptations could encourage the design of new institutional structures, and thus contest the legal background governing reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries today. Designing such policy options for socially desirable and ecologically reasonable decision making, as well as navigating trade-offs inherent in flexible grazing patterns, require careful scenario analysis and acceptance by a variety of land users. A clear understanding of which values should be prioritized in relation to what ecosystem dynamics over what time scales is essential.

  19. Assessments of Drought Impacts on Vegetation in China with the Optimal Time Scales of the Climatic Drought Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is expected to increase in frequency and severity due to global warming, and its impacts on vegetation are typically extensively evaluated with climatic drought indices, such as multi-scalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We analyzed the covariation between the SPEIs of various time scales and the anomalies of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, from which the vegetation type-related optimal time scales were retrieved. The results indicated that the optimal time scales of needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland were between 10 and 12 months, which were considerably longer than the grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation ones (2 to 4 months. When the optimal vegetation type-related time scales were used, the SPEI could better reflect the vegetation’s responses to water conditions, with the correlation coefficients between SPEIs and NDVI anomalies increased by 5.88% to 28.4%. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics of drought and quantified the different responses of vegetation growth to drought during the growing season (April–October. The results revealed that the frequency of drought has increased in the 21st century with the drying trend occurring in most of China. These results are useful for ecological assessments and adapting management steps to mitigate the impact of drought on vegetation. They are helpful to employ water resources more efficiently and reduce potential damage to human health caused by water shortages.

  20. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  1. Ecological shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Meadows study (Limits to Growth) has made the environmental problem popular, but it has reduced the ecological problem to one of population and raw materials, leaving the conditions of social organisation and developmental policy out of consideration. This means that in spite of the repeated moral appeals, developing countries are left to their natural fate while fear and resignation are spread in the industrial nations. The present study tries to contradict this trend in consideration of interdependences in ecological development. (orig.)

  2. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  3. Introducing the Principles of Vegetation Sampling in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a sampling board that has been used in an introductory general ecology course that is inexpensive to construct and that effectively illustrates the principles of vegetation sampling. (Author/BB)

  4. Alien plants invade more phylogenetically clustered community types and cause even stronger clustering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lososová, Z.; de Bello, Francesco; Chytrý, M.; Kühn, I.; Pyšek, Petr; Sádlo, Jiří; Winter, M.; Zelený, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2015), s. 786-794. ISSN 1466-822X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * phylogenetic diversity * vegetation type Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.531, year: 2014

  5. Landscape-ecological division of the Upper Gorenjska region

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    The landscape-ecological methodological approach is due to its holistic approach most suitable for the study of relations between separate landscape-ecological units and their impacts on land-use and human activities.The Upper Gorenjska region was divided into 5 landscape-ecological types and 19 landscape-ecological units. Landscape-ecological types and landscape-ecological units showed a high inner differentiation of the studied area, which is not clearly detected in the existing territorial...

  6. Structure and condition of soil-vegetation cover in the Klyazma river basin applying remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Natalia; Trifonova, Tatiana; Repkin, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Constant observation of vegetation and soil cover is one of the key issues of river basins ecologic monitoring. It is necessary to consider that observation objects have been continuously changing and these changes are comprehensive and depend on temporal and dimensional parameters. Remote sensing data, embracing vast areas and reflecting various interrelations, allow excluding accidental and short-term changes though concentrating on the transformation of the observed river basin ecosystem environmental condition. The research objective is to assess spatial-temporal peculiarities of soil-vegetation structure formation in the Klyazma basin as a whole and minor river basins within the area. Research objects are located in the centre of European Russia. Data used in our research include both statistic and published data, characterizing soil-vegetation cover of the area, space images Landsat. Research methods: Remote data analysis for assessing land utilization structure and soil-vegetation condition according to NDVI. Laying soil-geobotanic landscape profiles river valleys slopes. Phytomass reserve, phytoproductivity, soil fertility characteristics assessment. NDVI computation for each image pixel helped to map general condition of the Klyazma vegetation cover and to determine geographic ranges without vegetation or with depressed vegetation. For instance high vegetation index geographic range has been defined which corresponded to Vladimir Opolye characterized with the most fertile grey forest soil in the region. Comparative assessment of soil vegetation cover of minor river basins within the Klyazma basin, judging by the terrestrial data, revealed its better condition in the Koloksha basin which is also located in the area of grey forest soil. Besides here the maximum value of vegetation index for all phytocenosis was detected. In the research the most dynamically changing parts of the Klyazma basin have been determined according to NDVI dynamics analysis. Analyzing the reasons for such changes of NDVI the most significant ecologic processes in the region connected to the changes of vegetation cover condition have been revealed. Fields overgrowing and agricultural crops replacement are the most important of them. Soil-geobotanic profiles, laid in minor river basin of the Sudogda, allowed to reveal various vegetation association and to describe the confined soil profile. It is shown that well drained landscape forms correspond to arboreal vegetation type, more humidified elements of the landscape are occupied with gramineous meadow vegetation. There is sand and clay sand under mixed forest humus horizon. In pinewood forests light loam prevails in surface horizons. The results can be used for environmental monitoring of the river basins and for rational agricultural structuring.

  7. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  8. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there

  9. Assessing ecological land use and water demand of river systems: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2012-08-01

    Economic and social development has greatly increased ecological water demand and modified land use of river systems worldwide, causing overall degradation of many of these systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks for regionalization on the eco-environmental function of river systems are formulated and applied to the Luanhe River system. Based on its eco-environmental functions, this river can be regionalized into four types of first-class functional areas: ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilization areas. Considering the overall eco-environmental functions, we assessed the ecological land use of the Luanhe River system. The total area of basic ecological land use is 876.98 km2; the restrictive ecological land use is 1745.52 km2; ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland is 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land is 17.35 km2. The average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River is 4.896 m3 s-1 based on the habitat method. And the recommended minimum and suitable annual ecological water demand of channels in the lower reaches are 391 million m3 and 819.5 million m3, respectively. The evaporation and seepage consumption and vegetation consumption in riparian zones of the Luanhe River system are approximately 132.6 million m3 and 145.3 million m3 per year, respectively. Our results suggest that is crucial to regulate the instream ecological water use of the Luanhe River's mainstream starting from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system. We recommend accelerating ecological land-use planning and strengthening the regulation of ecological water use on this river system focusing on important lower reaches under the condition of competitive water demand.

  10. An ecological concept for power supply. Heat for absorption chillers from pellet heating systems and cogeneration plants on the basis of vegetable oils; Oekologisches Konzept fuer die Energieversorgung. Waerme fuer Absorptionskaeltemaschinen aus Pellets-Heizkessel und Pflanzenoel-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    With its new administration building at the headquarters in Neumarkt (Upper Palatinate, Northern Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany), Bionorica AG (producer of vegetable drugs, phytopharmaka) established a building which guarantees an optimum environmental compatibility and greatest possible energy efficiency. Due to the strong organic growth of the company, the construction of the new official building led to a re-organization of the entire supply of electricity, warmth and cold at the location Neumarkt (Upper Palatinate). In the meantime, in the new energy centre there are two pellet boilers, a cogeneration plant on the basis of vegetable oil as well as four absorption refrigerators which are driven by waste heat from engines and/or heating heating.

  11. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in MarchApril, around two months after the driest period of the year (DecemberFebruary, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the contribution to national accounts emissions.

  12. The decision of ecological products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the ecological agriculture registered an annual growth rate over 20%, in present time there are 26.736 operators in the ecological agriculture system. Due to the fact that the ecological products are requested mainly on the external markets there was a study concerning the way the ecological products are perceived by the consumers and which are their information sources. The geographical area of the research was Timisoara city, the survey being realized in crowded places (markets, supermarkets, universities. The questionnaire was filled in by 150 persons. From the researches we noticed that among the ecological products constantly purchased there are fruits and vegetables and on the second place in the consumers preferences are the ecological eggs purchased from the supermarkets.

  13. [Wetland landscape ecological classification: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Mo, Li-jiang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wen-mei

    2009-12-01

    Wetland landscape ecological classification, as a basis for the studies of wetland landscape ecology, directly affects the precision and effectiveness of wetland-related research. Based on the history, current status, and latest progress in the studies on the theories, indicators, and methods of wetland landscape classification, some scientific wetland classification systems, e.g., NWI, Ramsar, and HGM, were introduced and discussed in this paper. It was suggested that a comprehensive classification method based on HGM and on the integral consideration of wetlands spatial structure, ecological function, ecological process, topography, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and human disturbance intensity should be the major future direction in this research field. Furthermore, the integration of 3S technologies, quantitative mathematics, landscape modeling, knowledge engineering, and artificial intelligence to enhance the automatization and precision of wetland landscape ecological classification would be the key issues and difficult topics in the studies of wetland landscape ecological classification. PMID:20353081

  14. The movement ecology of seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A.; Siegfried L. Krauss; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and ...

  15. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker in the...... 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  16. Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Enzyme Activities in Relation to Vegetation Types in Hangzhou Bay Tidal Flat Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Xuexin; Yang, Wenying; WU, MING

    2015-01-01

    Soil labile organic carbon and soil enzymes play important roles in the carbon cycle of coastal wetlands that have high organic carbon accumulation rates. Soils under three vegetations (Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, and Scirpusm mariqueter) as well as bare mudflat in Hangzhou Bay wetland of China were collected seasonally. Seasonal dynamics and correlations of soil labile organic carbon fractions and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that there were signi...

  17. Feature extraction on very high resolution satellite images to map vegetation types required in forest fire risk to characterize wildland urban interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Long, M.; Lampin, C.; Jappiot, M.; Morge, D.; Bouillon, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the French Mediterranean region, forest fire risk increases because of dynamics of land cover: fuel load accumulation due to agricultural fallows and non exploited forest, urbanisation expansion. Urbanization joined to the forest extension phenomenon, generates new spatial configurations called wildland urban interfaces (WUI) (Jappiot et al., 2002; Lampin et al., 2006). WUI concerns integrate "natural" vegetation connected to urban systems which bring out both components of forest fire ris...

  18. An Evaluation of the Romanian Fruits and Vegetables Producers Access to Different Types of Common Agricultural Policy Instruments. Is there Any Real Consistency with the Policy Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu MARCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables sectors are considered to be strategic in the European Union due to their contribution to a better human health. Among others positive effects, their intake increase reduce mortality and obesity, assuring in the same time harmonised development for young children. The present study thus focused to reveal the consistency of the measure implemented in the Common Agricultural Policy to support fruits and vegetables production in Romania in liaison with the policy objectives. The country is one of the main ten important European producers of horticultural products in terms of production volumes and acreage. Results showed that over the last seven years (2007-2014, the sectorial production drawbacks have not been ameliorated very much. Both sectors are dominated by small-size farms that can produce only seasonally and mainly for short-market chains. In the same time, the greenhouses area shrink to levels that made the country extremely dependent to imports especially for tomatoes. The analysis of the pillar one payments schemes revealed that the fruits and vegetables producers could have access to only one payment that was half from European averages. Moreover, almost half of the producers had low sizes that left them outside the eligible criteria. The measures designed for the second pillar also penalized producers through the selection criteria. These results showed that for Romania there was not a real consistency between the actual policy measures and the objectives assumed by policy makers. The future measures (2014-2020 seem to correct these negative findings being better tailored to the situation of the local fruits and vegetables producers.

  19. Forest vegetation management in Europe – Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Baňař, P.; Krejčíř, R.

    Brussels : COST Office , 2009 - (Willoughby, I.; Balandier, P.; Bentsen, N.; McCarthy, N.; Claridge, J.), s. 7-14 [Ecological forest vegetation management. Vejle (DK), 04.05.2009 -08.05.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 141 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : forest vegetation management * herbicides * alternative methods Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  20. Vegetation state in the alienation zone after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation state within the alienation zone on the territory of formed state farm 'Savichi' of the Bragin region was studied. 9 agroecosystem associations of the Braun-Blanguet system were selected. Their ecological, biological and economic characteristics are given. The research has shown that the content of Sr 90 in vegetative mass of most agroecosystem associations exceeded normative level. (authors)

  1. Studying the effect of elevation and edaphic variables on vegetation composition in Khezrabad rangelands using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhollah TAGHIZADEH MEHRJARDI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A major scientific challenge in plant ecology is to identify and quantify the strength of environmental factors that are responsible for the distribution and abundance of plant species within and among ecosystems. Hence, this study is focused on relation between plant communities and environmental variables in Khezrabad region of Iran. Based on field surveys, eight vegetation types including Artemisia sieberi-Acantholimon erinaceum, Artemisia sieberi-Hertia angustifolia, Artemisia sieberi-Launea acanthodes, Artemisia sieberi-Salsola tomentosa, Artemisia sieberi-Zygophyllum atriplicoides, Artemisia aucheri-Astrgalus albispinus, Artemisia sieberi-Fortuynia bungei, Haloxylon aphyllum were identified. With respecting to the present variance between vegetation and environmental factors, four samples were established in each vegetation type in 0–30 cm depth. The studied soil variables affecting plant communities were texture, EC, pH, Na+, k+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SP, O.M, CaCO3, HCO3 - and CEC. Among the topographic conditions, elevation was recorded in sampling regions as well. Data matrix of environmental factors and vegetation type was made using the windows (ver. 4.17 of PC-ORD. Results according to PCA showed that in the study area, among different environmental factors, the distribution of vegetation types was most strongly correlated with some agents such as soil texture, salinity and sodicity. In fact, soil texture controls distribution of plant species by affecting moisture availability, ventilation and distribution of plant roots. Beside, soil salinity and sodicity because of habitat condition, plant ecological needs and tolerance range can have negative affect on plant diversity. In addition, results indicated that increasing of elevation had negative effect on plant distribution. However, soil characteristics have more influence on vegetation separation than to the elevation in this study.

  2. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.)

  3. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2011/2012

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Norris, David; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2012-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different ...

  4. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2013/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Frontasyeva, Marina; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2014-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  5. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2012/2013

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Norris, David; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2013-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  6. Air pollution and vegetation: ICP Vegetation annual report 2014/2015

    OpenAIRE

    Harmens, Harry; Mills, Gina; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Frontasyeva, Marina; and, the participants of the ICP Vegetation

    2015-01-01

    The International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation) was established in 1987. It is led by the UK and has its Programme Coordination Centre at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH) in Bangor. It is one of seven ICPs and Task Forces that report to the Working Group on Effects (WGE) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) on the effects of atmospheric pollutants on different components of...

  7. Modeling the interactions between river morphodynamics and riparian vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridolfi, Luca; Perucca, Eliana; Camporeale, Carlo Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The study of river-riparian vegetation interactions is an important and intriguing research field in geophysics. Vegetation is an active element of the ecological dynamics of a floodplain which interacts with the fluvial processes and affects the flow field, sediment transport, and the morphology of the river. In turn, the river provides water, sediments, nutrients, and seeds to the nearby riparian vegetation, depending on the hydrological, hydraulic, and geomorphological characteristic of th...

  8. Biomass-the task of ecology and factor in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly decreasing primary energy sources and environmental issues are part of the reason to seek alternatives by developing new technologies. Biomass as organic matter of vegetable origin and animals can be recycled, processed and used for the extraction of energy. In the presented work looking at the different types of biomass as a potential source for energy. A rating of the energy potential of different types of biomass. Furthermore, an overview of the main methods for processing and to generate energy. The final result of the work is a classification of different types of biomass and grouping in terms of their efficient processing to produce energy on a particular method. Key words: biomass energy, bioenergy, potential, ecology, bio-product, processing, gasification, pyrolysis, fermentation., burning

  9. Ecological concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains three critical contributions on the application of modern technology from the ethical point of view. The peaceful use of nuclear power is rejected as a technical error, which is overwhelming humanity. Ethical bases of a preventive technological policy and ecological aims are developed for the 21st century, in economy, technology, politics, and consciousness. (HSCH)

  10. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  11. Ecological investigation of three geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswada, Hanafey F; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser A

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A) Alhagi graecorum, (B) Cyperus capitatus, (C) Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D) Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes). The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area. PMID:24506033

  12. Ecological Investigation of Three Geophytes in the Deltaic Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnaser A. Elzaawely

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the ecological features of three geophytes namely Asparagus stipularis, Cyperus capitatus and Stipagrostis lanata which grow naturally in the Nile Delta coast of Egypt. C. capitatus and S. lanata are growing in non-saline sandy soils and can tolerate drought stress while, A. stipularis is growing in saline and non-saline sandy and calcareous clay soils and can tolerate drought and salt stress. Multivariate analysis of the vegetation of 100 sampled stands supporting growth of the three geophytic species in the study area led to the recognition of four vegetation groups namely, (A Alhagi graecorum, (B Cyperus capitatus, (C Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii-Asparagus stipularis and (D Juncus acutus subsp. acutus. Vegetationally, the vegetation groups associated with the three species can be distinguished into two community types. The first one is psammophytic community comprising vegetation groups A and B that may represent the non-saline sand formations (flats, hummocks and dunes. The second one is halophytic community including vegetation groups C and D that may represent the saline sand flats and salt marsh habitat types, respectively. Sodium adsorption ratio, electrical conductivity, sodium cation, chlorides, silt and sand fractions, pH value, moisture content, bicarbonates and available phosphorus were the most effective soil factors that controlling the abundance and distribution of the plant communities associated with the investigated geophytes. This study showed the ecological features of the selected geophytes in terms of their habitats, associated plant communities and the most edaphic factors controlling their richness and distribution in the study area.

  13. The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C

    2016-02-17

    Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix. PMID:26787350

  14. Computational Ecology: an emerging ecological science

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Computational ecology is an emerging science to integrate and synthesize computation intensive areas in ecology. It was clearly defined and described in an earlier study. Aims and scope of computational ecology are further refined in present discussion.

  15. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean Efeito da colheita em diferentes horrios do dia sobre as caractersticas qumicas e fsicas de soja tipo hortalia

    OpenAIRE

    Andria Cristina Santana; Mercedes Concrdia Carro-Panizzi; Jos Marcos Gontijo Mandarino; Rodrigo Santos Leite; Josemeyre Bonifcio da Silva; Elza Iouko Ida

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development) and to compare it with that on the grains harvested at the R8 stage (maturation). The pods of the BRS 267 cultivar were harvested at the R6 stage (at 8:00 AM, 12:00 AM, and 6:00 PM), the color parameters were evaluated, and the grains were analyzed for chemical compositi...

  16. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, J.A.

    1994-01-17

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site.

  17. Vegetation communities associated with the 100-Area and 200-Area facilities on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, lies within the broad semi-arid shrub-steppe vegetation zone of the Columbia Basin. Thirteen different habitat types on the Hanford Site have been mapped in Habitat Types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and Plant Species of Concern (Downs et al. 1993). In a broad sense, this classification is correct. On a smaller scale, however, finer delineations are possible. This study was conducted to determine the plant communities and estimate vegetation cover in and directly adjacent to the 100 and 200 Areas, primarily in relation to waste sites, as part of a comprehensive ecological study for the Compensation Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) characterization of the 100 and 200 Areas. During the summer of 1993, field surveys were conducted and a map of vegetation communities in each area, including dominant species associations, was produced. The field surveys consisted of qualitative community delineations. The community delineations described were made by field reconnaissance and are qualitative in nature. The delineations were made by visually determining the dominant plant species or vegetation types and were based on the species most apparent at the time of inspection. Additionally, 38 transects were run in these plant communities to try to obtain a more accurate representation of the community. Because habitat disturbances from construction/operations activities continue to occur in these areas, users of this information should be cautious in applying these maps without a current ground survey. This work will complement large-scale habitat maps of the Hanford Site

  18. An ecohydrological approach to predicting hillslope-scale vegetation patterns and dynamics in dryland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Trenton; King, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Drylands are an important ecosystem, as they cover over 40% of the Earth's land surface and are know to exhibit threshold behavior in response to climatic change and anthropogenic disturbance. Where dryland vegetation supports pastoralist livestock production, catastrophic ecological shifts present a grave concern because of the direct coupling between the livestock forage available and human livelihoods. In this research we investigate the spatiotemporal organization of grazing resources on hillslopes by developing a relatively simple spatially explicit daily stochastic ecohydrological 1-layer bucket model with dynamic vegetation and grazing components. The model, MVUA MINGI (Mosaic Vegetation Using Agent-based Modeling Incorporating Non-linear Grazing Impacts), was constructed using a 2-year observational study in central Kenya combining in-situ sensors with near surface hydrogeophysical surveys. The data were used to derive an empirical patch water balance of three representative patch types, bare soil, grass, and tree. Visual and hydrogeophysical observations indicated the system is dominated by Hortonian runoff, overland flow, and vertical infiltration of water into vegetation patches. The patch-based water balances were next incorporated into a Cellular Automata model allowing us to simulate a range of surface flowpath convergence states across the hillslope during a rain event. The model also allows the root to canopy radius of the tree patches to vary affecting the length scale of water competition. By changing the length scales of facilitation and competition, we find the model demonstrates a range of most efficient static vegetation patterns from random to highly organized. In order simulate the vegetation dynamics we incorporated continuous transition probabilities for each patch type based on the frequency and duration of drought and grazing intensity. The modeled vegetation dynamics indicate various stable states and the timescales between the state transitions. The findings of this work support the mechanism of symmetry-breaking instabilities for pattern formation in drylands.

  19. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    of the economy could go hand in hand with increased employment. These ideas were not reflected much in actual policies, and – despite some green elements – the subsequent economic upturn was driven first of all by consumption, and in several affluent countries, fueled by credit expansion. The current...... contributed to discussions on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by...... highlighting the need to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...

  20. Industrial ecology.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, C K

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. ...

  1. ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA GYONGY MIHUT

    2011-01-01

    While in most emerging and developing countries, the population has a lower ecological footprint in the developed countries have a larger footprint.There is also an alarming contrast between a person perception of her liability for damages to its environment and its actual size. These misconceptions may have their source in the absence of awareness of risks from climate change, culture or religion.The purpose of this study is to analyze the situation at the international and Romanian level an...

  2. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the ShannonWiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (68 years grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  3. Comparing heavy metals accumulation potential in natural vegetation and soil adjoining wastewater canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution of waters, soils and vegetation is a major ecological problem that needs to be investigated. The present study involved the collection of soil samples and natural vegetations (Tribilas terristris, Lepia nodiflora, Amaranthus viridis, Heliotropium euoropeum, Coronopis didymus, Cynodon ductylon, Chenopodium murale and Eclipta alba) from the vicinity of wastewater canal and subsequent analysis for their HM concentrations. Results showed that HM concentrations varied within the species of vegetation and type of metal analyzed. The order of vegetation for metal concentrations was A. viridis > E. alba > H. euoropeum > L. nodiflora > C. murale > C. didymus > C. ductylon > T. terristris. Metals prevailed in plants in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd, irrespective of the vegetation. Metal prevalence in soils was in the order of Fe > Mn > Cd > Cr > Pb > Zn > Cu. Samples near canal were found with higher level of Mn, Pb and Zn as compared to soil away from canal water. Distant sampling gave higher accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu and Fe as compared to the soil nearby wastewater. The analyzed species of HM in the soils and plants may indicate the variability of their composition in wastewater. (author)

  4. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting-down levels, timings and scales of the thinning, etc., by the Monte Carlo simulation of the model.

  5. The peculiarities of accumulation and distribution of the natural isotopes of uranium in vegetative parts of Pinus sylvestris L. in the main types of pine woods of Minsk hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains experimental data regarding the accumulation and distribution of natural isotopes of uranium in vegetative parts of Pinus sylvestris L.; growing in various ecological conditions. The concentration of uranium in plants of pine is from 1.310-5 and up to 67.510-3% (in ash of plants). In parts of Pinus sylvestris L. the distribution of uranium is extremely irregular - the greatest amount of uranium is accumulated in the wood and bark, i. e. in the parts which do not have any processes of vital activity or have processes of activity which are badly manifested; the least concentrations of uranium are observed in pine needles which have the most active metabolism processes were shown. According to the concentration of uranium parts of Pinus sylvestris L. can be arranged in the following way: wood > bark > roots > branches > needles. The same parts of pine in different edaphic and phytocenosical conditions don't accumulate equal amount of uranium was founded. (authors)

  6. The Combined Effects of Moss-Dominated Biocrusts and Vegetation on Erosion and Soil Moisture and Implications for Disturbance on the Loess Plateau, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Han, Fengpeng; Yang, Yongsheng; Jie MENG

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs, or biocrusts) have important positive ecological functions such as erosion control and soil fertility improvement, and they may also have negative effects on soil moisture in some cases. Simultaneous discussions of the two-sided impacts of BSCs are key to the rational use of this resource. This study focused on the contribution of BSCs while combining with specific types of vegetation to erosion reduction and their effects on soil moisture, and it addressed the f...

  7. The South African National Vegetation Database: History, development, applications, problems and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie W. Powrie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has been recognised as one of the most interesting and important areas of the world from an ecological and evolutionary point of view. The establishment and development of the National Vegetation Database (NVD of South Africa enabled South Africa to contribute to environmental planning and conservation management in this floristically unique region. In this paper, we aim to provide an update on the development of the NVD since it was last described, near its inception, more than a decade ago. The NVD was developed using the Turboveg software environment, and currently comprises 46 697 vegetation plots (relevés sharing 11 690 plant taxa and containing 968 943 species occurrence records. The NVD was primarily founded to serve vegetation classification and mapping goals but soon became recognised as an important tool in conservation assessment and target setting. The NVD has directly helped produce the National Vegetation Map, National Forest Type Classification, South African National Biodiversity Assessment and Forest Type Conservation Assessment. With further development of the NVD and more consistent handling of the legacy data (old data sets, the current limitations regarding certain types of application of the data should be significantly reduced. However, the use of the current NVD in multidisciplinary research has certainly not been fully explored. With the availability of new pools of well-trained vegetation surveyors, the NVD will continue to be purpose driven and serve the needs of biological survey in pursuit of sustainable use of the vegetation and flora resources of the southern African subcontinent.

  8. Mathematical modeling riparian vegetation zonation in semiarid conditions based on a transpiration index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Joaquin; Morales, Marco; Garcia, Alicia; Garofano, Virginia; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Frances, Felix

    2010-05-01

    Initially riparian vegetation modeling was focused on the study of ecological patches without taking into account the interactive effects of structures and processes in between them (Tabacchi et al., 1998). One of the greatest challenges, when carrying out a riparian ecosystem restoration, is to understand the physical and ecological processes of a system and the interaction and feedback within these processes. Jorde (2002) pointed out the importance of addressing complex linkages between processes and biotic interactions in research and in the development of restoration projects over larger spatial and temporal scales in the future. According to Tabacchi et al. (2000), the water cycle in riparian zones depends on three important relations: the water absorption by the plants, water storage and atmospherical return by evaporation. During recent years a variety of ecological models have taken into account the changes in the plant species as consequence of changes in the environmental variables and hydrological alterations (Baptist, 2005; Braatne et al., 2002; Glenz, 2005; Hooke et al., 2005; Murphy et al., 2006). Most of these models are based on functional relationships between river hydrology and vegetation species or communities. In semiarid regions we make the hypothesis transpiration will be one of the key factors determining the riparian vegetation presence and therefore, we will not consider in our model other factors as recruitment, flood damages, etc. The objectives of this work are: firstly to develop a model capable of simulating several riparian vegetation types which can be applied in a wide range of conditions across Mediterranean environments; and secondly to calibrate and to validate the model in several Mediterranean river stretches of the Iberian Peninsula, both in undisturbed and disturbed flow regimes. To achieve these objectives the following methodology has been applied. The model has been conceptualized as a static tank flow model based on the actual evapotranspiration of the riparian plants. This tank represents a portion of soil of the superficial root layer. The lower capacity limit of this tank is the permanent wilting moisture of the soil sample. On the other hand the upper capacity limit is the field capacity moisture. The tank's input flows are the precipitation, the root water rise and the capillary water rise. In contrast output flows are the actual evapotranspiration and the excess water of the tank. The most relevant model parameters are the soil retention curves, vegetation functional type parameters (specially related to root depths and the transpiration efficiency factors) and the daily hidro-meteorological data, which are water table elevation, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. The model runs for a limited amount of vegetation functional types. In our simulations the following four functional types were used: Riparian Herbs; Riparian Juveniles and Small Scrubs, Riparian Trees and Big Shrubs; and Terrestrial Vegetation. The general model output variable is an evapotranspiration index based in the quotient between the current and the potential evapotranspiration. This index is used to determine the suitability of the simulated vegetation functional types to certain environmental conditions. Secondly, a sensitivity analysis was made for determining the most relevant model parameters. Finally the model has been calibrated and validated using as objective function a confusion matrix which compares the observed and the simulated riparian vegetation zonation. The calibration/validation processes have been carried out in seven study sites of the Jucar River Basin District. Four of those sites have a natural flow regime and three of them a regulated flow regime due to the presence of dams. Results have shown that the model is capable of providing effective simulations in compared to the observed riparian vegetation.

  9. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walker, L. R.; Hölzer, N.; Marrs, R.; del Moral, R.; Prach, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 187-192. ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2014

  10. Challenges in writing ecological site descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) adopted the Ecological Site Description (ESD) concept in 1997. The State and Transition Model (STM) is used to describe vegetation dynamics and is an integral component of ESDs that meet users needs. NRCS is currently developing ESDs for much of the ...

  11. Distinguishing land use types using surface albedo and normalized difference vegetation index derived from the SEBAL model for the Atankwidi and Afram sub-catchments in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayari Salifu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing land use types is mostly done through field surveys which does not easily capture the spatial changes in the land use/cover types. In this study, the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL model was used to estimate surface albedo and NDVI, for different land use/cover types for two sub-catchments (i.e., Atankwidi and Afram in the Volta Basin of Ghana. The mean coefficient of variation (CV for individual land use/cover types compared to the mean CV for a given site was then used to distinguish among the land use/cover types. It was found that these parameters derived from the SEBAL model can be used to distinguish among different land use/cover types in the two sub-catchments. SEBAL estimates for surface albedo and NDVI across the different land use/cover types varied from 0.05 to 0.22 and -0.41 to 0.38, respectively. The range of CVs for surface albedo and NDVI, were 5-22% and 7-175%, respectively across the different land use/cover types for the two catchments. The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL’s derived surface albedo and NDVI can be used to distinguish land use/cover types in catchments similar to those of the study areas with few ground measurements.

  12. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome delimitation problem, help in consistent characterization of research sites, and create a basis for further biogeographic and ecological research in global tundra environments. PMID:26811780

  13. Ecological engineering for gully erosion control in France

    OpenAIRE

    F. Rey; Nicot, F.X.

    2004-01-01

    Ecological engineering could be defined as the use of knowledge of the functioning of ecosystems (ecology) to establish strategies for action on degraded lands (engineering). Ecological engineering for erosion control therefore corresponds to techniques and interventions allowing favouring the installation of vegetation cover with a role of protection against erosion. France has a long experience in this field, especially for gully restoration. Investigations are currently carried out to opti...

  14. Cuantificacin del carbono almacenado en formaciones vegetales amaznicas en "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Per) / Quantification of the carbon storage in amazon vegetation types at "CICRA", Madre de Dios (Peru)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Martel; Lianka, Cairampoma.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La llanura amaznica peruana se caracteriza por la presencia de mltiples formaciones vegetales. stas cada vez reciben mayor impacto por actividades antropognicas tales como la minera y tala. Todo esto, sumado al cambio climtico global, genera desconcierto sobre el futuro de los bosques. La iden [...] tificacin de los niveles de almacenamiento de carbono en reas boscosas, y especficamente en cada formacin vegetal, permitira un mejor manejo de las zonas de conservacin, as como identificar las reas potenciales que serviran para el financiamiento de la absorcin de carbono y otros servicios ambientales. El presente estudio fue desarrollado en la estacin Biolgica del Centro de Investigacin y Capacitacin Ro Los Amigos (CICRA). En el CICRA se identificaron tres formaciones vegetales principales, el bosque de terraza, el bosque inundable y el aguajal. Siendo los bosques de terraza los de mayor extensin y mayor cantidad de carbono acumulado. Como resultado se valoriz la vegetacin presente en el CICRA, en alrededor de 11 millones de dlares americanos. El ingreso a la oferta de los bonos de carbono promovera la conservacin de los bosques. Abstract in english The Peruvian Amazon Basin is characterized by the presence of multiple vegetation types. They are being given great impact by human activities such as mining and, logging. All this, coupled with global climate change, creates confusion about the future of our forests. The identification of levels of [...] carbon storage in forested areas, and specifically in each vegetation type, would allow better management of conservation areas, and then identify potential areas that could serve to finance carbon sequestration and other environmental services. This study was conducted at the Biological Station for Research and Training Center Rio Los Amigos (CICRA, Spanish acronym). At the station three main formations were identified, alluvial terrace forests, flood terrace forests and Mauritia swamps. The alluvial terrace forest presents the most extensive area and the highest amount of carbon stored. As result, CICRA vegetations were valued at approx. 11 millions U.S. dollars. Admission to the supply of carbon credits could promote Amazon forest conservation.

  15. Industrial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, C K

    1992-02-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  16. Reassembling ecologies

    OpenAIRE

    Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    In its general form, stakeholder theory posits an extension of the ecology. It claims that there are other stakes and interests than those posited by shareholder value theory (Freeman et al. 2004; Jensen and Sandström 2011), and some stakeholder theory proponents argue that the natural environment is also to be considered as a stakeholder (Driscoll and Starik 2004; Norton 2007). It is a positive claim – there are more stakes and interests – and a moral one – we should look towards more intere...

  17. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  18. Influences of prior wildfires on vegetation response to subsequent fire in a reburned Southwestern landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, Jonathan D; Parks, Sean A; McClernan, Sarah R; Holsinger, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Large and severe wildfires have raised concerns about the future of forested landscapes in the southwestern United States, especially under repeated burning. In 2011, under extreme weather and drought conditions, the Las Conchas fire burned over several previous burns as well as forests not recently exposed to fire. Our purpose was to examine the influences of prior wildfires on plant community composition and structure, subsequent burn severity, and vegetation response. To assess these relationships, we used satellite-derived measures of burn severity and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling of pre- and post- Las Conchas field samples. Earlier burns were associated with shifts from forested sites to open savannas and meadows, oak scrub, and ruderal communities. These non-forested vegetation types exhibited both resistance to subsequent fire, measured by reduced burn severity, and resilience to reburning, measured by vegetation recovery relative to forests not exposed to recent prior fire. Previous shifts toward non-forested states were strongly reinforced by reburning. Ongoing losses of forests and their ecological values confirm the need for restoration interventions. However, given future wildfire and climate projections, there may also be opportunities presented by transformations toward fire-resistant and resilient vegetation types within portions of the landscape. PMID:27209778

  19. Biodiversity analysis of vegetation on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in south-central Nevada, encompasses approximately 3,500 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996 to 1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. The data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Biodiversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in biodiversity among ecoregions and vegetation alliances are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species' presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors, such as elevation, soil, and precipitation, on biodiversity are assessed

  20. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    Based on many years of field work by the two senior authors (Ib Friis and Sebsebe Demissew) and with the application of GIS analyses (by P. van Breugel) 15 major vegetation types in Ethiopia are described and mapped. The book descibes the structure and floristic composition of the vegetation types...... recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between the...

  1. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  2. Flora and vegetation of the Mbonambi Beach Arcuate Scar on the Zululand dune barrier, Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Weisser

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A hundred and seventy-nine species belonging to 63 families were found in 13 communities in the Mbonambi Arcuate Scar. This is a rare type of dune valley that is described here and its vegetation is mapped. The great botanical diversity in a small area (7 ha can be related to the variety in ecological conditions and the juxtaposition of pristine and disturbed areas. Because most of the adjacent area has been mined and this type of dune valley is rare, it deserves a high conservation status rating. A Pereskia aculeata infestation was found that requires urgent attention.

  3. An ecoclimatic framework for evaluating the resilience of vegetation to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J; Arndt, Stefan K; Blackman, Chris J; Duursma, Remko A; Fensham, Rod J; Hilbert, David W; Nitschke, Craig R; Norris, Jaymie; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Ruthrof, Katinka X; Tissue, David T

    2016-05-01

    The surge in global efforts to understand the causes and consequences of drought on forest ecosystems has tended to focus on specific impacts such as mortality. We propose an ecoclimatic framework that takes a broader view of the ecological relevance of water deficits, linking elements of exposure and resilience to cumulative impacts on a range of ecosystem processes. This ecoclimatic framework is underpinned by two hypotheses: (i) exposure to water deficit can be represented probabilistically and used to estimate exposure thresholds across different vegetation types or ecosystems; and (ii) the cumulative impact of a series of water deficit events is defined by attributes governing the resistance and recovery of the affected processes. We present case studies comprising Pinus edulis and Eucalyptus globulus, tree species with contrasting ecological strategies, which demonstrate how links between exposure and resilience can be examined within our proposed framework. These examples reveal how climatic thresholds can be defined along a continuum of vegetation functional responses to water deficit regimes. The strength of this framework lies in identifying climatic thresholds on vegetation function in the absence of more complete mechanistic understanding, thereby guiding the formulation, application and benchmarking of more detailed modelling. PMID:26643922

  4. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  5. Ecologism in Interior Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruizhou Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of our mankind, great changes have taken place in economy as well as our society, so have the natural environment and ecological system in which we live. Nowadays, we are faced with decreasing natural environment, forest, species, clean water, air and cultivable land. In addition, some urgent issues such as global warming, exhausted energy and widespread rubbish force us to reflect on our future life style. In this situation, interior designers are expected to introduce ecological ideas into their design to push it to a higher and advanced level, which will consequently promote the transformation of the employment of resources in architecture from the consumptive type to the recycled one.

  6. Restoration of minerotrophic vegetation within an Irish raised bog soak system.

    OpenAIRE

    Crushell, P.H.; Schouten, M.G.C.; A. J. P. Smolders; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Giller, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Clara Bog is an oceanic raised bog of international ecological importance located in central Ireland. The occurrence of soak systems (areas of mesotrophic/minerotrophic vegetation within acid bog) adds greatly to the scientific interest of Clara Bog. Recent research into the vegetation history of a soak system on Clara Bog known as Lough Roe indicates that major vegetation changes have occurred within the soak over the past century. Vegetation communities were classified and mapped on three d...

  7. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part of the study, the total contents and the solubility characteristics of Zn, Cd, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ca, Sr, K and Rb in 26 different vegetable plants, the majority of them commercially available, are reported, obtained by post-decomposition analyses. The data are given for avocados, bananas, cauliflower, chicory, Chinese cabbage, dill, ice lettuce (two specimens), endive, field salad, cucumbers, kohlrabi, lettuce, chard beet, carrots, peppers, leek, radish, red cabbage, loose leaved lettuce, celery (two specimens), spinach, topinambur, white cabbage, and parsley. Cell decomposition was done by treatment of the plant material with an electric dispersing apparatus (Ultra-Turrax) in buffer solution (liquid shearing). The homogenates were separated into supernatants (cytosoles)and pellets by means of centrifugation. Cell decomposition of the plants by crushing with quartz sand after lyophilization (solid shearing) required much more technical effort and for some elements created problems with the blind values. At least 50% on the average of the elements Zn, Cd, Rb, and K could be transferred to the solutions by the dispersing treatment with Ultra-Turrax. In many cases, the cytosole-borne detectable contents of these 5 elements were above 70%. The solubility of Zn and Cd was more strongly dependent on the plant species than that of Cu, Rb, and K. All five elements thus can be analysed by conventional methods for further enhanced speciation. Mn, Ca, and especially Fe and Sr for the most part were found to be bonded to solid cell constituents. However, the solubility characteristics of Ca and Mn and Sr in particular was very homogeneous. In some plants, the contents of Mn and Sr in the cytosoles was approx. 90%, so that comprehensive speciation of these elements is possible. (orig./AJ)

  8. Plant ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of chromium toxicity on bush bean plants; role of synthetic chelating agents in mineral cycling; use of waste pyrites from mine operations on highly calcareous soil; roots of higher plants as a barrier to translocation of metals; nitrogen cycle in the northern Mohave desert; plant productivity and nutrient interrelationships of perennials; effects of copper, cobalt, cadmium, zinc, nickel, and chromium on growth and mineral concentration in chrysanthemum; plant uptake of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am through roots from soils containing aged fallout materials; estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas; and temperature and water relations and photosynthesis in desert plants

  9. Establishment of experimental catchments to quantify water use by different vegetation types / Estabelecimento de microbacias experimentais para quantificar uso de água por diferentes tipos de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Auro Campi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper describes the procedure developed to select representative experimental catchments to quantify water use and water use efficiency of different vegetation types. We combined freely available information such as LANDSAT satellite images, digital elevation model, Google Earth images, streamflow and rainfall historical data, and soils and vegetation data to select the experimental catchments. Once these catchments were indentified, sub-catchments with different vegetation were delineated, which were used to define the distribution and installation of the instrumentation. Forty eight catchments and respective sub-catchments of Tasmania in Australia were analyzed and only two catchments were identified as ideal for the purposes of quantifying and comparing the historic and current water use by Eucalyptus plantation, native forest and pasture. We choose one catchment and created four experimental and instrumented sub-catchments with the following predominant land use: Eucalyptus nitens, native forest and pasture. ResumoO presente artigo descreve o procedimento desenvolvido para selecionar microbacias representativas para quantificar o uso de água e a eficiência do uso de água de diferentes tipos de vegetação. Foram combinadas informações disponíveis sem custo tais como: imagens de satélite LANDSAT, modelo digital do terreno, imagens de Google Earth, escoamento superficial e dados históricos de precipitação pluviométrica, tipos de solos e cobertura vegetal para a seleção de microbacias experimentais. Uma vez identificadas as microbacias, sub-microbacias com diferente tipos de vegetação foram delineadas, as quais foram usadas para definir a distribuição e instalação de instrumentação. Foram analisadas quarenta e oito microbacias e respectivas sub-microbacias na Tasmânia na Austrália e somente duas microbacias foram identificadas como ideais para o propósito de quantificar e comparar o histórico e atual uso de água por plantações de eucalipto, floresta nativa e pastagem. Ao final foi escolhida uma microbacia e quatro sub-microbacias experimentais instrumentadas com o uso de solo predominantemente de Eucalyptus nitens, floresta nativa e pastagem.

  10. Ecologia da paisagem: mapeamento da vegetao da Reserva Biolgica da Serra do Japi, Jundia, SP, Brasil Landscape ecology: vegetation map of the Reserva Biolgica da Serra do Japi, Jundia, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o mapeamento da vegetao da Reserva Biolgica (REBIO Municipal da Serra do Japi, Jundia, SP, por meio de fotointerpretao analgica, em escala 1:30.000. O mapa foi digitalizado e transferido para computador pelo sistema de informao geogrfica (Idrisi e posteriormente para o programa Corel Draw. Foram identificadas, mapeadas e descritas oito unidades de paisagem (UP sendo trs antrpicas (solo exposto, campo antrpico e reflorestamento homogneo e cinco naturais (floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - microfanerfitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel uniforme - mesofanerfitos; floresta estacional semidecidual montana dossel emergente; floresta estacional semidecidual aluvial dossel emergente e refgio montano arbustivo. As unidades naturais somaram 98,46% do total dos 2.071,20 ha da rea, indicando que a Reserva vem cumprindo seu papel na preservao do ecossistema em questo. No entanto, como algumas unidades no tem expressiva representatividade na rea, e como existe grande extenso de floresta no entorno da Reserva, sugere-se a ampliao e a transformao da mesma em uma unidade que contemple inclusive a visitao pblica como forma de auxiliar no processo de conservao. Sugere-se que a rea seja transformada em parque estadual, cujo nome poderia ser Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.It was realized the vegetation map of the Reserva Biolgica Municipal da Serra do Japi, at Jundia, So Paulo State, by analogical photointerpretation, on the scale 1:30.000. The map was digitized and changed to computer by the geographical information system - Idrisi, and then to the Corel Draw program. Eight landscape units, three anthropic - bare earth, anthropic prairie, homogeneous reforestation, and five natural units - mountainseasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and microphanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with uniform canopy and mesophanerophyts, mountain seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, alluvial seasonal semideciduous forest with emergent canopy, and shrubby mountain refuges, were identified, mapped, and described. The natural units added 98,46% of the total area, showing that the Reserve is carrying out this role in the ecosystem conservation, but as some units are not significantly represented, and since of the large forest extension outside Reserve, it was offered the suggestion that the Reserve with the enlarged area be changed to another conservation unit-category and that contemplate the public visitation, to help in the conservation process. The conservation unit more appropriated is a Park, and could be denominated Parque Estadual da Serra do Japi.

  11. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  12. Founding RGB ecology: The ecology of synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2012-01-01

    There is an arising need to interpret an amount of ecological information that is more and more available. It is not only the pursuit of an easy handling of a large amount of data, but above all the quest for a deep and multivariate interpretation of many sources of ecological info. To this aim, I introduce here RGB ecology as a new branch of ecology devoted to the cartographic synthesis of ecological information. RGB ecology has the following properties: (1) it can not be separated from GIS ...

  13. Field-testing ecological and economic benefits of coffee certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell

    2007-08-01

    Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may not protect as much biodiversity as shade-certified farms. Working toward triple certification (organic, fair trade, and shade) at the farm level may enhance biodiversity protection, increase benefits to farmers, and lead to more successful conservation strategies in coffee-growing regions. PMID:17650248

  14. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J., III; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  15. Ecological stability of landscape - ecological infrastructure - ecological management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Field Workshop 'Ecological Stability of Landscape - Ecological Infrastructure - Ecological Management' was held within a State Environmental Programme financed by the Federal Committee for the Environment. The objectives of the workshop were to present Czech and Slovak approaches to the ecological stability of the landscape by means of examples of some case studies in the field, and to exchange ideas, theoretical knowledge and practical experience on implementing the concept of ecological infrastructure in landscape management. Out of 19 papers contained in the proceedings, 3 items were inputted to the INIS system. (Z.S.)

  16. Fungos micorrzicos arbusculares em fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolndia, Mato Grosso do Sul / Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in vegetation types in the Pantanal of Nhecolndia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Plnio Henrique Oliveira, Gomide; Marx Leandro Naves, Silva; Cludio Roberto Fonsca Sousa, Soares; Evaldo Luis, Cardoso; Fernanda de, Carvalho; Patrcia Lopes, Leal; Rodrigo Magalhes, Marques; Sidney Luiz, Strmer.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Pantanal reconhecido como uma das maiores extenses midas contnua do planeta, com fauna e flora de rara beleza e abundncia. Estudos para acessar a diversidade de fungos micorrzicos arbusculares (FMA) nesse ambiente so inexistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrncia de [...] FMA nas diferentes fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolndia, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo no perodo seco e chuvoso em um Neossolo Quartzarnico, em fitofisionomias sujeitas a distintos regimes de inundao: livres de inundao - Floresta Semidecdua (FS) e Cerrado (CE); sujeitos inundao ocasional - Campo limpo, predominando Elyonorus muticus (CLE) e Cerrado (CC); e sujeitos inundao sazonal - Campo limpo, predominando Andropogon spp. (CLA), borda de baias (BB) e vazante/baixadas (VB). Culturas armadilhas foram estabelecidas com Brachiaria brizantha para recuperar espcies crpticas de FMA. De cada amostra de solo, foram realizadas a caracterizao qumica do solo e extrao dos esporos de FMA para determinar abundncia, riqueza e identificao das espcies. Um total de 37 espcies de FMA, pertencentes a 10 gneros e seis famlias foram detectadas nas duas estaes de coleta. O nmero de esporos variou significativamente entre as fitofisionomias, e os maiores valores foram encontrados em CE e CLA. A maior riqueza especfica foi detectada em CC (25 espcies) seguida de VB e CE com 22 e 21 espcies, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo sugeriram que a diversidade dos FMA est relacionada com a heterogeneidade existente entre as fitofisionomias, e que caractersticas qumicas do solo tm influncia na estruturao das comunidades desses fungos. Considerando que o bioma Pantanal um dos ecossistemas mais conservado do planeta, o levantamento de ocorrncia de FMA realizado neste trabalho forneceu informaes importantes para melhor conhecimento da biodiversidade das fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolndia. Abstract in english The Pantanal (tropical wetland) biome is recognized as one of the largest continuous areas of natural wetlands, harboring a flora and fauna of rare beauty and abundance. Studies to assess the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are nonexistent for this environment. The goal of this study [...] was to evaluate the occurrence of AMF in different vegetation types of the Pantanal of Nhecolndia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and wet season in a Neossolo Quartzarnico (Entisol) in vegetation types subject to different flooding regimes: flood-free - semi-deciduous forest (FS) and "Cerrado" (CE); subject to occasional flooding - grassland dominated by Elyonurus muticus (CLE) and "Cerrado" (CC); and subject to seasonal flooding - grasslands dominated by Andropogon spp. (CLA), the edge of bays (BB), and areas exposed at low water/lowlands (VB). Trap crops were established with Brachiaria brizantha to recover cryptic AMF species. Chemical analyses and spore extraction were carried for each soil sample to identify AMF species and determine their abundance and richness. A total of 37 AMF species, belonging to 10 genera and six families, were detected for both seasons. Spore numbers varied significantly among vegetation types, and the highest values were found in CE and CLA. The greatest richness of species was detected in CC (25 species), followed by VB, with 22 species, and CE, with 21 species. This is the first report on AMF diversity from the Pantanal biome. Results of this study suggest that AMF diversity is related to the heterogeneity among vegetation types and that soil chemical characteristics influence the structure of these fungi communities. Considering that the Pantanal is one of the most conserved biomes in the world, the survey of the occurrence of AMF in this study provides important information for better understanding the biodiversity of the phytophysiognomies of this biome.

  17. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans....

  18. ISLSCP II Potential Natural Vegetation Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set was developed to describe the state of the global land cover in terms of 15 major vegetation types, plus water, before alteration by humans. It forms...

  19. Site study plan for ecology, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ecology Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of studies which include surveys for endangered, threatened, and candidate species; vegetation characterization, including mapping and cover typing, plant succession, wetlands description, and preexisting stresses; and wildlife community characterization, including availability and quality of habitats and descriptions of mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, and invertebrate populations. The plan for each study describes the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule and personnel requirements, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document (SRP-RD). 83 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  2. NATURAL VEGETATION OF BIHAR

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Pandey; Gautam Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Naturally growing vegetation in any specified region is called natural vegetation which refers to the ground cover provided by plants to a particular taxis, life forms, structure, special extent or any other specific botanical or geographical characteristics.

  3. Catálogo de los ejemplares tipo de peces depositados en la colección del Laboratorio de Ecología del Departamento de Zoología, ENCB, IPN Catalogue of fish types housed at Colección del Laboratorio de Ecología del Departamento de Zoología, ENCB, IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fabiola Guzmán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información de los ejemplares tipo de peces actinopterigios depositados en la colección del Laboratorio de Ecología, de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, de acuerdo a la recomendación 72F del Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica. La información fue documentada con base en el análisis bibliográfico de las descripciones originales, los diccionarios, catálogos, etiquetas y ejemplares en cuestión. Los tipos corresponden a holotipos y paratipos y designan a seis especies, dos géneros y una familia. Cuatro de los seis nombres de especie son válidos y uno más se usa bajo una nueva combinación.Information regarding type specimens of actinopterygian fishes housed at Laboratorio de Ecología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas-IPN, is provided. This information follows the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature recommendation 72F. Data were documented based on the analysis of original descriptions, dictionaries, catalogues, labels and specimens themselves. The types comprise holotypes and paratypes, which correspond to six species, two genera, and 1 family names. Four of the six species names are still valid and one is used under a new combination.

  4. Deep Ecology and Subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Grover

    1988-01-01

    Describes Deep Ecology and criticizes its limitations. Discusses mysticism, the bomb, freedom, subjectivity and power as they are addressed by Deep Ecology. Stresses the need to teach ecological balance. (CW)

  5. Forest Ecological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Biohabitats, Inc

    2012-01-01

    A 2012 forest ecological assessment of the Stadium Woods Forest at Virginia Tech. This report examines the forest structure, composition, overall health, ecological processes and other factors to assesses the ecological value of the approximately 11 acre woodland.

  6. Combined assessment and regulation on ecological land use and water demand of the river system: a case study in Luanhe River, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D. H.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.

    2011-10-01

    With economic and social development, ecological water and land use of the river system were seriously misappropriated, which resulted in overall degradation of the river systems. In this study, theoretical and technical frameworks of regionalisation on the eco-environmental function of the river systems were preliminarily formulated. According to the river eco-environmental functions, Luanhe River was regionalised into four types of first-class functional areas, i.e., ecological preservation areas, habitat restoration areas, ecological buffer areas and development and utilisation areas. Combined with the main functions of all functional areas, ecological land use of the river system in Luanhe River was assessed and planned. The total area of basic ecological land use was 876.98 km2; that of restrictive ecological land use was 1745.52 km2; that of ecological land use of the river system returned from farmland was 284.25 km2; and that returned from construction land was 17.35 km2. Combined with prototype observation experiments, the average minimum ecological flow of mainstreams in upper and middle reaches of the Luanhe River was 4.896 m3 s-1 with the habitat method. The evaporation and seepage consumption of the river system in Luanhe River and vegetation consumption in riparian zones were about 133 million m3 and 145 million m3 per year, respectively. Downwards from the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, the mainstream of the Luanhe River was the crucial reach for regulation on instream ecological water use. It was required to speed up ecological land use planning of the river system and strengthen the regulation of ecological water use in important lower reaches of the Luanhe River under the condition of competitive water demand.

  7. Relationship between fire regime and vegetation symphenological timing in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ricotta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a basic ecological factor that contributes to determine vegetation biodiversity and dynamics in time and space. Fuel characteristics play an essential role in fire ignition and propagation; for instance fuel availability and flammability are closely related to the coarse-scale vegetation phenological trends that directly affect wildfire distribution in time and space. In this perspective, the annual NDVI profiles derived from high temporal resolution satellite images like SPOT Vegetation represent an effective tool for monitoring plant seasonal dynamics at the landscape scale. The objective of this study consists in relating the wildfire regime in Sardinia during 2000-2004 with the remotely sensed phenological parameters of the vegetation, segmented according to potential natural vegetation characteristics. The results of our study highlight a good correspondence between the NDVI temporal dynamics of the potential natural vegetation of Sardinia and the corresponding fires regime characteristics.

  8. Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie R. Gotze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the Mapungubwe National Park has been an objective of several conservationists for many years. The ultimate objective is that this park should become a major component of a Transfrontier National Park shared by Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The aim of this study was to identify, classify and describe the plant communities present in the Ib land type of the park. Sampling was done by means of the Braun-Blanquet method. A total of 48 stratified random relevés were sampled in the Ib land type. All relevé data were imported into a TURBOVEG database, after which the numerical classification technique TWINSPAN was used as a first approximation. Subsequently, Braun-Blanquet procedures were used to refine data and a phytosociological table was constructed, using the visual editor, MEGATAB. Two plant communities and several subcommunities and variants were identified and described from the phytosociological table.

  9. Effect oof some antibiotics, disinfectants, and UV light on vability of vegetative cells and spores of C1. perfringend type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells and spores of 40 strains of C1. perfringens type A, pathogenic for guinea pigs, were tested for resistance to antibiotics, drugs, disinfectants used in surgery and in bacteriological laboratories, and UV light. No correlation was found between thermoresistance of spores and their resistance to other bactericidal agents. Among the common disinfectants, iodine solution showed strong bactericidal and sporostatic activity. Good bactericidal effect was also obtained by combined action of Vescodin and UV light. Drug resistance of C1. perfringens type A strains changed clearly in the past 10 years. Strains inducing gangrene became resistant to penicillin and tetracyclines, which hitherto were commonly applied. Ampicilin can now be recommended, as the antibiotic with strong bactericidal and sporostatic action. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Three MODIS-Derived Vegetation Index Time Series for Dryland Vegetation Dynamics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of vegetation is essential in drylands. In this paper, we evaluated three vegetation indices, namely the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Surface-Reflectance Product in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China (XUAR, to assess index time series’ suitability for monitoring vegetation dynamics in a dryland environment. The mean annual VI and its variability were generated and analyzed from the three VI time series for the period 2001–2012 across XUAR. Two phenological metrics, start of the season (SOS and end of the season (EOS, were detected and compared for each vegetation type. The mean annual VI images showed similar spatial patterns of vegetation conditions with varying magnitudes. The EVI exhibited high uncertainties in sparsely vegetated lands and forests. The phenological metrics derived from the three VIs are consistent for most vegetation types, with SOS and EOS generated from NDVI showing the largest deviation.

  11. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE's need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  13. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes the rural invariably focus on notions of spatial location of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of the rural as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latt is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrifts concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  14. Selected types of geotopes in the territory stricken by a storm in the vicinity of Tatranska Polianka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this paper is identification and characterization of selected types of representative geotopes in selected area affected by calamity (19 November 2004) around Tatranska Polianka. Lessons learned about the types geotopes try to bring a comprehensive view of the landscape system of selected area. In the long-term horizon they may form the basis for proposals for ecological optimization of spatial structure of vegetation in the territory of the Tatra National Park.

  15. Distribution and ecological consequences of ploidy variation in Artemisia sieberi in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Adel; Rabie, Mina; Azarnivand, Hossein; Hodgson, John G.; Arzani, Hossein; Jamzad, Ziba; Asri, Younes; Hamzehee, Behnam; Ghasemi, Farzaneh; Hesamzadeh Hejazi, S. M.; Abbas-Azimi, R.

    2013-11-01

    Because of their high proportion in the plant kingdom polyploid taxa are considered to have had evolutionary advantages over their diploid ancestors. These advantages may have included new characteristics that enable polyploids to occupy a broader range of habitats. In this context, we assess the ecological range of Artemisia sieberi, a canopy dominant within an important vegetation type in Iran. We assess the extent to which ploidy covaries with geographical and ecological distribution and look for ecologically-significant differences in the functional characteristics of diploids and polyploids. Populations of A. sieberi were sampled widely in Iran and soil characteristics, climate and anatomical and phytochemical plant attributes were measured. Also, in parallel, an independent genetic assessment of populations was carried out using genetic fingerprinting. Two ploidy levels were identified: 75% of the 34 populations of A. sieberi populations sampled were tetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) with the remainder diploid (2n = 2x = 18). Plants of differing ploidy also differed anatomically, genetically and chemically. Tetraploid populations had larger cells and lower stomatal densities and a different essential oil composition. They also appear ecologically distinct, occupying more fertile, mesic habitats than diploids. Genetic fingerprinting revealed the existence of two genetically differentiated subgroups independent of ploidy but with some geographic and ecological pattern. We conclude that diploids and tetraploids have a different ecological distribution and that the absence of mixed diploid-tetraploid populations is a reflection of differing fitness in different habitats. We suspect that a key ecological difference between diploids and tetraploids is the increased stomatal size of tetraploids, possibly resulting from the increased genome and hence cell size following polyploidisation. Polyploid-formation may be constrained in arid habitats by problems of water-use efficiency associated with the larger stomata originally produced.

  16. Arboreal Ant Assemblages Respond Differently to Food Source and Vegetation Physiognomies: a Study in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Jane Resende

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource and honey (carbohydrate resource baits to collect ants foraging in three vegetation types: (1 preserved native forest, (2 forest in regeneration (capoeira with many invasive plants and (3 a mixed agroystem of rubber and cocoa tree plantation. We recorded 69 ant species attracted to the baits, 21 of them exclusive to honey bait and 25 exclusive to the sardine baits. The vegetation physiognomies preserved forest and rubber/cacao agrosystem showed higher species richness in relation to the forest in regeneration (capoeira, suggesting that rubber tree plantations can be a good matrix for the maintenance of some ant species typical of the forest matrix. The type of resource used is important for the structuring of the arboreal ant assemblages. The ants that were attracted to protein resources showed a guild composition that is more differentiated between vegetation types that of ants attracted to glucose resources.

  17. DEM modelling, vegetation characterization and mapping of aspen parkland rangeland using LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guangquan

    Detailed geographic information system (GIS) studies on plant ecology, animal behavior and soil hydrologic characteristics across spatially complex landscapes require an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). Following interpolation of last return LIDAR data and creation of a LIDAR-derived DEM, a series of 260 points, stratified by vegetation type, slope gradient and off-nadir distance, were ground-truthed using a total laser station, GPS, and 27 interconnected benchmarks. Despite an overall mean accuracy of +2 cm across 8 vegetation types, it created a RMSE (square root of the mean square error) of 1.21 m. DEM elevations were over-estimated within forested areas by an average of 20 cm with a RMSE of 1.05 m, under-estimated (-12 cm, RMSE = 1.36 m) within grasslands. Vegetation type had the greatest influence on DEM accuracy, while off-nadir distance (P = 0.48) and slope gradient (P = 0.49) did not influence DEM accuracy; however, the latter factors did interact (P physiognomy) including plant height, cover, and vertical or horizontal heterogeneity, are important factors influencing biodiversity. Vegetation over and understory were sampled for height, canopy cover, and tree or shrub density within 120 field plots, evenly stratified by vegetation formation (grassland, shrubland, and aspen forest). Results indicated that LIDAR data could be used for estimating the maximum height, cover, and density, of both closed and semi-open stands of aspen (P < 0.001). However, LIDAR data could not be used to assess understory (<1.5 m) height within aspen stands, nor grass height and cover. Recognition and mapping of vegetation types are important for rangelands as they provide a basis for the development and evaluation of management policies and actions. In this study, LIDAR data were found to be superior to digital classification schedules for their mapping accuracy in aspen forest and grassland, but not shrubland. No single classification schedule created a high classification accuracy map for all types; however, the integration of LIDAR data and digital images achieved maps with corresponding overall accuracies of 91% and 83.9% with 3 and 8 classes of vegetation.

  18. High herbivore density associated with vegetation diversity in interglacial ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sandom, Christopher J.; Ejrns, Rasmus; Hansen, Morten D. D.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The impact of large herbivores on ecosystems before modern human activities is an open question in ecology and conservation. For Europe, the controversial woodpasture hypothesis posits that grazing by wild large herbivores supported a dynamic mosaic of vegetation structures at the landscape scale under temperate conditions before agriculture. The contrasting position suggests that European temperate vegetation was primarily closed forest with relatively small open areas, at most impacted loc...

  19. Comparative analysis of remotely-sensed data products via ecological niche modeling of avian influenza case occurrences in Middle Eastern poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiangming

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological niche modeling integrates known sites of occurrence of species or phenomena with data on environmental variation across landscapes to infer environmental spaces potentially inhabited (i.e., the ecological niche to generate predictive maps of potential distributions in geographic space. Key inputs to this process include raster data layers characterizing spatial variation in environmental parameters, such as vegetation indices from remotely sensed satellite imagery. The extent to which ecological niche models reflect real-world distributions depends on a number of factors, but an obvious concern is the quality and content of the environmental data layers. Methods We assessed ecological niche model predictions of H5N1 avian flu presence quantitatively within and among four geographic regions, based on models incorporating two means of summarizing three vegetation indices derived from the MODIS satellite. We evaluated our models for predictive ability using partial ROC analysis and GLM ANOVA to compare performance among indices and regions. Results We found correlations between vegetation indices to be high, such that they contain information that overlaps broadly. Neither the type of vegetation index used nor method of summary affected model performance significantly. However, the degree to which model predictions had to be transferred (i.e., projected onto landscapes and conditions not represented on the landscape of training impacted predictive strength greatly (within-region model predictions far out-performed models projected among regions. Conclusion Our results provide the first quantitative tests of most appropriate uses of different remotely sensed data sets in ecological niche modeling applications. While our testing did not result in a decisive "best" index product or means of summarizing indices, it emphasizes the need for careful evaluation of products used in modeling (e.g. matching temporal dimensions and spatial resolution for optimum performance, instead of simple reliance on large numbers of data layers.

  20. The research of ecology-oriented reasonable deployment of water resources at Shuangtaizi estuary wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tieliang; Su, Fangli; Zhou, Linfei; Li, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Shuangtaizi estuary wetland, the largest natural conservation district in China, and one of the best preserved, largest ecological lands with the most complete vegetation types in the world, is located in Panjin city, Liaoning Province. In recent years, the degradation of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland is very serious. In order to rescue lives in the wetland and protect valuable natural resources, the information system of Shuangtaizi estuary wetland was built with `3S' technology, and the minimum, optimum, and maximum eco-environmental water requirements were calculated respectively. Furthermore, for restoring the ecological functions of wetland and preventing wetland degradation, the balance between supply and demand of water resource was analyzed, and an optimal allocation scheme of water resources was proposed based on three kinds of equilibrium.

  1. Long-term vegetation monitoring for different habitats in floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANG Petra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A floodplain-restoration project along the Danube between Neuburg and Ingolstadt (Germany aims to bring back water and sediment dynamic to the floodplain. The accompanied long-term monitoring has to document the changes in biodiversity related to this new dynamics. Considerations on and results of the vegetation monitoring concept are documented in this paper. In a habitat rich ecosystem like a floodplain different habitats (alluvial forest, semi-aquatic/aquatic sites have different demands on the sampling methods. Therefore, different monitoring designs (preferential, random, systematic, stratified random and transect sampling are discussed and tested for their use in different habitat types of the floodplain. A stratified random sampling is chosen for the alluvial forest stands, as it guarantees an equal distribution of the monitoring plots along the main driving factors, i.e. influence of water. The parameters distance to barrage, ecological flooding, height above thalweg and distance to the new floodplain river are used for stratifying and the plots are placed randomly into these strata, resulting in 117 permanent plots. Due to small changes at the semi-aquatic/aquatic sites a transect sampling was chosen. Further, a rough stratification (channel bed, river bank adjacent floodplain was implemented, which was only possible after the start of the restoration project. To capture the small-scale changes due to the restoration measures on the vegetation, 99 additional plots completed the transect sampling. We conclude that hetereogenous study areas need different monitoring approaches, but, later on, a joint analysis must be possible

  2. The Grassland vegetation of Platberg, eastern Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Brand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Platberg is an inselberg that presents a refuge for indigenous plants and animals. Uncontrolled human access to this area threatens this sensitive ecosystem. The vegetation of Platberg was investigated to obtain an inventory of the different plant species and communities present in this area. A hierarchical classification, a description and an ecological interpretation of the grassland communities of Platberg are presented. A total of 169 sample plots were placed on a stratified random basis within the study area. From a TWINSPAN classification a total of 27 different plant communities, which can be grouped into two major community types, nine communities, 18 sub-communities and six variants, were identified. A significant difference in species richness was found between the two major communities, with the higher-altitude communities having a higher species richness than the communities on the lower-lying slopes. A total of 26 endemic or near endemic Drakensberg Alpine Centre species were recorded. Conservation implications: Anthropogenic influences are felt globally on ecosystems. High-altitude habitats and organisms will be affected first. Inselbergs have high levels of endemic organisms and are reservoirs and refugia for unique genetic material. This grassland plant community survey of Platberg provides valuable information on inselberg ecology for conservation planning.

  3. A new world natural vegetation map for global change studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lapola, David M.; Marcos D. Oyama; Nobre, Carlos A.; Gilvan Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    We developed a new world natural vegetation map at 1 degree horizontal resolution for use in global climate models. We used the Dorman and Sellers vegetation classification with inclusion of a new biome: tropical seasonal forest, which refers to both deciduous and semi-deciduous tropical forests. SSiB biogeophysical parameters values for this new biome type are presented. Under this new vegetation classification we obtained a consensus map between two global natural vegetation maps widely use...

  4. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  5. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Vegetation Cover Characteristics, Kalahari Transect, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Vegetation cover and composition, including species types and richness assessments, were measured at four locations along the Kalahari Transect in Botswana...

  7. Recent Trends in Satellite Vegetation Index Observations Indicate Decreasing Vegetation Biomass in the Southeastern Saline Everglades Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed trends in time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from multitemporal satellite imagery for 2001-2010 over the southeastern Everglades where major changes in vegetation structure and type have been associated with sea-level rise and reduced freshwater flow since the 1940s. Non-parametric trend analysis using the Theil-Sen slope revealed that 84.4% of statistically significant trends in NDVI were negative, mainly concentrated in scrub mangrove, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and spike rush (Eleocharis cellulosa) communities within 5 km of the shoreline. Observed trends were consistent with trends in sawgrass biomass measurements made from 1999-2010 in three Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) sites within our study area. A map of significant trends overlaid on a RapidEye high-resolution satellite image showed large patches of negative trends parallel to the shoreline in and around the 'white zone,' which corresponds to a low-productivity band that has moved inland over the past 70 years. Significantly positive trends were observed mainly in the halophytic prairie community where highly salt tolerant species are typically found. Taken as a whole, the results suggest that increased saline intrusion associated with sea-level rise continues to reduce the photosynthetic biomass within freshwater and oligohaline marsh communities of the southeastern Everglades. Trends in 2001-2010 NDVI in southern saline Everglades wetlands of South Florida. a) slope values; b) areas of significant slope; c) location of the study area.

  8. Research on Chengdu Vegetables Marketing Based on STP Model

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Liu; Xiumin Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we take the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market as samples, in the form of questionnaires and interviews, to study the consumer motivations and psychology, and make market segmentation of consumers. Results show that the consumers in Chengdu vegetables market can be divided into four types: the safety-pursuing type, the convenient and economical type, the family healthy type, and the fashionable type, among which the safety-pursuing type is the largest. Finally, authors put ...

  9. Determinants of vegetation distribution at continental scale. The contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Michelle; Svenning, J.-C.; Lykke, Anne Mette; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated what determines distribution of vegetation types, though this has rarely been tested at continental scale. We thus aimed to determine which vegetation types are most accurately predicted by natural environmental factors, and which of these factors best predict current...... vegetation distribution across Africa. Vegetation types were extracted from the Global Land Cover Map for the year 2000, and the distribution of vegetation types modelled in terms of climate, soil and topography. Annual precipitation was the best predictor of the distribution of all vegetation types, and...

  10. Radar response of vegetation: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig

    1993-01-01

    This document contains a number of viewgraphs on surface and vegetation backscattering. A classification of vegetation based on general scattering properties is presented. Radar scattering mechanisms are discussed, and backscattering and reflection coefficients for soil back scattering models are given. Radar response to vegetation is presented, with the objectives to discriminate and classify vegetation; to estimate biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and soil moisture; and to monitor changes, including deforestation and growth. Both theory and observation (laboratory, field, air SAR, and European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1) observations) are used to present backscatter coefficients and other data for various vegetation types. ERS-1 results include class statistics, comparison with theory, and biomass response and seasonal variation (LAI) for deciduous and coniferous forests.

  11. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of ecological taxation in general and for the Netherlands in specific was analyzed within the context of one of the NRP research projects. The analysis shows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is generally determined by the tax design, the taxing authority by which these taxes are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal structures into which they are embedded. In order to be feasible, the analysis shows that ecologically relevant taxes have to be imposed by a taxing authority which is clearly related to relevant ecological circumstances. Since normal taxing authorities tend to be political units which most of the times do not fit this description, institutional and constitutional changes are necessary to introduce and impose (additional) feasible types of ecological taxes in practice. Within the context of the Netherlands, the analysis shows that the currently changing intergovernmental and financial relationships in this country provide important starting points for municipalities, water authorities and provinces to introduce feasible types of such taxes. 225 refs

  12. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species–climate–vegetation relationships, which could be further advanced with improved canopy structure information across spatial scales. (paper)

  13. Ecologically important territories; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological importance of territory is assessed from the point of view of protected territories and elements of the territorial system of ecological stability (TSES) it contains, and other eco-stabilising landscape elements. Eco-stabilising elements are forests, shrubbery, heterogeneous agricultural areas and different types of grasslands, which are not included either in protected territories or the TSES elements. According to heir combinations, the territory of Slovakia can be characterised in 9 categories: starting by ecologically very important territories and ending by ecologically little important territories. (author)

  14. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  15. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  16. Elemental sources, cycling, and ecological availability in rivers in carbonate terrains: An interdisciplinary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, M. J.; Martin, J. B.; Cohen, M. J.; de Montety, V.; Nifong, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, coupled physical, chemical and biologic processes control the sources and cycling of solutes in streams; however, the relative magnitude and temporal variability of individual processes can be difficult to differentiate in large rivers. Understanding the timing and magnitude of these processes is critical to preserving the water quality and ecological health of stream systems and predicting their responses to environmental change. The large springs of north Florida are characterized by stable chemical composition and discharge, high clarity and naturally low metal concentrations. As a result, spring-fed rivers provide model systems to study the interactions between the hydrologic, geochemical and ecological processes which control the availability and cycling of solutes within streams and the feedbacks between these solute dynamics and submerged vegetation. We combined high-frequency river and synoptic pore-water sampling, with measurements of submerged vegetation stoichiometry, and long-term records of river and pore-water hydrology in the Ichetucknee River, FL to investigate how diffuse groundwater discharge and in-stream diel (24-hr) cycling mediate the environmental availability of solutes and the composition and function of aquatic vegetation. Diffusion and diffuse groundwater flow from the anoxic river-bottom sediments provide a source of Fe, Mn, P, Ca and Cl to the aquatic ecosystem distinct from other spring water inputs. In-stream solute concentrations of Ca, Mn, Ba, Cr, V, Fe, U, and Sr cycle at diel time scales as a result of a number of overlapping inorganic processes indirectly controlled by solar radiation and the primary production of submerged vegetation. Plant metabolism also directly contributes to the diel removal of trace metals via assimilatory uptake, although the exact timing of assimilation relative to the other inorganic controls remains uncertain. Tissue stoichiometry varies between vegetation types (submerged macrophytes generally enriched in major elements and depleted in trace elements relative to benthic algae), and between sampling sites (in correlation with changes in ambient water chemistry for select elements, including Mn, Cr, U, and Sr). Since diffuse hyporheic sources and in-river cycling mediate the availability of nutrients to the aquatic ecosystem, these processes may affect the productivity and relative abundance of algae and submerged macrophytes. Conversely, changes in species abundance could lead to corresponding changes in the magnitude of assimilatory uptake and thus control in-stream diel variations. These results illustrate the reciprocal interactions between solute dynamics in streams and the elemental requirements of submerged aquatic vegetation, and highlight the significance of the hyporheic zone as an ecologically important source of solutes to rivers with otherwise homogenous source chemistry.

  17. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  18. Fiscal year 1991 100 Areas CERCLA ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the status of the ecological investigations conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company during Fiscal Year 1991. These ecological investigations provide a basic description of the flora and fauna that inhabit the operable units, emphasizing species that have been given special status under existing state and/or federal laws. The 1991 Westinghouse Hanford Company field investigations have concentrated on the following: (1) bird surveys, (2) mammal and insect surveys, (3) vegetation surveys, and (4) vegetation sampling. Work being conducted as part of the vegetation surveys includes a biological assessment of threatened and endangered plants, which is being prepared as a separate document. Similar ecological investigations will be conducted at 100- N, K, and F operable units in 1992

  19. The influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of the rivers Lafnitz and Pinka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Formayer, Herbert; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Melcher, Andreas; Dossi, Florian

    2013-04-01

    In Central Europe freshwater ecosystems have to deal with a loss of habitat structures due to channelisation and standardisation. Unimpaired streams and rivers are very rare, which leads to a few, remaining populations of sensitive invertebrate species which are severely fragmented. This progress is mainly noticed in lowland rivers in agricultural intensely used areas, where habitat degradation and pollution affect the ecosystems. Additional pressures on the freshwater systems will be expected due to climate change effects. In the Austrian Lowlands, an increase of air temperature about 2-2.5 °C is predicted till 2040. This will in turn lead to the highest increase in water temperature in the lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains", Ecoregion 11 on which the impacts of climate change will most likely be highest in Austria. Global warming on its own may lead to severe changes in aquatic ecosystems. Human impacts increase the negative effects even more. Main factors for a sustainable survival of benthic invertebrates and fishes are closely connected with parameters like water temperature, the availability of oxygen and nutrients, or radiation and nutrients for primary production which are closely related to climate. Natural bank vegetation reduces the influx of solar radiation as well as it forms a microclimate of its own and could provide very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages. Riparian areas with trees provide direct shade for the water body and thus avoiding the corresponding increase in water temperature. Wide riparian wooded areas can even decrease evaporation and increase the relative air humidity, which contributes to reducing water temperature. Input of deadwood like trees or logs represents essential habitats for invertebrates and fish assemblages. Its presence is one essential drivers of bed-morphology creating heterogeneous instream habitat patterns. In the framework of the project BIO_CLIC the potential of riparian vegetation to mitigate effects of climate change on biological assemblages of small and medium sized running waters will be investigated. The results support river managers in implementing integrative guidelines for sustainable river restoration towards climate change adaptation, ecological services and socio-economic consequences. In this paper the influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of rivers will be highlighted. As a first step in field works habitat characteristics will be examined and described. First results show riparian vegetation datasets for different riparian vegetation types with 3D spatial distribution of vegetation, riparian vegetation composition and radiation attenuation coefficients for different vegetation types.

  20. Selection of Hyperspectral Narrowbands (HNBs) and Composition of Hyperspectral Twoband Vegetation Indices (HVIs) for Biophysical Characterization and Discrimination of Crop Types Using Field Reflectance and Hyperion-EO-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Mariotto, Isabella; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Landis, David R.; Huemmrich, K. Fred

    2013-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to establish optimal hyperspectral vegetation indices (HVIs) and hyperspectral narrowbands (HNBs) that best characterize, classify, model, and map the world's main agricultural crops. The primary objectives were: (1) crop biophysical modeling through HNBs and HVIs, (2) accuracy assessment of crop type discrimination using Wilks' Lambda through a discriminant model, and (3) meta-analysis to select optimal HNBs and HVIs for applications related to agriculture. The study was conducted using two Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion scenes and other surface hyperspectral data for the eight leading worldwide crops (wheat, corn, rice, barley, soybeans, pulses, cotton, and alfalfa) that occupy approx. 70% of all cropland areas globally. This study integrated data collected from multiple study areas in various agroecosystems of Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and India. Data were collected for the eight crop types in six distinct growth stages. These included (a) field spectroradiometer measurements (350-2500 nm) sampled at 1-nm discrete bandwidths, and (b) field biophysical variables (e.g., biomass, leaf area index) acquired to correspond with spectroradiometer measurements. The eight crops were described and classified using approx. 20 HNBs. The accuracy of classifying these 8 crops using HNBs was around 95%, which was approx. 25% better than the multi-spectral results possible from Landsat-7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ or EO-1's Advanced Land Imager. Further, based on this research and meta-analysis involving over 100 papers, the study established 33 optimal HNBs and an equal number of specific two-band normalized difference HVIs to best model and study specific biophysical and biochemical quantities of major agricultural crops of the world. Redundant bands identified in this study will help overcome the Hughes Phenomenon (or "the curse of high dimensionality") in hyperspectral data for a particular application (e.g., biophysical characterization of crops). The findings of this study will make a significant contribution to future hyperspectral missions such as NASA's HyspIRI. Index Terms-Hyperion, field reflectance, imaging spectroscopy, HyspIRI, biophysical parameters, hyperspectral vegetation indices, hyperspectral narrowbands, broadbands.