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1

Parallelization of Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

General-purpose Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP are well-vectorized and thus enable us to perform high-speed Monte Carlo calculations. In order to achieve more speedups, we parallelized the codes on the different types of the parallel processing platforms. The platforms reported are a distributed-memory vector-parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500, a distributed-memory massively parallel computer Intel Paragon and a distributed-memory scalar-parallel computer Hitachi SR2201. As mentioned generally, ideal speedup could be obtained for large-scale problems but parallelization efficiency got worse as the batch size per a processing element (PE) was smaller. (author)

Nagaya, Yasunobu; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sasaki, Makoto

1998-03-01

2

MVP utilization for PWR design code  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MHI studies the method of the spatially dependent resonance cross sections so as to predict the power distribution in a fuel pellet accurately. For this purpose, the multiband method and the Stoker/Weiss method were implemented to the 2 dimensional transport code PHOENIX-P, and the methods were validated by comparing them with MVP code. Although the appropriate reference was not obtain from the deterministic codes on the resonance cross section study, now the Monte Carlo code MVP result is available and useful as reference. It is shown here how MVP is used to develop the multiband method and the Stoker/Weiss method, and how effective the result of MVP is on the study of the resonance cross sections. (author)

Matsumoto, Hideki; Tahara, Yoshihisa [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-01-01

3

Electron-Vector Potential Interaction Hamiltonian  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors investigate an ambiguity inherent in the definition of the vector potential used in electron-electromagnetic field interactions. Two cases, Zeeman effect and Compton scattering, are studied.

Ritchie, B

2003-03-27

4

Faraday's law via the magnetic vector potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Faraday's law for a filamentary circuit which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves is derived via the magnetic vector potential. The derivation is simpler than the usual one, based on the Hertz-Helmholtz identity. (note)

2007-01-01

5

MVP and vaults: a role in the radiation response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vaults are evolutionary highly conserved ribonucleoproteins particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. The main component of vaults represents the 110 kDa major vault protein (MVP), whereas two minor vaults proteins comprise the 193 kDa vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the 240 kDa telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP-1). Additionally, at least one small and untranslated RNA is found as a constitutive component. MVP seems to play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance. This particle has also been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmission and immune responses. Vaults are considered a prognostic marker for different cancer types. The level of MVP expression predicts the clinical outcome after chemotherapy in different tumour types. Recently, new roles have been assigned to MVP and vaults including the association with the insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, and the two major DNA double-strand break repair machineries: non-homologous endjoining and homologous recombination. Furthermore, MVP has been proposed as a useful prognostic factor associated with radiotherapy resistance. Here, we review these novel actions of vaults and discuss a putative role of MVP and vaults in the response to radiotherapy.

Lara Pedro C; Pruschy Martin; Zimmermann Martina; Henríquez-Hernández Luis

2011-01-01

6

On dynamics of velocity vector potential in incompressible fluids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An elegant quaternionic formulation is given for the Lagrangian advection equation for velocity vector potential in fluid dynamics. At first we study the topological significance of a restricted conserved quantity viz., stream-helicity and later more realistic configuration of open streamlines is figured out. Also, using Clebsch parameterisation of the velocity vector potential yet another physical significance for the stream-helicity is provided. Finally we give a Nambu-Poisson formalism of the Lagrangian advection equation for velocity vector potential.

2009-10-05

7

Telediagnostic Assessment of Intelligibility in Dysarthria: A Pilot Investigation of MVP-Online  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A most important index of functional impairment in dysarthria is "intelligibility". The "Munich Intelligibility Profile" (MVP) is a computer-based method for the assessment of the intelligibility of dysarthric patients. A multi-user online version of MVP is now available. Aims: To describe the structure of MVP-online and to evaluate…

Ziegler, Wolfram; Zierdt, Andreas

2008-01-01

8

Comment on 'Vector potential of the Coulomb gauge'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expression for the Coulomb-gauge vector potential in terms of the 'instantaneous' magnetic field derived by Stewart (2003 Eur. J. Phys. 24 519) by employing Jefimenko's equation for the magnetic field and Jackson's formula for the Coulomb-gauge vector potential can be proven much more simply. (letters and comments)

2004-03-01

9

Therapeutic potential of retroviral RNAi vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to mediate gene-specific post-transcriptional silencing in mammalian cells will undoubtedly revolutionise functional genomics, as well as drug target identification and validation. Furthermore, there is widespread excitement that siRNA itself might prove useful in the clinical setting. For those wishing to develop siRNA as a therapeutic agent, the most difficult obstacle to overcome will be delivery. Recently, several breakthroughs have highlighted viruses as excellent vehicles for siRNA delivery. Retroviruses, the transgene-delivery vector of choice for many experimental gene therapy studies, have been engineered to deliver and stably express therapeutic siRNA within cells, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings are important milestones for the development of siRNA as a gene therapy for treatment of viral infections, cancer, autoimmune syndromes and numerous genetic disorders. This review describes the development of retroviral siRNA vectors, highlights proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating their therapeutic efficacy and explores therapeutic targets particularly suitable for retroviral-mediated gene silencing. PMID:15006726

Devroe, Eric; Silver, Pamela A

2004-03-01

10

Therapeutic potential of retroviral RNAi vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to mediate gene-specific post-transcriptional silencing in mammalian cells will undoubtedly revolutionise functional genomics, as well as drug target identification and validation. Furthermore, there is widespread excitement that siRNA itself might prove useful in the clinical setting. For those wishing to develop siRNA as a therapeutic agent, the most difficult obstacle to overcome will be delivery. Recently, several breakthroughs have highlighted viruses as excellent vehicles for siRNA delivery. Retroviruses, the transgene-delivery vector of choice for many experimental gene therapy studies, have been engineered to deliver and stably express therapeutic siRNA within cells, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings are important milestones for the development of siRNA as a gene therapy for treatment of viral infections, cancer, autoimmune syndromes and numerous genetic disorders. This review describes the development of retroviral siRNA vectors, highlights proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating their therapeutic efficacy and explores therapeutic targets particularly suitable for retroviral-mediated gene silencing.

Devroe E; Silver PA

2004-03-01

11

Adenoviral Vectors in Veterinary Vaccine Development: Potential for Further Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Vaccines are an integral part of veterinary disease prevention. However there are still a significant number of veterinary diseases for which vaccines do not currently exist or where currently available vaccines do not provide adequate immunity. Adenoviruses have transitioned from tools for gene replacement therapy to bona fide vaccine delivery vehicles because of their ability to elicit potent cell-mediated and humoral responses making them ideal for use against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. Adenoviral vector based vaccines are likely to play a significant role in overcoming these problems in the future. However, this vector is under utilized in veterinary vaccine development at this time. This review focuses on adenoviral vector based vaccines developed to date and explores the potential for veterinary vaccine development based upon this platform: advantages and potential disadvantages of this technology are discussed as well as the potential for developing efficacious commercial veterinary adenoviral vector based vaccines.

Olasumbo L. Ndi; Mary D. Barton; Thiru Vanniasinkam

2013-01-01

12

Scalar potentials for vector fields in quantum electrodynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For an arbitrary vector field F: xelement ofR/sup 3/..-->..F(x)element ofR/sup 3/, the representation F = delPhi+LPsi+delXLchi, where Phi, Psi, chi are scalar potentials, is used to disentangle the longitudinal and transversal degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field. As a result the potentials for the electromagnetic field can be quantized restriction-free. Replacing the conventional vector potential in the Dirac equation by these Debye potentials provides a manifestly covariant and local description for the interaction of the quantized electromagnetic field with a quantized Dirac field.

Mueller, E.E.

1987-11-01

13

Floppy Mitral Valve (FMV)/Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) and the FMV/MVP Syndrome: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms and Pathogenesis of Symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) results from the systolic movement of a portion or segments of the mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium during left ventricular systole. It is well appreciated today that floppy mitral valve (FMV) is the central issue in the MVP and mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) story. The term FMV refers to the expansion of the area of the mitral valve leaflets with elongated chordae tendineae, chordae rupture and mitral annular dilation. FMV/MVP occurs in a heterogeneous group of patients with a wide spectrum of mitral valve involvement from mild to severe. Two types of symptoms can be defined in FMV/MVP patients. In one group of patients, symptoms are directly related to progressive MVR. In the other group, symptoms cannot be explained by the degree of MVR alone; activation of the autonomic nervous system has been implicated for the explanation of symptoms in this group of patients which is referred to as the FMV/MVP syndrome. In this brief review, the natural history, pathophysiologic mechanisms and management of patients with FMV/MVP/MVR and FMV/MVP syndrome are discussed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Boudoulas KD; Boudoulas H

2013-08-01

14

Reconstructed Potential Functions In Bounded Domain Vector Tomography  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The tomographic imaging of vector fields on boundeddomains is considered. Reconstruction formulas for theprobe transform are first shown to be valid on boundeddomains. It is then shown that potential functions reconstructedfrom these formulas include a componentthat arises from the harmonic component of the vectorfield, which is due to boundary conditions alone. Closedform expressions for the harmonic field contribution tothe reconstructed scalar and vector potential functionsare derived. The harmonic component is not imagedequally into the irrotational and solenoidal fields, as hadbeen previously speculated, but contributes unequallyas a function of both the boundary shape and the vectorfield values defined on the boundary.1. INTRODUCTIONVector tomography is the reconstruction of a vector fieldfrom plane integrals of the point-by-point inner productof the field with a unit vector called the probe. Theprobe is allowed to depend on the plane of integration,and like ...

Nael F. Osman; Jerry L. Prince

15

Faraday's law via the magnetic vector potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faraday's law for a filamentary circuit which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves is derived via the magnetic vector potential. The derivation is simpler than the usual one, based on the Hertz-Helmholtz identity. (note)

Redzic, Dragan V [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, PO Box 368, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-03-15

16

Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed.

Lara Pedro C; Lloret Marta; Clavo Bernardino; Apolinario Rosa M; Henríquez-Hernández Luis; Bordón Elisa; Fontes Fausto; Rey Agustín

2009-01-01

17

Severe hypoxia induces chemo-resistance in clinical cervical tumors through MVP over-expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen molecule modulates tumour response to radiotherapy. Higher radiation doses are required under hypoxic conditions to induce cell death. Hypoxia may inhibit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair through down regulating Ku70/80 expression. Hypoxia induces drug resistance in clinical tumours, although the mechanism is not clearly elucidated. Vaults are ribonucleoprotein particles with a hollow barrel-like structure composed of three proteins: major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and telomerase associated protein-1 and small untranslated RNA. Over-expression of MVP has been associated with chemotherapy resistance. Also, it has been related to poor outcome in patients treated with radiotherapy alone. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation of Major Vault Protein expression and tumor hypoxia in clinical cervical tumors. MVP, p53 and angiogenesis, together with tumor oxygenation, were determined in forty-three consecutive patients suffering from localized cervix carcinoma. High MVP expression was related to severe hypoxia compared to low MVP expressing tumors (p = 0.022). Tumors over-expressing MVP also showed increased angiogenesis (p = 0.003). Besides it, in this study we show for the first time that severe tumor hypoxia is associated with high MVP expression in clinical cervical tumors. Up-regulation of MVP by hypoxia is of critical relevance as chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment for those patients. From our results it could be suggested that hypoxia not only induces increased genetic instability, oncogenic properties and metastatization, but through the correlation observed with MVP expression, another pathway of chemo and radiation resistance could be developed.

Lara, Pedro C; Lloret, Marta; Clavo, Bernardino; Apolinario, Rosa M; Henriquez-Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Bordon, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustin

2009-01-01

18

Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

Okumura, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio [Integrated Technical Information Research Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto [Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-01-01

19

The Physical Entity of Vector Potential in Electromagnetism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scalar and vector potentials were introduced into electromagnetic physics in the second half of the nineteenth century. The chief aim was to use them as auxiliary mathematical quantities in order to solve certain practical problems.Nevertheless the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect (1959) in quantum mechanics has suggested that vector potential rather than magnetic field is the causal agent in such an effect. Recent research on the Maxwell-Lodge paradox--induction of voltage in the loop circling a long solenoid carrying alternating current--has confirmed that induction occurs in a region of space effectively free from magnetic field. This again reinforces the idea of vector potential as a physical entity rather than the auxiliary artificial quantity of classical electrodynamics. The present investigation is intended to provide some degree of corroboration of the previous result.The experimental arrangement consists of a ‘special’ transformer containing movable, single turn coils wound onto rectangular frames. The primary coil is powered from a signal generator providing alternating current over a variable frequency range while the secondary output voltage is connected across a C.R.O./precision voltmeter. Measurements of transformer e.m.f. were carried out at several frequencies in the range 100 Hz–20 kHz and with various conditions of shielding around the primary and secondary coils.Certain additional experiments were carried out with a long solenoid and torus solenoid supplied with different core materials. Experimental results for induced e.m.f’s are presented and in special cases correlated with the calculated values of mutual inductance. Overall the results tend to confirm the primacy of vector potential over magnetic field as an explanation of the phenomenon.

Vladimir Alexandr Leus; Ray T. Smith; Simon Maher

2013-01-01

20

Seismic liquefaction potential assessment by using Relevance Vector Machine  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the liquefaction potential of soil is important in earthquake engineering. This study proposes the use of the Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) to determine the liquefaction potential of soil by using actual cone penetration test (CPT) data. RVM is based on a Bayesian formulation of a linear model with an appropriate prior that results in a sparse representation. The results are compared with a widely used artificial neural network (ANN) model. Overall, the RVM shows good performance and is proven to be more accurate than the ANN model. It also provides probabilistic output. The model provides a viable tool for earthquake engineers to assess seismic conditions for sites that are susceptible to liquefaction.

Samui, Pijush

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Topographic models for predicting malaria vector breeding habitats: potential tools for vector control managers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Identification of malaria vector breeding sites can enhance control activities. Although associations between malaria vector breeding sites and topography are well recognized, practical models that predict breeding sites from topographic information are lacking. We used topographic variables derived from remotely sensed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to model the breeding sites of malaria vectors. We further compared the predictive strength of two different DEMs and evaluated the predictability of various habitat types inhabited by Anopheles larvae. METHODS: Using GIS techniques, topographic variables were extracted from two DEMs: 1) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 3 (SRTM3, 90-m resolution) and 2) the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER, 30-m resolution). We used data on breeding sites from an extensive field survey conducted on an island in western Kenya in 2006. Topographic variables were extracted for 826 breeding sites and for 4520 negative points that were randomly assigned. Logistic regression modelling was applied to characterize topographic features of the malaria vector breeding sites and predict their locations. Model accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). RESULTS: All topographic variables derived from both DEMs were significantly correlated with breeding habitats except for the aspect of SRTM. The magnitude and direction of correlation for each variable were similar in the two DEMs. Multivariate models for SRTM and ASTER showed similar levels of fit indicated by Akaike information criterion (3959.3 and 3972.7, respectively), though the former was slightly better than the latter. The accuracy of prediction indicated by AUC was also similar in SRTM (0.758) and ASTER (0.755) in the training site. In the testing site, both SRTM and ASTER models showed higher AUC in the testing sites than in the training site (0.829 and 0.799, respectively). The predictability of habitat types varied. Drains, foot-prints, puddles and swamp habitat types were most predictable. CONCLUSIONS: Both SRTM and ASTER models had similar predictive potentials, which were sufficiently accurate to predict vector habitats. The free availability of these DEMs suggests that topographic predictive models could be widely used by vector control managers in Africa to complement malaria control strategies.

Nmor JC; Sunahara T; Goto K; Futami K; Sonye G; Akweywa P; Dida G; Minakawa N

2013-01-01

22

Vector potential analysis of the helicon antenna in vacuum  

CERN Multimedia

The helicon antenna is a well-known device in the field of electric propulsion. Here we investigate the vector potential produced in vacuum by such an antenna with typical size parameters. Both a static and a dynamic analysis are performed. The dynamic calculation is evaluated at both the usual operating frequency and one which is slightly greater. At the higher frequency, a pulse of electromagnetic energy is found to propagate along the cylindrical axis in either direction. The possible adaptation of the helicon antenna as a RF injection device for burning plasma is discussed.

Johnson, Robert W

2011-01-01

23

Support vector machines-based modelling of seismic liquefaction potential  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the potential of support vector machines (SVM)-based classification approach to assess the liquefaction potential from actual standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) field data. SVMs are based on statistical learning theory and found to work well in comparison to neural networks in several other applications. Both CPT and SPT field data sets is used with SVMs for predicting the occurrence and non-occurrence of liquefaction based on different input parameter combination. With SPT and CPT test data sets, highest accuracy of 96 and 97%, respectively, was achieved with SVMs. This suggests that SVMs can effectively be used to model the complex relationship between different soil parameter and the liquefaction potential. Several other combinations of input variable were used to assess the influence of different input parameters on liquefaction potential. Proposed approach suggest that neither normalized cone resistance value with CPT data nor the calculation of standardized SPT value is required with SPT data. Further, SVMs required few user-defined parameters and provide better performance in comparison to neural network approach.

Pal, Mahesh

2006-08-01

24

Vector Potential and Stored Energy of a Quadrupole Magnet Array  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vector potential, magnetic field and stored energy of a quadrupole magnet array are derived. Each magnet within the array is a current sheet with a current density proportional to the azimuthal angle 2{theta} and the longitudinal periodicity (2m-1){pi}/L. Individual quadrupoles within the array are oriented in a way that maximizes the field gradient The array does not have to be of equal spacing and can be of a finite size, however when the array is equally spaced and is of infinite size the solution can be simplified. We note that whereas, in a single quadrupole magnet with a current density proportional to cos2{theta} the gradient is pure, such purity is not preserved in a quadrupole array.

Caspi, S.

1999-03-15

25

Equilibrium problems for infinite dimensional vector potentials with external fields  

CERN Multimedia

The study deals with a minimal energy problem in the presence of an external field over noncompact classes of vector measures of infinite dimension in a locally compact space. The components are positive measures (charges) satisfying certain normalizing assumptions and supported by given closed sets (plates) with the sign +1 or -1 prescribed such that oppositely signed sets are mutually disjoint, and the interaction matrix for the charges corresponds to an electrostatic interpretation of a condenser. For all positive definite kernels satisfying Fuglede's condition of consistency between the weak* and strong topologies, sufficient conditions for the existence of equilibrium measures are established and properties of their uniqueness, vague compactness, and continuity are studied. We also obtain variational inequalities for the weighted equilibrium potentials, single out their characteristic properties, and analyze continuity of the equilibrium constants.

Zorii, Natalia

2009-01-01

26

Neutron cross section library production code system for continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP. LICEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A code system has been developed to produce neutron cross section libraries for the MVP continuous energy Monte Carlo code from an evaluated nuclear data library in the ENDF format. The code system consists of 9 computer codes, and can process nuclear data in the latest ENDF-6 format. By using the present system, MVP neutron cross section libraries for important nuclides in reactor core analyses, shielding and fusion neutronics calculations have been prepared from JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, JENDL-FUSION file and ENDF/B-VI data bases. This report describes the format of MVP neutron cross section library, the details of each code in the code system and how to use them. (author).

Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

1996-05-01

27

Assessing the potential for AAV vector genotoxicity in a murine model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has great potential for treating human disease. Recently, questions have arisen about the safety of AAV vectors, specifically, whether integration of vector DNA in transduced cell genomes promotes tumor formation. This study addresses these qu...

Li, Hojun; Malani, Nirav; Hamilton, Shari R.; Schlachterman, Alexander; Bussadori, Giulio; Edmonson, Shyrie E.

28

VECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A autoregulatory expression vector is provided which comprises a nucleic acid sequence encoding reverse tetracycline transactivator which binds to a tet operon containing promoter in the presence of doxycycline thereby inducing expression of a protein of interest. The vector finds application in gene therapy in the treatment of chronic conditions displaying relapsing symptoms.

CHERNAJOVSKY Yuti; GOULD David James

29

A Dirac particle in a vector-like hydrogenic potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors consider a new type of vector-like interaction in the Dirac equation. Under minimal substitution the wave equation takes on a hydrogen-like form. The eigenfunctions of the system are given and the degeneracy of the eigenvalues is discussed.

Bruce, S.; Roa, L. [Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Fac. de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Dept. de Fisica

1998-02-01

30

Large Lorentz Scalar and Vector Potentials in Nuclei  

CERN Document Server

In nonrelativistic models of nuclei, the underlying mass scales of low-energyquantum chromodynamics (QCD) are largely hidden. In contrast, the covariantformulations used in relativistic phenomenology manifest the QCD scales innuclei through large Lorentz scalar and four-vector nucleon self-energies. Theabundant and varied evidence in support of this connection and the consequencesare reviewed.

Furnstahl, R J; Serot, Brian D.

2000-01-01

31

Development of Novel Recombinant AAV Vectors and Strategies for the Potential Gene Therapy of Hemophilia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant vectors based on a non-pathogenic human parvovirus, the adeno-associated virus (AAV), have gained attention as a potentially safe and useful alternative to the more commonly used retroviral and adenoviral vectors. AAV vectors are currently in use in Phase I/II clinical trials for gene therapy of a number of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, ?-1 antitrypsin deficiency, muscular dystrophy, Batten's disease, and Parkinson's disease, and have shown efficacy in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis, and hemophilia B. For patients with hemophilia B, however, relatively large vector doses are needed to achieve therapeutic benefits. Large vector doses also trigger an immune response as significant fraction of the vectors fails to traffic efficiently to the nucleus, and is targeted for degradation by the host cell proteasome machinery. With a better understanding of the various steps in the life cycle of AAV vectors, strategies leading to the development of novel AAV vectors that are capable of high-efficiency transduction at lower doses are needed. In this review, we summarize our strategies to develop novel AAV vectors for the potential gene therapy of both hemophilia B and hemophilia A, based on our recent studies on the basic molecular biology of AAV. These strategies, including the development of novel AAV vectors by site-directed mutagenesis of critical surface-exposed tyrosine residues on AAV2 capsids to circumvent the ubiquitination step and the use of different AAV serotypes and self-complementary (sc) AAV2 vectors, and their use as helper vectors to circumvent the obstacles of second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded (ss) AAV, should dramatically accelerate the progress towards the potential gene therapy of both hemophilia A and hemophilia B.

Zhong L; Jayandharan GR; Aslanidi GV; Zolotukhin S; Herzog RW; Srivastava A

2012-01-01

32

Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control ...

Preet, Shabad; Seema, K. C.

33

Potentiality of experimental analysis for characteristics of the Poynting vector components  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Potentiality of experimental analysis for the averaged Poynting vector components is considered. It is shown that joint application of traditional interferometry and Stocks polarimetry should allow for determining unambiguously characteristics of the Poynting vector components at each point of field.

Khrobatin R.; Mokhun I.; Viktorovskaya J.

2008-01-01

34

Major vault protein (MVP) gene polymorphisms and drug resistance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human major vault protein (MVP) has been implicated in the development of drug resistance in cancer cells. Over expression of MVP has also been reported in brain tissue samples from antiepileptic drug (AED)-resistant human focal epilepsies. To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involving the MVP gene and AED-resistance, we compared the distribution of three SNPs in the MVP gene, rs4788187, rs3815824 and rs3815823, among 220 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype of AED-resistant epilepsy syndrome), 201 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype of AED-responsive epilepsy syndrome) and 213 ethnically matched non-epilepsy controls. All the patients and controls were residents of the South Indian state of Kerala for more than three generations. We did not find any significant difference in allele and genotypic frequencies of the studied SNPs between AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts, and between AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts independently and pooled together when compared with the controls. We conclude that rs4788187, rs3815824, rs3815823 variants of the MVP gene are associated neither with predisposition for epilepsy nor with AED-resistance in the population that we have studied. Our results suggest the need for further research into the link between MVP and AED-resistance. PMID:23751308

Balan, Shabeesh; Lekshmi, Sarada; Radha, Koramannil; Sathyan, Sanish; Vijai, Joseph; Banerjee, Moinak; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath

2013-06-07

35

The vector potential of British Culicoides species for bluetongue virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two species of British Culicoides, C. nubeculosus and C. impunctatus were found to support bluetongue virus (BTV) multiplication after ingestion of the virus. Both species were infected by membrane feeding and C. nubeculosus also became infected after feeding on viraemic sheep. This species was shown to transfer the virus across a membrane after 8 days incubation at 25 degrees C and could therefore presumably act as a BTV vector. Six other British species of Culicoides supported BTV multiplication after intrathoracic inoculation of the virus.

Jennings DM; Mellor PS

1988-05-01

36

The vector potential of British Culicoides species for bluetongue virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two species of British Culicoides, C. nubeculosus and C. impunctatus were found to support bluetongue virus (BTV) multiplication after ingestion of the virus. Both species were infected by membrane feeding and C. nubeculosus also became infected after feeding on viraemic sheep. This species was shown to transfer the virus across a membrane after 8 days incubation at 25 degrees C and could therefore presumably act as a BTV vector. Six other British species of Culicoides supported BTV multiplication after intrathoracic inoculation of the virus. PMID:2845631

Jennings, D M; Mellor, P S

1988-05-01

37

Stationary states of fermions in a sign potential with a mixed vector-scalar coupling  

CERN Multimedia

The scattering of a fermion in the background of a sign potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling under the Sturm-Liouville perspective. When the vector coupling and the scalar coupling have different magnitudes, an isolated solution shows that the fermion under a strong potential can be trapped in a highly localized region without manifestation of Klein's paradox. It is also shown that the lonely bound-state solution disappears asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of spin and pseudospin symmetries.

Castilho, W M

2013-01-01

38

Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control.

Barik TK; Kamaraju R; Gowswami A

2012-09-01

39

MVP/GMVP: general purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, new algorithms have been studied, and two fully vectorized Monte Carlo codes MVP and GMVP have been developed for FACOM VP series vector supercomputers. The former and latter codes use the continuous energy model and the multi-group model, respectively. Compared with conventional scalar codes, these codes achieve higher computation speed by a factor of 10 or more on FACOM VP-2600. Both codes have functions for production use including accurate physics model, geometry description capability and variance reduction technique. In addition to the execution on the vector supercomputers, these codes can be used on vector-parallel supercomputers with parallel calculation capability and on workstations with an OS of UNIX. For the continuous energy method, many nuclear data libraries have been prepared based on mainly JENDL 3. This report describes the physics model, geometry description method used in the codes and how to use them. (author).

1994-01-01

40

Computation of 3-D current driven skin effect problems using a current vector potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A finite element formulation of current driven eddy current problems in terms of a current vector potential and a magnetic scalar potential is developed. Since the traditional T-[Omega] method enforces zero net current in conductors, an impressed current vector potential T[sub 0] is introduced in both conducting and nonconducting regions, describing an arbitrary current distribution with the prescribed net current in each conductor. The function T[sub 0] is represented by means of edge elements while nodal elements are used to approximate the current vector potential and the magnetic scalar potential. The tangential component of T is set to zero on the conductor/nonconductor interfaces. The method is validated by computing the solution to an axisymmetric problem. Some problems involving a coil with several turns wound around an iron core are solved.

Biro, O.; Preis, K.; Renhart, W.; Vrisk, G.; Richter, K.R. (Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria))

1993-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Reconstruction of potential part of 3D vector field by using singular value decomposition  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we suggest the method of 3D vector tomography problem solving. The problem consists in determination of potential part of 3D vector field by its known the normal Radon transform. The singular value decomposition of the normal Radon transform operator is obtained. Based on obtained decomposition inversion formula is derived. The decomposition can be the basis for numerical solution of given problem.

Polyakova, Anna

2013-02-01

42

Reconstruction of potential part of 3D vector field by using singular value decomposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we suggest the method of 3D vector tomography problem solving. The problem consists in determination of potential part of 3D vector field by its known the normal Radon transform. The singular value decomposition of the normal Radon transform operator is obtained. Based on obtained decomposition inversion formula is derived. The decomposition can be the basis for numerical solution of given problem.

2013-02-08

43

Postoperative adjuvant MVP Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose : Since February 1991, a prospective study for non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent radical resection and had a risk factor of positive resection margin or regional lymph node metastasis has been conducted to evaluated the effect of MVP chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the pattern of failure, disease free and overall survival, and tolerance of combined treatment. Materials and Methods : Twenty nine patients were registered to this study until Sep. 1993 ; of these 26 received planned therapy. Within 3 weeks after radical resection, two cycles of MVP(Motomycin C 6 mg/m{sup 2} , Vinblastin 6 mg/m{sup 2} , Cisplatin 6 mg/m{sup 2} ) chemotherapy was given with 4 weeks intervals. Radiotherapy (5040 cGy tumor bed dose and 900 cGy boost to high risk area) was started 3 to 4 weeks after chemotherapy. Results : One and two year overall survival rates were 76.5% and 8.6% respectively. Locoregional failure developed in 6 patients (23.1%) and distant failure in 9 patients(34.6%). Number of involved lymph nodes, resection margin positivity showed some correlation with failure pattern but T-stage and N-stage showed no statistical significance. The group of patients who received chemotherapy within 2 weeks postoperatively and radiotherapy within 70 days showed lower incidence of distant metastasis. Postoperative combined therapy were well tolerated without definite increase of complication rate, and compliance rate in this study was 90%. Conclusion : 1) MVP chemotherapy showed no effect on locoregional recurrence, ut appeared to decrease the distant metastasis rate and 2) combined treatments were well tolerated in all patients. 3) The group of patients who received chemotherapy within 2 weeks postoperatively and radiotherapy within 70 days showed lower incidence of distant metastasis. 4) Addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy failed to increase the overall or disease free survival.

Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

1995-06-15

44

Assessing the potential for AAV vector genotoxicity in a murine model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has great potential for treating human disease. Recently, questions have arisen about the safety of AAV vectors, specifically, whether integration of vector DNA in transduced cell genomes promotes tumor formation. This study addresses these questions with high-dose liver-directed AAV-mediated gene transfer in the adult mouse as a model (80 AAV-injected mice and 52 controls). After 18 months of follow-up, AAV-injected mice did not show a significantly higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with controls. Tumors in mice treated with AAV vectors did not have significantly different amounts of vector DNA compared with adjacent normal tissue. A novel high-throughput method for identifying AAV vector integration sites was developed and used to clone 1029 integrants. Integration patterns in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were similar to each other, showing preferences for active genes, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine islands, and guanosine/cytosine-rich regions. [corrected] Gene expression data showed that genes near integration sites did not show significant changes in expression patterns compared with genes more distal to integration sites. No integration events were identified as causing increased oncogene expression. Thus, we did not find evidence that AAV vectors cause insertional activation of oncogenes and subsequent tumor formation.

Li H; Malani N; Hamilton SR; Schlachterman A; Bussadori G; Edmonson SE; Shah R; Arruda VR; Mingozzi F; Wright JF; Bushman FD; High KA

2011-03-01

45

Assessing the potential for AAV vector genotoxicity in a murine model  

Science.gov (United States)

Gene transfer using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors has great potential for treating human disease. Recently, questions have arisen about the safety of AAV vectors, specifically, whether integration of vector DNA in transduced cell genomes promotes tumor formation. This study addresses these questions with high-dose liver-directed AAV-mediated gene transfer in the adult mouse as a model (80 AAV-injected mice and 52 controls). After 18 months of follow-up, AAV-injected mice did not show a significantly higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with controls. Tumors in mice treated with AAV vectors did not have significantly different amounts of vector DNA compared with adjacent normal tissue. A novel high-throughput method for identifying AAV vector integration sites was developed and used to clone 1029 integrants. Integration patterns in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were similar to each other, showing preferences for active genes, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine islands, and guanosine/cysteine-rich regions. Gene expression data showed that genes near integration sites did not show significant changes in expression patterns compared with genes more distal to integration sites. No integration events were identified as causing increased oncogene expression. Thus, we did not find evidence that AAV vectors cause insertional activation of oncogenes and subsequent tumor formation.

Li, Hojun; Malani, Nirav; Hamilton, Shari R.; Schlachterman, Alexander; Bussadori, Giulio; Edmonson, Shyrie E.; Shah, Rachel; Arruda, Valder R.; Mingozzi, Federico; Fraser Wright, J.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2011-01-01

46

An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an educational path for the magnetic vector potential A aimed at undergraduate students and pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampère–Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical references, i.e. the conduction currents. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows for a clear and univocal physical determination of A, overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the ‘natural’ gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of the calculation of A are analysed.

Barbieri, S.; Cavinato, M.; Giliberti, M.

2013-09-01

47

MVP expression in the prediction of clinical outcome of locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of Major Vault Protein (MVP) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 131 consecutive patients suffering from oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. In the whole series, the mean follow-up for survivors was 123.11 ± 40.36 months. Patients in tumour stages I and II were referred to surgery; patients in stage III-IV to postoperative radiotherapy (mean dose = 62.13 ± 7.74 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy/fraction). MVP expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. RESULTS: MVP expression was positive in 112 patients (85.5%) and no relation was found with clinic pathological variables. MVP overexpression (those tumours with moderate or strong expression of the protein) was related to insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) expression (P = 0.014). Tumour stage of the disease was the most important prognostic factor related to survival. Tumours overexpressing MVP and IGF-1R were strongly related to poor disease-free survival (P = 0.008, Exp(B) = 2.730, CI95% (1.302-5.724)) and cause-specific survival (P = 0.014, Exp(B) = 2.570, CI95% (1.215-5.437)) in patients achieving tumour stages III-IV, in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: MVP and IGF-1R expression were related in oral squamous cell carcinoma and conferred reduced long-term survival in patients suffering from advanced stages of the disease.

Henríquez-Hernández LA; Moreno M; Rey A; Lloret M; Lara PC

2012-01-01

48

Preliminary analyses for HTTR's start-up physics tests by Monte Carlo code MVP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analyses of start-up physics tests for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out by Monte Carlo code MVP based on continuous energy method. Heterogeneous core structures were modified precisely, such as the fuel compacts, fuel rods, coolant channels, burnable poisons, control rods, control rod insertion holes, reserved shutdown pellet insertion holes, gaps between graphite blocks, etc. Such precise modification of the core structures was difficult with diffusion calculation. From the analytical results, the followings were confirmed; The first criticality will be achieved around 16 fuel columns loaded. The reactivity at the first criticality can be controlled by only one control rod located at the center of the core with other fifteen control rods fully withdrawn. The excess reactivity, reactor shutdown margin and control rod criticality positions have been evaluated. These results were used for planning of the start-up physics tests. This report presents analyses of start-up physics tests for HTTR by MVP code. (author)

1998-01-01

49

Vector potential of hospital houseflies with special reference to Klebsiella species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The vector potential of houseflies (Musca domestica) for Klebsiella spp. was investigated. Klebsiella spp. (mostly Klebsiella pneumoniae) were isolated from 36.7% of hospital flies and 28.1% of infected wounds of patients. Antibiograms of Klebsiella spp. showed that 82.0% of isolates from hospital f...

Fotedar, R.; Banerjee, U.; Samantray, J. C.; Shriniwas

50

On the scattering of massive spinless bosons by a nonminimal vector smooth step potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation for massive spinless bosons in the presence of a nonminimal vector smooth step potential is revised. The problem is mapped into a Sturm-Liouville equation. The reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained and discussed in detail. Furthermore, we show that Klein's paradox does not show its face in this sort of interaction.

2010-01-01

51

Aedes albolateralis, a potential vector of nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti and dengue type 2 virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of Aedes albolateralis to nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti and dengue type 2 virus was investigated by using artificial membrane feeding and intrathoracic inoculation techniques, respectively. The results indicated that Ae. albolateralis was susceptible to nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (susceptibility rate = 9.43%) and dengue type 2 virus (susceptibility rate = 100%), suggesting the potential vector of the two pathogens. PMID:11944727

Choochote, W; Leemingsawat, S; Sucharit, S; Kunnaphuti, J; Wongkamchai, S; Sukontason, K L; Jitpakdi, A

2001-09-01

52

Aedes albolateralis, a potential vector of nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti and dengue type 2 virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The susceptibility of Aedes albolateralis to nocturnally subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti and dengue type 2 virus was investigated by using artificial membrane feeding and intrathoracic inoculation techniques, respectively. The results indicated that Ae. albolateralis was susceptible to nocturnally subperiodic W. bancrofti (susceptibility rate = 9.43%) and dengue type 2 virus (susceptibility rate = 100%), suggesting the potential vector of the two pathogens.

Choochote W; Leemingsawat S; Sucharit S; Kunnaphuti J; Wongkamchai S; Sukontason KL; Jitpakdi A

2001-09-01

53

Scattering and bound states of spin-0 particles in a nonminimal vector double-step potential  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of spin-0 particles subject to a nonminimal vector double-step potential is explored in the context of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. Surprisingly, one can never have an incident wave totally reflected and the transmission amplitude has complex poles corresponding to bound states. The interesting special case of bosons embedded in a sign potential with its unique bound-state solution is analyzed as a limiting case.

de Oliveira, L P

2012-01-01

54

Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and 90% lethal concentrations among various larvae ranged between 2.1 to 48.74 ppm and 15.78 to 93.11 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that larvicidal effects of potash alum were comparable to various biological and chemical insecticides. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for the control of nuisance mosquito vectors.

Preet S; Seema KC

2010-10-01

55

Development of transformation vectors for the production of potentially high oleate transgenic oil palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The main target of Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) genetic engineering programme is to produce high oleate transgenic palms. The availability of effective transformation vector is one of the pre-requisites for genetic manipulation of oil palm through recombinant DNA technology. Here, we describe the construction of a series of transformation vectors that have a maize ubiquitin promoter (UbiPro)-driven bar gene for selection of transformants on herbicide (Basta or Bialapho (more) s), and mesocarp-specific promoter (MSP1) for expression of the transgenes [antisense palmitoyl-ACP-thioesterase (PAT) and sense ?-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase II (KASII) and sense ?9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase (SAD)] potentially responsible for high oleate content in oil palm mesocarp. The transformation vectors constructed in this study are suitable for use in both particle bombardment (biolistic) and Agrobacterium-based transformation protocols.

Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

2008-07-01

56

Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) gemmea, a potential vector of Leishmania siamensis in southern Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania siamensis, is an emerging disease in Thailand. Although reported cases have been increasing, epidemiological information of the disease including host and vector aspects is not clearly known. This study was a preliminary survey of the potential vector of L. siamensis in an affected area of leishmaniasis, Trang Province, southern Thailand. METHODS: The collection of sandflies was performed around the area where a case of leishmaniasis was reported using CDC light traps. Species of sandfly were identified based on morphological characteristics according to Lewis's key. PCR amplification and sequencing of the heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) was used to identify L. siamensis DNA in sandflies. RESULTS: A total of 146 male and female sandflies were collected in the affected areas. Of 71 female sandflies, four species were identified, i.e., Sergentomyia (Neophlebotomus) gemmea, S. (Neophlebotomus) iyengari, S. (Parrotomyia) barraudi and Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) stantoni. Among these species, S. (Neophlebotomus) gemmea was the most predominant species in all areas. DNA of L. siamensis was identified in S. (Neophlebotomus) gemmea. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products using DNA extracted from S. (Neophlebotomus) gemmea showed 99.8% identity to L. siamensis. CONCLUSION: S. (Neophlebotomus) gemmea might be a potential vector of L. siamensis in an affected area, Trang Province, southern Thailand. However further studies are needed to prove whether these sandflies can be natural vectors of leishmaniasis.

Kanjanopas K; Siripattanapipong S; Ninsaeng U; Hitakarun A; Jitkaew S; Kaewtaphaya P; Tan-ariya P; Mungthin M; Charoenwong C; Leelayoova S

2013-01-01

57

Predicting and mapping malaria under climate change scenarios: the potential redistribution of malaria vectors in Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is rampant in Africa and causes untold mortality and morbidity. Vector-borne diseases are climate sensitive and this has raised considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease risk. The problem of malaria vectors (Anopheles mosquitoes) shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is an important concern. The vision of this study was to exploit the sets of information previously generated by entomologists, e.g. on geographical range of vectors and malaria distribution, to build models that will enable prediction and mapping the potential redistribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in Africa. Methods The development of the modelling tool was carried out through calibration of CLIMEX parameters. The model helped estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of the species in relation to climatic factors. These included temperature, rainfall and relative humidity, which characterized the living environment for Anopheles mosquitoes. The same parameters were used in determining the ecoclimatic index (EI). The EI values were exported to a GIS package for special analysis and proper mapping of the potential future distribution of Anopheles gambiae and Anophles arabiensis within the African continent under three climate change scenarios. Results These results have shown that shifts in these species boundaries southward and eastward of Africa may occur rather than jumps into quite different climatic environments. In the absence of adequate control, these predictions are crucial in understanding the possible future geographical range of the vectors and the disease, which could facilitate planning for various adaptation options. Conclusion Thus, the outputs from this study will be helpful at various levels of decision making, for example, in setting up of an early warning and sustainable strategies for climate change and climate change adaptation for malaria vectors control programmes in Africa.

Tonnang Henri EZ; Kangalawe Richard YM; Yanda Pius Z

2010-01-01

58

Stochastic and Deterministic Vector Chromatography of Suspended Particles in 1D-Periodic Potentials  

CERN Multimedia

We present a comprehensive description of vector chromatography that includes deterministic and stochastic transport in 1D-periodic free-energy landscapes, with both energetic and entropic contributions, and highlights the parameters governing the deflection angle, i.e. the Peclet number and the partition ratio. We also investigate the dependence of the deflection angle on the shape of the free-energy landscape by varying the width of the linear transitions in an otherwise dichotomous potential. Finally, we present experimental results obtained in a microfluidic system in which gravity drives the suspended particles and, in combination with a bottom surface patterned with shallow rectangular grooves, creates a periodic landscape of (potential) energy barriers. The experiments validate the model and demonstrate that a simple, passive microdevice can lead to vector separation of colloidal particles based on both size and density.

Bernate, Jorge A

2011-01-01

59

Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations with equal scalar and vector potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the three-dimensional Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations with scalar and vector potentials of equal magnitudes as an attempt to give a proper physical interpretation of this class of problems which has recently been accumulating interest. We consider a large class of these problems in which the potentials are noncentral (angular-dependent) such that the equations separate completely in spherical coordinates. The relativistic energy spectra are obtained and shown to differ from those of well-known problems that have the same nonrelativistic limit. Consequently, such problems should not be misinterpreted as the relativistic extension of the given potentials despite the fact that the nonrelativistic limit is the same. The Coulomb, oscillator and Hartmann potentials are considered. Additionally, we investigate the Klein-Gordon equation with uneven mix of potentials leading to the correct relativistic extension. We consider the case of spherically symmetric exponential-type potentials resulting in the S-wave Klein-Gordon-Morse problem

2006-01-09

60

Vector potential-vorticity relationship for the Stokes flows: application to the Stokes eigenmodes in 2D/3D closed domain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unsteady dynamics of the Stokes flows, where (vector)({nabla}){sup 2} ((p)/({rho})) =0, is shown to verify the vector potential-vorticity ((vector)({psi}),(vector)({omega})) correlation ({partial_derivative}(vector)({psi}))/({partial_derivative}t)+{nu}(vector)({omega})+(vector)({pi})=0, where the field (vector)({pi}) is the pressure-gradient vector potential defined by (vector)({nabla}) ((p)/({rho}))=(vector)({nabla}) x (vector)({pi}). This correlation is analyzed for the Stokes eigenmodes, ({partial_derivative}(vector)({psi}))/({partial_derivative}t)={lambda}(vector)({psi}), subjected to no-slip boundary conditions on any two-dimensional (2D) closed contour or three-dimensional (3D) surface. It is established that an asymptotic linear relationship appears, verified in the core part of the domain, between the vector potential and vorticity, {nu}((vector)({omega})-(vector)({omega}){sub 0})=-{lambda}(vector)({psi}), where (vector)({omega}){sub 0} is a constant offset field, possibly zero. (orig.)

Leriche, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Institut des Sciences de l' Energie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de l' Ingenieur, Ecublens (Switzerland); Labrosse, G. [University of Florida 227 ChE, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 116005, Gainesville, FL (United States); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France)

2007-01-15

 
 
 
 
61

Molecular investigation of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) as potential vectors of rickettsial and mycoplasmal agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The aim of the present study was twofold. First, in general, to reveal new aspects of the potential vector role of ixodid ticks and fleas by screening large numbers of specimens with recently developed molecular biological methods. Second, to evaluate the occurrence of vector-borne ...

62

ASPECTS REGARDING THE FACEBOOK USER IN ROMANIA AS A POTENTIAL DESTINATION IMAGE - VECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Internet’s rapid development from the 1.0 version to the 2.0 one has triggered the appearance of social networks. Facebook is Illustrative of them due to the number of users it attracts and its international range of dispersion. Although a beginner in communication, Facebook Romania is prone to contribute highly to the “content generator” market in what concerns its users. In order to create or maintain a brand’s positive image it is necessary to know some elements regarding the demographic aspects of the target public, and its attitudes, predilections or behaviours in general. Thus, web pages created on Facebook can “transform” its users into fans and there is a possibility that afterwards these fans become image -vectors by way of the delivered experiences. This article tries to study the fundamental elements that could make up the profile of a user from the targeted group as a potential destination image- vector.

MIHAIL-CRISTIAN DI?OIU; AURELIA-FELICIA ST?NCIOIU

2011-01-01

63

Accurate computation of axisymmetric vector potential fields with the finite element method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A highly efficient formulation is described for implementing the finite element method for axisymmetric vector field analysis. The method was tested to investigate its full potential for the solution of steady-state and transient electromagnetic fields before application to specific problems. Computational tests show that the method requires comparable computing time to the equivalent Cartesian coordinate problem. The results of some numerical examples are presented including problems with different time-dependent source vectors. Results obtained are compared, where possible, against analytical solutions, as well as experimental results. An error analysis confirms that the accuracy is very good even for elements placed near the axis. Hence the singularity problem is effectively removed, as expected

1987-01-01

64

Accurate computation of axisymmetric vector potential fields with the finite element method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A highly efficient formulation is described for implementing the finite element method for axisymmetric vector field analysis. The method was tested to investigate its full potential for the solution of steady-state and transient electromagnetic fields before application to specific problems. Computational tests show that the method requires comparable computing time to the equivalent Cartesian coordinate problem. The results of some numerical examples are presented including problems with different time-dependent source vectors. Results obtained are compared, where possible, against analytical solutions, as well as experimental results. An error analysis confirms that the accuracy is very good even for elements placed near the axis. Hence the singularity problem is effectively removed, as expected.

Tarasiewicz, E.; Dableh, J.H.; Findlay, R.D.

1987-09-01

65

Accurate computation of axisymmetric vector potential fields with the finite element method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A highly efficient formulation is described for implementing the finite element method for axisymmetric vector field analysis. The method was tested to investigate its full potential for the solution of steady-state and transient electromagnetic fields before application to specific problems. Computational test show that the method requires comparable computing time to the equivalent Cartesian coordinate problem. The results of some numerical examples are presented including problems with different time-dependent source vectors. Results obtained are compared, where possible, against analytical solutions, as well as experimental results. An error analysis confirms that the accuracy is very good even for elements placed near the axis. Hence the singularity problem is effectively removed, as expected.

Tarasiewicz, E.; Dableh, J.H.; Findlay, R.D.

1986-01-01

66

The mechanism of vault opening from the high resolution structure of the N-terminal repeats of MVP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vaults are ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein complexes involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. The vault particle shows a barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein MVP. Earlier data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The crystal structure of the vault particle solved at 8 A resolution, together with the 2.1-A structure of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, reveal the interactions governing vault association and provide an explanation for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. The structural comparison with the recently published 3.5 A model shows major discrepancies, both in the main chain tracing and in the side chain assignment of the two terminal domains R1 and R2.

Querol-Audí J; Casañas A; Usón I; Luque D; Castón JR; Fita I; Verdaguer N

2009-11-01

67

Properties of singular vectors using convective available potential energy as final time norm  

Science.gov (United States)

We study the feasibility of using the singular vector technique to create initial condition perturbations for short-range ensemble prediction systems (SREPS) focussing on predictability of severe local storms and in particular deep convection. For this a new final time semi-norm based on the convective available potential energy (CAPE) is introduced. We compare singular vectors using the CAPE-norm with SVs using the more common total energy (TE) norm for a 2-week summer period in 2007, which includes a case of mesoscale extreme rainfall in the south west of Finland. The CAPE singular vectors perturb the CAPE field by increasing the specific humidity and temperature of the parcel and increase the lapse rate above the parcel in the lower troposphere consistent with physical considerations. The CAPE-SVs are situated in the lower troposphere. This in contrast to TE-SVs with short optimization times which predominantly remain in the high troposphere. By examining the time evolution of the CAPE singular values we observe that the convective event in the south west of Finland is clearly associated with high CAPE singular values.

Stappers, Roel; Barkmeijer, Jan

2011-05-01

68

Potential vectors of West Nile virus in a semiarid environment: Dona Ana County, New Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in Doña Ana County, NM, were determined during 2004 and 2005. Trapping was conducted using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light-traps baited with dry ice, and gravid traps baited with a hay infusion. In addition, sentinel chickens were housed at four of the trapping locations to monitor WNV epizootic transmission. In total, 5,576 pools consisting of 115,797 female mosquitoes were tested for WNV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, of which 152 from 13 mosquito species representing six genera were positive. Culex tarsalis Coquillett, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex erythrothorax Dyar, Aedes vexans (Meigan), and Psorophora columbiae (Dyar & Knab) accounted for 86% of all detections. Based on the frequency of WNV detection, our data indicate primary and secondary vector roles for Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively, with Cx. erythrothorax, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae as occasional vectors of WNV in Dofia Ana County. Other species testing positive for the virus included Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles franciscanus McCracken, Culex stigmatosoma Dyar, Culiseta inornata (Williston), Ochlerotatus dorsalis (Meigan), Ochlerotatus sollicitans (Walker), Ochlerotatus trivittatus (Coquillett), and Psorophora signipennis (Coquillett). Although they occurred after initial WNV detections in mosquitoes, in total, 21 seroconversions in sentinel chickens were detected during the study.

Pitzer JB; Byford RL; Vuong HB; Steiner RL; Creamer RJ; Caccamise DF

2009-11-01

69

Spatial and temporal variation in biting rates and parasite transmission potentials of onchocerciasis vectors in Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of spatial and temporal factors on onchocerciasis transmission by Simulium exiguum s.l. and S. quadrivittatum in Ecuador was investigated to help develop sampling protocols for entomological surveillance of ivermectin programmes. Flies were collected in alternate months (November 1995-November 1996) at four sites each in the hyperendemic communities of San Miguel and El Tigre. A fixed-effects analysis of variance was used to explore the influence on vector abundance of locality, site, month and hour. Infectivity rates detected by dissection and PCR assays were compared. Simulium exiguum s.l. predominated at El Tigre (75%) whereas S. quadrivittatum prevailed at San Miguel (62%). Vector abundance was highest on river banks and outside houses. Biting and infection rates peaked from March to July. Hourly activity patterns were bimodal in S. exiguum but unimodal in S. quadrivittatum. Annual transmission potentials (ATP) for both species combined were 385 and 733 third stage larvae/person in San Miguel and El Tigre respectively, with S. exiguum accounting for 80% of the combined ATP at both localities. We recommend protocols that may maximize detection of parasite transmission. Infection rates thus obtained must be linked with vector density estimates to assess meaningfully host exposure as treatment progresses.

Vieira JC; Brackenboro L; Porter CH; Basáñez MG; Collins RC

2005-03-01

70

Humoral immunity to AAV vectors in gene therapy: challenges and potential solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gene transfer trials with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have initiated to unveil the therapeutic potential of this approach, with some of the most exciting results coming from clinical studies of gene transfer for hemophilia B, congenital blindness, and the recent market approval of the first AAV-based gene therapy in Europe. With clinical development, however, some of the limitations of in vivo gene transfer have emerged; in particular the host immune system represents an important obstacle to be overcome in terms of both safety and efficacy of gene transfer in vivo with AAV vectors. Results in humans undergoing gene transfer indicate that capsid-specific T cell responses directed against transduced cells may limit the duration of transgene expression following AAV gene transfer, and similarly anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies can completely prevent transduction of a target tissue, resulting in lack of efficacy. Anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies are highly prevalent in humans, and the frequency of subjects with detectable titers can reach up to two thirds of the population. The approach to the problem of preexisting humoral immunity to AAV so far has been the exclusion of seropositive subjects, but this solution is far from being optimal. Several additional strategies have been proposed and tested in a variety of preclinical animal models. Future studies will help defining the optimal strategy, or combination of strategies, to successfully treat subjects with preexisting antibodies to AAV due to natural infection or to prior administration of AAV vectors. These advancements will likely have a significant impact on the field of gene transfer with AAV vectors.

Masat E; Pavani G; Mingozzi F

2013-06-01

71

Six-dimensional Davidson potential as a dynamical symmetry of the symplectic Interacting Vector Boson Model  

CERN Multimedia

A six-dimensional Davidson potential, introduced within the framework of the Interacting Vector Boson Model (IVBM), is used to describe nuclei that exhibit transitional spectra between the purely rotational and vibrational limits of the theory. The results are shown to relate to a new dynamical symmetry that starts with the $Sp(12,R) \\supset SU(1,1) \\times SO(6)$ reduction. Exact solutions for the eigenstates of the model Hamiltonian in the basis defined by a convenient subgroup chain of SO(6) are obtained. A comparison of the theoretical results with experimental data for heavy nuclei with transitional spectra illustrates the applicability of the theory.

Ganev, H G; Draayer, J P

2005-01-01

72

Vector bundles over configuration spaces of nonidentical particles: Topological potentials and internal degrees of freedom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider configuration spaces of nonidentical pointlike particles. The physically motivated assumption that any two particles cannot be located at the same point in space endash time leads to nontrivial topological structure of the configuration space. For a quantum mechanical description of such a system, we classify complex vector bundles over the configuration space and obtain potentials of topological origin, similar to those that occur in the fiber bundle approach to Dirac close-quote s magnetic monopole or in Yang endash Mills theory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics.

1997-01-01

73

Planar Dirac fermions in long-range-correlated random vector potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study the behavior of two-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of a static long-range-correlated random vector potential. By applying an exact path integral representation for the propagator of a spinor particle we obtain asymptotics of the gauge invariant spectral function and the correlation function of the local density of states, both in the ballistic regime of sufficiently high energies. We also discuss localization properties of the random Dirac wave functions in the complementary zero energy limit and the putative localization scenario.

Khveshchenko, D.V.; Yashenkin, A.G

2003-03-31

74

Stochastic and deterministic vector chromatography of suspended particles in one-dimensional periodic potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comprehensive description of vector chromatography (VC) that includes deterministic and stochastic transport in one-dimensional periodic free-energy landscapes, with both energetic and entropic contributions, and identifies the parameters governing the deflection angle. We also investigate the dependence of the deflection angle on the shape of the free-energy landscape by varying the width of the linear transitions in an otherwise dichotomous potential. Finally, we present experimental results obtained in a microfluidic system in which gravity drives the suspended particles and, in combination with a bottom surface patterned with shallow rectangular grooves, creates a periodic landscape of (potential) energy barriers. The experiments validate the model and demonstrate that a simple, passive microdevice can lead to VC of colloidal particles based on both size and density. More generally, other fields, e.g., electric, dielectrophoretic, or magnetic, can play or enhance the role of gravity, potentially leading to a versatile technique. PMID:23003265

Bernate, Jorge A; Drazer, German

2012-05-21

75

Categorization of potential breeding sites of dengue vectors in Johor, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (psuburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species. PMID:20562811

Nyamah, M A; Sulaiman, S; Omar, B

2010-04-01

76

Seasonal variation of potential flavivirus vectors in an urban biological reserve in northeastern Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although yellow fever (YF) has not been reported on the eastern coast of Brazil since 1942, there was a reemergence of dengue fever in Brazil in 1987 due to the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti (L.). To assess areas of potential risk for transmission of vector-borne diseases, a surveillance system was placed in a large Atlantic Forest reserve in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, where in 2004 unexplained epizootics were reported among marmosets. The etiologic agent causing the mortality in marmosets has not been identified. Wyeomyia bourrouli Lutz, Haemagogus leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, Ae. aegypti, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Ochlerotatus scapularis Rondani, Ochlerotatus serratus Theobald, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Wiedemann, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Limatus durhami Theobald were collected in the park and in the proximity of the households adjacent to the park. Seasonal abundance fluctuation was significant for Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani), and Hg. leucocelaenus. Eggs of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Hg. leucocelaenus were more frequently found at the conclusion of the rainy season. A significant negative correlation between the number ofAe. albopictus collected and temperature was observed (r = -0.50), i.e., for each 10C increase in temperature, the number of specimens collected decreased eight-fold. The findings reported herein reinforce the need for a sustainable arboviral surveillance program in this area to decrease the potential risk of emergence of vector borne diseases as YF. PMID:19960696

Medeiros, Arlinete S; Marcondes, Carlos B; De Azevedo, Paulo R M; Jerônimo, Selma M B; e Silva, Virginia P Macedo; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

2009-11-01

77

Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina: preliminary results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P0.05) was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP), pH and soil granulometry. Echinocercariae developed from rediae and belonging to Petasiger sp., Paryphostomum sp., and other undetermined species were found.

Alejandra Rumi; Monika Ines Hamann

1990-01-01

78

Potential-field estimation from satellite data using scalar and vector Slepian functions  

CERN Multimedia

In the last few decades a series of increasingly sophisticated satellite missions has brought us gravity and magnetometry data of ever improving quality. To make optimal use of this rich source of information on the structure of Earth and other celestial bodies, our computational algorithms should be well matched to the specific properties of the data. In particular, inversion methods require specialized adaptation if the data are only locally available, their quality varies spatially, or if we are interested in model recovery only for a specific spatial region. Here, we present two approaches to estimate potential fields on a spherical Earth, from gradient data collected at satellite altitude. Our context is that of the estimation of the gravitational or magnetic potential from vector-valued measurements. Both of our approaches utilize spherical Slepian functions to produce an approximation of local data at satellite altitude, which is subsequently transformed to the Earth's spherical reference surface. The ...

Plattner, Alain

2013-01-01

79

Scattering and bound states of spinless particles in a mixed vector-scalar smooth step potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scattering and bound states for a spinless particle in the background of a kink-like smooth step potential, added with a scalar uniform background, are considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures. The problem is mapped into the Schroedinger-like equation with an effective Rosen-Morse potential. It is shown that the scalar uniform background present subtle and trick effects for the scattering states and reveals itself a high-handed element for formation of bound states. In that process, it is shown that the problem of solving a differential equation for the eigenenergies is transmuted into the simpler and more efficient problem of solving an irrational algebraic equation.

2009-01-01

80

Categorization of potential breeding sites of dengue vectors in Johor, Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This cross-sectional study was to compare and categorize potential breeding sites of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at three different places, namely, an urban (Taman Permas Jaya, Johor Bahru, Johor), a suburban (Kg. Melayu Gelang Patah, Johor Bahru, Johor) and a rural (Felda Simpang Waha, Kota Tinggi, Johor) habitats in Malaysia. Larval surveys were conducted once in every two months at each habitat over a period of 11 months from August 2000 until June 2001. There was a significant difference between the three study sites in terms of potential breeding sites inspected (p<0.001). There were more potential breeding sites found in the rural area when compared to the urban and suburban habitats. The mean Potential Container Index (PCI) values in descending order were as follows: rural habitat (57.72)>suburban (29.35)>urban habitat (16.97). Both breeding sites and potential breeding sites were the nominator and the total number of containers inspected as the denominator in the formula of PCI, thus the latter could be a potential indicator to initiate anti-dengue campaign at the community level to rid off potential Aedes breeding sites. The three most common potential breeding sites of Aedes species were similar for urban and suburban habitats (flower pots, pails and bowls respectively). However, flower pots, vases and tyres were the three most common potential breeding sites for the rural habitat. Another finding in this study was that various types of larval habitats were found indoors and outdoors for both species.

Nyamah MA; Sulaiman S; Omar B

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Feeding behaviour of potential vectors of West Nile virus in Senegal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the Palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. The Djoudj Park, located in Senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from Europe during the study period (Sept. 2008- Jan. 2009). In this work, we studied the seasonal feeding behaviour dynamics of the potential WNV mosquito vectors at the border of the Djoudj Park, using a reference trapping method (CDC light CO2-baited traps) and two host-specific methods (horse- and pigeon-baited traps). Blood meals of engorged females were analysed to determine their origin. Results Results indicated that Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. neavei may play a key role in the WNV transmission dynamics, the latter being the best candidate bridging-vector species between mammals and birds. Moreover, the attractiveness of pigeon- and horse-baited traps for Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus varied with time. Finally, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was only active when the night temperature was above 20°C, whereas Cx. neavei was active throughout the observation period. Conclusions Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus are the main candidate vectors for the transmission of WNV in the area. The changes in host attractiveness might be related to variable densities of the migratory birds during the trapping period. We discuss the importance of these results on the risk of WNV transmission in horses and humans.

Fall Assane G; Diaïté Amadou; Lancelot Renaud; Tran Annelise; Soti Valérie; Etter Eric; Konaté Lassana; Faye Ousmane; Bouyer Jérémy

2011-01-01

82

Potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases: a review and proposed research plan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Because of complex interactions of climate variables at the levels of the pathogen, vector, and host, the potential influence of climate change on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Climate effects on the nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases are especially obscure and have received scant treatment. OBJECTIVE: We described known and potential effects of climate change on VBZDs and proposed specific studies to increase our understanding of these effects. The nonvector-borne zoonotic diseases have received scant treatment and are emphasized in this paper. DATA SOURCES AND SYNTHESIS: We used a review of the existing literature and extrapolations from observations of short-term climate variation to suggest potential impacts of climate change on VBZDs. Using public health priorities on climate change, published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we developed six specific goals for increasing understanding of the interaction between climate and VBZDs and for improving capacity for predicting climate change effects on incidence and distribution of VBZDs. CONCLUSIONS: Climate change may affect the incidence of VBZDs through its effect on four principal characteristics of host and vector populations that relate to pathogen transmission to humans: geographic distribution, population density, prevalence of infection by zoonotic pathogens, and the pathogen load in individual hosts and vectors. These mechanisms may interact with each other and with other factors such as anthropogenic disturbance to produce varying effects on pathogen transmission within host and vector populations and to humans. Because climate change effects on most VBZDs act through wildlife hosts and vectors, understanding these effects will require multidisciplinary teams to conduct and interpret ecosystem-based studies of VBZD pathogens in host and vector populations and to identify the hosts, vectors, and pathogens with the greatest potential to affect human populations under climate change scenarios.

Mills JN; Gage KL; Khan AS

2010-11-01

83

Potential vertebrate reservoir hosts and invertebrate vectors of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in central Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Organisms in the genus Anaplasma are obligate intracellular pathogens that multiply in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The type species, A. marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and only infects ticks and ruminants. A. phagocytophilum causes human and animal granulocytic anaplasmosis, and genetically closely related strains show a wide host range, including ticks, ruminants, rodents, equids, canids, birds, and humans. Recent reports demonstrated that A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum co-exist in geographic areas and that concurrent infections occur in ruminants and ticks. In this study, we characterized A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in wild and domestic animals, and ticks collected in central Spain by serology, PCR, and sequence of 16S rRNA genotypes. Species tested included humans, cattle, dogs, rodents, Iberian red deer, European wild boar, birds, and ticks. Species of hematophagous Diptera were analyzed as potential mechanical vectors of Anaplasma spp. A. marginale was detected in tabanids, ticks, cattle, and deer, while A. phagocytophilum was detected in ticks, deer, cattle, and birds. Concurrent infections of the two Anaplasma were found in cattle and deer. These results illustrate the complexity of the epizootiology of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum in regions where both pathogens co-exist and share common reservoir hosts and vectors. The increasing contact between wildlife, domestic animals, and human populations increases the risk of outbreaks of human and bovine anaplasmosis, and the difficulty of implementing surveillance and control measures.

De La Fuente J; Naranjo V; Ruiz-Fons F; Höfle U; Fernández De Mera IG; Villanúa D; Almazán C; Torina A; Caracappa S; Kocan KM; Gortázar C

2005-01-01

84

BCI Based Wheelchair Control Using Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials and Support Vector Machines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system to control a wheelchair in forward, backward, left, right and in stop positions. Four different flickering frequencies in low frequency region were used to elicit the SSVEPs and were displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitor using LabVIEW. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital region were first segmented into 1 second window and features were extracted by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Three different classifiers, two based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and one based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) were designed and compared to yield better accuracy. Ten subjects were participated in the experiment and the accuracy was calculated by considering the number of correct detections produced while performing a predefined movement sequence. One-Against-All (OAA) based multiclass SVM classifier showed better accuracy than the ANN classifiers.

Rajesh Singla; Haseena B.A.

2013-01-01

85

New gastropod vectors and tetrodotoxin potential expansion in temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species-Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns.

Silva M; Azevedo J; Rodriguez P; Alfonso A; Botana LM; Vasconcelos V

2012-04-01

86

Evaluations of physical parameters of HEU and LEU fuel assemblies used in Dalat nuclear research reactor using MVP code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lattice cell calculations for VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of DaLat Nuclear Research reactor were performed using Monte Carlo code MVP. The physical parameters like infinite multiplication factors, few group constants, neutron flux distributions and temperature effects were investigated for both HEU and LEU configurations. The infinite multiplication factor and thermal neutron flux for LEU fuel are lower than HEU one. In order to effectively use Monte Carlo codes the high performance computing with cluster technique is proposed for large problems. (author)

2007-01-01

87

Bacteria isolated from parasitic nematodes - a potential novel vector of pathogens?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former have been the focus of previous work, finding that bacterial pathogens inside helminths are conferred survival advantages over and above bacteria alone in the environment, and that accidental ingestion of non-parasitic helminths can cause systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Here, we determine the potential for bacteria to be associated with parasitic helminths. After culturing helminths from fecal samples obtained from livestock the external bacteria were removed. Two-hundred parasitic helminths from three different species were homogenised and the bacteria that were internal to the helminths were isolated and cultured. Eleven different bacterial isolates were found; of which eight were indentified. The bacteria identified included known human and cattle pathogens. We concluded that bacteria of livestock can be isolated in parasitic helminths and that this suggests a mechanism by which bacteria, pathogenic or otherwise, can be transmitted between individuals. The potential for helminths to play a role as pathogen vectors poses a potential livestock and human health risk. Further work is required to assess the epidemiological impact of this finding.

Lacharme-Lora Lizeth; Salisbury Vyv; Humphrey Tom J; Stafford Kathryn; Perkins Sarah E

2009-01-01

88

Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). METHODS: M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. RESULTS: Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.

Prabhu K; Murugan K; Nareshkumar A; Ramasubramanian N; Bragadeeswaran S

2011-04-01

89

A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in central Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Europe was officially declared free from malaria in 1975; nevertheless, this disease remains a potential problem related to the presence of former vectors, belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Autochthonous-introduced malaria cases, recently reported in European countries, together with the predicted climatic and environmental changes, have increased the concern of health authorities over the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin. In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. This model area is represented by the geographical region named the Maremma, a Tyrrhenian costal plain in Central Italy, where malaria was hyperendemic up to the 1950s. Fortnightly, entomological surveys (April-October) were carried out in four selected sites with different ecological features. Morphological and molecular characterization, blood meal identification, and parity rate assessment of the anophelines were performed. In total, 8274 mosquitoes were collected, 7691 of which were anophelines. Six Anopheles species were recorded, the most abundant of which were Anopheles labranchiae and An. maculipennis s.s. An. labranchiae is predominant in the coastal plain, where it is present in scattered foci. However, this species exhibits a wider than expected range: in fact it has been recorded, for the first time, inland where An. maculipennis s.s. is the most abundant species. Both species fed on a wide range of animal hosts, also showing a marked aggressiveness on humans, when available. Our findings demonstrated the high receptivity of the Maremma area, where the former malaria vector, An. labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities.

Di Luca M; Boccolini D; Severini F; Toma L; Barbieri FM; Massa A; Romi R

2009-12-01

90

A 2-year entomological study of potential malaria vectors in central Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Europe was officially declared free from malaria in 1975; nevertheless, this disease remains a potential problem related to the presence of former vectors, belonging to the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Autochthonous-introduced malaria cases, recently reported in European countries, together with the predicted climatic and environmental changes, have increased the concern of health authorities over the possible resurgence of this disease in the Mediterranean Basin. In Italy, to study the distribution and bionomics of indigenous anopheline populations and to assess environmental parameters that could influence their dynamics, an entomological study was carried out in 2005-2006 in an at-risk study area. This model area is represented by the geographical region named the Maremma, a Tyrrhenian costal plain in Central Italy, where malaria was hyperendemic up to the 1950s. Fortnightly, entomological surveys (April-October) were carried out in four selected sites with different ecological features. Morphological and molecular characterization, blood meal identification, and parity rate assessment of the anophelines were performed. In total, 8274 mosquitoes were collected, 7691 of which were anophelines. Six Anopheles species were recorded, the most abundant of which were Anopheles labranchiae and An. maculipennis s.s. An. labranchiae is predominant in the coastal plain, where it is present in scattered foci. However, this species exhibits a wider than expected range: in fact it has been recorded, for the first time, inland where An. maculipennis s.s. is the most abundant species. Both species fed on a wide range of animal hosts, also showing a marked aggressiveness on humans, when available. Our findings demonstrated the high receptivity of the Maremma area, where the former malaria vector, An. labranchiae, occurs at different densities related to the kind of environment, climatic parameters, and anthropic activities. PMID:19485768

Di Luca, Marco; Boccolini, Daniela; Severini, Francesco; Toma, Luciano; Barbieri, Francesca Mancini; Massa, Antonio; Romi, Roberto

2009-12-01

91

Polyethylenimine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as a potential non-viral vector for gene delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized as a potential non-viral vector for gene delivery. The nanoparticles could provide the magnetic-targeting, and the cationic polymer PEI could condense DNA and avoid in vitro barriers. The magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, dynamic light scattering measurements, transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and atomic force microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to asses DNA binding and perform a DNase I protection assay. The Alamar blue assay was used to evaluate negative effects on the metabolic activity of cells incubated with PEI modified magnetic nanoparticles and their complexes with DNA both in the presence or absence of an external magnetic field. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were also performed to investigate the transfection efficiency of the DNA-loaded magnetic nanoparticles in A549 and B16-F10 tumor cells with (+M) or without (-M) the magnetic field. The in vitro transfection efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles was improved obviously in a permanent magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetic nanoparticles show considerable potential as nanocarriers for gene delivery. PMID:22826003

Zhou, Yangbo; Tang, Zhaomin; Shi, Chunli; Shi, Shuai; Qian, Zhiyong; Zhou, Shaobing

2012-07-24

92

CULICOIDES SONORENSIS AS A POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL VECTOR FOR VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes an economically important arboviral disease in cattle, horses and swine. No insect vector has been established for VSV transmission in the western U.S. The biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, is a known vector of other arboviruses and is a prevalent livestock...

93

On the interaction between a current density and a vector potential: Ampère force, Helmholtz tension and Larmor torque.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several mathematical formulae are used nowadays in order to compute a magnetic torque. We demonstrate that its more general expression is the vectorial product of the current density with the vector potential. We associate this Larmor's torque with Ampère's force and more specifically with Helmholtz...

Rousseaux, Germain

94

Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival...

Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

95

Bound states of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with a mixed minimal-nonminimal vector cusp potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons subject to a general mixing of minimal and nonminimal vector cusp potentials is explored in a unified way in the context of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. Effects on the bound-state solutions due to a short-range interaction are discussed in some detail.

De Castro, A S, E-mail: castro@pq.cnpq.br [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, 12516-410 Guaratingueta SP (Brazil)

2011-01-21

96

Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.

McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.

1994-12-31

97

Gut microbes influence fitness and malaria transmission potential of Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The midgut of parasite transmitting vector, Anopheles stephensi is a physiologically dynamic ecological niche of resident microbes. The gut resident microbes of anisomorphic and physiologically variable male and female A. stephensi mosquitoes were different (Rani et al., 2009). To understand the possible interaction of gut microbes and mosquito host, we examined the contribution of the microbe community on the fitness of the adult mosquitoes and their ability to permit development of the malaria parasite. A. stephensi mosquitoes were fed with antibiotic to sterilize their gut to study longevity, blood meal digestion, egg laying and maturation capacity, and consequently ability to support malaria parasite development. The sterilization of gut imparted reduction in longevity by a median of 5 days in male and 2 days in female mosquitoes. Similarly, the sterilization also diminished the reproductive potential probably due to increased rate of the resorption of follicles in ovaries coupled with abated blood meal digestion in gut-sterilized females. Additionally, gut sterilization also led to increased susceptibility to oocyst development upon feeding on malaria infected blood. The susceptibility to malaria parasite introduced upon gut sterilization of A. stephensi was restored completely upon re-colonization of gut by native microbes. The information provided in the study provides insights into the role of the gut-resident microbial community in various life events of the mosquito that may be used to develop alternate malaria control strategies, such as paratransgenesis.

Sharma A; Dhayal D; Singh OP; Adak T; Bhatnagar RK

2013-10-01

98

Gut microbes influence fitness and malaria transmission potential of Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The midgut of parasite transmitting vector, Anopheles stephensi is a physiologically dynamic ecological niche of resident microbes. The gut resident microbes of anisomorphic and physiologically variable male and female A. stephensi mosquitoes were different (Rani et al., 2009). To understand the possible interaction of gut microbes and mosquito host, we examined the contribution of the microbe community on the fitness of the adult mosquitoes and their ability to permit development of the malaria parasite. A. stephensi mosquitoes were fed with antibiotic to sterilize their gut to study longevity, blood meal digestion, egg laying and maturation capacity, and consequently ability to support malaria parasite development. The sterilization of gut imparted reduction in longevity by a median of 5 days in male and 2 days in female mosquitoes. Similarly, the sterilization also diminished the reproductive potential probably due to increased rate of the resorption of follicles in ovaries coupled with abated blood meal digestion in gut-sterilized females. Additionally, gut sterilization also led to increased susceptibility to oocyst development upon feeding on malaria infected blood. The susceptibility to malaria parasite introduced upon gut sterilization of A. stephensi was restored completely upon re-colonization of gut by native microbes. The information provided in the study provides insights into the role of the gut-resident microbial community in various life events of the mosquito that may be used to develop alternate malaria control strategies, such as paratransgenesis. PMID:23796588

Sharma, Anil; Dhayal, Devender; Singh, O P; Adak, T; Bhatnagar, Raj K

2013-06-21

99

Calculation of nuclear magnetic shielding using a parametric gauge for the vector potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A transformation of the transverse Coulomb vector potential was implemented to calculate magnetic shielding tensor via the random-phase approximation (RPA) within the framework of a 'parametric gauge'. The main features of our formulation are focused in the fact that even keeping unaltered the expressions coming from the use of the Coulomb 'gauge' for the magnetic susceptibility tensor, it provides alternative ones for the nuclear magnetic shielding tensor. These new expressions depend on an arbitrary parameter and on the gradient electric field exerted by the electrons on the position of the nuclei, in an explicit manner. Sum rules for charge and current conservation and 'gauge' invariance are also derived. Near Hartee-Fock nuclear magnetic shielding tensors were evaluated for some small molecules: H2O, NH3 and CH4, and the fulfilment of a series of sum rules, which must be satisfied to guarantee gauge invariance of total, nuclear magnetic shielding tensors, were exploited to check the degree of confidence and, or, the advantages of the proposed gauge. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

1999-02-01

100

Solution of eddy current problems using three dimensional finite element complex magnetic vector potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The three dimensional finite element formulation of eddy current problems with ac sinusoidally time varying excitations is given using magnetic vector potential and complex phasor representation. First order tetrahedral elements are utilized. In this formulation, magnetic saturation is neglected. Three values of magnetic reluctivity, v/CHI/, v..gamma.. and v/zeta/, are defined within each tetrahedral element, while it is assumed that in tetrahedrals laying in conducting material one value of electrical conductivity, sigma, is valied in the x, y and z directions. The method was applied to the calculation of the eddy current losses at 60 Hz in a finite length aluminum bar of square cross-section, which was excited by a surrounding coil with considerable three dimensional end effects. These losses under identical conditions were determined in the laboratory, and the results of calculation and measurement are in substantial agreement. This confirms the validity of use of this method for more complex applications including calculation of induced eddy current losses in metalic structures surrounded by three dimensional fields, such as in structures near power transformer windings, and similar situations.

Demedash, N.A.; Fovad, F.A.; Miller, R.H.; Mohammed, O.A.; Nehi, T.W.

1982-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

An eddy current vector potential formulation for estimating hysteresis losses of superconductors with FEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many people these days employ only commercial finite element method (FEM) software when solving for the hysteresis losses of superconductors. Thus, the knowledge of a modeller is in the capability of using the black boxes of software efficiently. This has led to a relatively superficial examination of different formulations while the discussion stays mainly on the usage of the user interfaces of these programs. Also, if we stay only at the mercy of commercial software producers, we end up having less and less knowledge on the details of solvers. Then, it becomes more and more difficult to conceptually solve new kinds of problem. This may prevent us finding new kinds of method to solve old problems more efficiently, or finding a solution for a problem that was considered almost impossible earlier. In our earlier research, we presented the background of a co-tree gauged T-? FEM solver for computing the hysteresis losses of superconductors. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of FEM and eddy current vector potential formulation in the same problem.

2010-01-01

102

On the nonminimal vector coupling in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory and the confinement of massive bosons by a linear potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vector couplings in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) theory have been revised. It is shown that minimal and nonminimal vector potentials behave differently under charge-conjugation and time-reversal transformations. In particular, it is shown that nonminimal vector potentials have been erroneously applied to the description of elastic meson-nucleus scatterings and that the space component of the nonminimal vector potential plays a crucial role for the confinement of bosons. The DKP equation with nonminimal vector linear potentials is mapped into the nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator problem and the behavior of the solutions for this sort of DKP oscillator is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the absence of Klein's paradox and the localization of bosons in the presence of nonminimal vector interactions are discussed.

2010-02-05

103

Magnetic field, vector potential, and their partial derivatives due to a current-carrying straight wire of finite length  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A numerical study is made of a problem dealing with calculation of the magnetic field B vector, the magnetic vector potential A vector, and first partial derivatives of the B vector field and A vector components for two kinds of magnetic sources: (1) current-carrying straight wire of finite length; and (2) current-carrying closed polygon. No restrictions are imposed on the type of the polygon and hence it need not be plane and can consist of arbitrary number of straight wires of arbitrary lengths. Separate consideration of the polygon case makes the numerical procedure more efficient than that based on the linear superposition of the straight-wire sources. All necessary quantities are derived analytically in simple and closed forms without use of any approximations and exact relations are utilized to the greatest possible extent to give an efficient algorithm. Thus, the involved numerical procedures are quite simple, fast, accurate, and straightforward. Results are given in four different coordinate systems (cartesian, cylindrical, spherical, and local toroidal) and results in any other orthogonal coordinates can be obtained with only a few minor modifications.

Lee, D.K.

1981-12-01

104

QCD phase diagram at finite baryon and isospin chemical potentials in Polyakov loop extended quark meson model with vector interaction  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the QCD phase diagram of isospin asymmetric matter using the Polyakov loop extended quark meson (PQM) model with vector interaction. The critical point temperature is found to decrease in isospin asymmetric matter and disappear at large isospin chemical potential. We also discuss the QCD phase transition in the neutron star core. From comparison of the QCD phase diagram in PQM and corresponding baryon and isospin chemical potentials of neutron star matter in relativistic mean field models, we show that the order of the chiral phase transition in the neutron star core could be crossover because of large isospin chemical potential.

Ueda, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Ruggieri, Marco; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

2013-01-01

105

The 3D Vector Potential, Magnetic Field and Stored Energy in a Thin cos2 theta Coil Array  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vector potential and the magnetic field have been derived for an arrays of quadrupole magnets with thin Cos(2{theta}) current sheet placed at r = R.{sup bc}. The field strength of each coil within the array, varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longidutinal coordinate z in proportion to {omega}{sub m}z, where {omega}{sub m} = (2m-1){pi}/L, L denotes the half-period, and m = 1,2,3 etc. The analysis is based on the expansion of the vector potential in the region external to the windings of a linear 3D quad, and a revision of that expansion by the application of the 'Addition Theorem' from that around the coil center to that around any arbitrary point in space.

Caspi, S.

1997-07-09

106

The potential for dengue in South Africa: vector competence tests with dengue 1 and 2 viruses and 6 mosquito species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Six mosquito species, selected because their prevalence, distribution and ecology favoured them as potential vectors of dengue (DEN) in South Africa, were tested for vector competence with DEN 1 and 2 viruses. After intrathoracic inoculation with DEN 1, head squash infection rates (HSIRs) by the indirect fluorescent antibody test were 92-100% in all species except Aedes demeilloni, for which rates were < 40%. After an infective blood meal containing DEN 1 and DEN 2 virus respectively, Ae. demeilloni, Ae. simpsoni and Eretmapodites quinquevittatus were refractory to infection, while the 3 other species became infected. Five populations of Ae. aegypti each 'transmitted' both serotypes into capillary tubes. With DEN 1, HSIRs and transmission rates (TRs) varied from 11% to 54% and 67% to 100%, while with DEN 2 they ranged from 19% to 46% and 71% to 86%. The mean vector competence index (VCI) was highest for Durban (0.47 for DEN 1 and 0.34 for DEN 2), while VCIs for the remaining populations varied from 0.13 to 0.28 (DEN 1) and 0.18 to 0.23 (DEN 2). With DEN 1, HSIRs for Ae. strelitziae and Ae. furcifer were 33% and 3% respectively, but no transmission occurred. With DEN 2, results for Ae. strelitziae were HSIR = 56%, TR = 29% and VCI = 0.16, while values for Ae. furcifer were HSIR = 12%, TR = 50% and VCI = 0.06. It is concluded that populations of Ae. aegypti are potentially the best vectors for both serotypes of the virus and that the Durban population could act as the most efficient vector in an urban or peri-urban epidemic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7905212

Jupp, P G; Kemp, A

107

Understanding lentiviral vector chromatin targeting: working to reduce insertional mutagenic potential for gene therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Replication-deficient retroviruses have been successfully utilized as vectors, offering an efficient, stable method of therapeutic gene delivery. Many examples exist proving this mode of integrative gene transfer is both effective and safe in cultured systems and clinical trials. Along with their success, severe side effects have occurred with early retroviral vectors causing a shift in the approach to vector design before further clinical testing. Several alternative delivery methods are available but lentiviral vectors (LV) are among the most favorable as they are already well understood. LV offer safer integration site selection profiles and a lower degree of genotoxicity, compared with ?-retroviral vectors. Following their introduction, development of the self-inactivating vector configuration was a huge step to this mode of therapy but did not confer full protection against insertional mutagenesis. As a result integration, modeling must be improved to eventually avoid this possibility. The cellular factor LEDGF/p75 seems to play an essential role in the process of LV site selection and its interactions with chromatin are being quickly resolved. LEDGF/p75 is at the center of one example directed integration effort where recombinant products bias the integration event, a step toward fully directed integration into pre-determined benign loci. A more accurate picture of the details of LEDGF/p75 in the natural integration process is emerging, including new binding specificities, chromatin interaction kinetics and additional cellular factors. Together with next-generation sequencing technology and bio-informatics to analyze integration patterns, these advancements will lead to highly focused directed integration, accelerating wide-spread acceptance of LV for gene therapy.

Papayannakos C; Daniel R

2013-06-01

108

Theileriosis (Cytauxzoonosis) in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus): Field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four hand-reared, naïve roan antelope, 4 months of age, were exposed to naturally infected pasture on a game farm in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, where roan are known to die from theileriosis. Various clinical parameters were recorded during this period. The predominant ticks parasitising these animals at the time (January to February), were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi adults. After a period of 5?weeks the animals developed signs of clinical theileriosis and were treated with buparvaquone to prevent mortality. Primary hyperplasia of the local draining lymph nodes (Lnn. anorectales) near the feeding site of adult R. evertsi evertsi indicated possible transmission of Theileria sp. (sable) by this tick species. After recovery from theileriosis, these animals were confirmed carriers of Theileria sp. (sable) by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and DNA probe analysis. Laboratory-bred larvae and nymphs of R. evertsi evertsi and R. appendiculatus respectively, were fed on the ears of these roan antelope. Salivary glands from moulted and prefed adult ticks of each species were dissected and stained for Theileria spp., and the PCR and DNA probe applied to a representative batch of dissected glands. R. appendiculatus adults collected from grass in infected camps were also dissected after prefeeding them on rabbits. Salivary glands of both tick species showed infected acini on staining and were also positive for Theileria sp. (sable) only, on multiprotozoal PCR-screening analysis. There was no statistical significant difference between the infection rate and the intensity of infection between the two tick species. R. appendiculatus ticks collected from grass were also PCR-positive for Theileria sp. (sable).How to cite this article: Steyl, J.C.A., Prozesky, L., Stoltsz, W.H. & Lawrence, J.A., 2012, ‘Theileriosis (Cytauxzoonosis) in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus): Field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 79(1), Art. #367, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.367

Johan C.A. Steyl; Leon Prozesky; Wilhelm H. Stoltsz; John A. Lawrence

2012-01-01

109

POTENTIAL USES OF INSECT VIRUSES TO MANAGE LEAFHOPPER VECTORS OF PIERCE'S DISEASE  

Science.gov (United States)

The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) is a major pest of grapes, almonds and other woody crops due to its ability to vector Pierce's Disease of grapes, a bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa. New developments in molecular biology and virology have opened the use of insect viruses as molecular tool...

110

Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), a potential new Dengue vector in southern Cameroon.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aedes albopictus, a mosquito vector of Dengue virus, has been recorded for the first time in Cameroon. Entomologic surveys in 2000 demonstrated that it is widespread in southern Cameroon, colonizing a wide variety of breeding sites and biting humans in every district surveyed. The presence of this v...

Fontenille, D.; Toto, J. C.

111

Any J-state solution of the DKP equation for a vector deformed Woods-Saxon potential  

CERN Multimedia

By using the Pekeris approximation, the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation is investigated for a vector deformed Woods-Saxon (dWS) potential. The parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in calculations. The approximate energy eigenvalue equation and the corresponding wave function spinor components are calculated for any total angular momentum J in closed form. The exact energy equation and wave function spinor components are also given for the J=0 case. We use a set of parameter values to obtain the numerical values for the energy states with various values of quantum levels (n,J) and potential's deformation constant q and width R.

Hamzavi, Majid

2012-01-01

112

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (vectorization and parallelization). Progress report fiscal 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

Ishizuki, Shigeru; Kawai, Wataru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-03-01

113

Measurement of the depolarization of the reaction 27Al(p vector,p vector.)27Al for the study of the spin-spin potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the study of the spin-spin interaction in the optical potential the depolarisation in the elastic scattering of polarized protons was measured. The double-scattering experiments were performed in the angular range 400-1100 at an incident energy of 10.35 MeV at the Erlangen QD-magnetic spectrometer. The determination of the optical model parameters independent from the spin-spin potentials was performed by the fitting of these to the observables and sigmasup(di). These were obtained from a measurement of the angular distribution of the analyzing power and the differential cross section in the 4?-scattering chamber for the reaction 27Al(p vector,p0) at the same energy. The compound contributions present at this energy, which can also influence the depolarization, were regarded by the calculation of the compound-elastic non-spin-flip respectively spin-flip subcross sections by means of the formalism of Hofmann, Richert, Tepel and Weidenmueller. Because the target nucleus 27Al possesses in the ground state a spin I=5/2, also the possible quadrupole spin flip had to be included. This was performed by coupled-channel calculations. The respecting compound contributions and quadrupole effects corrected depolarization data could by used for the study of the spin-spin potentials by means of DWBA calculations. As result it was shown that for the description of the emental data a spherical spin-spin potential of the strength Vsub(SS)=1.5+-0.3 MeV had to be assumed. (orig.).

1981-01-01

114

West nile virus transmission in sentinel chickens and potential mosquito vectors, senegal river delta, 2008-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals.

Fall AG; Diaïté A; Seck MT; Bouyer J; Lefrançois T; Vachiéry N; Aprelon R; Faye O; Konaté L; Lancelot R

2013-01-01

115

West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals.

Assane Gueye Fall; Amadou Diaïté; Momar Talla Seck; Jérémy Bouyer; Thierry Lefrançois; Nathalie Vachiéry; Rosalie Aprelon; Ousmane Faye; Lassana Konaté; Renaud Lancelot

2013-01-01

116

West nile virus transmission in sentinel chickens and potential mosquito vectors, senegal river delta, 2008-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals. PMID:24084679

Fall, Assane Gueye; Diaïté, Amadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Faye, Ousmane; Konaté, Lassana; Lancelot, Renaud

2013-10-01

117

The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), in Mexico City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio) of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The presence and abundance of these WNV competent vectors is a cause for concern. Understanding the distribution of these vectors can help improve viral surveillance activities and mosquito control efforts in Mexico City.

Diaz-Badillo Alvaro; Bolling Bethany G; Perez-Ramirez Gerardo; Moore Chester G; Martinez-Munoz Jorge P; Padilla-Viveros America A; Camacho-Nuez Minerva; Diaz-Perez Alfonso; Beaty Barry J; de Lourdes Munoz Maria

2011-01-01

118

Species Distribution Models and Ecological Suitability Analysis for Potential Tick Vectors of Lyme Disease in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Species distribution models were constructed for ten Ixodes species and Amblyomma cajennense for a region including Mexico and Texas. The model was based on a maximum entropy algorithm that used environmental layers to predict the relative probability of presence for each taxon. For Mexico, species geographic ranges were predicted by restricting the models to cells which have a higher probability than the lowest probability of the cells in which a presence record was located. There was spatial nonconcordance between the distributions of Amblyomma cajennense and the Ixodes group with the former restricted to lowlands and mainly the eastern coast of Mexico and the latter to montane regions with lower temperature. The risk of Lyme disease is, therefore, mainly present in the highlands where some Ixodes species are known vectors; if Amblyomma cajennense turns out to be a competent vector, the area of risk also extends to the lowlands and the east coast.

Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Trout Fryxell, Rebecca; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez-Moreno, Angel; Williamson, Phillip; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

119

Nielsen identities for gauge-fixing vectors and composite effective potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how to derive the Nielsen identities which govern the gauge dependence of physical quantities and the effective action for the gauge fixing vectors in both the 't Hooft gauge and in the planar gauge by using an extended set of BRS transformations. We also show that it is possible to derive the identities for an effective action which depends on composite operators. (orig.)

1987-03-09

120

The potential of a new larviciding method for the control of malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria pathogens are transmitted to humans by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The juvenile stages of these mosquitoes develop in a variety of water bodies and are key targets for vector control campaigns involving the application of larvicides. The effective operational implementation of these campaigns is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. New evidence however, suggests that adult mosquitoes can be co-opted into disseminating larvicides in a far more targeted and efficient manner than can be achieved using conventional methods.

Devine GJ; Killeen GF

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Partial mosquito-proofing of houses with screens and ceilings has the potential to reduce indoor densities of malaria mosquitoes. We wish to measure whether it will also reduce indoor densities of vectors of neglected tropical diseases. METHODOLOGY: The main house entry points preferred by anopheline and culicine vectors were determined through controlled experiments using specially designed experimental huts and village houses in Lupiro village, southern Tanzania. The benefit of screening different entry points (eaves, windows and doors) using PVC-coated fibre glass netting material in terms of reduced indoor densities of mosquitoes was evaluated compared to the control. FINDINGS: 23,027 mosquitoes were caught with CDC light traps; 77.9% (17,929) were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, of which 66.2% were An. arabiensis and 33.8% An. gambiae sensu stricto. The remainder comprised 0.2% (50) An. funestus, 10.2% (2359) Culex spp. and 11.6% (2664) Mansonia spp. Screening eaves reduced densities of Anopheles gambiae s. l. (Relative ratio (RR) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98; P = 0.01); Mansonia africana (RR = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; P<0.001) and Mansonia uniformis (RR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.56; P<0.001) but not Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. univittatus or Cx. theileri. Numbers of these species were reduced by screening windows and doors but this was not significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria. While full house screening is required to exclude Culex species mosquitoes, screening of eaves alone or fitting ceilings has considerable potential for integrated control of other vectors of filariasis, arbovirus and malaria.

Ogoma SB; Lweitoijera DW; Ngonyani H; Furer B; Russell TL; Mukabana WR; Killeen GF; Moore SJ

2010-01-01

122

Complexing of ruthenium during sorption by a graft copolymer of a polyacrylonitrile fiber with poly-2-methvl-5-vinylpyridine (PAN-MVP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper studies the sorption of chlorine complexes of ruthenium (IV) on the graft copolymer of a polyacrylonitrile fiber with poly-2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine (PAN-MVP). The composition of the fiber is illustrated. It is shown that sorption of chlorine complexes of ruthenium (IV) from acid solutions by a pyridine fiber sorbent takes place according to an anion-exchange mechanism and is due to the formation of compounds of the diamine type (Ru(RPy)2Cl4)

1985-05-20

123

Potential Vectors of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) in Itacoatiara, Oceanic Region of Niterói Municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis is a widespread mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, a commonly diagnosed disease of dogs that is rarely reported in cats and humans. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 3,667 mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae, representing 19 species and 10 genera. From those, Ae. scapularis, Ae taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Cx. saltanensis and Wy. bourrouli were found infected with D. immitis parasites, and among those, only the first three harbored infective larvae. The majority of larvae were found in the Malpighian tubules (889/936), and larval melanization was observed in the two Aedes species. In descending order, the best vectors were Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus which alternate seasonally in importance. Cx. quinquefasciatus is suggested to be a vector to cats. The potential transmission of D. immitis parasites by these three vectors to man is discussed.

Norma Labarthe; Maria Lúcia Serrão; Yuri Fontenele Melo; Sebastião José de Oliveira; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

1998-01-01

124

Potential Vectors of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) in Itacoatiara, Oceanic Region of Niterói Municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Dirofilaria immitis is a widespread mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, a commonly diagnosed disease of dogs that is rarely reported in cats and humans. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 3,667 mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae, representing 19 species and 10 genera. From those, Ae. scapularis, Ae taeniorhynchus, Cx. (more) quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Cx. saltanensis and Wy. bourrouli were found infected with D. immitis parasites, and among those, only the first three harbored infective larvae. The majority of larvae were found in the Malpighian tubules (889/936), and larval melanization was observed in the two Aedes species. In descending order, the best vectors were Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus which alternate seasonally in importance. Cx. quinquefasciatus is suggested to be a vector to cats. The potential transmission of D. immitis parasites by these three vectors to man is discussed.

Labarthe, Norma; Serrão, Maria Lúcia; Melo, Yuri Fontenele; Oliveira, Sebastião José de; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

1998-07-01

125

Identification of potential hosts and vectors of scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae in eastern Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are transmitted by chiggers (larval trombiculid mites) and hard ticks, respectively. We assessed exposure to these disease vectors by extensively sampling both chiggers and ticks and their small mammal hosts in eastern Taiwan during 2007 and 2008. The striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas (Rodentia: Muridae) was the most common of the small mammals (36.1% of 1393 captures) and presented the highest rate of infestation with both chiggers (47.8% of 110 760) and ticks (78.1% of 1431). Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) and immature Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were the most abundant chiggers (84.5%) and ticks (>99%) identified, respectively. Immunofluorescent antibody assay revealed high seropositive rates of rodents against Orientia tsutsugamushi Hyashi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), the aetiological agent of scrub typhus (70.0% of 437 rodents), and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae (91.9% of 418 rodents). The current study represents a first step towards elucidating the potential hosts and vectors in the enzootic transmission of O. tsutsugamushi and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae in Taiwan. Further studies should focus on characterizing pathogens in L. imphalum and R. haemaphysaloides, as well as the proclivity of both vectors to humans. Uncovering the main hosts of adult ticks is also critical for the prevention of SFG rickettsial infections. PMID:21223345

Kuo, C C; Huang, C L; Wang, H C

2011-01-12

126

Identification of potential hosts and vectors of scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group rickettsiae in eastern Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scrub typhus and tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are transmitted by chiggers (larval trombiculid mites) and hard ticks, respectively. We assessed exposure to these disease vectors by extensively sampling both chiggers and ticks and their small mammal hosts in eastern Taiwan during 2007 and 2008. The striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius Pallas (Rodentia: Muridae) was the most common of the small mammals (36.1% of 1393 captures) and presented the highest rate of infestation with both chiggers (47.8% of 110 760) and ticks (78.1% of 1431). Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) and immature Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (Ixodida: Ixodidae) were the most abundant chiggers (84.5%) and ticks (>99%) identified, respectively. Immunofluorescent antibody assay revealed high seropositive rates of rodents against Orientia tsutsugamushi Hyashi (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), the aetiological agent of scrub typhus (70.0% of 437 rodents), and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae (91.9% of 418 rodents). The current study represents a first step towards elucidating the potential hosts and vectors in the enzootic transmission of O. tsutsugamushi and tick-borne SFG rickettsiae in Taiwan. Further studies should focus on characterizing pathogens in L. imphalum and R. haemaphysaloides, as well as the proclivity of both vectors to humans. Uncovering the main hosts of adult ticks is also critical for the prevention of SFG rickettsial infections.

Kuo CC; Huang CL; Wang HC

2011-06-01

127

The potential of a new larviciding method for the control of malaria vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria pathogens are transmitted to humans by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The juvenile stages of these mosquitoes develop in a variety of water bodies and are key targets for vector control campaigns involving the application of larvicides. The effective operational implementation of these campaigns is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. New evidence however, suggests that adult mosquitoes can be co-opted into disseminating larvicides in a far more targeted and efficient manner than can be achieved using conventional methods. PMID:20500865

Devine, Gregor J; Killeen, Gerry F

2010-05-25

128

The potential of a new larviciding method for the control of malaria vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Malaria pathogens are transmitted to humans by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The juvenile stages of these mosquitoes develop in a variety of water bodies and are key targets for vector control campaigns involving the application of larvicides. The effective operational implementation of these campaigns is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. New evidence however, suggests that adult mosquitoes can be co-opted into disseminating larvicides in a far more targeted and efficient manner than can be achieved using conventional methods.

Devine Gregor J; Killeen Gerry F

2010-01-01

129

Evaluation of accuracy of Monte Carlo code MVP with VHTRC experiments. Multiplication factor at criticality, burnable poison worth and void worth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental data of VHTRC (Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly) were analyzed using Monte Carlo code MVP (general purpose Monte Carlo code of neutron and photon transport calculations based on the continuous energy method). The calculation accuracy of the code was evaluated by the analysis for nuclear characteristics of a HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor). The MVP code can analyze with a detailed three-dimensional core model with a few approximations. The HTGRs have following characteristics from view point of nuclear design : they have burnable poisons, many void holes, namely, the control insertion holes and so on. Taking account of these characteristics, multiplication factor at criticality, burnable poison worth, and void worth were evaluated. The maximum calculation errors were 0.8%{Delta}k, 7%, and 25% respectively, From these results, it can be concluded that the MVP code is able to be applied to the nuclear characteristics analysis of the HTGR like the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). (author)

Nojiri, Naoki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Fiujimoto, Nozomu; Nakano, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Akino, Fujiyoshi

1997-11-01

130

MVP Chemotherapy and Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Stage III Unresectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Randomized for maintenance Chemotherapy vs. Observation; Preliminary Report-  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the effect of MVP chemotherapy and hyperfractionated radiotherapy in Stage III unresectable non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), authors have conducted a prospective randomized study since January 1991. Stage IIIa or IIIb unresectable NSCLC patients were treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (120 cGy/fx BID) up to 6500 cGY following 3 cycles of induction MVP (Mitomycin C 6 mg/m{sup 2}, vinblastine 6 mg/m{sup 2}, Cisplatin 60 mg/m{sup 2}) and randomized for either observation or 3 cycles of maintenance MVP chemotherapy. Until August 1991, 18 patients were registered to this study. 4 cases were stage IIIa and 14 were stage IIIb. Among 18 cases 2 were lost after 2 cycles of chemotherapy, and 16 were analyzed for this preliminary report. The response rate of induction chemotherapy was 62.5%; partial response, 50% and minimal response, 12.5%. Residual tumor of the one partial responder was completely disappeared after radiotherapy. Among 6 cases who were progressed during induction chemotherapy, 4 of them were also progressed after radiotherapy. All patients were tolerated BID radiotherapy without definite increase of acute complications, compared with conventional radiotherapy group. But at the time of this report, one patient expired in two month after the completion of the radiotherapy because of treatment related complication. Although the longer follow up is needed, authors are encouraged with higher response rate and acceptable toxicity of this treatment. Authors believe that this study is worthwhile to continue.

Choi, Euk Kyung; Chang, Hye Sook; Suh, Cheol Won [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

1991-12-15

131

Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01) of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

Santos Luciana Urbano dos; Andrade Carlos Fernando S. de

1997-01-01

132

ABCXYZ: vector potential (A) and magnetic field (B) code (C) for Cartesian (XYZ) geometry using general current elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ABCXYZ is a computer code for obtaining the Cartesian components of the vector potential and the magnetic field on an observed grid from an arrangement of current-carrying wires. Arbitrary combinations of straight line segments, arcs, and loops are allowed in the specification of the currents. Arbitrary positions and orientations of the current-carrying elements are also allowed. Specification of the wire diameter permits the computation of well-defined fields, even in the interiors of the conductors. An optical feature generates magnetic field lines. Extensive graphical and printed output is available to the user including contour, grid-line, and field-line plots. 12 figures, 1 table

1976-01-01

133

Preprocess the Photospheric Vector Magnetograms for NLFFF Extrapolation using a Potential Field Model and an Optimization Method  

CERN Multimedia

Numerical reconstruction/extrapolation of coronal nonlinear force-free magnetic field (NLFFF) usually takes the photospheric vector magnetogram as input at the bottom boundary. Magnetic field observed at the photosphere, however, contains force which is in conflict with the fundamental assumption of the force-free model and measurement noise which is unfavorable for practical computation. Preprocessing of the raw magnetogram has been proposed by Wiegelmann, Inhester, and Sakurai (2006) to remove the force and noise for providing better input for NLFFF modeling. In this paper we develop a new code of magnetogram preprocessing which is consistent with our extrapolation method CESE-MHD-NLFFF (Jiang, Feng, and Xiang, 2012; Jiang and Feng, 2012). Basing on a magnetic-splitting rule that a magnetic field can be split into a potential field part and a non-potential part, we split the magnetogram and deal with the two parts separately. Preprocessing of the magnetogram's potential part is based on a numerical potentia...

Jiang, Chaowei

2013-01-01

134

Larval Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) potential for vectoring Pythium root rot pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the capacity of Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen) larvae to ingest propagules from two strains each of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp. and P. ultimum Trow and transmit the pathogens to healthy geranium seedlings on a filter-paper substrate in petri dishes. The capacity of fungus gnat larvae to transmit P. aphanidermatum to seedlings rooted in a commercial peat-based potting mix and germination of Pythium oospores and hyphal swellings before and after passage through the guts of larval fungus gnats were also examined. Assays revealed that Pythium spp. transmission by larval fungus gnats varied greatly with the assay substrate and also with the number and nature of ingested propagules. Transmission was highest (65%) in the petri dish assays testing larvae fed P. aphanidermatum K-13, a strain that produced abundant oospores. Transmission of strain K-13 was much lower (<6%) in plug cells with potting mix. Larvae were less efficient at vectoring P. ultimum strain PSN-1, which produced few oospores, and no transmission was observed with two non-oospore-producing strains: P. aphanidermatum Pa58 and P. ultimum P4. Passage of P. aphanidermatum K-13 through larval guts significantly increased oospore germination. However, decreased germination of hyphal swellings was observed following larval gut passage for strains of P. ultimum. These results expand previous studies suggesting that larval fungus gnats may vector Pythium spp.

Braun SE; Sanderson JP; Wraight SP

2012-03-01

135

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a potential vector of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is limited information on whether parasites act as vectors to transmit bacteria in fish. In this trial, we used Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and fluorescent Edwardsiella ictaluri as a model to study the interaction between parasite, bacterium, and fish. The percentage (23-39%) of theronts fluorescing after exposure to E. ictaluri was significantly higher than control theronts (~ 6%) using flow cytometry. Theronts exposed to E. ictaluri at 4 × 10(7)  CFU mL(-1) showed a higher percentage (~ 60%) of fluorescent theronts compared to those (42%) exposed to 4 × 10(3)  CFU mL(-1) at 4 h. All tomonts (100%) carried the bacterium after exposure to E. ictaluri. Edwardsiella ictaluri survived and replicated during tomont division. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that E. ictaluri was associated with the tomont surface. Among theronts released from tomonts exposed to E. ictaluri, 31-66% were observed with attached E. ictaluri. Sixty percent of fish exposed to theronts treated with 5 × 10(7) E. ictaluri mL(-1) were positive for E. ictaluri at 4 h as determined by qPCR or fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent E. ictaluri were observed on trophonts in skin and gill wet mounts of dead fish. This study demonstrated that Ich could vector E. ictaluri to channel catfish. PMID:22309484

Xu, De-Hai; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

2012-02-23

136

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis as a potential vector of Edwardsiella ictaluri in channel catfish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is limited information on whether parasites act as vectors to transmit bacteria in fish. In this trial, we used Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and fluorescent Edwardsiella ictaluri as a model to study the interaction between parasite, bacterium, and fish. The percentage (23-39%) of theronts fluorescing after exposure to E. ictaluri was significantly higher than control theronts (~ 6%) using flow cytometry. Theronts exposed to E. ictaluri at 4 × 10(7)  CFU mL(-1) showed a higher percentage (~ 60%) of fluorescent theronts compared to those (42%) exposed to 4 × 10(3)  CFU mL(-1) at 4 h. All tomonts (100%) carried the bacterium after exposure to E. ictaluri. Edwardsiella ictaluri survived and replicated during tomont division. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that E. ictaluri was associated with the tomont surface. Among theronts released from tomonts exposed to E. ictaluri, 31-66% were observed with attached E. ictaluri. Sixty percent of fish exposed to theronts treated with 5 × 10(7) E. ictaluri mL(-1) were positive for E. ictaluri at 4 h as determined by qPCR or fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent E. ictaluri were observed on trophonts in skin and gill wet mounts of dead fish. This study demonstrated that Ich could vector E. ictaluri to channel catfish.

Xu DH; Shoemaker CA; Klesius PH

2012-04-01

137

Leafhoppers and Cixiids in Phytoplasma-infected Carrot Fields: Species Composition and Potential Phytoplasma Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The first molecular analysis of samples collected in southern Ba?ka (Serbia) confirmed the presence of aster yellows (16SrI) and stolbur phytoplasmas (16SrXII) in insects belonging to the family Cicadellidae, as well as in carrot plants where the insects were collected. A correct identification of the phytoplasmas and their vectors is essential to arrange effective control strategies to prevent diseases associated with phytoplasmas from spreading to carrots and other vegetable crops. In order to enhance knowledgeabout insect vectors of aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas in Serbia, Cicadellidae and Cixiidae (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha), the most common vectors of these phytoplasmas,were monitored in southern Ba?ka during 2008. Adults leaf- and planthoppers were collected and identified at species level using standard entomological methods,and tested for phytoplasma presence by means of PCR/RFLP. A total of 13 insect species of Cicadellidae were identified, as follows: a) three species of the subfamily Agallinae: Anaceratagallia ribauti (Ossiannilsson), Anaceratagallia venosa (Fourcroy),and Anaceratagallia laevis (Ribaut); b) seven species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae: Psammotettix confinis (Dahlbom), Psammotettix striatus (Linnaues) Psammottettix alienus (Dahlbom), Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén), Ophiola decumana (Kontkanen),Errastunus ocellaris Fallén, and Scaphoideus titanus Ball; c) three species of the subfamily Typhlocibinae: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze), Eupteryx mellissae Curtis, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman). Female specimens of the genus Euscelis (Deltocephalinae) were also collected, as well as one species of Reptalus quinquecostatus (Dufour) of the family Cixiidae. Stolbur phytoplasmas were detected in A. laevis, A. ribauti, A. venosa, P. striatus, P. confinis and P. alienus. The species: A. laevis, O. decumana, and P. confinis were AY-infected (subgroup 16SrI-A), while subgroup 16SrI-C was found only in one specimen of P. confinis. Since some aster yellows- and stolbur-infected species of the genera Psammotettix and Anaceratagallia (especially P. confinis and A. laevis) were regularly and commonly found in the infected carrot fields during the whole vegetative period, they could play a significant role in transmitting and spreading these pathogens in natural environment.

Tanja Drobnjakovi?; Pantelija Peri?; Dejan Mar?i?; Luca Picciau; Alberto Alma; Jelena Mitrovi?; Bojan Duduk; Assunta Bertaccini

2010-01-01

138

Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. METHODS: DIVERSE ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR THIS PURPOSE: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. RESULTS: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

Mweya CN; Kimera SI; Kija JB; Mboera LE

2013-01-01

139

Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods: Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

Clement Nyamunura Mweya; Sharadhuli Iddi Kimera; John Bukombe Kija; Leonard E. G. Mboera

2013-01-01

140

Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5?ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5-30?ppt and >30?ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross-McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for increased coastal transmission of mosquito-borne diseases consequent to climate change and a rise in sea levels. It is proposed that the Jaffna peninsula in Sri Lanka may be a useful case study for the impact of rising sea levels on mosquito vectors in tropical coasts.

Ramasamy R; Surendran SN

2012-01-01

142

Control of HBV replication by antiviral microRNAs transferred by lentiviral vectors for potential cell and gene therapy approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Because molecular mechanisms regulating host cell and virus interactions are not fully understood, we further defined roles of antiviral microRNAs (miRNAs) in HBV replication. METHODS: We studied small interfering RNA sequences inserted into the miR-30 backbone in cell systems. Antiviral sequences were cloned into lentiviral vectors upstream of a green fluorescent protein reporter. Transduced cells included HepG2 or HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines and hTERT-FH-B fetal human liver cells. HBV replication was analysed by several assays. RESULTS: In 2.2.15 cells treated with constructs primarily targeting HBV polymerase and surface antigen or HBV polymerase and X open reading frames, HBV core protein, HBV DNA and HBV RNA expression decreased. This antiviral effect was more pronounced when the two constructs were expressed together. Similarly, antiviral constructs decreased HBV replication in HepG2 cells transduced with adenoviral vector to express HBV. Although antiviral sequences were expressed in hTERT-FH-B cells, these cells were non-permissive for HBV, possibly owing to expression of miRNAs reported to inhibit HBV replication, whereas these miRNAs were absent in HepG2 cells. Expression of antiviral miRNAs did not affect cell viability or proliferation and no deleterious changes were observed in expression of native cellular miRNAs. Moreover, expression of antiviral miRNA did not affect engraftment and survival of transplanted cells in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of effective antiviral miRNAs and transfer of suitable constructs by lentiviral vectors will be helpful for pathophysiological studies of host cell-virus interactions. Simultaneously, this will advance potential mechanisms for cell/gene therapy in those afflicted with chronic hepatitis and refractory liver disease.

Kumar M; Follenzi A; Garforth S; Gupta S

2012-01-01

143

Insecticide resistance in potential vector mosquitoes for West Nile virus in Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Culex pipiens complex is the significant vector mosquito of West Nile virus. To take stock of the current situation of insecticide susceptibilities and design an ideal mosquito control strategy, we collected Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet, Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say from fields in Japan and conducted bioassays for five larvicides (fenitrothion, temephos, etofenprox, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen) by using a larval dipping method. Among five insecticides tested, obvious reduced susceptibilities were observed for etofenprox, which is the only pyrethroid compound registered as a larvicide in Japan. Twenty-two of 56 colonies exhibited a >10% survival rate at the etofenprox concentration of 5.7 microg/ml, which is a 10 times higher concentration of the working solution. The LC50 of a colony collected from Fukuoka prefecture for etofenprox exceeded 60 microg/ml (resistance ratio >2,307), and this colony also exhibited cross-resistance to other pyrethroids, permethrin (299-fold) and phenothrin (1,200-fold). The insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen were found to be sufficiently effective enough to control Culex larvae present, but decreased sensitivities to these insecticides were slightly detected in some colonies of Cx. p. form molestus collected from urban areas. Several etofenprox-resistant colonies of Cx. p. form molestus exhibited simultaneously decreased susceptibilities to other insecticides, including temephos, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen.

Kasai S; Shono T; Komagata O; Tsuda Y; Kobayashi M; Motoki M; Kashima I; Tanikawa T; Yoshida M; Tanaka I; Shinjo G; Hashimoto T; Ishikawa T; Takahashi T; Higa Y; Tomita T

2007-09-01

144

Insecticide resistance in potential vector mosquitoes for West Nile virus in Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culex pipiens complex is the significant vector mosquito of West Nile virus. To take stock of the current situation of insecticide susceptibilities and design an ideal mosquito control strategy, we collected Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet, Culex pipiens form molestus Forskal, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say from fields in Japan and conducted bioassays for five larvicides (fenitrothion, temephos, etofenprox, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen) by using a larval dipping method. Among five insecticides tested, obvious reduced susceptibilities were observed for etofenprox, which is the only pyrethroid compound registered as a larvicide in Japan. Twenty-two of 56 colonies exhibited a >10% survival rate at the etofenprox concentration of 5.7 microg/ml, which is a 10 times higher concentration of the working solution. The LC50 of a colony collected from Fukuoka prefecture for etofenprox exceeded 60 microg/ml (resistance ratio >2,307), and this colony also exhibited cross-resistance to other pyrethroids, permethrin (299-fold) and phenothrin (1,200-fold). The insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and pyriproxyfen were found to be sufficiently effective enough to control Culex larvae present, but decreased sensitivities to these insecticides were slightly detected in some colonies of Cx. p. form molestus collected from urban areas. Several etofenprox-resistant colonies of Cx. p. form molestus exhibited simultaneously decreased susceptibilities to other insecticides, including temephos, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen. PMID:17915515

Kasai, Shinji; Shono, Toshio; Komagata, Osamu; Tsuda, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Motoki, Mitsugu; Kashima, Ichiro; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Ikuo; Shinjo, Goro; Hashimoto, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tomoya; Higa, Yukiko; Tomita, Takashi

2007-09-01

145

On the Claim of the Observation of 'Macro-quantum effects' of Magnetic Vector Potential in the Classical Domain  

CERN Document Server

I present conclusive arguments to show that a recent claim of observation of quantum-like effects of the magnetic vector potential in the classical macrodomain is spurious. The `one dimensional interference patterns' referred to in the paper by R. K. Varma et al (Phys. Lett. A 303 (2002) 114-120) are not due to any quantum-like wave phenomena. The data reported in the paper are not consistent with the interpretation of interference, or with the topology of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The assertion that they are evidence of A-B like effect in the classical macrodomain is based on inadequate appreciation of basic physical facts regarding classical motion of electrons in magnetic fields, interference phenomena, and the A-B effect.

Unnikrishnan, C S

2004-01-01

146

A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay/ Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram feitas provas de suscetibilidade com um molusco planorbídeo semelhante à Biomphalaria straminea (species inquirenda) de Espinillar, localidade próxima a Salto (Uruguay), na área da represa de Salto Grande, cada exemplar sendo exposto individualmente a 5 miracídios de Schistosom mansoni (cepas SJ2 e BH2). De 130 exemplares expostos à cepa SJ2, originalmente infectante para B. tenagophila, 30 se infectaram (23%). O período pré-patente (pré-cercariano) variou (more) de 35 a 65 dias. A emissão de cercárias foi irregular, não seguindo padrão definido, variando de 138 a 76.075 por exemplar (média diária de 4,3 a 447,5) e teminando com a morte. Três exemplares que morreram, sem ter eliminado cercárias, no 69º (2) e no 80º dia após exposição aos miracídios, tinham esporocistos secundários em desenvolvimento nos tecidos, justificando a expectativa de um período pré-patente mais longo nestes casos. Em um grupo-controle de 120 B. tenagophila, exposta à cepa SJ2, 40 se infectaram, não diferindo significativamente seu índice de infecção (33.3%) daquele do planorbídeo de Espinillar (X [ao quadrado]=3.26). De 100 exemplares de Espinillar expostos a miracídios da cepa BH2, originalmente infectante para B. glabrata, nenhum produziu cercárias. Um esporocisto primário formou-se em um tentáculo em 4 exemplares, desaparecendo entre 15 e 25 dias após a exposição. Dois outros exemplares morreram com esporocistos imaturos e muito delgados nos tecidos (4 em um caso e 3 no outro), no 36º e 54º dias. Em um grupo-controle de 100 B. glabrata exposto à cepa BH2, 94 emitiram cercárias (94%) e 6 permaneceram negativos. De acordo com o índice TCP/100 de Frandsen (1979a,b), a combinação Biomphalaria de Espinillar-S. mansoni SJ2 constitui uma relação vetor-parasito "compatível". Tendo em vista que a xistosomose transmitida pela B. tenagophila é prevalente nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo e recentemente propagou-se para o sul até o estado de Santa Catarina, e a distribuição geográfica da B. tenagophila soprepõe-se à da Biomphalaria de Espinilar, a possibilidade do estabelecimento da xistosomose no Uruguai, ainda que não iminente, não deve ser desconsiderada. Abstract in english Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda) from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay), in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains). Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%). The prepatent (precercaria) period ranged from 35 to (more) 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2) and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3%) not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26). No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94%) and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b) TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio d

Paraense, W. Lobato; Corrêa, Lygia R.

1989-09-01

147

A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda) from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay), in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains). Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%). The prepatent (precercaria) period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2) and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3%) not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26). No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94%) and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b) TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of schistosomiais establishing itself in Uruguay, although not imminent, is not to be disregarded.Foram feitas provas de suscetibilidade com um molusco planorbídeo semelhante à Biomphalaria straminea (species inquirenda) de Espinillar, localidade próxima a Salto (Uruguay), na área da represa de Salto Grande, cada exemplar sendo exposto individualmente a 5 miracídios de Schistosom mansoni (cepas SJ2 e BH2). De 130 exemplares expostos à cepa SJ2, originalmente infectante para B. tenagophila, 30 se infectaram (23%). O período pré-patente (pré-cercariano) variou de 35 a 65 dias. A emissão de cercárias foi irregular, não seguindo padrão definido, variando de 138 a 76.075 por exemplar (média diária de 4,3 a 447,5) e teminando com a morte. Três exemplares que morreram, sem ter eliminado cercárias, no 69º (2) e no 80º dia após exposição aos miracídios, tinham esporocistos secundários em desenvolvimento nos tecidos, justificando a expectativa de um período pré-patente mais longo nestes casos. Em um grupo-controle de 120 B. tenagophila, exposta à cepa SJ2, 40 se infectaram, não diferindo significativamente seu índice de infecção (33.3%) daquele do planorbídeo de Espinillar (X [ao quadrado]=3.26). De 100 exemplares de Espinillar expostos a miracídios da cepa BH2, originalmente infectante para B. glabrata, nenhum produziu cercárias. Um esporocisto primário formou-se em um tentáculo em 4 exemplares, desaparecendo entre 15 e 25 dias após a exposição. Dois outros exemplares morreram com esporocistos imaturos e muito delgados nos tecidos (4 em um caso e 3 no outro), no 36º e 54º dias. Em um grupo-controle de 100 B. glabrata exposto à cepa BH2, 94 emitiram cercárias (94%) e 6 permaneceram negativos. De acordo com o índice TCP/100 de Frandsen (1979a,b), a combinação Biomphalaria de Espinillar-S. mansoni SJ2 constitui uma relação vetor-parasito "compatível". Tendo em vista que a xistosomose transmitida pela B. tenagophila é prevalente nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo e recentemente propagou-se para o sul até o estado de Sa

W. Lobato Paraense; Lygia R. Corrêa

1989-01-01

148

Potential of herpesvirus saimiri-based vectors to reprogram a somatic Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) infects a range of human cell types with high efficiency. Upon infection, the viral genome can persist as high-copy-number, circular, nonintegrated episomes that segregate to progeny cells upon division. This allows HVS-based vectors to stably transduce a dividing cell population and provide sustained transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the HVS episome is able to persist and provide prolonged transgene expression during in vitro differentiation of mouse and human hemopoietic progenitor cells. Together, these properties are advantageous for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, whereby stem cell-like cells are generated from adult somatic cells by exogenous expression of specific reprogramming factors. Here we assess the potential of HVS-based vectors for the generation of induced pluripotent cancer stem-like cells (iPCs). We demonstrate that HVS-based exogenous delivery of Oct4, Nanog, and Lin28 can reprogram the Ewing's sarcoma family tumor cell line A673 to produce stem cell-like colonies that can grow under feeder-free stem cell culture conditions. Further analysis of the HVS-derived putative iPCs showed some degree of reprogramming into a stem cell-like state. Specifically, the putative iPCs had a number of embryonic stem cell characteristics, staining positive for alkaline phosphatase and SSEA4, in addition to expressing elevated levels of pluripotent marker genes involved in proliferation and self-renewal. However, differentiation trials suggest that although the HVS-derived putative iPCs are capable of differentiation toward the ectodermal lineage, they do not exhibit pluripotency. Therefore, they are hereby termed induced multipotent cancer cells. PMID:23596304

Brown, Hannah F; Unger, Christian; Whitehouse, Adrian

2013-04-17

149

Scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential for a spin-1/2 particle under spin and pseudospin symmetries: 1+1 dimensions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cornell potential consists of Coulomb and linear potentials, i.e. ?a/x+bx, that has received a great deal of attention in particle and nuclear physics. In this paper, we present exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the mixed scalar–vector–pseudoscalar Cornell potential under spin and pseudospin symmetry limits. The corresponding eigenfunctions are given in the form of the biconfluent Heun polynomials.

Hamzavi, M.; Rajabi, A. A.

2013-07-01

150

Real-time PCR investigation of potential vectors, reservoirs, and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hemotropic mycoplasmas have been identified in pet cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." The way in which these agents are transmitted is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate fleas, ticks, and rodents as well as saliva and feces from infected cats for the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas, to gain insight into potential transmission routes for these agents. DNA was extracted from arthropods and from rodent blood or tissue samples from Switzerland and from salivary and fecal swabs from two experimentally infected and six naturally infected cats. All samples were analyzed with real-time PCR, and some positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were detected in cat fleas and in a few Ixodes sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. ticks collected from animals but not in ticks collected from vegetation or from rodent samples, although the latter were frequently Mycoplasma coccoides PCR positive. When shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were investigated, "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis" DNA was detected in saliva and feces at the early but not at the late phase of infection. M. haemofelis and "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum" DNA was not amplified from saliva and feces of naturally infected cats, despite high hemotropic mycoplasma blood loads. Our results suggest that besides an ostensibly indirect transmission by fleas, direct transmission through saliva and feces at the early phase of infection could play a role in the epizootiology of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas. Neither the investigated tick nor the rodent population seems to represent a major reservoir for feline hemotropic mycoplasmas in Switzerland. PMID:17468284

Willi, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Meli, Marina L; Bernasconi, Marco V; Casati, Simona; Hegglin, Daniel; Puorger, Maria; Neimark, Harold; Cattori, Valentino; Wengi, Nicole; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2007-04-27

151

Dos nuevos registros de vectores potenciales de Fiebre Amarilla selvática y Mayaro para el Ecuador/ Two new records of potential Sylvan Yellow Fever and Mayaro species vectors from Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se registran por primera vez en el Ecuador dos especies de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae), vectores potenciales de los virus de la Fiebre Amarilla y Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans y Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar fueron colectados en fase adulta en una localidad de la provincia de Zamora-Chinchipe, en la cual se han presentado casos de Fiebre Amarilla selvática con anterioridad. Este hallazgo muestra la importancia de profundizar los estudios de linea base de (more) vectores en el país, distribución geográfica y aspectos ecológicos y su posible relación epidemiológica con enfermedades emergentes y re-emergentes. Abstract in english Two new records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented from Ecuador, and both potential vectors of yellow fever virus and Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans and Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar adults were collected in a locality in the province of Zamora-Chinchipe, in which there have been cases of yellow fever previously. This finding shows the importance of further studies of baseline vector in the country, geographical distribution and ecological aspects and possible epidemiological link with emerging and re-emerging diseases.

Juan Carlos, Navarro; Ponce, Patricio; Cevallos, Varsovia

2013-01-01

152

Synthesis, and Characterization, and Evaluation of Cellular Effects of the FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL Nanoparticles as a Potential Non-Viral Vector for Gene Delivery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this manuscript, we synthesized the potential non viral vector for gene delivery with proper transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a well-known cationic polymer which has high positive surface charge for condensing plasmid DNA. However; it is highly cytotoxic in ...

S. Ghiamkazemi; A. Amanzadeh; R. Dinarvand; M. Rafiee-Tehrani; M. Amini

153

FAST, EASY AND EFFICIENT DNA EXTRACTION AND ONE-STEP POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR THE DETECTION OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN POTENTIAL INSECT VECTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

A quick, simple and efficient procedure for detecting Xylella fastidiosa in potential insect vectors is described. The procedure employs a commercially available DNeasy tissue kit for the extraction of high-quality DNA from the insect, followed by one-step polymerase chain reaction amplification usi...

154

Preloading potential of retroviral vectors is packaging cell clone dependent and centrifugation onto CH-296 ensures highest transduction efficiency  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer has been used successfully in clinical gene therapy. Cells of the hematopoietic lineages, however, remain difficult to transduce, although precoating of culture vessels with the fibronectin fragment CH-296 may improve transduction efficiency. Alternatively, low-speed centrifugation of vector-containing supernatant onto culture vessels may improve transduction efficiency in the absence of CH-296 preloading. Using the NIH/3T3-derived Moloney murine leukemia virus-based packaging cell lines PG13, PA317, and PT67, we here show that preloading by low-speed centrifugation improves transduction efficiency in a packaging cell subclone-dependent manner. Preloading by centrifugation, however, cannot generally replace CH-296 and we obtained the overall highest transduction levels when combining centrifugation and CH-296 precoating. We found, moreover, that the factor responsible for high susceptibility to preloading in our PG13-derived vector supernatant was transferable to a PA317-derived vector supernatant with low susceptibility to preloading. Furthermore, our PA317, PG13, and PT67 subclones shed into their supernatants variable amounts of fibronectin. This soluble fibronectin formed aggregates of various sizes and generated complexes with vector particles. The fibronectin-vector complexes readily sedimented onto culture vessels and copurified after fibronectin-specific affinity purification of vector-containing supernatants. Finally, vector supernatant from 293T cells, which barely produce fibronectin, was not susceptible to preloading. The susceptibility to preloading by centrifugation thus appears to be dependent both on the specific packaging cell line and on the association of vector particles and packaging cell-produced fibronectin. Rigorous screening of individual vector-containing supernatants is therefore required to identify optimal transduction conditions for retroviral gene transfer.

SØndergaard, Claus Svane; Haldrup, Christa

2009-01-01

155

Preloading potential of retroviral vectors is packaging cell clone dependent and centrifugation onto CH-296 ensures highest transduction efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer has been used successfully in clinical gene therapy. Cells of the hematopoietic lineages, however, remain difficult to transduce, although precoating of culture vessels with the fibronectin fragment CH-296 may improve transduction efficiency. Alternatively, low-speed centrifugation of vector-containing supernatant onto culture vessels may improve transduction efficiency in the absence of CH-296 preloading. Using the NIH/3T3-derived Moloney murine leukemia virus-based packaging cell lines PG13, PA317, and PT67, we here show that preloading by low-speed centrifugation improves transduction efficiency in a packaging cell subclone-dependent manner. Preloading by centrifugation, however, cannot generally replace CH-296 and we obtained the overall highest transduction levels when combining centrifugation and CH-296 precoating. We found, moreover, that the factor responsible for high susceptibility to preloading in our PG13-derived vector supernatant was transferable to a PA317-derived vector supernatant with low susceptibility to preloading. Furthermore, our PA317, PG13, and PT67 subclones shed into their supernatants variable amounts of fibronectin. This soluble fibronectin formed aggregates of various sizes and generated complexes with vector particles. The fibronectin-vector complexes readily sedimented onto culture vessels and copurified after fibronectin-specific affinity purification of vector-containing supernatants. Finally, vector supernatant from 293T cells, which barely produce fibronectin, was not susceptible to preloading. The susceptibility to preloading by centrifugation thus appears to be dependent both on the specific packaging cell line and on the association of vector particles and packaging cell-produced fibronectin. Rigorous screening of individual vector-containing supernatants is therefore required to identify optimal transduction conditions for retroviral gene transfer. PMID:19281432

Sondergaard, Claus S; Haldrup, Christa; Beer, Christiane; Andersen, Bente; Kohn, Donald B; Pedersen, Lene

2009-04-01

156

Preloading potential of retroviral vectors is packaging cell clone dependent and centrifugation onto CH-296 ensures highest transduction efficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Retroviral vector-mediated gene transfer has been used successfully in clinical gene therapy. Cells of the hematopoietic lineages, however, remain difficult to transduce, although precoating of culture vessels with the fibronectin fragment CH-296 may improve transduction efficiency. Alternatively, low-speed centrifugation of vector-containing supernatant onto culture vessels may improve transduction efficiency in the absence of CH-296 preloading. Using the NIH/3T3-derived Moloney murine leukemia virus-based packaging cell lines PG13, PA317, and PT67, we here show that preloading by low-speed centrifugation improves transduction efficiency in a packaging cell subclone-dependent manner. Preloading by centrifugation, however, cannot generally replace CH-296 and we obtained the overall highest transduction levels when combining centrifugation and CH-296 precoating. We found, moreover, that the factor responsible for high susceptibility to preloading in our PG13-derived vector supernatant was transferable to a PA317-derived vector supernatant with low susceptibility to preloading. Furthermore, our PA317, PG13, and PT67 subclones shed into their supernatants variable amounts of fibronectin. This soluble fibronectin formed aggregates of various sizes and generated complexes with vector particles. The fibronectin-vector complexes readily sedimented onto culture vessels and copurified after fibronectin-specific affinity purification of vector-containing supernatants. Finally, vector supernatant from 293T cells, which barely produce fibronectin, was not susceptible to preloading. The susceptibility to preloading by centrifugation thus appears to be dependent both on the specific packaging cell line and on the association of vector particles and packaging cell-produced fibronectin. Rigorous screening of individual vector-containing supernatants is therefore required to identify optimal transduction conditions for retroviral gene transfer.

Sondergaard CS; Haldrup C; Beer C; Andersen B; Kohn DB; Pedersen L

2009-04-01

157

Genetic diversity and potential vectors and reservoirs of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in southeastern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97-100% and 94-97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.

Kassem M; Juarez M; Gomez P; Mengual C; Sempere R; Plaza M; Elena SF; Moreno A; Fereres A; Aranda MA

2013-06-01

158

Host-feeding pattern of Culex theileri (Diptera: Culicidae), potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis in the Canary Islands, Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To identify the host range of potential vectors of Dirofilaria immitis Leidy, the causal agent of canine dirofilariasis, we studied the bloodmeal origin of mosquitoes trapped on two of the Canary Islands, Gran Canaria and Tenerife, where this disease is considered hyperendemic. On Gran Canaria, mosquitoes were captured using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps (outdoors) and resting in a bathroom (indoors). Only CDC traps were used to capture mosquitoes in Tenerife. The species captured in decreasing order of abundance were Culex theileri Theobald, Culex pipiens L., Culiseta longiareolata Macquart, Anopheles atroparvus van Thiel, and Anopheles cinereus Theobald. The origins of bloodmeals were identified for 121 Cx. theileri and 4 Cx. pipiens after amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the vertebrate cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. Cx. theileri fed on goats, sheep, dogs, cattle, cats, humans, and chickens, and Cx. pipiens fed on goats and chickens. A lower success of bloodmeal identification was obtained in mosquitoes captured resting indoors than outdoors in CDC traps, probably because of a longer time period between feeding and capture. Although most Cx. theileri fed on ruminants, this species also fed on different mammal species susceptible to dirofiliarasis, including humans, suggesting it could play a role on parasite transmission.

Martínez-De La Puente J; Moreno-Indias I; Hernández-Castellano LE; Argüello A; Ruiz S; Soriguer R; Figuerola J

2012-11-01

159

Transmission and detection of toria [Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)] phyllody phytoplasma and identification of a potential vector  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phyllody disease associated with 16SrIX phytoplasma was observed in the range of 4.1-11% in 10 different lines of toria [Brassica rapa L. subsp. dichotoma (Roxb.)] in experimental fields of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during 2008 and 2009. The toria phyllody (TP) phytoplasma was detected in all the symptomatic and 13.3% of asymptomatic toria plants by nested PCR. The phytoplasma was detected in midrib, flower part, siliquae, stem, and root of infected plants as well as seeds. TP was transmitted by grafting and by dodder to toria and nine other rapeseed/mustard species as confirmed by nested PCR. However, symptoms of phytoplasma infection were induced only in toria, yellow sarson [Brassica rapa L. subsp. trilocularis (Roxb.)], brown sarson [Brassica rapa L. subsp. sarson (Prain)], rapeseed (B. napus subsp. oleifera), and rocket or taramira (Eruca sativa) but not in mustard (B. juncea), black mustard (B. nigra), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), B. tournefortii and white mustard (Sinapis alba). Transmission of TP phytoplasma to periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) was successful only through dodder, but no transmission to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or brinjal (Solanum melongena) was found. TP phytoplasma was detected in Laodelpax striatellus, an abundant planthopper in toria fields, which indicates that this planthopper may be a potential vector for TP phytoplasma.

Azadvar Mehdi; Baranwal VirendraKumar; Yadava DK

2011-05-01

160

Genetic Diversity and Potential Vectors and Reservoirs of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus in Southeastern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT The genetic variability of a Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) population was evaluated by determining the nucleotide sequences of two genomic regions of CABYV isolates collected in open-field melon and squash crops during three consecutive years in Murcia (southeastern Spain). A phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two major clades. The sequences did not cluster according to host, year, or locality of collection, and nucleotide similarities among isolates were 97 to 100 and 94 to 97% within and between clades, respectively. The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions reflected that all open reading frames have been under purifying selection. Estimates of the population's genetic diversity were of the same magnitude as those previously reported for other plant virus populations sampled at larger spatial and temporal scales, suggesting either the presence of CABYV in the surveyed area long before it was first described, multiple introductions, or a particularly rapid diversification. We also determined the full-length sequences of three isolates, identifying the occurrence and location of recombination events along the CABYV genome. Furthermore, our field surveys indicated that Aphis gossypii was the major vector species of CABYV and the most abundant aphid species colonizing melon fields in the Murcia (Spain) region. Our surveys also suggested the importance of the weed species Ecballium elaterium as an alternative host and potential virus reservoir.

Kassem MA; Juarez M; Gómez P; Mengual CM; Sempere RN; Plaza M; Elena SF; Moreno A; Fereres A; Aranda MA

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Potentiated gene delivery to tumors using herpes simplex virus/Epstein-Barr virus/RV tribrid amplicon vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development and use of gene transfer techniques creates an opportunity to achieve better treatment modalities for numerous disease entities. Promising results for treatment in tumor cells in culture and in small animal models have been reported. Nevertheless, the lack of widespread vector distribution throughout tumor tissue is one of the current limitations for successful clinical application of gene therapy paradigms. The use of migratory tumor cells themselves as vector delivery vehicles may allow wider vector distribution in tumors. In addition, continuous release of retrovirus vectors on-site could generate a high local virion concentration over an extended time period with consequent increases in transduction efficiency. In this paper, we present in culture and in vivo data of a herpes simplex virus-Epstein-Barr virus hybrid amplicon vector containing retrovirus vector components (tribrid vector) that allows conversion of tumor cells into retroviral producer cells. With this method, we were able to achieve a local fourfold amplification of stable transgene expression in tumors. The application of this system, which can integrate a transgene cassette into tumors with therapeutic bystander effects, could increase the local amplification effect to a level of clinical relevance.

Hampl JA; Camp SM; Mydlarz WK; Hampl M; Ichikawa T; Chiocca EA; Louis DN; Sena-Esteves M; Breakefield XO

2003-05-01

162

Potentiated gene delivery to tumors using herpes simplex virus/Epstein-Barr virus/RV tribrid amplicon vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and use of gene transfer techniques creates an opportunity to achieve better treatment modalities for numerous disease entities. Promising results for treatment in tumor cells in culture and in small animal models have been reported. Nevertheless, the lack of widespread vector distribution throughout tumor tissue is one of the current limitations for successful clinical application of gene therapy paradigms. The use of migratory tumor cells themselves as vector delivery vehicles may allow wider vector distribution in tumors. In addition, continuous release of retrovirus vectors on-site could generate a high local virion concentration over an extended time period with consequent increases in transduction efficiency. In this paper, we present in culture and in vivo data of a herpes simplex virus-Epstein-Barr virus hybrid amplicon vector containing retrovirus vector components (tribrid vector) that allows conversion of tumor cells into retroviral producer cells. With this method, we were able to achieve a local fourfold amplification of stable transgene expression in tumors. The application of this system, which can integrate a transgene cassette into tumors with therapeutic bystander effects, could increase the local amplification effect to a level of clinical relevance. PMID:12804144

Hampl, Jürgen A; Camp, Sara M; Mydlarz, Wojciech K; Hampl, Monika; Ichikawa, Tomotsuga; Chiocca, E Antonio; Louis, David N; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Breakefield, Xandra O

2003-05-01

163

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

2011-03-29

164

Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program.

Warikoo R; Wahab N; Kumar S

2011-10-01

165

Molecular identification, potential vectors and alternative hosts of the phytoplasma associated with a lime decline disease in Saudi Arabia  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A decline disease has recently affected around 25% of lime trees in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. More than 40 samples from lime, weeds found in and around lime fields, and insects were collected in surveys conducted from March to June 2007 in six private farms. Total DNA was extracted from lime, weeds, and batches of four insects, which were used as template in a nested PCR for phytoplasmas with 16S rDNA primer pairs. PCR amplicons were further characterized by RFLP with Tru9I and HpaII enzymes, and sequencing. Phytoplasma rDNA was amplified from 23/45 lime leaf samples, 3/10 weeds, and 47/125 batches of insects tested. No amplicons were obtained for asymptomatic samples. Nearly identical RFLP patterns were obtained for amplicons from lime and weeds, except for the insects. The 16S rDNA sequences were compared with those of other phytoplasmas from GenBank. Sequences from the phytoplasma detected in lime (EU980537); Chenopodium morale L. (EU119389), Plantago lanceolata L. (EU119398); Convolvulus arvensis (EU119391), and the leafhopper Empoasca decipiens (EU980536), showed 98-99% of identity with phytoplasmas from group 16SrII, Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia. The findings suggest the association of a putative new phytoplasma, phytoplasma 16SrII subgroup with the disease in lime, including E. decipiens as potential leafhopper vector and weeds as alternative hosts, which may have a role in the spread of lime decline in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

Alhudaib K; Arocha Y; Wilson M; Jones P

2009-01-01

166

Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV, with brain activity recorded as multi-channel electroencephalography evoked brain potentials (EPs) elicited by painful electrical stimulations in the esophagus. The single-sweep EPs were decomposed by an optimized discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and averaged for each channel. The DWT features from the DM patients were discriminated from the HV by a support vector machine (SVM) applied in regression mode. For the optimal DWT, the discriminative features were extracted and the SVM regression value representing the overall alteration of the EP was correlated to the clinical scores. A classification performance of 86.2% (P=0.01) was obtained by applying a majority voting scheme to the 5 best performing channels. The biomarker was identified as decreased theta band activity. The regression value was correlated to symptoms reported by the patients (P=0.04). The methodology is an improvement of the present approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients.

Graversen, C; Frokjaer, J B

167

Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV, with brain activity recorded as multi-channel electroencephalography evoked brain potentials (EPs) elicited by painful electrical stimulations in the esophagus. The single-sweep EPs were decomposed by an optimized discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and averaged for each channel. The DWT features from the DM patients were discriminated from the HV by a support vector machine (SVM) applied in regression mode. For the optimal DWT, the discriminative features were extracted and the SVM regression value representing the overall alteration of the EP was correlated to the clinical scores. A classification performance of 86.2% (P=0.01) was obtained by applying a majority voting scheme to the 5 best performing channels. The biomarker was identified as decreased theta band activity. The regression value was correlated to symptoms reported by the patients (P=0.04). The methodology is an improvement of the present approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients.

Graversen C; Frøkjaer JB; Brock C; Drewes AM; Farina D

2012-01-01

168

Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose response in the 50 kVp-10 MVp X-ray range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The energy dependence of the dose response of EBT Gafchromic film is assessed over a broad energy range, from superficial to megavoltage X-rays. The film is auto-developing and sensitive, it provides accurate dose assessment of low doses (about 1-2 Gy) used in radiotherapy. The energy dependence of the response of EBT film was found to be very weak: the variations do not exceed 10% over the range from 50 kVp to 10 MVp X-rays. By contrast, variations of the response of Gafchromic HS film are as big as 30% over the same range, and variations of the response of Radiographic film exceed one order of magnitude. This weak dependence provides significantly higher accuracy of dose measurements under conditions of varying spectral quality of X-ray beams, which are common in radiation therapy.

2006-01-01

169

Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2) due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3) individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. RESULTS: We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. CONCLUSIONS: Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the previously unseen parasite movement between lemurs, but also allowed us to infer social interactions between them. As lice are known pathogen vectors, our method also allowed us to identify the lemurs most likely to facilitate louse-mediated epidemics. Our approach demonstrates the potential to uncover otherwise inaccessible parasite-host, and host social interaction data in any trappable species parasitized by sucking lice.

Zohdy S; Kemp AD; Durden LA; Wright PC; Jernvall J

2012-01-01

170

Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2) due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3) individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the previously unseen parasite movement between lemurs, but also allowed us to infer social interactions between them. As lice are known pathogen vectors, our method also allowed us to identify the lemurs most likely to facilitate louse-mediated epidemics. Our approach demonstrates the potential to uncover otherwise inaccessible parasite-host, and host social interaction data in any trappable species parasitized by sucking lice.

Zohdy Sarah; Kemp Addison D; Durden Lance A; Wright Patricia C; Jernvall Jukka

2012-01-01

171

Linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan and Upper Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as An. arabiensis. Methods Two different but complementary spatial models were linked to demonstrate their synergy for assessing re-invasion potential of An. arabiensis into Upper Egypt as a function of irrigated cropland expansion by 2050. The first model (The Land Change Modeler) was used to simulate changes in irrigated cropland using a Markov Chain approach, while the second model (MaxEnt) uses species occurrence points, land cover and other environmental layers to project probability of species presence. Two basic change scenarios were analysed, one involving a more conservative business-as-usual (BAU) assumption and second with a high probability of desert-to-cropland transition (Green Nile) to assess a broad range of potential outcomes by 2050. Results The results reveal a difference of 82,000 sq km in potential An. arabiensis range between the BAU and Green Nile scenarios. The BAU scenario revealed a highly fragmented set of small, potential habitat patches separated by relatively large distances (maximum distance?=?64.02?km, mean?=?12.72?km, SD?=?9.92), while the Green Nile scenario produced a landscape characterized by large patches separated by relatively shorter gaps (maximum distance?=?49.38, km, mean?=?4.51?km, SD?=?7.89) that may be bridged by the vector. Conclusions This study provides a first demonstration of how land change and species distribution models may be linked to project potential changes in vector habitat distribution and invasion potential. While gaps between potential habitat patches remained large in the Green Nile scenario, the models reveal large areas of future habitat connectivity that may facilitate the re-invasion of An. arabiensis from Sudan into Upper Egypt. The methods used are broadly applicable to other land cover changes as they influence vector distribution, particularly those related to tropical deforestation and urbanization processes.

Fuller Douglas O; Parenti Michael S; Hassan Ali N; Beier John C

2012-01-01

172

Linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan and Upper Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as An. arabiensis. METHODS: Two different but complementary spatial models were linked to demonstrate their synergy for assessing re-invasion potential of An. arabiensis into Upper Egypt as a function of irrigated cropland expansion by 2050. The first model (The Land Change Modeler) was used to simulate changes in irrigated cropland using a Markov Chain approach, while the second model (MaxEnt) uses species occurrence points, land cover and other environmental layers to project probability of species presence. Two basic change scenarios were analysed, one involving a more conservative business-as-usual (BAU) assumption and second with a high probability of desert-to-cropland transition (Green Nile) to assess a broad range of potential outcomes by 2050. RESULTS: The results reveal a difference of 82,000 sq km in potential An. arabiensis range between the BAU and Green Nile scenarios. The BAU scenario revealed a highly fragmented set of small, potential habitat patches separated by relatively large distances (maximum distance?=?64.02?km, mean?=?12.72?km, SD?=?9.92), while the Green Nile scenario produced a landscape characterized by large patches separated by relatively shorter gaps (maximum distance?=?49.38, km, mean?=?4.51?km, SD?=?7.89) that may be bridged by the vector. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a first demonstration of how land change and species distribution models may be linked to project potential changes in vector habitat distribution and invasion potential. While gaps between potential habitat patches remained large in the Green Nile scenario, the models reveal large areas of future habitat connectivity that may facilitate the re-invasion of An. arabiensis from Sudan into Upper Egypt. The methods used are broadly applicable to other land cover changes as they influence vector distribution, particularly those related to tropical deforestation and urbanization processes.

Fuller DO; Parenti MS; Hassan AN; Beier JC

2012-01-01

173

Epstein-Barr virus vector-mediated gene transfer into human B cells: potential for antitumor vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficient gene transfer of immunostimulatory cytokines into autologous tumor cells or the transfer of tumor-associated antigens into professional antigen-presenting cells is a prerequisite for many immunotherapeutic approaches. In particular with B cells, the efficiency of gene uptake is one of the limiting factors in cell-based vaccine strategies, since normal and malignant human B cells are commonly refractory to transducing gene vectors. Due to its natural tropism for human B cells, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpes virus, might be an option, which we wanted to explore. EBV efficiently infects human B cells and establishes a latent infection, while the viral genome is maintained extrachromosomally. Although these characteristics are attractive, EBV is an oncogenic virus. Here, we present a novel EBV-derived vector, which lacks three EBV genes including two viral oncogenes and an essential lytic gene, and encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a cytokine of therapeutic interest. We could show that EBV vectors efficiently transduce different B-cell lines, primary resting B cells, and tumor cells of B-cell lineage. Vector-derived GM-CSF was expressed in sufficient amounts to support the maturation of dendritic cells and their presentation of model antigens to cognate T-cell clones in autologous settings and an allogeneic, HLA-matched assay. We conclude that the EBV vector system might offer an option for ex vivo manipulation of B cells and gene therapy of B-cell lymphomas.

Hellebrand E; Mautner J; Reisbach G; Nimmerjahn F; Hallek M; Mocikat R; Hammerschmidt W

2006-01-01

174

Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: Blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors.

Margaret Zinser; Frank Ramberg; Elizabeth Willott

2004-01-01

175

Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most reports from the United States suggest Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes feed minimally on humans. Given the abundance of C. quinquefasciatus in residential Tucson and parts of metropolitan Phoenix, and the arrival of West Nile virus to this area, discovering the blood meal hosts of the local population is important. Using a sandwich ELISA technique, the local C. quinquefasciatus were found to feed on both humans and birds. This suggests they should be considered potential West Nile virus vectors. PMID:15861236

Zinser, Margaret; Ramberg, Frank; Willott, Elizabeth

2004-06-25

176

Análisis costo-beneficio del control de vectores en la transmisión potencial de dengue/ Cost-benefit analysis of vector control in areas of potential dengue transmission  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el costo-beneficio de una intervención de control de mosquitos adultos con fumigación, junto con actividades de control de formas inmaduras de Aedes aegypti, para evitar la transmisión en una situación de alto riesgo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de costo-beneficio desde una perspectiva social. Se comparó una intervención para el control de mosquitos adultos y formas inmaduras contra una hipótesis de no-intervención, de enero a abril de 20 (more) 07, en la ciudad de Clorinda, Argentina. Se consideraron los costos directos y los beneficios indirectos e intangibles, estandarizados a dólares internacionales (I$) utilizando la paridad de poder adquisitivo. Se asumió una incidencia de 50 casos de dengue por 1 000 habitantes en la hipótesis de no-intervención. RESULTADOS: De enero a abril de 2007 se presentaron 176 casos de dengue en Clorinda, pero sólo cinco fueron autóctonos. El valor presente neto fue de I$ 196 879 en la estrategia de aplicación de control, mientras que en la de no aplicación se calculó en I$ -106 724, lo que significaría un ahorro de I$ 303 602 (I$ 6,46 por habitante) con la intervención. El análisis de sensibilidad evidenció que, con más de 1 363 casos de dengue (incidencia total de 29 por 1 000 habitantes) y un caso de dengue hemorrágico, la intervención es costo-benéfica. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que el control vectorial, incluyendo la fumigación para mosquitos adultos, debe evaluarse en situaciones de alto riesgo de transmisión como una alternativa costo-benéfica en países no endémicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-benefit of an intervention utilizing fumigation against adult mosquitoes along with actions to control immature Aedes aegypti to prevent transmission in a high-risk area. METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed from the social perspective. A program to control both adult mosquitoes and immature forms was compared to a non-intervention hypothesis, from January to April 2007, in the city of Clorinda, Argentina. Direct costs, as well a (more) s indirect and intangible benefits, were taken into account and standardized in international dollars (I$) using purchasing power parity. An incidence rate of 50 cases of dengue per 1 000 inhabitants was used in the non-intervention hypothesis. RESULTS: From January to April 2007 there were 176 cases of dengue in Clorinda, but only five were autochthonous. The net present value was I$ 196 879 with the control strategy, whereas the non-intervention was calculated to be I$ -106 724, indicating a savings of I$ 303 602 (I$ 6.46 per inhabitant) for the intervention. The sensitivity analysis showed that, with more than 1 363 cases of dengue (total incidence rate of 29 per 1 000 inhabitants) and one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, there is a cost-benefit to intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that vector control, including fumigation of adult mosquitoes, should be considered in high-risk areas as a cost-effective option for non-endemic countries.

Orellano, Pablo Wenceslao; Pedroni, Elena

2008-08-01

177

Análisis costo-beneficio del control de vectores en la transmisión potencial de dengue Cost-benefit analysis of vector control in areas of potential dengue transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el costo-beneficio de una intervención de control de mosquitos adultos con fumigación, junto con actividades de control de formas inmaduras de Aedes aegypti, para evitar la transmisión en una situación de alto riesgo. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis de costo-beneficio desde una perspectiva social. Se comparó una intervención para el control de mosquitos adultos y formas inmaduras contra una hipótesis de no-intervención, de enero a abril de 2007, en la ciudad de Clorinda, Argentina. Se consideraron los costos directos y los beneficios indirectos e intangibles, estandarizados a dólares internacionales (I$) utilizando la paridad de poder adquisitivo. Se asumió una incidencia de 50 casos de dengue por 1 000 habitantes en la hipótesis de no-intervención. RESULTADOS: De enero a abril de 2007 se presentaron 176 casos de dengue en Clorinda, pero sólo cinco fueron autóctonos. El valor presente neto fue de I$ 196 879 en la estrategia de aplicación de control, mientras que en la de no aplicación se calculó en I$ -106 724, lo que significaría un ahorro de I$ 303 602 (I$ 6,46 por habitante) con la intervención. El análisis de sensibilidad evidenció que, con más de 1 363 casos de dengue (incidencia total de 29 por 1 000 habitantes) y un caso de dengue hemorrágico, la intervención es costo-benéfica. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que el control vectorial, incluyendo la fumigación para mosquitos adultos, debe evaluarse en situaciones de alto riesgo de transmisión como una alternativa costo-benéfica en países no endémicos.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-benefit of an intervention utilizing fumigation against adult mosquitoes along with actions to control immature Aedes aegypti to prevent transmission in a high-risk area. METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis was performed from the social perspective. A program to control both adult mosquitoes and immature forms was compared to a non-intervention hypothesis, from January to April 2007, in the city of Clorinda, Argentina. Direct costs, as well as indirect and intangible benefits, were taken into account and standardized in international dollars (I$) using purchasing power parity. An incidence rate of 50 cases of dengue per 1 000 inhabitants was used in the non-intervention hypothesis. RESULTS: From January to April 2007 there were 176 cases of dengue in Clorinda, but only five were autochthonous. The net present value was I$ 196 879 with the control strategy, whereas the non-intervention was calculated to be I$ -106 724, indicating a savings of I$ 303 602 (I$ 6.46 per inhabitant) for the intervention. The sensitivity analysis showed that, with more than 1 363 cases of dengue (total incidence rate of 29 per 1 000 inhabitants) and one case of dengue hemorrhagic fever, there is a cost-benefit to intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that vector control, including fumigation of adult mosquitoes, should be considered in high-risk areas as a cost-effective option for non-endemic countries.

Pablo Wenceslao Orellano; Elena Pedroni

2008-01-01

178

The potential of classic and specific bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for the assessment of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity  

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Full Text Available Elisabetta Marini,1 Roberto Buffa,1 Bruno Saragat,1 Alessandra Coin,2 Elena Debora Toffanello,2 Linda Berton,2 Enzo Manzato,2 Giuseppe Sergi21Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy; 2Department of Medicine-DIMED, Geriatrics Section, University of Padua, ItalyPurpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) can be a suitable technique for the assessment of sarcopenia. We also investigate the potential use of specific BIVA as an indicator of sarcopenic obesity.Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 207 free-living elderly individuals of both sexes, aged 65 to 93 years. Anthropometric and bioelectrical measurements were taken according to standard criteria. The “classic” and “specific” BIVA procedures, which respectively correct bioelectrical values for body height and body geometry, were used. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the reference method for identifying sarcopenic and obese sarcopenic individuals. Bioelectrical and DXA values were compared using Student’s t-test and Hotelling’s T2 test, as well as Pearson’s correlation coefficient.Results: According to classic BIVA, sarcopenic individuals of both sexes showed higher values of resistance/height (R/H; p < 0.01) and impedance/height (Z/H; p < 0.01), and a lower phase angle (p < 0.01). Similarly, specific BIVA showed significant differences between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic individuals (men: T2 = 15.7, p < 0.01; women: T2 = 10.7, p < 0.01), with the sarcopenic groups showing a lower specific reactance and phase angle. Phase angle was positively correlated with the skeletal muscle mass index (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.01; women: r = 0.31, p < 0.01). Specific BIVA also recognized bioelectrical differences between sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese men (T2 = 13.4, p < 0.01), mainly due to the higher values of specific R in sarcopenic obese individuals.Conclusion: BIVA detected muscle-mass variations in sarcopenic individuals, and specific BIVA was able to discriminate sarcopenic individuals from sarcopenic obese individuals. These procedures are promising tools for screening for presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in routine practice.Keywords: aging, body composition, BIVA, DXA

Marini E; Buffa R; Saragat B; Coin A; Toffanello ED; Berton L; Manzato E; Sergi G

2012-01-01

179

Epstein-Barr virus vector-mediated gene transfer into human B cells: potential for antitumor vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficient gene transfer of immunostimulatory cytokines into autologous tumor cells or the transfer of tumor-associated antigens into professional antigen-presenting cells is a prerequisite for many immunotherapeutic approaches. In particular with B cells, the efficiency of gene uptake is one of the limiting factors in cell-based vaccine strategies, since normal and malignant human B cells are commonly refractory to transducing gene vectors. Due to its natural tropism for human B cells, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpes virus, might be an option, which we wanted to explore. EBV efficiently infects human B cells and establishes a latent infection, while the viral genome is maintained extrachromosomally. Although these characteristics are attractive, EBV is an oncogenic virus. Here, we present a novel EBV-derived vector, which lacks three EBV genes including two viral oncogenes and an essential lytic gene, and encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a cytokine of therapeutic interest. We could show that EBV vectors efficiently transduce different B-cell lines, primary resting B cells, and tumor cells of B-cell lineage. Vector-derived GM-CSF was expressed in sufficient amounts to support the maturation of dendritic cells and their presentation of model antigens to cognate T-cell clones in autologous settings and an allogeneic, HLA-matched assay. We conclude that the EBV vector system might offer an option for ex vivo manipulation of B cells and gene therapy of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:16136164

Hellebrand, E; Mautner, J; Reisbach, G; Nimmerjahn, F; Hallek, M; Mocikat, R; Hammerschmidt, W

2006-01-01

180

Nucleon and isobar properties in a relativistic Hartree-Fock calculation with vector Richardson potential and various radial forms for scalar mass terms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mean field models of the nucleon and the delta are established with the two-quark vector Richardson potential along with various prescriptions for a running quark mass (single particle) in the Dirac-Hartree-Fock formalism. The N-? splitting is obtained from colour magnetic interaction and the results for gA and magnetic moment are discussed. An effective density dependent one body potential U(?) for quarks at a given density ? inside the nucleon, is derived. Asymptotic freedom and confinement properties are built-in in U (?) and the model dependence is restricted to the intermediate densities. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Nucleon and isobar properties in a relativistic Hartree-Fock calculation with vector Richardson potential and various radial forms for scalar mass terms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mean-field models of the nucleon (N) and the delta (?) are established with the two-quark vector Richardson potential along with various prescriptions for a running quark mass (single particle) in the Dirac-Hartree-Fock formalism. The N-? splitting is obtained from colour magnetic interaction and the results for gA and the magnetic moment are discussed. An effective density dependent one-body potential U(?) for quarks at a given density ? inside the nucleon is derived. Asymptotic freedom and confinement properties are built in in U(?) and the model dependence is restricted to the intermediate densities. (Author) 18 refs., fig., 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

182

Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II)-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.%) and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy. PMID:21745364

Harris, Alesha N; Hinojosa, Barbara R; Chavious, Montaleé D; Petros, Robby A

2011-07-11

183

Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II)-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector  

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Full Text Available Abstract The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.%) and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy.

Harris Alesha; Hinojosa Barbara; Chavious Montaleé; Petros Robby

2011-01-01

184

Lentiviral vector-mediated stable expression of sTNFR-Fc in human macrophage and neuronal cells as a potential therapy for neuroAIDS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection frequently causes neurologic disease, which is the result of viral replication and activation of macrophages and microglia in the CNS, and subsequent secretion of high levels of neurotoxic products, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We therefore hypothesized that a soluble TNF-? antagonist might have potential utility as a neuroprotective effecter molecule, and conducted proof-of-concept studies to test this hypothesis. Methods To develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of neuroAIDS, we constructed and characterized a soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-Fc fusion protein with the goal of neutralizing TNF-?, and tested the stability of expression of this gene following delivery by a lentiviral vector. Results High-titer lentiviral vectors were prepared, allowing efficient transduction of macrophage/glial and neuronal cell lines, as well as primary rat cerebellar neurons. Efficient, stable secretion of sTNFR-Fc was demonstrated in supernatants from transduced cell lines over 20 passages, using both western blot and ELISA. Biological activity of the secreted sTNFR-Fc was confirmed by TNF-specific in vitro protein binding and functional blocking assays. Finally, the secreted protein was shown to protect neuronal cells from TNF-?, HIV-1 Tat-, and gp120-mediated neurotoxicity. Conclusions These results demonstrate that lentiviral vector mediated expression of sTNFR-Fc may have potential as a novel therapy for neuroAIDS.

Cao Shengbo; Wu Chengxiang; Yang Yongbo; Sniderhan Lynn F; Maggirwar Sanjay B; Dewhurst Stephen; Lu Yuanan

2011-01-01

185

Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-12-31

186

Permanental Vectors  

CERN Multimedia

A permanental vector is a generalization of a vector with components that are squares of the components of a Gaussian vector, in the sense that the matrix that appears in the Laplace transform of the vector of Gaussian squares is not required to be either symmetric or positive definite. In addition the power of the determinant in the Laplace transform of the vector of Gaussian squares, which is -1/2, is allowed to be any number less than zero. It was not at all clear what vectors are permanental vectors. In this paper we characterize all permanental vectors in $R^{3}_{+}$ and give applications to permanental vectors in $R^{n}_{+}$ and to the study of permanental processes.

Kogan, Hana

2011-01-01

187

Mosquitos vetores potenciais de dirofilariose canina na Região Nordeste do Brasil Mosquitoes potential vectors of canine heartworm in the Northeast Region from Brazil  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em alguns bairros costeiros de São Luís, Maranhão, a prevalência da dirofilariose chega a mais de 40% entre os cães domiciliados. Porém, desconhecem-se os vetores naturais, tanto lá quanto no resto do Nordeste do país. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os prováveis vetores dessa parasitose. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se coletas mensais de mosquitos em um bairro costeiro de São Luís, MA, de março de 1996 a maio de 1997, no peridomicílio, tendo cão e homem como iscas. Os mosquitos foram dissecados para a pesquisa de larvas da Dirofilaria immitis. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 1.738 mosquitos de 11 espécies. Culex quinquefasciatus, capturada todos os meses, porém menos freqüente na estação chuvosa, correspondeu a 54,5% do total, seguido de Aedes albopictus (20,3%), Aedes taeniorhynchus e Aedes scapularis (ambos 11%). Larvas de D.immitis foram encontradas em 0,1% dos Cx. quinquefasciatus e 0,5% dos Ae. taeniorhynchus. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. taeniorhynchus e Cx. quinquefasciatus foram considerados vetores potenciais da dirofilariose em São Luís. A importância local de Cx. quinquefasciatus como transmissor primário da D. immitis necessita ser melhor avaliada.INTRODUCTION: In some coastal districts of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis is more than 40% in house dogs. Natural potential vectors, as found in other areas of Northeastern Brazil, are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify probable vectors of the disease. METHODS: Mosquito catches were performed at a coastal, district Olho d'Água, in S. Luís, to look for local potential vectors. Captures were carried out monthly, from March 1996 to May 1997, outdoors, having a man and a dog as baits. Mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae. RESULTS: A total of 1,738 mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were collected. Culex quinquefasciatus, the only species collected every month, was more frequently in the dry season. It accounted for 54.5% of the total, followed by Aedes albopictus (20.3%), Ae. scapularis (11%) and Ae. taeniorhynchus (11%). D. immitis larvae were detected in 0.1% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus dissected (L3 in the Malpighian tubules) and 0.5% of the Ae. taeniorhynchus (L2 in the Malpighian tubules). CONCLUSION: Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus are considered natural potential vectors of the canine heartworm in São Luís. The role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as primary vector of D. immitis, however, needs further evaluation.

Silvia MM Ahid; Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira

1999-01-01

188

Mosquitos vetores potenciais de dirofilariose canina na Região Nordeste do Brasil/ Mosquitoes potential vectors of canine heartworm in the Northeast Region from Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Em alguns bairros costeiros de São Luís, Maranhão, a prevalência da dirofilariose chega a mais de 40% entre os cães domiciliados. Porém, desconhecem-se os vetores naturais, tanto lá quanto no resto do Nordeste do país. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os prováveis vetores dessa parasitose. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se coletas mensais de mosquitos em um bairro costeiro de São Luís, MA, de março de 1996 a maio de 1997, no peridomicílio, tendo cão (more) e homem como iscas. Os mosquitos foram dissecados para a pesquisa de larvas da Dirofilaria immitis. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 1.738 mosquitos de 11 espécies. Culex quinquefasciatus, capturada todos os meses, porém menos freqüente na estação chuvosa, correspondeu a 54,5% do total, seguido de Aedes albopictus (20,3%), Aedes taeniorhynchus e Aedes scapularis (ambos 11%). Larvas de D.immitis foram encontradas em 0,1% dos Cx. quinquefasciatus e 0,5% dos Ae. taeniorhynchus. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. taeniorhynchus e Cx. quinquefasciatus foram considerados vetores potenciais da dirofilariose em São Luís. A importância local de Cx. quinquefasciatus como transmissor primário da D. immitis necessita ser melhor avaliada. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: In some coastal districts of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis is more than 40% in house dogs. Natural potential vectors, as found in other areas of Northeastern Brazil, are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify probable vectors of the disease. METHODS: Mosquito catches were performed at a coastal, district Olho d'Água, in S. Luís, to look for local potential vectors. Captures were carried (more) out monthly, from March 1996 to May 1997, outdoors, having a man and a dog as baits. Mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae. RESULTS: A total of 1,738 mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were collected. Culex quinquefasciatus, the only species collected every month, was more frequently in the dry season. It accounted for 54.5% of the total, followed by Aedes albopictus (20.3%), Ae. scapularis (11%) and Ae. taeniorhynchus (11%). D. immitis larvae were detected in 0.1% of the Cx. quinquefasciatus dissected (L3 in the Malpighian tubules) and 0.5% of the Ae. taeniorhynchus (L2 in the Malpighian tubules). CONCLUSION: Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus are considered natural potential vectors of the canine heartworm in São Luís. The role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as primary vector of D. immitis, however, needs further evaluation.

Ahid, Silvia MM; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

1999-12-01

189

Production of neutron cross section library based on JENDL-4.0 to continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and its application to criticality analysis of benchmark problems in the ICSBEP handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In May 2010, JENDL-4.0 was released from Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the updated Japanese Nuclear Data Library. It was processed by the nuclear data processing system LICEM and an arbitrary-temperature neutron cross section library MVPlib-nJ40 was produced for the neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP based on the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The library contains neutron cross sections for 406 nuclides on the free gas model, thermal scattering cross sections, and cross sections of pseudo fission products for burn-up calculations with MVP. Criticality benchmark calculations were carried out with MVP and MVPlib-nJ40 for about 1,000 cases of critical experiments stored in the hand book of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), which covers a wide variety of fuel materials, fuel forms, and neutron spectra. We report all comparison results (C/E values) of effective neutron multiplication factors between calculations and experiments to give a validation data for the prediction accuracy of JENDL-4.0 for criticalities. (author)

2011-01-01

190

Generalization of the Second Order Vector Potential Formulation for Arbitrary Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates Systems from the Covariant Form of Maxwell's Equations  

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Full Text Available A great number of semi-analytical models, notably the representation of electromagnetic fields by integral equations are based on the second order vector potential (SOVP) formalism which introduces two scalar potentials in order to obtain analytical expressions of the electromagnetic fields from the two potentials. However, the scalar decomposition is often known for canonical coordinate systems. This paper aims in introducing a specific SOVP formulation dedicated to arbitrary non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates systems. The electromagnetic field representation which is derived in this paper constitutes the key stone for the development of semi-analytical models for solving some eddy currents moelling problems and electromagnetic radiation problems considering at least two homogeneous media separated by a rough interface. This SOVP formulation is derived from the tensor formalism and Maxwell’s equations written in a non-orthogonal coordinates system adapted to a surface characterized by a 2D arbitrary aperiodic profile.

Denis Prémel

2012-01-01

191

The first dairy product exclusively fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii: a new vector to study probiotic potentialities in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties which require high populations of live and metabolically active propionibacteria in the colon. In this context, the probiotic vector determines probiotic efficiency. Fermented dairy products protect propionibacteria against digestive stresses and generally contain a complex mixture of lactic and propionic acid bacteria. This does not allow the identification of dairy propionibacteria specific beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to develop a dairy product exclusively fermented by dairy propionibacteria. As they grow poorly in milk, we determined their nutritional requirements concerning carbon and nitrogen by supplementing milk ultrafiltrate (UF) with different concentrations of lactate and casein hydrolysate. Milk or UF supplemented with 50 mM lactate and 5 g L(-1) casein hydrolysate allowed growth of all dairy propionibacteria studied. In these new fermented dairy products, dairy propionibacteria remained viable and stress-tolerant in vitro during minimum 15 days at 4 °C. The efficiency of milk fermented by the most tolerant Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain was evaluated in piglets. Viability and SCFA content in the colon evidenced survival and metabolic activity of P. freudenreichii. This work results in the design of a new food grade vector, which will allow preclinical and clinical trials.

Cousin FJ; Louesdon S; Maillard MB; Parayre S; Falentin H; Deutsch SM; Boudry G; Jan G

2012-10-01

192

Vector Voyage!  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students will use vector analysis to understand the concept of dead reckoning. Students will use vectors to plot their course based on a time and speed. They will then correct the positions with vectors representing winds and currents.

White, Jeff; Lippis, Matt; Axelrad, Penny; Yowell, Janet; Zarske, Malinda S.

2004-01-01

193

Vectorized Monte Carlo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Examination of the global algorithms and local kernels of conventional general-purpose Monte Carlo codes shows that multigroup Monte Carlo methods have sufficient structure to permit efficient vectorization. A structured multigroup Monte Carlo algorithm for vector computers is developed in which many particle events are treated at once on a cell-by-cell basis. Vectorization of kernels for tracking and variance reduction is described, and a new method for discrete sampling is developed to facilitate the vectorization of collision analysis. To demonstrate the potential of the new method, a vectorized Monte Carlo code for multigroup radiation transport analysis was developed. This code incorporates many features of conventional general-purpose production codes, including general geometry, splitting and Russian roulette, survival biasing, variance estimation via batching, a number of cutoffs, and generalized tallies of collision, tracklength, and surface crossing estimators with response functions. Predictions of vectorized performance characteristics for the CYBER-205 were made using emulated coding and a dynamic model of vector instruction timing. Computation rates were examined for a variety of test problems to determine sensitivities to batch size and vector lengths. Significant speedups are predicted for even a few hundred particles per batch, and asymptotic speedups by about 40 over equivalent Amdahl 470V/8 scalar codes arepredicted for a few thousand particles per batch. The principal conclusion is that vectorization of a general-purpose multigroup Monte Carlo code is well worth the significant effort required for stylized coding and major algorithmic changes.

Brown, F.B.

1981-01-01

194

Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7%) in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2%) in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ? 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between human and entomological studies results in important human case-vulnerability relatedness findings. Conclusion Model performance, integrated with epidemiologic and environmental surveillance systems should be assessed systematically for RVF and other mosquito-borne diseases using historical epidemiologic and satellite monitoring data. Case management related interventions; health education and vector control efforts are extremely effective in preparedness for viral hemorrhagic fever and other seasonal outbreaks.

Seufi AlaaEddeen M; Galal Fatma H

2010-01-01

195

Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia Benítez: 39). A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January) and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July). These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures.

Parras MA; Rosa JR; Szelag EA; Salomón OD

2012-06-01

196

Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia (more) Benítez: 39). A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January) and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July). These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures.

Parras, Matías Ariel; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

2012-06-01

197

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (Parallelization on scalar processors). Progress report fiscal 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the parallelization on scalar processors. In this parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics Ntv Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masaaki; Kume, Etsuo; Kawasaki, Nobuo; Ogasawara, Shinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawai, Wataru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Ishizuki, Shigeru [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-03-01

198

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. In the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics Ntv Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model/multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. (author)

Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Wataru; Ishizuki, Shigeru [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, Nobuo; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Ogasawara, Shinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-03-01

199

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. In the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics Ntv Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model/multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. (author)

200

Geographical distribution and relative abundance of stock-associated Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern Africa in relation to their potential as viral vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the geographical distribution and relative abundance of Culicoides species associated with livestock, 220-V down-draught light-traps equipped with 8-W blacklight tubes were operated at 34 sites in different climatic regions in South Africa and Lesotho. From January 1984 to September 1986, 3 041 631 Culicoides, belonging to at least 50 species, were collected in a total of 959 collections. Of these, 572 412 individuals were identified and sexed. Culicoides species were found to be widespread in South Africa and were collected in varying numbers at all the sites sampled. The average catch size, however, was larger in frost-free areas than in areas with extreme winters. The more abundant and widespread species, which have the potential to be vectors of stock-associated viruses such as bluetongue and African horsesickness, were C. imicola, C. leucostictus, C. schultzei s.l., C. pycnostictus, C. nivosus, C. similis, C. zuluensis, C. magnus, C. bedfordi, C. neavei, C. brucei, C. tropicalis, C. exspectator, C. gulbenkiani, C. bolitinos, C. ravus, C. coarctatus and C. onderstepoortensis. Of these, C. imicola was the most abundant species, being dominant at 17 of the 34 sites sampled and accounting for 71.4% of the specimens collected. As C. imicola is relatively uncommon in hot and dry as well as cool and wet areas, this species cannot be regarded as the only vector of stock-associated viruses in southern Africa. Further laboratory vector-competence studies, i.e. determination of viral-infection and -transmission rates, should first concentrate on the above-mentioned Culicoides species, especially those known to feed on livestock.

Venter GJ; Nevill EM; Van der Linde TC

1996-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Synthesis, and Characterization, and Evaluation of Cellular Effects of the FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL Nanoparticles as a Potential Non-Viral Vector for Gene Delivery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this manuscript, we synthesized the potential non viral vector for gene delivery with proper transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a well-known cationic polymer which has high positive surface charge for condensing plasmid DNA. However; it is highly cytotoxic in many cell lines because of the high surface charge, non-biodegradability and non-biocompatibility. To enhance PEI biodegradability, the graft copolymer PEG-g-PEI was synthesized. To target cancer liver cells, two targeting ligands folic acid and galactose (lactobionic acid) which are over expressed on human hepatocyte carcinoma were attached to graft copolymer and FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL copolymer was synthesized. Composition of this grafted copolymer was characterized using 1H-NMR and FTIR spectra. The molecular weight and zeta potential of this copolymer was compared to PEI. The particle size and zeta potential of FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratio were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cytotoxicity of the copolymer was also studied in cultured HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cell line. The FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratios exhibited no cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line compared to PEI 25K as a control. The novel copolymer showed enhanced biodegradability in physiological conditions in compared with PEI and targeted cultured HepG2 cells. More importantly, significant transfection efficiency was exhibited in cancer liver cells. Together, our results showed that FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL nanoparticles could be considered as a useful non-viral vector for targeted gene delivery.

2010-01-01

202

The enzyme 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as potential target for 1,2,4-oxadiazoles with larvicide activity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the vector agent responsible for the transmission of yellow fever and dengue fever viruses to over 80million people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Exhaustive efforts have lead to a vaccine candidate with only 30% effectiveness against the dengue virus and failure to protect patients against the serotype 2. Hence, vector control remains the most viable route to dengue fever control programs. We have synthesized a class of 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives whose most biologically active compounds exhibit potent activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (ca. of 15ppm) and low toxicity in mammals. Exposure to these larvicides results in larvae pigmentation in a manner correlated with the LC50 measurements. Structural comparisons of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole nucleus against known inhibitors of insect enzymes allowed the identification of 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase as a potential target for these synthetic larvicides. Molecular docking calculations indicate that 1,2,4-oxadiazole compounds can bind to 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase with similar conformation and binding energies as its crystallographic inhibitor 4-(2-aminophenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid.

Oliveira VS; Pimenteira C; da Silva-Alves DC; Leal LL; Neves-Filho RA; Navarro DM; Santos GK; Dutra KA; Dos Anjos JV; Soares TA

2013-09-01

203

Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV) on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides) and adults (adulticides) create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide r...

Arjunan Nareshkumar; Kadarkarai Murugan; Indra Baruah; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Thiyagarajan Nataraj

204

Which potential. A comparison of the various scalar and vector potentials for the numerical solution of the non-linear poisson problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises the formulation and results of a study aimed at deciding which potential definition to select for constructing a set of computer algorithms for the non-linear Poissonian field problem. The two dimensional Magnetostatic case is used in this investigation and solutions are presented for shielding and motor problems. Of the four potentials considered the choice of a double scalar potential appears to offer the most attractive formulation for extension to three dimensions. The report contains results for the first part of an on-going study which is ultimately to develop an efficient full three dimensional non-linear field computer program. (author)

1978-01-01

205

A potential role for ixodid (hard) tick vectors in the transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important cattle disease. The disease is endemic in many African countries, but outbreaks have also been reported in Madagascar and the Middle East. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ixodid (hard) ticks in the transmission of t...

Tuppurainen, E.S.M.; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H.; Troskie, Milana; Wallace, David Brian; Oura, C.A.L.; Mellor, Philip S.

206

Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be trans...

Zohdy Sarah; Kemp Addison D; Durden Lance A; Wright Patricia C; Jernvall Jukka

207

Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the gallery forest of Brasilia National Park, Brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Introduction: We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF). Methods: Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the canopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in A (more) edes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results: We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69%) during the rainy season (86%). The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes) albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (p<0.05) in their habitat use. Limatus durhamii was found more often in the canopy, unlike the other species. During the rainy season, the most abundant species were Sa. albiprivus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Limatus durhamii. During the dry season, the potential YF vectors exhibited a very low frequency and abundance, except Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus. No flavivirus was detected in the 2,677 examined mosquitoes. Conclusions: We recommend continued and systematic entomological monitoring in areas vulnerable to the transmission of YF in the Federal District of Brazil.

Lira-Vieira, Ana Raquel; Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo; Moreira, Israel Martins; Yoshizawa, Maria Amelia Cavalcanti; Coutinho, Milton Lopes; Prado, Paulo Sousa; Souza, Jorge Lopes de; Chaib, Antonio Jesus de Melo; Moreira, Joao Suender; Castro, Cleudson Nery de

2013-10-01

208

Molecular neurosurgery: vectors and vector delivery strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Molecular neurosurgery involves the use of vector-mediated gene therapy and gene knockdown to manipulate in vivo gene expression for the treatment of neurological diseases. These techniques have the potential to revolutionise the practice of neurosurgery. However, significant challenges remain to be overcome before these techniques enter routine clinical practice. These challenges have been the subject of intensive research in recent years and include the development of strategies to facilitate effective vector delivery to the brain and the development of both viral and non-viral vectors that are capable of efficient cell transduction without excessive toxicity. This review provides an update on the practice of molecular neurosurgery with particular focus on the practical neurosurgical aspects of vector delivery to the brain. In addition, an introduction to the key vectors employed in clinical trials and a brief overview of previous gene therapy clinical trials is provided. Finally, key areas for future research aimed at increasing the likelihood of the successful translation of gene therapy into clinical trials are highlighted.

White E

2012-12-01

209

Vector processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus is described for adapting a scalar data processor having a cache memory connected between main memory and a central processing unit, for efficient vector processing including: means for defining separate scalar and vector data areas in the cache memory, vector mode selection means for selectively enabling access to either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, cache memory addressing means including separate vector and scalar addressing means responsive to the vector mode selection means and the central processing unit for accessing either the vector or scalar data areas of the cache memory, wherein the central processing unit includes: a pair of operand registers, and a result register, coupling means for providing a data path from the operand registers to an ALU and a further data path from an ALU to the result register, second coupling means for providing a data path from the cache memory to one of the operand registers and to the result register; an output buffer; third coupling means providing a data path from either of the operand registers to the second coupling means and to the output buffer; fourth coupling means providing a data path from the second coupling means or the output buffer to the cache memory; and fifth coupling means providing a data path from the result register to either of the operand registers.

Drimak, E.G.

1986-06-10

210

Cloning vector  

Science.gov (United States)

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

1994-12-27

211

Cloning vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

212

Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual temperature and readily available soil moisture of the CPSZ data as the best ecological determinants for P. martini while LST annual composite was the only important ecological determinant for P. orientalis. Spearman's rank correlation revealed several factors to be important determinants for the distribution of the two vectors. None of the soil types analysed appeared to be important determinant for the two species in East Africa, unlike in Sudan where P. orientalis is mainly associated with eutric vertisol (black cotton clay soil).

Gebre-Michael T; Malone JB; Balkew M; Ali A; Berhe N; Hailu A; Herzi AA

2004-03-01

213

Impact of environmental changes and human-related factors on the potential malaria vector, Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae), in Maremma, Central Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Maremma Plain (central Italy) was hyper-endemic for malaria until the mid-20th century, when a national campaign for malaria elimination drastically reduced the presence of the main vector Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni. However, the introduction of rice cultivation over 30 yr ago has led to an increase in the An. labranchiae population and concern over possible malaria reemergence. We studied the impact of anthropogenic environmental changes on the abundance and distribution of An. labranchiae in Maremma, focusing on rice fields, the main breeding sites. Adults and larvae were collected in three main areas with diverse ecological characteristics. Data were collected on human activity, land use, and seasonal climatic and demographic variations. We also interviewed residents and tourists regarding their knowledge of malaria. Our findings showed that the most important environmental changes have occurred along the coast; An. labranchiae foci are present throughout the area, with massive reproduction strictly related to rice cultivation in coastal areas. Although the abundance of this species has drastically decreased over the past 30 yr, it remains high and, together with climatic conditions and the potential introduction of gametocyte carriers, it may represent a threat for the occurrence of autochthonous malaria cases. Our findings suggest the need for the continuous monitoring of An. labranchiae in the study area. In addition to entomological surveillance, more detailed knowledge of human-induced environmental changes is needed, so as to have a more complete database that can be used for vector-control plans and for properly managing emergencies related to autochthonous introduced cases.

Boccolini D; Toma L; Di Luca M; Severini F; Cocchi M; Bella A; Massa A; Mancini Barbieri F; Bongiorno G; Angeli L; Pontuale G; Raffaelli I; Fausto AM; Tamburro A; Romi R

2012-07-01

214

Gnathia aureamaculosa, a likely definitive host of Haemogregarina balistapi and potential vector for Haemogregarina bigemina between fishes of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigations to determine whether juvenile gnathiid isopods are vectors of haemogregarines between coral reef fishes were undertaken at Lizard Island, Australia. Haemogregarina balistapi parasitaemias in triggerfish, Rhinecanthus aculeatus, decreased under gnathiid-free, laboratory conditions, compared with those in tagged R. aculeatus returned to the reef. Gnathia aureamaculosa juveniles were common ectoparasites of reef R. aculeatus and laboratory reared specimens of this gnathiid were fed on R. aculeatus infected with H. balistapi. Subsequent squashes of this gnathiid contained haemogregarine gamonts similar to those seen in blood films of R. aculeatus, and haemogregarine developmental stages, including oocysts, sporozoites, meronts and merozoites. Biological transmission of H. balistapi and a second haemogregarine species, Haemogregarina bigemina, using laboratory reared gnathiids to several species of triggerfishes and surgeonfishes raised from larvae was then attempted. Investigations involved recipient fish ingesting, or being bitten by, G. aureamaculosa juveniles fed on donor fish with haemogregarines; control fish were exposed to gnathiids fed on uninfected donor fish. Subsequently, no haemogregarines were detected in recipient triggerfishes and controls were negative. However, a recipient surgeonfish, Acanthurus xanthopterus, which had ingested gnathiids likely infected with donor fish H. balistapi, carried H. bigemina-like stages. A second recipient surgeonfish, which had ingested gnathiids presumed to be infected with H. bigemina, also carried haemogregarine stages. Finally, a third surgeonfish apparently carried haemogregarines after gnathiids presumed to be infected with H. bigemina had bitten this fish, although not all gnathiids were recovered during the trials and the third infected surgeonfish may have also ingested gnathiids. The study provides strong evidence that G. aureamaculosa is the definitive host of H. balistapi, to our knowledge the first such observation from a coral reef environment. Although transmission of H. balistapi has not yet been demonstrated, laboratory trials tend to support the view that G. aureamaculosa is also a potential vector of H. bigemina between surgeonfish.

Curtis LM; Grutter AS; Smit NJ; Davies AJ

2013-04-01

215

Studies on the occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria in ticks: Ixodes ricinus as a potential vector of Pasteurella.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 372 Ixodes ricinus ticks (101 females, 122 males, and 149 nymphs) collected by flagging in 6 mixed woodlands of eastern Poland were examined by culture for the presence of internal Gram-negative bacteria other than Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult ticks were examined in pools of 2 specimens each and nymphs were examined in pools of 3-5 specimens each. Ticks were disinfected in 70 % ethanol and homogenized in 0.85% NaCl. The diluted homogenate was inoculated onto 3 kinds of agar media: buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) for isolation of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria, eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) for isolation of enterobacteria, and tryptic soya agar for isolation of all other non-fastidious Gram-negative bacteria. The Gram-negative isolates were identified with the API Systems 20E and NE microtests. A total of 9 species of Gram-negative bacteria were identified, of which the commonest were strains determined as Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, which were isolated on BCYE-alpha agar from ticks collected in all 6 examined woodlands. The total number of these strains (49) exceeded the total number of all other strains of Gram-negative bacteria recovered from ticks (30). Of the total number of examined ticks, the minimum infection rate with Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica was highest in females (18.8%), and slightly lower in males (12.3%) and nymphs (10%). Besides Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, the following species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from examined ticks: Pantoea agglomerans, Serratia marcescens, Serratia plymuthica on EMB agar and Aeromonas hydrophila, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on tryptic soya agar. Minimal infection rates with these bacteria were low, ranging from 0.7-5.9%. Of the isolated bacteria, Chromobacterium violaceum, Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens are potentially pathogenic for man and/or animals. In particular, the common occurrence of Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica in Ixodes ricinus ticks poses a potential risk of pasteurellosis for humans and animals exposed to tick bites.

Stojek NM; Dutkiewicz J

2004-01-01

216

Studies on the occurrence of Gram-negative bacteria in ticks: Ixodes ricinus as a potential vector of Pasteurella.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 372 Ixodes ricinus ticks (101 females, 122 males, and 149 nymphs) collected by flagging in 6 mixed woodlands of eastern Poland were examined by culture for the presence of internal Gram-negative bacteria other than Borrelia burgdorferi. Adult ticks were examined in pools of 2 specimens each and nymphs were examined in pools of 3-5 specimens each. Ticks were disinfected in 70 % ethanol and homogenized in 0.85% NaCl. The diluted homogenate was inoculated onto 3 kinds of agar media: buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) for isolation of fastidious Gram-negative bacteria, eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) for isolation of enterobacteria, and tryptic soya agar for isolation of all other non-fastidious Gram-negative bacteria. The Gram-negative isolates were identified with the API Systems 20E and NE microtests. A total of 9 species of Gram-negative bacteria were identified, of which the commonest were strains determined as Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, which were isolated on BCYE-alpha agar from ticks collected in all 6 examined woodlands. The total number of these strains (49) exceeded the total number of all other strains of Gram-negative bacteria recovered from ticks (30). Of the total number of examined ticks, the minimum infection rate with Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica was highest in females (18.8%), and slightly lower in males (12.3%) and nymphs (10%). Besides Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, the following species of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from examined ticks: Pantoea agglomerans, Serratia marcescens, Serratia plymuthica on EMB agar and Aeromonas hydrophila, Burkholderia cepacia, Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on tryptic soya agar. Minimal infection rates with these bacteria were low, ranging from 0.7-5.9%. Of the isolated bacteria, Chromobacterium violaceum, Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens are potentially pathogenic for man and/or animals. In particular, the common occurrence of Pasteurella pneumotropica/haemolytica in Ixodes ricinus ticks poses a potential risk of pasteurellosis for humans and animals exposed to tick bites. PMID:15627343

Stojek, Nimfa Maria; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2004-01-01

217

A Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) population from Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, has some bionomic characteristics of a potential Chagas disease vector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Even though Chagas disease is rare in the Brazilian Amazon, the conditions for the establishment of domiciliated cycles prevail in many areas where triatomines are of frequent occurrence. In Roraima, a previous serological and entomological survey in three agricultural settlements showed the existence of all transmission cycle elements, i.e., individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, triatomine species previously found harboring T. cruzi in the broader Amazon region of neighboring countries and, domicile/ peridomicile conditions favorable to triatomine colonization. Triatoma maculata was the most frequent species, found in chicken houses in the peridomicile and sporadically within residences. Aiming to investigate the possibility of T. maculata to possess the potentiality to transmit T. cruzi in the area, bionomic characteristics were studied under laboratory conditions. These were feeding frequency, time for defecation after a blood meal, time elapsed in voluntary fasting pre- and pos-ecdysis, moulting time periods, pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and index of oviposition, incubation period, egg viability, longevity and mortality rate. Results show that the Passarão population of T. maculata should be considered a potential vector of T. cruzi since it shows a capacity to infest artificial ecotopes in the peridomicile, to carry out large number of meals during the nymphal cycle, to have a relatively short developmental cycle capable of producing 2.9 generations/year, to blood source eclecticism, to defecate immediately after the blood meal while still on the host and to the fact that has been previously found naturally infected by T. cruzi.

Luitgards-Moura JF; Vargas AB; Almeida CE; Magno-Esperança G; Agapito-Souza R; Folly-Ramos E; Costa J; Tsouris P; Rosa-Freitas MG

2005-05-01

218

Force dependent internalization of magnetic nanoparticles results in highly loaded endothelial cells for use as potential therapy delivery vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To investigate the kinetics, mechanism and extent of MNP loading into endothelial cells and the effect of this loading on cell function. METHODS: MNP uptake was examined under field on/off conditions, utilizing varying magnetite concentration MNPs. MNP-loaded cell viability and functional integrity was assessed using metabolic respiration, cell proliferation and migration assays. RESULTS: MNP uptake in endothelial cells significantly increased under the influence of a magnetic field versus non-magnetic conditions. Larger magnetite density of the MNPs led to a higher MNP internalization by cells under application of a magnetic field without compromising cellular respiration activity. Two-dimensional migration assays at no field showed that higher magnetite loading resulted in greater cell migration rates. In a three-dimensional migration assay under magnetic field, the migration rate of MNP-loaded cells was more than twice that of unloaded cells and was comparable to migration stimulated by a serum gradient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that endothelial cell uptake of MNPs is a force dependent process. The in vitro assays determined that cell health is not adversely affected by high MNP loadings, allowing these highly magnetically responsive cells to be potentially beneficial therapy (gene, drug or cell) delivery systems.

MacDonald C; Barbee K; Polyak B

2012-05-01

219

Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in Southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed.

Godsey MS Jr; King RJ; Burkhalter K; Delorey M; Colton L; Charnetzky D; Sutherland G; Ezenwa VO; Wilson LA; Coffey M; Milheim LE; Taylor VG; Palmisano C; Wesson DM; Guptill SC

2013-05-01

220

Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article has been peer reviewed and approved for publication consistent with U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices (http//pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1367/). Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Godsey, Marvin S., Jr.; King, Raymond J.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Delorey, Mark; Colton, Leah; Charnetzky, Dawn; Sutherland, Genevieve; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Wilson, Lawrence A.; Coffey, Michelle; Milheim, Lesley E.; Taylor, Viki G.; Palmisano, Charles; Wesson, Dawn M.; Guptill, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-IV. 3. Analysis of High-Moderation MOX Core MISTRAL-3 with SRAC and MVP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To obtain reactor physics parameters for high-moderation mixed-oxide (MOX) cores, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NPEC), the French Atomic Commission (CEA), and their industrial partners have conducted a MOX core physics experimental program called MISTRAL (Refs. 1, 2, and 3) with the EOLE critical facility of the Cadarache research center. This program consists of four high-moderation cores and was successfully completed in July 2000. This paper describes the analysis results of MISTRAL-3 that is a homogeneous full MOX cylindrical core (H/HM = 6.2) with an 80-cm height and a 59-cm diameter consisting of 1388 standard pressurized water reactor-type MOX fuel rods of 7.0 wt% plutonium-enrichment in a square pitch of 1.39 cm. NPEC has been analyzing the experimental results by using the SRAC and MVP code systems (Refs. 4 and 5, respectively). SRAC performs pin cell calculations by the collision probability method and core calculations by the diffusion method (SRAC-CITATION) or the discrete ordinates transport method (SRAC-TWOTRAN). MVP is a continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. The JENDL-3.2 nuclear data file has been employed for these analyses. The measured and analyzed items of MISTRAL-3 are criticality, radial fission rate distribution, fission spectrum indices, conversion factors, isothermal temperature coefficients, differential and integral boron efficiency, two-dimensional (2-D) void worth, and absorber worth. Table I shows comparisons of calculated and measured values of keff, radial fission rate distribution, fission spectrum indices, and conversion factors for MISTRAL-3 compared with those of MISTRAL-2 (homogeneous full MOX core, H/HM = 5.2) (Ref. 3). Regarding the criticality, the calculated values agree well with the measured. The differences of the calculated-to-experimental (C-E) values between MISTRAL-2 and MISTRAL-3 are within 0.1% ?k for all code systems. Regarding the radial fission rate distribution, the differences between the calculated and measured values are the same level as the experimental uncertainty for both the diffusion and Monte Carlo calculations. The fission spectrum indices are obtained by Pij calculations in SRAC with the 107-energy-group structure for a 5x5 multicell. A cell simulating a detector is placed at the corner of the array and is surrounded by 7.0 wt% MOX fuel rods. As shown in Table I, the calculated values agree well with the measured, being almost within the experimental uncertainty. The Pij calculations are performed to obtain the conversion factors in infinite lattice geometry, and the calculated value also agrees well with the measured. There are no apparent differences between MISTRAL-2 and MISTRAL-3 for the criticality, the fission rate distribution, the spectrum indices, and the conversion factors. The isothermal temperature coefficients were evaluated with measurement data among seven temperature points from 10 to 80 deg. C. The calculated values are obtained from the net reactivity change due to the temperature change with SRAC-CITATION, and they agree with the measured within approximately twice the experimental uncertainty. The differential boron efficiency was measured with changing boron concentration within ±3 ppm around the critical concentration of ?210 ppm. The calculated value of SRAC-CITATION shows good agreement with the measured within ?1 pcm/ppm. The integral boron efficiency measurements were performed for the boron concentrations of ?230, 330, 430, 630, and 820 ppm. The C-E values of the integral boron efficiency, which are calculated with SRAC-CITATION, vary from 0.98 to 1.03. The agreement between the calculated and measured values is within the experimental uncertainties (?5%). As for the isothermal temperature coefficients, the differential and integral boron efficiencies, there are also no apparent differences in the trend between MISTRAL-2 and MISTRAL-3. For the 2-D void worth measurements, the 7 x 7 cells at the center of the core were installed with thick over-claddings or Ag blocks in the whole length of the core so th

2001-01-01

222

Potential Role of Diploscapter sp. Strain LKC25, a Bacterivorous Nematode from Soil, as a Vector of Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria to Preharvest Fruits and Vegetables  

Science.gov (United States)

Diploscapter, a thermotolerant, free-living soil bacterial-feeding nematode commonly found in compost, sewage, and agricultural soil in the United States, was studied to determine its potential role as a vehicle of Salmonella enterica serotype Poona, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes in contaminating preharvest fruits and vegetables. The ability of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 to survive on agar media, in cow manure, and in composted turkey manure and to be attracted to, ingest, and disperse food-borne pathogens inoculated into soil or a mixture of soil and composted turkey manure was investigated. Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 survived and reproduced in lawns of S. enterica serotype Poona, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes on agar media and in cow manure and composted turkey manure. Attraction of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 to colonies of pathogenic bacteria on tryptic soy agar within 10, 20, 30, and 60 min and 24 h was determined. At least 85% of the worms initially placed 0.5 to 1 cm away from bacterial colonies migrated to the colonies within 1 h. Within 24 h, ?90% of the worms were embedded in colonies. The potential of Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 to shed pathogenic bacteria after exposure to bacteria inoculated into soil or a mixture of soil and composted turkey manure was investigated. Results indicate that Diploscapter sp. strain LKC25 can shed pathogenic bacteria after exposure to pathogens in these milieus. They also demonstrate its potential to serve as a vector of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in soil, with or without amendment with compost, to the surface of preharvest fruits and vegetables in contact with soil.

Gibbs, Daunte S.; Anderson, Gary L.; Beuchat, Larry R.; Carta, Lynn K.; Williams, Phillip L.

2005-01-01

223

Mapping the potential distribution of #Bandicota indica$, vector of zoonoses in Thailand, by use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (a case of Nakhon Pathom Province)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Space technologies have been used increasingly for assessing the risk of infection by vector-borne diseases, providing tools for delimiting the distribution of vectors. As rodent-borne diseases are a growing concern in Thailand since the emergence of leptospirosis starting in 1998, this study was se...

Herbreteau, Vincent; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Andrianasolo, Haja; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

224

Curl-free vector potential observation on the macro-scale for charged particles in a magnetic field compared with that on the micro-scale: the Aharonov-Bohm effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The recently reported curl-free vector potential observation (Varma et al 2012 Eur. Phys. J. D 66 38) in relation to a system of charged particles in a magnetic field points to the existence of a new state of the electron - a quantum modulated state - which arises through a scattering-induced transition across Landau levels. This quantum modulated state has been shown to account for some very unusual effects on the macro-scale, which are distinct from the ones which can be understood in terms of a ‘classical electron’ and also from the ones which can be understood in terms of a ‘quantum electron’ on the micro-scale characterized by the Planck quantum. This quantum modulated state has been shown to account for the observation of a static curl-free vector potential on the macro-scale alluded to above, as well as other matter wave manifestations on the macro-scale. The macro-scale curl-free vector potential observation differs fundamentally from the corresponding micro-scale effect - the well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect. These two effects - on the macro-scale and the macro-scale - are compared and contrasted to each other here in their manner of detection of the static curl-free vector potential. Such a comparative study helps gain a deeper understanding of the nature of the quantum modulated state and the macro-scale matter wave it represents.

2012-01-01

225

Reconstruction of Vector Fields in Bounded Domain Vector Tomography  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper considers the problem of vector tomographyon an arbitrary bounded domain in three dimensions.Previous work has given the formulas for the reconstructedscalar and vector potential functions in relationto the vector field values inside the domain and onthe boundary of the domain. Using these formulas, It isshown in this work that the curl-free component can bereconstructed using only one probe measurement, andthe divergence-free component can be reconstructed usingonly two probe measurements. No boundary measurementsare necessary.1. IntroductionVector tomography is the reconstruction of a vectorfield from plane integrals of the point-by-point innerproduct of the field with a unit vector called the probe.The probe is allowed to depend on the plane of integration,and like the 3-D Radon transform, all planesmust be imaged. The collection of such integrals hasbeen termed the probe transform of a vector field [1].Several applications have been shown to be able ...

Nael F. Osman; Jerry L. Prince

226

Vector carpets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

Dovey, D.

1995-03-22

227

Insecticide-impregnated netting as a potential tool for long-lasting control of the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in animal shelters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis remains a serious neglected disease, with more than 350 million people potentially at risk worldwide. Control strategies often rely on spraying residual insecticides to target populations of the sand fly vectors that transmit Leishmania parasites when blood-feeding. These programmes are often difficult to sustain effectively, as sand fly resting sites must be resprayed on a regular basis. Here, we investigate whether application of insecticide-impregnated netting to a surface could act as an alternative to residual spraying for controlling the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. METHODS: Female L. longipalpis from our laboratory colony were exposed for 1 h to three treatments applied to plywood surfaces: 2% permethrin-impregnated netting (Olyset(R)), 20 mg a.i.m-2 micro-encapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (Demand CS(R)) and a no-treatment control. We compared the speed at which these treatments acted, by measuring the percentage of sand flies killed both immediately after exposure to the treatment for 1 hour, as well as the number that had died 24 h after the 1 hour exposure. We repeated the experiment at 6 and 12 months following application to test the effectiveness of each treatment over time. RESULTS: When first applied, the lambda-cyhalothrin killed more sand flies in the first hour than the permethrin-impregnated netting. However, the effectiveness of the lambda-cyhalothrin diminished over time, so that there was no difference between the two treatments at 12 months. Both killed more sand flies than the control. When measured 24 h following exposure, both test treatments had killed close to 100% of sand flies when first applied, but while the lethal effect of the netting was maintained at close to 100% over 12 months, the effectiveness of the residual insecticide diminished to approximately 80% after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The results of these initial laboratory experiments indicate that covering surfaces with insecticide impregnated netting material may provide a longer-lasting solution for killing sand flies than residual spraying. Field trials are needed to identify the feasibility of treating surfaces with netting or similar impregnated materials as part of a control program. In targeting L. longipalpis, the greatest benefits may be seen in treating animal sheds with netting, where these sand flies aggregate in large numbers, and which can be difficult to treat repeatedly by conventional spraying.

Bray DP; Hamilton JG

2013-05-01

228

An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; ts mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses ?-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system

1990-01-01

229

Comparative characterization and cytotoxicity study of TAT-peptide as potential vectors for siRNA and Dicer-substrate siRNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Recently, a newly discovered Dicer-substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) demonstrates higher potency in gene silencing than siRNA but both suffer from rapid degradation, poor cellular uptake and chemical instability. Therefore, Tat-peptide was exploited to protect and facilitate their delivery into cells. In this study, Tat-peptide was complexed with siRNA or DsiRNA through simple complexation. The physicochemical properties (particle size, surface charge and morphology) of the complexes formed were then characterized. The ability of Tat-peptide to carry and protect siRNA or DsiRNA was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and serum protection assay, respectively. Cytotoxicity effect of these complexes was assessed in V79 cell line. siRNA-Tat complexes had particle size ranged from 186?±?17.8 to 375?±?8.3?nm with surface charge ranged from -9.3?±?1.0 to +13.5?±?1.0?mV, depending on the Tat-to-siRNA concentration ratio. As for DsiRNA-Tat complexes, the particle size was smaller than the ones complexed with siRNA, ranging from 176?±?8.6 to 458?±?14.7?nm. Their surface charge was in the range of +27.1?±?3.6 to +38.1?±?0.9?mV. Both oligonucleotide (ON) species bound strongly to Tat-peptide, forming stable complexes with loading efficiency of more than 86%. These complexes were relatively non cytotoxic as the cell viability of ?90% was achieved. In conclusion, Tat-peptide has a great potential as siRNA and DsiRNA vector due to the formation of stable complexes with desirable physical characteristics, low toxicity and able to carry high amount of siRNA or DsiRNA.

Katas H; Abdul Ghafoor Raja M; Ee LC

2013-08-01

230

Biology of mosquitoes that are potential vectors of Rift Valley Fever virus in different biotopes of the central highlands of Madagascar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There were epidemic-epizootics of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) affecting humans and cattle in Madagascar in the district of Anjozorobe in 2008. Little is known about the role of Malagasy mosquitoes in the circulation of RVF virus. Therefore, we investigated the species diversity, dynamics and biology of potential RVF virus vectors in the rainforest, rainforest edge (village of Anorana), and savanna biotope (village of Antanifotsy) of this district between November 2008 and July 2010. We captured 56,605 adults of 35 different species. Anopheles squamosus (Theobald), Anopheles coustani (Laveran), Culex antennatus (Becker), Culex pipiens (L.), and Culex univittatus (Theobald) were the most abundant during the rainy season with Cx. pipiens the most abundant species in the rainforest (47%), and An. squamosus the most abundant species in the rainforest edge and in the savanna biotope (56%, 60%, respectively). Only Cx. univittatus was abundant in the dry season. The parous rate was > 60% throughout the rainy season for An. squamosus and it was > 50% from the middle to the end of the rainy season for Cx. pipiens. Two additional species have been found only at larval stage. Cattle were the most attractive bait for all species, followed by sheep and poultry. Human was the least attractive for all species. Most of the 163 bloodmeals tested were taken from cattle. Three were from poultry, one was from dog and one was a mixed bloodmeal taken from sheep and cattle. These results on vectorial capacity parameters may allow considering the involvement of mosquito transmission of the virus in the district of Anjozorobe during the recent epidemic-epizootic.

Tantely ML; Rakotoniaina JC; Tata E; Andrianaivolambo L; Razafindrasata F; Fontenille D; Elissa N

2013-05-01

231

Improvement of classification accuracy in a phase-tagged steady-state visual evoked potential-based brain computer interface using multiclass support vector machine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Brain computer interface (BCI) is an emerging technology for paralyzed patients to communicate with external environments. Among current BCIs, the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI has drawn great attention due to its characteristics of easy preparation, high information transfer rate (ITR), high accuracy, and low cost. However, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are electrophysiological responses reflecting the underlying neural activities which are dependent upon subject's physiological states (e.g., emotion, attention, etc.) and usually variant among different individuals. The development of classification approaches to account for each individual's difference in SSVEP is needed but was seldom reported. METHODS: This paper presents a multiclass support vector machine (SVM)-based classification approach for gaze-target detections in a phase-tagged SSVEP-based BCI. In the training steps, the amplitude and phase features of SSVEP from off-line recordings were used to train a multiclass SVM for each subject. In the on-line application study, effective epochs which contained sufficient SSVEP information of gaze targets were first determined using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, and the amplitude and phase features of effective epochs were subsequently inputted to the multiclass SVM to recognize user's gaze targets. RESULTS: The on-line performance using the proposed approach has achieved high accuracy (89.88?±?4.76%), fast responding time (effective epoch length?=?1.13?±?0.02 s), and the information transfer rate (ITR) was 50.91?±?8.70 bits/min. CONCLUSIONS: The multiclass SVM-based classification approach has been successfully implemented to improve the classification accuracy in a phase-tagged SSVEP-based BCI. The present study has shown the multiclass SVM can be effectively adapted to each subject's SSVEPs to discriminate SSVEP phase information from gazing at different gazed targets.

Yeh CL; Lee PL; Chen WM; Chang CY; Wu YT; Lan GY

2013-01-01

232

Species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Larval mosquito habitats of potential malaria vectors and related species of Anopheles from three provinces (Gyeonggi, Gyeongsangbuk, Chungcheongbuk Provinces) of the Republic of Korea were surveyed in 2007. This study aimed to determine the species composition, seasonal occurrence and distributions of Anopheles mosquitoes. Satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data (NDVI) was also used to study the seasonal abundance patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquito larvae from various habitats were collected using a standard larval dipper or a white plastic larval tray, placed in plastic bags, and were preserved in 100% ethyl alcohol for species identification by PCR and DNA sequencing. The habitats in the monthly larval surveys included artificial containers, ground depressions, irrigation ditches, drainage ditches, ground pools, ponds, rice paddies, stream margins, inlets and pools, swamps, and uncultivated fields. All field-collected specimens were identified to species, and relationships among habitats and locations based on species composition were determined using cluster statistical analysis. RESULTS: In about 10,000 specimens collected, eight species of Anopheles belonging to three groups were identified: Hyrcanus Group - Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles belenrae, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sineroides; Barbirostris Group - Anopheles koreicus; and Lindesayi Group - Anopheles lindesayi japonicus. Only An. sinensis was collected from all habitats groups, while An. kleini, An. pullus and An. sineroides were sampled from all, except artificial containers. The highest number of Anopheles larvae was found in the rice paddies (34.8%), followed by irrigation ditches (23.4%), ponds (17.0%), and stream margins, inlets and pools (12.0%). Anopheles sinensis was the dominant species, followed by An. kleini, An. pullus and An. sineroides. The monthly abundance data of the Anopheles species from three locations (Munsan, Jinbo and Hayang) were compared against NDVI and NDVI anomalies. CONCLUSION: The species composition of Anopheles larvae varied in different habitats at various locations. Anopheles populations fluctuated with the seasonal dynamics of vegetation for 2007. Multi-year data of mosquito collections are required to provide a better characterization of the abundance of these insects from year to year, which can potentially provide predictive capability of their population density based on remotely sensed ecological measurements.

Rueda LM; Brown TL; Kim HC; Chong ST; Klein TA; Foley DH; Anyamba A; Smith M; Pak EP; Wilkerson RC

2010-01-01

233

Seasonal abundance and parity of stock-associated Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in different climatic regions in southern Africa in relation to their viral vector potential.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonal abundance and parity in Culicoides populations, in the vicinity of livestock, were determined at seven sites in five different climatic regions with 220 V down-draught blacklight-traps. In 418 collections made between October 1983 and December 1986, a total of 2,134,171 Culicoides, of which 342,571 were identified to species level and sexed, were collected; 267 of these collections (182,321 Culicoides) were graded for parity. In the frost-free summer rainfall area, Culicoides were collected in large numbers in light-traps throughout the year; this implies breeding and possible virus transmission throughout the winter in certain parts of South Africa. However, where frost occurred, Culicoides numbers usually peaked in late summer and dropped sharply after the first frost. In the latter areas, small Culicoides collections during winter may be due to low winter temperatures and rainfall; low temperatures negatively affect adult activity and reduce the rate of development of larvae and pupae; low rainfall would lead to a reduction of available larval habitats. Relatively large numbers of Culicoides were collected in winter in the temperature frost-free winter rainfall area. In each of the four summer rainfall areas, one Culicoides species remained dominant throughout the year: at two of these areas this species was C. imicola. Other abundant species in some of these summer rainfall areas were C. schultzei s.l. and C. zuluensis. In the winter rainfall area, C. zuluensis, C. magnus, C. gulbenkiani and C. imicola shared abundance. It was established that abdominal pigmentation is an indicator of parity in C. imicola in South Africa. With the increase in Culicoides numbers towards the end of summer, there was also a rise in the proportion of parous (pigmented) females in most Culicoides species, which signifies a higher vector potential for African horsesickness and bluetongue towards the end of summer. This coincides with the seasonal occurrence of viral diseases transmitted by Culicoides species. Nulliparous (unpigmented) females of all Culicoides species were present throughout the year at all sites where Culicoides were continuously collected, confirming uninterrupted breeding in these areas.

Venter GJ; Nevill EM; Van Der Linde TC

1997-12-01

234

Vector velocimeter  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first detector array comprises a first detector array of first detector elements, each of the first detector elements convertingthe intensity of the interfering signal beam and reference beam incident thereupon into a corresponding electronic detector element signal thereby generating an oscillating electronic detector element signal when the fringe pattern formed by the interfering signal beam and reference beam moves across the first detector array; and a signal processor that is adapted for generation of a velocity signal corresponding to a first velocity component of movement of the object in the measurement volume in the longitudinal direction of the measurement volume based on the electronic detector element signals from each of the first detector elements.

Hanson, Steen Grüner Technical University of Denmark,

235

New constitutive vectors: useful genetic engineering tools for biocatalysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

Xu Y; Tao F; Ma C; Xu P

2013-04-01

236

Spatial modelling of the potential temperature-dependent transmission of vector-associated diseases in the face of climate change: main results and recommendations from a pilot study in Lower Saxony (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

The sustained climate change is going to modify the geographic distribution, the seasonal transmission gate and the intensity of the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria or the bluetongue disease. These diseases occur nowadays at higher latitudes or altitudes. A further rise in ambient temperature and rainfall will extend the duration of the season in which mosquito vectors are transmitting pathogens. The parasites transmitted by the vectors also benefit from increasing temperatures, as both their reproduction and development are then accelerated, too. Thus, it seemed prudent to examine potential effects on the seasonal transmission gate due to the ongoing and predicted climate changes. Lower Saxony (northwest Germany) is a former malaria region with highest incidences of Anopheles atroparvus and tertian malaria along the coastal zones before malaria had finally become extinct in the early 1950s. Nevertheless, the Anopheles mosquitoes which transmit the malaria pathogens have still been present in Lower Saxony up to now. This together with the climate change-related implications gave reason to investigate whether a new autochthonous transmission could take place if the malaria pathogen is introduced again in Lower Saxony. Thus, the potential spatial and temporal structure of temperature-driven malaria transmissions was mapped using the basic reproduction rate (R (0)) and measured and predicted air temperatures (1947-1960, 1961-1990, 1985-2004, 2020, 2060, 2100, each best case and worst case scenario). This paper focuses on both the summarizing of the results from this risk modelling approach and on the conclusions to be drawn. The recommendations highlight the need to link vector monitoring as one of the key elements of an epidemiological monitoring with the environmental monitoring. PMID:19030886

Schröder, Winfried; Schmidt, Gunther

2008-11-23

237

Spatial modelling of the potential temperature-dependent transmission of vector-associated diseases in the face of climate change: main results and recommendations from a pilot study in Lower Saxony (Germany).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sustained climate change is going to modify the geographic distribution, the seasonal transmission gate and the intensity of the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria or the bluetongue disease. These diseases occur nowadays at higher latitudes or altitudes. A further rise in ambient temperature and rainfall will extend the duration of the season in which mosquito vectors are transmitting pathogens. The parasites transmitted by the vectors also benefit from increasing temperatures, as both their reproduction and development are then accelerated, too. Thus, it seemed prudent to examine potential effects on the seasonal transmission gate due to the ongoing and predicted climate changes. Lower Saxony (northwest Germany) is a former malaria region with highest incidences of Anopheles atroparvus and tertian malaria along the coastal zones before malaria had finally become extinct in the early 1950s. Nevertheless, the Anopheles mosquitoes which transmit the malaria pathogens have still been present in Lower Saxony up to now. This together with the climate change-related implications gave reason to investigate whether a new autochthonous transmission could take place if the malaria pathogen is introduced again in Lower Saxony. Thus, the potential spatial and temporal structure of temperature-driven malaria transmissions was mapped using the basic reproduction rate (R (0)) and measured and predicted air temperatures (1947-1960, 1961-1990, 1985-2004, 2020, 2060, 2100, each best case and worst case scenario). This paper focuses on both the summarizing of the results from this risk modelling approach and on the conclusions to be drawn. The recommendations highlight the need to link vector monitoring as one of the key elements of an epidemiological monitoring with the environmental monitoring.

Schröder W; Schmidt G

2008-12-01

238

Vector fields in cosmology  

CERN Multimedia

Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

Davydov, Evgeny

2011-01-01

239

Como o potencial vetor deve ser interpretado para revelar analogias entre grandezas magnéticas e elétricas/ How the vector potential is to be interpreted in order to reveal analogies between magnetic and electric quantities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Mostra-se a partir dos potenciais de Liénard-Wiechert que o potencial vetor pode, em geral, ser expresso como produto do potencial escalar e da velocidade da carga que o cria, constituindo-se como se fosse uma espécie de vento de potencial. Mostra-se daí como uma certa analogia existente entre grandezas magnéticas e elétricas pode ser entendida. Abstract in english Starting from the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, it is shown that the vector potential can always be expressed as a product of the scalar potential and the velocity of the charge creating it, looking like a kind of potential wind. From that, it is shown how a certain existing similarity between magnetic and electric quantities may be understood.

Ferreira, G.F. Leal

2004-12-01

240

The vector BPS baby Skyrme model  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the relation between the BPS baby Skyrme model and its vector meson formulation, where the baby Skyrme term is replaced by a coupling between the topological current $B_\\mu$ and the vector meson field $\\omega_\\mu$. The vector model still possesses infinitely many symmetries leading to infinitely many conserved currents which stand behind its solvability. It turns out that the similarities and differences of the two models depend strongly on the specific form of the potential. We find, for instance, that compactons (which exist in the BPS baby Skyrme model) disappear from the spectrum of solutions of the vector counterpart. Specifically, for the vector model with the old baby Skyrme potential we find that it has compacton solutions only provided that a delta function source term effectively screening the topological charge is inserted at the compacton boundary. For the old baby Skyrme potential squared we find that the vector model supports exponentially localized solitons, like the BPS baby Sky...

Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Wereszczynski, A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1999  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system, the SX-4 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 18 codes in fiscal 1999. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and the parallelization part on vector processors, the parallelization port on scalar processors and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement code version 5 (AMBER5), general purpose Monte Carlo codes far neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods (MVP/GMVP), automatic editing system for MCNP library code (autonj), neutron damage calculations for materials irradiations and neutron damage calculations for compounds code (SPECTER/SPECOMP), severe accident analysis code (MELCOR) and COolant Boiling in Rod Arrays, Two-Fluid code (COBRA-TF) on the VPP500 system and/or the AP3000 system are described. (author)

Kawasaki, Nobuo; Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Kawai, Wataru; Ishizuki, Shigeru [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-01-01

242

Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system, the SX-4 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 18 codes in fiscal 1999. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and the parallelization part on vector processors, the parallelization port on scalar processors and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement code version 5 (AMBER5), general purpose Monte Carlo codes far neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods (MVP/GMVP), automatic editing system for MCNP library code (autonj), neutron damage calculations for materials irradiations and neutron damage calculations for compounds code (SPECTER/SPECOMP), severe accident analysis code (MELCOR) and COolant Boiling in Rod Arrays, Two-Fluid code (COBRA-TF) on the VPP500 system and/or the AP3000 system are described. (author)

243

Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention/ Exploitation des possibilités de la lutte antivectorielle dans la prévention des maladies/ Aprovechar el potencial de la lucha antivectorial como medio de prevención de enfermedades  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Aunque ha demostrado ser muy eficaz como medio de prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades, la lucha antivectorial no se explota al máximo, y eso priva a las poblaciones desfavorecidas de los beneficios de algunos métodos de probada eficacia. Tras el descubrimiento de los insecticidas sintéticos de acción residual, en los años cuarenta, los programas a gran escala emprendidos consiguieron controlar muchas de las más importantes enfermedades de transmisión vec (more) torial. A finales de los años sesenta, la mayoría de esas enfermedades -exceptuando la malaria en África- dejaron de ser un problema relevante de salud pública. El resultado fue que los programas de control cayeron en desuso, los recursos menguaron, y los especialistas en lucha antivectorial desaparecieron de las unidades de salud pública. En el término de dos décadas, muchas enfermedades importantes de transmisión vectorial reaparecieron o se propagaron a nuevas zonas. Ha llegado el momento de restituir a la lucha antivectorial su papel clave en la prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades, si bien es necesario hacer más hincapié en la adopción de múltiples medidas, basadas ya sea en el uso de plaguicidas o en la ordenación del medio, y en el refuerzo de la capacidad administrativa y operacional. El control integrado de los vectores brinda un marco conceptual sólido para desplegar métodos costoeficaces sostenibles de lucha antivectorial. Mediante este enfoque es posible abordar de forma exhaustiva los complejos determinantes de la transmisión de enfermedades, entre ellos su ecología local, el papel de la contribución humana a los riesgos de transmisión, y la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades afectadas. Abstract in english Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases - with the exception of mal (more) aria in Africa - were no longer considered to be of primary public health importance. The result was that control programmes lapsed, resources dwindled, and specialists in vector control disappeared from public health units. Within two decades, many important vector-borne diseases had re-emerged or spread to new areas. The time has come to restore vector control to its key role in the prevention of disease transmission, albeit with an increased emphasis on multiple measures, whether pesticide-based or involving environmental modification, and with a strengthened managerial and operational capacity. Integrated vector management provides a sound conceptual framework for deployment of cost-effective and sustainable methods of vector control. This approach allows for full consideration of the complex determinants of disease transmission, including local disease ecology, the role of human activity in increasing risks of disease transmission, and the socioeconomic conditions of affected communities.

Townson, H; Nathan, MB; Zaim, M; Guillet, P; Manga, L; Bos, R; Kindhauser, M

2005-12-01

244

Simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The two sympatric sibling species Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are known to be competent vectors for bluetongue virus in the Palaearctic region. However, morphological identification of constituent species is only readily applicable to adult males and these two species distinguishing traits have overlapping character states. As their vector competence may differ in space and time, the correct identification and quantification of specimens of both species are essential for understanding bluetongue epidemiology. However, no molecular tools are available for high-throughput identification of the two species. We therefore developed a quantitative duplex real-time PCR assay to determine the relative abundance of each sibling species in a sample using TaqMan probes. For each species, standard curves were constructed from serial dilutions of purified plasmid DNA containing ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (rDNA) in the range of 10(-1) to 10(-5)ng/?L. Standard curves were used to quantify samples of mixed C. obsoletus/C. scoticus specimens. Specificity was evaluated with 5156 specimens representing 62 species. Based on the DNA quantities detected according to the standard curves, a quadratic model developed on 1100 males and validated on 555 females was able to predict the relative abundance of each species simultaneously in a one-shot reaction (Pearson coefficient of 0.999). Our assay showed a requirement of two specimens or less for 95% of the predictions, making it highly applicable to field collections. Extensive use of this real-time PCR assay will provide a better understanding of geographical distribution, dynamics, and bionomics on a species level, which is essential for risk assessment. This approach is an important contribution to medical entomology for investigating the vector role of arthropod sibling species. PMID:21715095

Mathieu, Bruno; Delecolle, Jean-Claude; Garros, Claire; Balenghien, Thomas; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Candolfi, Ermanno; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine

2011-06-12

245

Simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The two sympatric sibling species Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are known to be competent vectors for bluetongue virus in the Palaearctic region. However, morphological identification of constituent species is only readily applicable to adult males and these two species distinguishing traits have overlapping character states. As their vector competence may differ in space and time, the correct identification and quantification of specimens of both species are essential for understanding bluetongue epidemiology. However, no molecular tools are available for high-throughput identification of the two species. We therefore developed a quantitative duplex real-time PCR assay to determine the relative abundance of each sibling species in a sample using TaqMan probes. For each species, standard curves were constructed from serial dilutions of purified plasmid DNA containing ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (rDNA) in the range of 10(-1) to 10(-5)ng/?L. Standard curves were used to quantify samples of mixed C. obsoletus/C. scoticus specimens. Specificity was evaluated with 5156 specimens representing 62 species. Based on the DNA quantities detected according to the standard curves, a quadratic model developed on 1100 males and validated on 555 females was able to predict the relative abundance of each species simultaneously in a one-shot reaction (Pearson coefficient of 0.999). Our assay showed a requirement of two specimens or less for 95% of the predictions, making it highly applicable to field collections. Extensive use of this real-time PCR assay will provide a better understanding of geographical distribution, dynamics, and bionomics on a species level, which is essential for risk assessment. This approach is an important contribution to medical entomology for investigating the vector role of arthropod sibling species.

Mathieu B; Delecolle JC; Garros C; Balenghien T; Setier-Rio ML; Candolfi E; Cêtre-Sossah C

2011-12-01

246

Characterization of a theta-type plasmid from Lactobacillus sakei: a potential basis for low-copy-number vectors in lactobacilli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complete nucleotide sequence of the 13-kb plasmid pRV500, isolated from Lactobacillus sakei RV332, was determined. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of genes coding for a putative type I restriction-modification system, two genes coding for putative recombinases of the integrase family, and a region likely involved in replication. The structural features of this region, comprising a putative ori segment containing 11- and 22-bp repeats and a repA gene coding for a putative initiator protein, indicated that pRV500 belongs to the pUCL287 subfamily of theta-type replicons. A 3.7-kb fragment encompassing this region was fused to an Escherichia coli replicon to produce the shuttle vector pRV566 and was observed to be functional in L. sakei for plasmid replication. The L. sakei replicon alone could not support replication in E. coli. Plasmid pRV500 and its derivative pRV566 were determined to be at very low copy numbers in L. sakei. pRV566 was maintained at a reasonable rate over 20 generations in several lactobacilli, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus plantarum, in addition to L. sakei, making it an interesting basis for developing vectors. Sequence relationships with other plasmids are described and discussed.

Alpert CA; Crutz-Le Coq AM; Malleret C; Zagorec M

2003-09-01

247

Kochen-Specker vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, Hn, n?3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found.

2005-02-18

248

Bacteriophage lambda as a cloning vector.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive research has been directed toward the development of multipurpose lambda vectors for cloning ever since the potential of using coliphage lambda as a cloning vector was recognized in the late 1970s. An understanding of the intrinsic molecular organization and of the genetic events which det...

Chauthaiwale, V M; Therwath, A; Deshpande, V V

249

Thrust vectoring for Eurofighter - The first steps  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thrust vectoring has the potential to provide significant improvements in combat aircraft performance and stability. As Eurofighter Typhoon moves into production, ITP and MTU are pursing a research and technology acquisition project to investigate the design of a thrust vectoring nozzle system suitable for future application to the EJ2000 engine. This paper describes the current status and progress of this project. (authors)

Ikaza, D. [Project Manager, Nozzles With Industria de Turbo Propulsores, Muenchen (Germany); Rausch, Ch. [Project Manager, Thrust Vector Engine Control With MTU Motoren-und Turbinen-Union, Muenchen (Germany)

2000-02-01

250

Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II)-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apopt...

Harris, Alesha N; Hinojosa, Barbara R; Chavious, Montaleé D; Petros, Robby A

251

Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers. PMID:24132488

Kreppel, Florian

2014-01-01

252

Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers.

Kreppel F

2014-01-01

253

Evaluation of Multi Potential Bioactive Endod, Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) Berries Extracts Against Immature Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Phytolacca dodecandra plant extracts against immature filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The powdered berries were extracted with petroleum ether, acetone, benzene, methanol and water. The crude residue obtained from the extraction was used to prepare 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentration, respectively. The experiment was conducted by using standard WHO protocol with modifications. The immature mosquitoes were exposed to selected concentration and the percentage mortality was observed continuously for 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Among the various solvent extracts tested, petroleum ether, acetone and benzene showed maximum mortality at 125 ppm concentration and above. At 1000 ppm concentration, all the solvent extracts tested showed 100% mortality. The III-instar larva was highly susceptible compared to IV-instar and pupa. The water and methanol extract was also proved to have larvicidal and pupicidal properties. This study showed P. dodecandra plant extract have bioactivity compound to kill the immature Cx. quinquefasciatus. These plants are growing naturally in Ethiopian highlands and proper utilization may prevent unwanted pollution to the environment.

Nurie Misganaw; Shiferaw Moges; Muche Tadele; Mamaye Tesera; Tigab Temesgen; Nagappan Raja

2012-01-01

254

Potential use of neem leaf slurry as a sustainable dry season management strategy to control the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) in west African villages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Larval management of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s., has been successful in reducing disease transmission. However, pesticides are not affordable to farmers in remote villages in Mali, and in other material resource poor countries. Insect resistance to insecticides and nontarget toxicity pose additional problems. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a tree with many beneficial, insect bioactive compounds, such as azadirachtin. We tested the hypothesis that neem leaf slurry is a sustainable, natural product, anopheline larvicide. A field study conducted in Sanambele (Mali) in 2010 demonstrated neem leaf slurry can work with only the available tools and resources in the village. Laboratory bioassays were conducted with third instar An. gambiae and village methods were used to prepare the leaf slurry. Experimental concentration ranges were 1,061-21,224 mg/L pulverized neem leaves in distilled water. The 50 and 90% lethal concentrations at 72 h were 8,825 mg/L and 15,212 mg/L, respectively. LC concentrations were higher than for other parts of the neem tree when compared with previous published studies because leaf slurry preparation was simplified by omitting removal of fibrous plant tissue. Using storytelling as a medium of knowledge transfer, villagers combined available resources to manage anopheline larvae. Preparation of neem leaf slurries is a sustainable approach which allows villagers to proactively reduce mosquito larval density within their community as part of an integrated management system.

Luong K; Dunkel FV; Coulibaly K; Beckage NE

2012-11-01

255

Increase of chondrogenic potentials in adipose-derived stromal cells by co-delivery of type I and type II TGF? receptors encoding bicistronic vector system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell therapy has been developing rapidly as a potential cure for repairing or regenerating the functions of diseased organs and tissues. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are an attractive cell source for stem cell therapy because they can be isolated easily from fat tissue in significant numbers and exhibit multiple differentiation potential under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. However, ASCs derived from individual donors can show wide variations in differentiation potential. In addition, the regulatory mechanisms underlying stem cell differentiation remain unclear. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a well-known ASC chondrogenic differentiation factor that stimulates ASC signaling pathways by activating transmembrane type I and type II receptors. We hypothesized that the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ASCs is dependent upon the expression of TGF? receptors and could be improved by the co-delivery of type I (TGF?RI) and type II (TGF?RII) TGF? receptors. To prove this, heterogeneity within the chondrogenic potential of ASCs isolated from 10 donors was examined and their susceptibility to TGF? during the process of chondrogenic differentiation investigated. In addition, the results showed that co-delivery of the TGF?RI and TGF?RII genes increased the expression of TGF? receptor signaling in ASCs with low chondrogenic potential, resulting in increased chondrogenic differentiation. Monitoring and delivering TGF?RI and TGF?RII may, therefore, be a powerful tool for predicting the differentiation potential of stem cells and for enhancing their differentiation capacity prior to stem cell transplantation. PMID:22522074

Kang, Sun-Woong; Do, Hyun-Jin; Han, In-Bo; Shin, Dong-Ah; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Soo-Hong

2012-04-14

256

Increase of chondrogenic potentials in adipose-derived stromal cells by co-delivery of type I and type II TGF? receptors encoding bicistronic vector system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stem cell therapy has been developing rapidly as a potential cure for repairing or regenerating the functions of diseased organs and tissues. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are an attractive cell source for stem cell therapy because they can be isolated easily from fat tissue in significant numbers and exhibit multiple differentiation potential under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. However, ASCs derived from individual donors can show wide variations in differentiation potential. In addition, the regulatory mechanisms underlying stem cell differentiation remain unclear. Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a well-known ASC chondrogenic differentiation factor that stimulates ASC signaling pathways by activating transmembrane type I and type II receptors. We hypothesized that the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ASCs is dependent upon the expression of TGF? receptors and could be improved by the co-delivery of type I (TGF?RI) and type II (TGF?RII) TGF? receptors. To prove this, heterogeneity within the chondrogenic potential of ASCs isolated from 10 donors was examined and their susceptibility to TGF? during the process of chondrogenic differentiation investigated. In addition, the results showed that co-delivery of the TGF?RI and TGF?RII genes increased the expression of TGF? receptor signaling in ASCs with low chondrogenic potential, resulting in increased chondrogenic differentiation. Monitoring and delivering TGF?RI and TGF?RII may, therefore, be a powerful tool for predicting the differentiation potential of stem cells and for enhancing their differentiation capacity prior to stem cell transplantation.

Kang SW; Do HJ; Han IB; Shin DA; Kim HO; Kim JH; Lee SH

2012-06-01

257

Introduction to Vector Spaces, Vector Algebras, and Vector Geometries  

CERN Multimedia

An introductory overview of vector spaces, algebras, and linear geometries over an arbitrary commutative field is given. Quotient spaces are emphasized and used in constructing the exterior and the symmetric algebras of a vector space. Affine geometries are introduced and generalized by projective completion. General projective geometries are briefly introduced. Tensor products and multilinear functions are treated. The exterior algebra of a vector space and that of its dual are used in treating linear geometry and Grassmann's regressive product is treated. Scalar product spaces, orthogonality, and the Hodge star based on a general basis are covered.

Smith, Richard A

2011-01-01

258

Virtual vector registers for vector processing system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a data processing system comprising a main store; a processing unit; a working store comprising a pair of buffer stores connected between the main store and the processing unit, each of the buffer stores having a multiplicity of consecutively addressed storage locations, one buffer store having a storage location whose address is next to the address of a storage location in the other buffer store; and a data transfer controller connected to the main store and the buffer stores; the processing unit and the data transfer controller selectively operating to concurrently transfer vector operands between one of the buffer stores and the processing unit and between the other of the buffer stores and the main store, means for processing vector operands having a number of vector elements to perform both storage-to-storage (SS) vector operations and register-to-register (RR) vector operations.

Kris, T.A.; Hook, S.

1988-09-13

259

The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

Matias Jonathan R; Adrias Araceli Q

2010-01-01

260

In-silico drug screening and potential target identification for hepatocellular carcinoma using Support Vector Machines based on drug screening result.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a severe liver malignancy with few drug treatment options. In finding an effective treatment for HCC, screening drugs that are already FDA-approved will fast track the clinical trial and drug approval process. Connectivity Map (CMap), a large repository of chemical-induced gene expression profiles, provides the opportunity to analyze drug properties on the basis of gene expression. Support Vector Machines (SVM) were utilized to classify the effectiveness of drugs against HCC using gene expression profiles in CMap. The results of this classification will help us (1) identify genes that are chemically sensitive, and (2) predict the effectiveness of remaining chemicals in CMap in the treatment of HCC and provide a prioritized list of possible HCC drugs for biological verification. Four HCC cell lines were treated with 146 distinct chemicals, and cell viability was examined. SVM successfully classified the effectiveness of the chemicals with an average Area Under ROC Curve (AUROC) of 0.9. Using reported HCC patient samples, we identified chemically sensitive genes that may be possible HCC therapeutic targets, including MT1E, MYC, and GADD45B. Using SVM, several known HCC inhibitors, such as geldanamycin, alvespimycin (HSP90 inhibitors), and doxorubicin (chemotherapy drug), were predicted. Seven out of the 23 predicted drugs were cardiac glycosides, suggesting a link between this drug category and HCC inhibition. The study demonstrates a strategy of in silico drug screening with SVM using a large repository of microarrays based on initial in vitro drug screening. Verifying these results biologically would help develop a more accurate chemical sensitivity model.

Yang WL; Lee YE; Chen MH; Chao KM; Huang CY

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Caracteres moleculares para la determinación taxonómica de tres especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectores potenciales de Leishmania presentes en el valle de Aburrá, Colombia/ Molecular characters for the taxonomic determination of three species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae), potential Leishmania vectors found in the Aburrá valley, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En Colombia están registradas 143 especies de Lutzomyia França, pero menos del 7% de éstas se encuentran incriminadas como vectores de Leishmania spp. Debido a la alta semejanza morfológica de algunas especies vectoras con otras no vectoras, se necesitan caracteres taxonómicos alternativos para identificar correctamente los flebotomíneos de cada zona geográfica del país. Con este objetivo, en el presente trabajo se secuenció el extremo 3' del gen mitocondrial que (more) codifica para la proteína citocromo b en tres vectores potenciales de Leishmania presentes en el valle de Aburrá, Colombia, Lutzomyia hartmanni (Fairchild y Hertig), L. columbiana (Ristorcelli y Van Ty) y L. tihuiliensis Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo y Dujardin. A partir del alineamiento múltiple de nucleótidos se determinaron los sitios polimórficos, las distancias genéticas pareadas netas (p) y la entropía. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron trasladadas a aminoácidos para estimar el número de sustituciones sinónimas y no sinónimas. En el alineamiento múltiple de 321 nucleótidos del gen citocromo b de L. columbiana, L. hartmanni y L. tihuiliensis se detectaron 83 sustituciones. En la secuencia parcial de la proteína se encontraron 18 reemplazos de aminoácidos. Las distancias genéticas interespecíficas fluctuaron en un rango mínimo de 0,137 entre L. tihuiliensis y L. columbiana, y un máximo de 0,215 entre L. columbiana y L. hartmanni. Los polimorfismos detectados en la secuencia de nucleótidos del gen y de aminoácidos de la proteína constituyen caracteres moleculares potencialmente útiles para la determinación taxonómica de estas especies de flebotomíneos. Abstract in english To date, 143 species of Lutzomyia França are recorded in Colombia, but less than 7% is incriminated in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Alternative taxonomic characters are necessary to correctly identify the particular sand fly fauna in each Colombian region, and the separation of morphologically similar vector and non-vector species. In order to detect useful molecular characters for the taxonomic determination of three potential vectors of Leishmania present in the (more) Valle de Aburrá, Colombia, the present work sequenced the 3' end of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia hartmanni (Fairchild and Hertig), L. columbiana (Ristorcelli and Van Ty), and L. tihuiliensis Le Pont, Torrez-Espejo and Dujardin. Polymorphic sites, pairwise genetic distances (p), and entropy were determined from the multiple alignment of the nucleotide sequences. Numbers of silent and non silent substitutions were calculated from the amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of the gene. In the multiple alignment of the cytochrome b nucleotide sequences from Lutzomyia hartmanni, L. columbiana and L. tihuiliensis, 83 polymorphic sites were detected. A total of 18 amino acid replacements were found in the partial nucleotide sequences of the protein. Genetic distances varied from 0,137 between L. tihuiliensis and L. columbiana, to 0,215 among L. columbiana and L. hartmanni. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms within the cytochrome b gene and protein, respectively, constitute molecular characters potentially useful for the taxonomic determination of these sand fly species.

Pérez-Doria, Alveiro  ; Elías Bejarano, Eduar; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

2008-12-01

262

Vectors for cancer gene therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many viral and non-viral vector systems have now been developed for gene therapy applications. In this article, the pros and cons of these vector systems are discussed in relation to the different cancer gene therapy strategies. The protocols used in cancer gene therapy can be broadly divided into six categories including gene transfer to explanted cells for use as cell-based cancer vaccines; gene transfer to a small number of tumour cells in situ to achieve a vaccine effect; gene transfer to vascular endothelial cells (VECs) lining the blood vessels of the tumour to interfere with tumour angiogenesis; gene transfer to T lymphocytes to enhance their antitumour effector capability; gene transfer to haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to enhance their resistance to cytotoxic drugs and gene transfer to a large number of tumour cells in situ to achieve nonimmune tumour reduction with or without bystander effect. Each of the six strategies makes unique demands on the vector system and these are discussed with reference to currently available vectors. Aspects of vector biology that are in need of further development are discussed in some detail. The final section points to the potential use of replicating viruses as delivery vehicles for efficient in vivo gene transfer to disseminated cancers.

Zhang J; Russell SJ

1996-09-01

263

Deterministic Vector Freak Waves  

CERN Multimedia

We construct and discuss a semi-rational, multi-parametric vector solution of coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations (Manakov system). This family of solutions includes known vector Peregrine solutions, bright-dark-rogue solutions, and novel vector unusual freak waves. The vector freak (or rogue) waves could be of great interest in a variety of complex systems, from optics to Bose-Einstein condensates and finance.

Baronio, Fabio; Conforti, Matteo; Wabnitz, Stefan

2012-01-01

264

Yersinia pestis insecticidal-like toxin complex (Tc) family proteins: characterization of expression, subcellular localization, and potential role in infection of the flea vector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Toxin complex (Tc) family proteins were first identified as insecticidal toxins in Photorhabdus luminescens and have since been found in a wide range of bacteria. The genome of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, contains a locus that encodes the Tc protein homologues YitA, YitB, YitC, and YipA and YipB. Previous microarray data indicate that the Tc genes are highly upregulated by Y. pestis while in the flea vector; however, their role in the infection of fleas and pathogenesis in the mammalian host is unclear. RESULTS: We show that the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are highly produced by Y. pestis while in the flea but not during growth in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at the same temperature. Over-production of the LysR-type regulator YitR from an exogenous plasmid increased YitA and YipA synthesis in broth culture. The increase in production of YitA and YipA correlated with the yitR copy number and was temperature-dependent. Although highly synthesized in fleas, deletion of the Tc proteins did not alter survival of Y. pestis in the flea or prevent blockage of the proventriculus. Furthermore, YipA was found to undergo post-translational processing and YipA and YitA are localized to the outer membrane of Y. pestis. YitA was also detected by immunofluorescence microscopy on the surface of Y. pestis. Both YitA and YipA are produced maximally at low temperature but persist for several hours after transfer to 37°C. CONCLUSIONS: Y. pestis Tc proteins are highly expressed in the flea but are not essential for Y. pestis to stably infect or produce a transmissible infection in the flea. However, YitA and YipA localize to the outer membrane and YitA is exposed on the surface, indicating that at least YitA is present on the surface when Y. pestis is transmitted into the mammalian host from the flea.

Spinner JL; Jarrett CO; LaRock DL; Miller SI; Collins CM; Hinnebusch BJ

2012-01-01

265

Nonintegrating foamy virus vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foamy viruses (FVs), or spumaviruses, are integrating retroviruses that have been developed as vectors. Here we generated nonintegrating foamy virus (NIFV) vectors by introducing point mutations into the highly conserved DD35E catalytic core motif of the foamy virus integrase sequence. NIFV vectors produced high-titer stocks, transduced dividing cells, and did not integrate. Cells infected with NIFV vectors contained episomal vector genomes that consisted of linear, 1-long-terminal-repeat (1-LTR), and 2-LTR circular DNAs. These episomes expressed transgenes, were stable, and became progressively diluted in the dividing cell population. 1-LTR circles but not 2-LTR circles were found in all vector stocks prior to infection. Residual integration of NIFV vectors occurred at a frequency 4 logs lower than that of integrase-proficient FV vectors. Cre recombinase expressed from a NIFV vector mediated excision of both an integrated, floxed FV vector and a gene-targeted neo expression cassette, demonstrating the utility of these episomal vectors. The broad host range and large packaging capacity of NIFV vectors should make them useful for a variety of applications requiring transient gene expression.

Deyle DR; Li Y; Olson EM; Russell DW

2010-09-01

266

Biosafety features of lentiviral vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decades, lentiviral vectors have evolved as a benchmark tool for stable gene transfer into cells with a high replicative potential. Their relatively flexible genome and ability to transduce many forms of nondividing cells, combined with the potential for cell-specific pseudotyping, provides a rich resource for numerous applications in experimental platforms and therapeutic settings. Here, we give an overview of important biosafety features of lentiviral vectors, with detailed discussion of (i) the principles of the lentiviral split-genome design used for the construction of packaging cells; (ii) the relevance of modifications introduced into the lentiviral long terminal repeat (deletion of enhancer/promoter sequences and introduction of insulators); (iii) the basic features of mRNA processing, including the Rev/Rev-responsive element (RRE) interaction and the modifications of the 3' untranslated region of lentiviral vectors with various post-transcriptional regulatory elements affecting transcriptional termination, polyadenylation, and differentiation-specific degradation of mRNA; and (iv) the characteristic integration pattern with the associated risk of transcriptional interference with cellular genes. We conclude with considerations regarding the importance of cell targeting via envelope modifications. Along this course, we address canonical biosafety issues encountered with any type of viral vector: the risks of shedding, mobilization, germline transmission, immunogenicity, and insertional mutagenesis.

Schambach A; Zychlinski D; Ehrnstroem B; Baum C

2013-02-01

267

[Vector cardiographic evaluation of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia; its relation to the type of cardiopathy, vagal tonus and the prevalence of late potentials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most common cause of sudden death is malignant ventricular arrhytHmia. In order to identify the predictive value of the vectospatial evaluation in the surface electrocardiogram during a monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT), and the equilibrium state of AutonomOus Nervous System (ANS), 89 patients of both sexes were studied with mean age of 47 +/- 16.2 years. They were grouped as follows: Group I included 43 patients (P), with a coronary heart disease; Group II (n = 24P) with a noncoronary myocardiopathy and Group III (n = 22P) with unknown origin MVT (Cryptogenic). Relationship between QRS configuration in the frontal plane (QRSf) during MVT episode with transverse plane, cardiac position in the chest X-rays, presence and duration of late potentials (LPs) in their two types of analysis (time domain and spectral mapping by high-resolution electrocardiogram), heart rate variability and ejection fraction by echocardiography were determined in all patients. The QRSf configuration with left bundle-branch block (LBBB) was the most common in group I, the sustained MVT (SMVT) + LBBB was associated with both prevalence and duration of late potentials (p = 0.005), low-rate heart variability and ejection fraction < 40%. SMVT + LBBB was the most common type in group III and if it has shown and inferior axis, an elevated rate of LPs (+) was seen. Situation that oriented to an arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Low amplitude signals with short duration in the time domain were seen in group I with LBBB; and with SMVT + RBBB in group II. We suggest that vectospatial evaluation of QRSf during a MVT is a greater importance in the risk stratification for sudden death and it can guide to anatomic origin and the diagnosis-therapeutic approach.

Rosas Peralta M; Casanova Garcés JM; González Hermosillo JA

1994-01-01

268

Viral vectors for vaccine applications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional approach of inactivated or live-attenuated vaccine immunization has resulted in impressive success in the reduction and control of infectious disease outbreaks. However, many pathogens remain less amenable to deal with the traditional vaccine strategies, and more appropriate vaccine strategy is in need. Recent discoveries that led to increased understanding of viral molecular biology and genetics has rendered the used of viruses as vaccine platforms and as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to their ability to effectively induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, viral vectors are deemed as an attractive alternative to the traditional platforms to deliver vaccine antigens as well as to specifically target and kill tumor cells. With potential targets ranging from cancers to a vast number of infectious diseases, the benefits resulting from successful application of viral vectors to prevent and treat human diseases can be immense.

Choi Y; Chang J

2013-07-01

269

Various stages in the life cycle of syrphid flies (Eristalis tenax; Diptera: Syrphidae) as potential mechanical vectors of pathogens causing mycobacterial infections in pig herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We defined the role of the syrphid fly Eristalis tenax in the survival and transmission of mycobacteria in pigs. The conditionally pathogenic mycobacterial (CPM) species Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from 10 % of liquid dung samples, and both M. chelonae and another CPM species M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (78 %) of the examined E. tenax larvae collected from the same location. Mycobacteriosis of the lymph nodes of pigs from 3 infected farms was caused by M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. fortuitum. M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of identical genotype and serotypes and M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (1.9 %) larvae, 2 (7.4 %) puparia, and one (1.6 %) imago. The count of colony forming units isolated from larval skin covering (pouch) was higher (p < or = 0.01) than that isolated from the internal organs of larvae. These results showed the potential for E. tenax larvae to spread mycobacteria throughout pig herds and the surrounding environment.

Fischer OA; Mátlová L; Dvorská L; Svástová P; Bartos M; Weston RT; Pavlík I

2006-01-01

270

Various stages in the life cycle of syrphid flies (Eristalis tenax; Diptera: Syrphidae) as potential mechanical vectors of pathogens causing mycobacterial infections in pig herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

We defined the role of the syrphid fly Eristalis tenax in the survival and transmission of mycobacteria in pigs. The conditionally pathogenic mycobacterial (CPM) species Mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from 10 % of liquid dung samples, and both M. chelonae and another CPM species M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (78 %) of the examined E. tenax larvae collected from the same location. Mycobacteriosis of the lymph nodes of pigs from 3 infected farms was caused by M. avium subsp. avium, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, and M. fortuitum. M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of identical genotype and serotypes and M. fortuitum were isolated from 7 (1.9 %) larvae, 2 (7.4 %) puparia, and one (1.6 %) imago. The count of colony forming units isolated from larval skin covering (pouch) was higher (p < or = 0.01) than that isolated from the internal organs of larvae. These results showed the potential for E. tenax larvae to spread mycobacteria throughout pig herds and the surrounding environment. PMID:16821726

Fischer, O A; Mátlová, L; Dvorská, L; Svástová, P; Bartos, M; Weston, R T; Pavlík, I

2006-01-01

271

Quadratic exponential vectors  

CERN Multimedia

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a quadratic exponential vector with test function in L2(Rd) ? L?(Rd). We prove the linear independence and totality, in the quadratic Fock space, of these vectors. Using a technique different from the one used, we also extend, to a more general class of test functions, the explicit form of the scalar product between two such vectors.

Accardi, Luigi

2009-01-01

272

Monopole vector spherical harmonics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem.

1994-01-01

273

Monopole vector spherical harmonics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem.

Weinberg, E.J. (Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States))

1994-01-15

274

Vector tomography applications in plasma diagnostics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of tomographic techniques for the study of vector fields has been demonstrated only in the last few years. We show its potential for remote sensing of plasma vector fields such as the fluid velocity {upsilon} and the magnetic field B using Doppler and Zeeman spectroscopy. Simulations suggest the possibility of time-resolved reconstruction of ion velocity flow fields and poloidal magnetic fields from direct measurements of the low-order spectral moments of line-integrated spectroscopic measurements. Other possible applications of vector tomography are examined. (author).

Howard, John [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Plasma Research Lab.

1996-04-01

275

Vector tomography applications in plasma diagnostics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of tomographic techniques for the study of vector fields has been demonstrated only in the last few years. We show its potential for remote sensing of plasma vector fields such as the fluid velocity ? and the magnetic field B using Doppler and Zeeman spectroscopy. Simulations suggest the possibility of time-resolved reconstruction of ion velocity flow fields and poloidal magnetic fields from direct measurements of the low-order spectral moments of line-integrated spectroscopic measurements. Other possible applications of vector tomography are examined. (author).

1996-01-01

276

Vector tomography applications in plasma diagnostics  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of tomographic techniques for the study of vector fields has been demonstrated only in the last few years. We show its potential for remote sensing of plasma vector fields such as the fluid velocity v and the magnetic field B using Doppler and Zeeman spectroscopy. Simulations suggest the possibility of time-resolved reconstruction of ion velocity flow fields and poloidal magnetic fields from direct measurements of the low-order spectral moments of line-integrated spectroscopic measurements. Other possible applications of vector tomography are examined.

Howard, John

1996-04-01

277

Vectorized mixed radix discrete Fourier transform algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of previous attempts at the vectorization of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm have fallen somewhat short of achieving the full potential speed of vector processors. The algorithm formulation and implementation described here not only achieves full vector utilization but successfully copes with the problems of hierarchical storage. In the present paper, these techniques are described and extended to the general mixed radix algorithms, prime factor algorithm (PFA), the multidimensional discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the rectangular transform convolution algorithms, and the Winograd fast Fourier transform algorithm.

Agarwal, R.C.; Cooley, J.W.

1987-09-01

278

The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter months. Therefore, Jeju Island is no longer safe from vector borne diseases (VBDs) due to the effects of globalization and climate change, and we should immediately monitor regional climate change to identify newly emerging VBDs.

Lee SH; Nam KW; Jeong JY; Yoo SJ; Koh YS; Lee S; Heo ST; Seong SY; Lee KH

2013-01-01

279

Insect vector transmission assays.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids.

Bosco D; Tedeschi R

2013-01-01

280

Switched Multistage Vector Quantizer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a new hybrid vector quantizer called Switched Multi stage vector quantization (SWMSVQ) technique using hard and soft decision schemes, for coding of narrow band speech signals. This technique is a hybrid of Switch vector quantization technique and Multi stage vector quantization technique. SWMSVQ quantizes the linear predictive coefficients (LPC) in terms of the line spectral frequencies (LSF). The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements of SWMSVQ using hard and soft decision schemes are compared with Split vector quantization (SVQ) technique, Multi stage vector quantization (MSVQ) technique, Switched Split vector quantization (SSVQ) technique using hard decision scheme, and Multi Switched Split Vector quantization (MSSVQ) technique using hard decision scheme. From results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is having less spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision scheme, but high when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision scheme. So from results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is better when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision schemes in terms of spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements but is having greater spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision.

M Satya Sai Ram; Dr.P.Siddaiah; Dr.M.Madhavi Latha

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Exploring acceleration through vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

This in class worksheet is designed to get students to think about and manipulate different accelerations in their head. Students work together with written descriptions of velocity and acceleration and draw the vectors in part one, and then turn that around in part two where they write descriptions of a car's motion based on the vector pictures they are given.

282

Status of vectorized Monte Carlo for particle transport analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conventional particle transport Monte Carlo algorithm is ill suited for modern vector supercomputers because the random nature of the particle transport process in the history based algorithm inhibits construction of vectors. An alternative, event-based algorithm is suitable for vectorization and has been used recently to achieve impressive gains in performance on vector supercomputers. This review describes the event-based algorithm and several variations of it. Implementations of this algorithm for applications in particle transport are described, and their relative merits are discussed. The implementation of Monte Carlo methods on multiple vector parallel processors is considered, as is the potential of massively parallel processors for Monte Carlo particle transport simulations.

1987-01-01

283

Gene targeting with retroviral vectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

1989-04-01

284

Vector generator scan converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

285

Vector generator scan converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1990-04-17

286

Vector generator scan converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

287

Synthesis, antiproliferative activity and estrogen receptor ? affinity of novel estradiol-linked platinum(II) complex analogs to carboplatin and oxaliplatin. Potential vector complexes to target estrogen-dependent tissues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the course of efforts to develop 17?-estradiol-linked to anticancer agents targeting estrogen-dependent tissue, we identified three estradiol-linked platinum(II) complex analogs to cisplatin (E-CDDP) derivatives namely: VP-128 (1), CD-38 (2) and JMP-39 (3) that exhibit potent in vitro and in vivo (for derivative VP-128) activity along with interaction with the estrogen receptor ? (ER?). In this study, we prepared and biologically evaluated two novel classes of estradiol-linked platinum(II) complex analogs to carboplatin (E-CarboP, 1a-3a) and oxaliplatin (E-OxaP, 1b-3b). E-CarboP and E-OxaP were designed and based on the estradiol-linker scaffold of E-CDDP derivatives previously identified. Consequently, we assessed the importance of the nature of platinum(II) salt on the antiproliferative activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human mammary carcinoma cell lines together with affinity for the ER? by replacing the dichloroplatinum(II) moiety by a cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylateplatinum(II) or an oxalateplatinum(II) moiety. Except for compound 3b which is inactive at the concentration tested, the antiproliferative activity of all compounds on both human mammary carcinomas cell lines are in micromolar range and are more active than carboplatin and oxaliplatin alone but less active that their E-CDDP counterparts (1-3). In addition, E-CarboP derivatives 1a-3a show very low affinity for ER? whereas E-OxaPs 1b and 2b show higher affinity for ER? than their parents E-CDDPs (1-2), suggesting that the nature of the platinum(II) salt involved in the vector complexes is extremely important to both retain significant antiproliferative activity and selectivity for the ER? and possibility to target estrogen-dependent tissues. Finally, E-OxaPs 1b and 2b are potentially promising alternatives vector complexes to target estrogen-dependent tissues.

Saha P; Descôteaux C; Brasseur K; Fortin S; Leblanc V; Parent S; Asselin E; Bérubé G

2012-02-01

288

Pulsed Vector Magnetic Potential Field Existence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental confirmation discussed the effect of the immediate surroundings of a pulse-powered toroidal coil on biological material which was placed in an environment without the influence of electromagnetic force.

Ivan Rampl; Lukáš Palko; Pavel Hyršl; Libor Vojtek

289

Pulsed Vector Magnetic Potential Field Existence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental confirmation discussed the effect of the immediate surroundings of a pulse-powered toroidal coil on biological material which was placed in an environment without the influence of electromagnetic force.

Ivan Rampl; Lukáš Palko; Pavel Hyršl; Libor Vojtek

2012-01-01

290

The Frame Potential, on Average  

CERN Document Server

A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

Bengtsson, Ingemar

2008-01-01

291

Null Killing vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twistfree class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shearfree eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning and charged source. (author).

1980-01-01

292

Nonreplicating vectors in HIV vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the broad spectrum of nonreplicating viral vectors which have been studied extensively, from preclinical studies through clinical efficacy trials, and include some of our most promising HIV vaccine candidates. RECENT FINDINGS: The success of the RV144 trial, with a canarypox virus-based regimen, contrasts with the failures of the adenovirus-5 (Ad5)-based regimens in the Step study, the Phambili study [HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 503], and the HVTN 505 study which was recently modified to halt vaccinations because of clinical futility. SUMMARY: The safety profile, immunogenicity, and variety of available candidates make the nonreplicating viral vectors attractive in HIV vaccine development. Building from the success of the RV144 study, further studies of Orthopoxvirus-based vaccines, including vaccinia-based vaccines, are ongoing and planned for the future. Despite the failures of the Ad5-based vaccines in clinical efficacy trials, other adenovirus serotypes remain promising candidates, especially in prime-boost combination with other products, and with the potential use of mosaic inserts. Other nonreplicating viral vectors such as the rhabdoviruses, alphaviruses, and the nonhuman adenoviruses, provide additional avenues for exploration.

Johnson JA; Barouch DH; Baden LR

2013-09-01

293

LTR-Vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patent application describes the production of vectors composed of portions of retrovirus, particularly of Moloney sarcoma virus DNA including the 'LTR' sequence which can activate genes and additional viral sequences which can 'rescue' these genes in...

G. F. Vande Woude W. L. McClements M. K. Oskarsson D. G. Blair

1981-01-01

294

Relative Velocity and Vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

This activity is designed to enhance student comprehension of air and wind velocity, through the use of real time flight data. Students will read about relative velocity, complete a work sheet on vectors, and then gather and analyze real world data. All of the materials, including links to sites for data collection, are provided in this learning object. After completing the activity, students will be able to define relative velocity, add and subtract vectors, and determine aircraft speed using raw data.

Weaver, David

2009-11-16

295

Poynting-vector filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A determination is made of frequency components associated with a particular bearing or location resulting from sources emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. The broadband frequency components associated with a specific direction or location of interest are isolated from other components in the power spectrum that are not associated with the direction or location of interest. The collection of pointing vectors can be used to characterize the source.

Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

2011-08-02

296

Deletion of the virion host shutoff protein (vhs) from herpes simplex virus (HSV) relieves the viral block to dendritic cell activation: potential of vhs- HSV vectors for dendritic cell-mediated immunotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infects dendritic cells (DC) efficiently but with minimal replication. HSV, therefore, appears to have evolved the ability to enter DC even though they are nonpermissive for virus growth. This provides a potential utility for HSV in delivering genes to DC for vaccination purposes and also suggests that the life cycle of HSV usually includes the infection of DC. However, DC infected with HSV usually lose the ability to become activated following infection (M. Salio, M. Cella, M. Suter, and A. Lanzavecchia, Eur. J. Immunol. 29:3245-3253, 1999; M. Kruse, O. Rosorius, F. Kratzer, G. Stelz, C. Kuhnt, G. Schuler, J. Hauber, and A. Steinkasserer, J. Virol. 74:7127-7136, 2000). We report that for DC to retain the ability to become activated following HSV infection, the virion host shutoff protein (vhs) must be deleted. vhs usually functions to destabilize mRNA in favor of the production of HSV proteins in permissive cells. We have found that it also plays a key role in the inactivation of DC and is therefore likely to be important for immune evasion by the virus. Here, vhs would be anticipated to prevent DC activation in the early stages of infection of an individual with HSV, reducing the induction of cellular immune responses and thus preventing virus clearance during repeated cycles of virus latency and reactivation. Based on this information, replication-incompetent HSV vectors with vhs deleted which allow activation of DC and the induction of specific T-cell responses to delivered antigens have been constructed. These responses are greater than if DC are loaded with antigen by incubation with recombinant protein.

Samady L; Costigliola E; MacCormac L; McGrath Y; Cleverley S; Lilley CE; Smith J; Latchman DS; Chain B; Coffin RS

2003-03-01

297

The Vector Curvaton  

CERN Multimedia

We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...

Navarro, Andres A

2013-01-01

298

Towards a new role for vector systematics in parasite control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector systematics research is being transformed by the recent development of theoretical, experimental and analytical methods, as well as conceptual insights into speciation and reconstruction of evolutionary history. We review this progress using examples from the mosquito genus Anopheles. The conclusion is that recent progress, particularly in the development of better tools for understanding evolutionary history, makes systematics much more informative for vector control purposes, and has increasing potential to inform and improve targeted vector control programmes.

Zarowiecki M; Loaiza JR; Conn JE

2011-11-01

299

Darboux Integrals for Schrödinger Planar Vector Fields via Darboux Transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study the Darboux transformations of planar vector fields of Schrödinger type. Using the isogaloisian property of Darboux transformation we prove the ''invariance'' of the objects of the ''Darboux theory of integrability''. In particular, we also show how the shape invariance property of the potential is important in order to preserve the structure of the transformed vector field. Finally, as illustration of these results, some examples of planar vector fields coming from supersymmetric quantum mechanics are studied.

Primitivo B. Acosta-Humánez; Chara Pantazi

2012-01-01

300

Vector Fields on Product Manifolds  

CERN Multimedia

This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

Kurz, Stefan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Ontology for vector surveillance and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through the has vector relation, of arthropod species to the pathogenic microorganisms for which they serve as biological vectors. We also recognized and addressed a potential roadblock for use of the VSMO by the vector-borne disease community: the difficulty in extracting information from OBO-Edit ontology files (*.obo files) and exporting the information to other file formats. A novel ontology explorer tool was developed to facilitate extraction and export of information from the VSMO*.obo file into lists of terms and their associated unique IDs in *.txt or *.csv file formats. These lists can then be imported into a database or data management system for use as select lists with predefined terms. This is an important step to ensure that the knowledge contained in our ontology can be put into practical use.

Lozano-Fuentes S; Bandyopadhyay A; Cowell LG; Goldfain A; Eisen L

2013-01-01

302

Robustifying Vector Median Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary information from componentwise analysis allows to build robust outputs from more reliable components. The correlation among the colour channels is taken into account in the processing and, as a result, a more robust filter able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts is obtained. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter. Objective measures demonstrate the goodness of the achieved improvement.

Samuel Morillas; Valentín Gregori

2011-01-01

303

Vector WIMP Miracle  

CERN Multimedia

Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the higgs mass is often predicted to be 120--125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

Abe, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

2012-01-01

304

Vector Beta function  

CERN Document Server

We propose various properties of renormalization group beta functions for vector operators in relativistic quantum field theories. We argue that they must satisfy compensated gauge invariance, orthogonality with respect to scalar beta functions, Higgs-like relation among anomalous dimensions and a gradient property. We further conjecture that non-renormalization holds if and only if the vector operator is conserved. The local renormalization group analysis guarantees the first three within power counting renormalization. We verify all the conjectures in conformal perturbation theories and holography in the weakly coupled gravity regime.

Nakayama, Yu

2013-01-01

305

The vector reflector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A linearly polarized Bessel beam, whose spatial frequencies correspond to the Brewster angle, impinging at normal incidence on a higher refractive-index interface is shown to lead to a reflected field that can be used to produce an azimuthally polarized optical vector beam.

Citrin DS

2012-06-01

306

LTR-vectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The patent application describes the production of vectors composed of portions of retrovirus, particularly of Moloney sarcoma virus DNA including the 'LTR' sequence which can activate genes and additional viral sequences which can 'rescue' these genes into a replicating virus particle.

Vande Woude, G.F.; McClements, W.L.; Oskarsson, M.K.; Blair, D.G.

1981-07-01

307

Vectors, matrices and geometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book is the last volume of a three-book series written for Sixth Form students and first-year undergraduates. It introduces the important concepts of finite-dimensional vector spaces through the careful study of Euclidean geometry. In turn, methods of linear algebra are then used in the study o...

Leung, Kam-tim, 1932-

308

Random vector variational inequalities and random noncooperative vector equilibrium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we prove some existence theorems for random vector variational inequalities and an existence theorem for the random noncooperative vector equilibrium under suitable assumptions.

Gue Myung Lee; Byung Soo Lee; Shih-Sen Chang

1997-01-01

309

Isotropy theorem for cosmological vector fields  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider homogeneous Abelian vector fields in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy in which the system behaves as a particle moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show—by making use of the virial theorem—that for an arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. For simple power-law potentials of the form V=?(A?A?)n, the average equation of state is found to be w=(n-1)/(n+1). This implies that vector coherent oscillations could act as natural dark matter or dark energy candidates. Finally, we show that under very general conditions, the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving bounded vector field in any background geometry is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.

Cembranos, J. A. R.; Hallabrin, C.; Maroto, A. L.; Jareño, S. J. Núñez

2012-07-01

310

Isotropy theorem for cosmological vector fields  

CERN Multimedia

We consider homogeneous abelian vector fields in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy in which the system behaves as a particle moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show by making use of the virial theorem that for arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. For simple power-law potentials of the form V=\\lambda (A^\\mu A_\\mu)^n, the average equation of state is found to be w=(n-1)/(n+1). This implies that vector coherent oscillations could act as natural dark matter or dark energy candidates. Finally, we show that under very general conditions, the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving bounded vector field in any background geometry is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.

Cembranos, J A R; Maroto, A L; Jareño, S J Núñez

2012-01-01

311

Vector control activities. Fiscal year, 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the TVA Vector Control Program is to protect the public from potential vectors of disease by controlling medically-important arthropod pests that are propagated on TVA lands or waters. In addition, freedom from annoying mosquitoes and other blood-sucking pests permits the development, use, and full enjoyment of the vast recreational opportunities offered by the many miles of freshwater lakes. To attain this goal the program is divided into operations and support studies. The support studies are designed to improve the operational effectiveness and efficiency of the control program and to identify other vector control problems that require TVA attention and study. Specifically, activities concerning water level management of TVA lakes, dewatering projects, plant growth control, drainage and insect control programs are detailed. Further, report is made of post-impoundment surveys, soil sampling studies of Mosquite larvae and ecological mosquito management studies.

Pickard, E.; Cooney, J.C.; McDuff, B.R.

1983-06-01

312

Vector performance of register-to-register vector computers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in compiler technology have changed the vector performance characteristics of register-to-register vector computers. The paper compares measurements under carefully controlled conditions on a single processor of the CRAY X-MP with existing performance models. Vector startup times are context dependent and can be negative. Memory access contentions lead to significant performance degradations even with a single processor. Our simulation studies reproduce the measured results and point to possible improvements. A new performance model is introduced that adequately represents vector performance of present register-to-register vector computers. 9 refs., 21 figs.

Bucher, I.Y.

1988-01-01

313

GPU Accelerated Vector Median Filter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noise reduction is an important step for most image processing tasks. For three channel color images, a widely used technique is vector median filter in which color values of pixels are treated as 3-component vectors. Vector median filters are computation...

R. Aras Y. Shen

2011-01-01

314

COMPOSITE PLASMID VECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE:To obtain the titled vector capable of utilizing various kinds of restriction enzymes, by linking the plasmid pAMalpha1 of Streptococcus faecalis DS5 with the vector pACYC177 of Escherichia coli in a specific state. CONSTITUTION:The plasmid pAMalpha1 of Streptococcus faecalis DS5 (ATCC14508) and the vecto pACYC177 of Escherichia coli are enzymatically incised in a manner to include the tetracycline-resistant gene region (Tc) originated from pAMalpha1, ampicillin-resistant gene region (Amp), and both of the replication initiation region (Ori pAMalpha1), originated from pAMalpha1 and the replication initiation region (Ori 177) originated from pACYC177. The incised fractions are linked together inserting a poly-linker having the recognition sites of the restriction enzymes EcoRI and HindIII between the fractions.

ISAWA HIROMI; SHIBAHARA HARUE; MUTAI MASAHIKO

315

Eliminating malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria vectors which predominantly feed indoors upon humans have been locally eliminated from several settings with insecticide treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying or larval source management. Recent dramatic declines of An. gambiae in east Africa with imperfect ITN coverage suggest mosquito populations can rapidly collapse when forced below realistically achievable, non-zero thresholds of density and supporting resource availability. Here we explain why insecticide-based mosquito elimination strategies are feasible, desirable and can be extended to a wider variety of species by expanding the vector control arsenal to cover a broader spectrum of the resources they need to survive. The greatest advantage of eliminating mosquitoes, rather than merely controlling them, is that this precludes local selection for behavioural or physiological resistance traits. The greatest challenges are therefore to achieve high biological coverage of targeted resources rapidly enough to prevent local emergence of resistance and to then continually exclude, monitor for and respond to re-invasion from external populations.

Killeen GF; Seyoum A; Sikaala C; Zomboko AS; Gimnig JE; Govella NJ; White MT

2013-01-01

316

VECTORS AND USES THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vector comprising a polynucleotide that encodes an inactivated human caspase (3) polypeptide that comprises or consists of a fusion of the prodomain of huma caspase (3) and an inactivated catalytic domain of human caspase (3). The vecto may also contain a polynucleotide that encodes an antigen such as a tumou antigen or a pathogen antigen, and can be used to stimulate an immune respons against the antigen.

BURCHELL Joy; TAYLOR-PAPADIMITRIOU Joyce; SNARY David; TOWNSHEND Catherine

317

Anisotropic vector Preisach particle  

CERN Multimedia

The static 2D vector magnetic behaviour of an anisotropic silicon iron sheet is modelled by a particle which depicts its space-averaged behaviour. The magnitude of magnetization is governed by a classical Preisach operator with the projection of field strength on the magnetization direction as input. Its orientation is determined by the equilibrium between the field strength orientation and the anisotropy of the sheet.

Fuezi, J

2000-01-01

318

Supersymmetric vector particles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is shown that a relativistic generalization of Witten's supersymmetric quantum mechanics yields the Proca field equations describing a spin one particle, and, in the massless case, the Maxwell equations and the Lorentz gauge condition. The generalization is based on a representation of the pseudoclassical complex Grassmann variables by rectangular rather than quadratic matrices at the quantum level and on a non-associative operator product. We study all possible supersymmetric couplings to external fields. These include scalar, vector and tensor fields. The couplings exhibit a quadrupole characteristics of the pseudoclassical particle. In particular the coupling to an external vector field may be formulated in a purely geometrical manner and interpreted as that of a pure electric quadrupole to the Maxwell field. The corresponding Schroedinger equation does therefore not obey the minimal coupling prescription. The tensor field may represent not only a Riemannian, but also a complex hermitian metric. In the Riemannian case the quantization prescription entails the well-known covariant generalization of the classical vector field equations. We also derive a classical limit of the quantum theory that involves only real numbers. Finally we speculate on the existance of na analogous non-standard quantization for extended supersymmetric field theories. (Author)

1984-01-01

319

Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

1979-05-11

320

Alternative serotype adenovirus vaccine vectors elicit memory T cells with enhanced anamnestic capacity compared to Ad5 vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The failure of the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in the STEP study has led to the development of adenovirus vectors derived from alternative serotypes, such as Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48. We have recently demonstrated that vaccines using alternative-serotype Ad vectors confer partial protection against stringent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. However, phenotypic differences between the T cell responses elicited by Ad5 and those of alternative-serotype Ad vectors remain unexplored. Here, we report the magnitude, phenotype, functionality, and recall capacity of memory T cell responses elicited in mice by Ad5, Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP). Our data demonstrate that memory T cells elicited by Ad5 vectors were high in magnitude but exhibited functional exhaustion and decreased anamnestic potential following secondary antigen challenge compared to Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors. These data suggest that vaccination with alternative-serotype Ad vectors offers substantial immunological advantages over Ad5 vectors, in addition to circumventing high baseline Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers.

Penaloza-MacMaster P; Provine NM; Ra J; Borducchi EN; McNally A; Simmons NL; Iampietro MJ; Barouch DH

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
321

[Climate- and vector-borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

2009-01-01

322

Gene delivery with viral vectors for cerebrovascular diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent achievements in the understanding of molecular events involved in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) injury have made gene transfer a promising approach for various neurological disorders, including cerebrovascular diseases. However, special obstacles, including the post-mitotic nature of neurons and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), constitute key challenges for gene delivery to the CNS. Despite the various limitations in current gene delivery systems, a spectrum of viral vectors has been successfully used to deliver genes to the CNS. Furthermore, recent advancements in vector engineering have improved the safety and delivery of viral vectors. Numerous viral vector-based clinical trials for neurological disorders have been initiated. This review will summarize the current implementation of viral gene delivery in the context of cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In particular, we will discuss the potentially feasible ways in which viral vectors can be manipulated and exploited for use in neural delivery and therapy.

Gan Y; Jing Z; Stetler RA; Cao G

2013-01-01

323

Lentiviral vector-mediated RNA silencing in the CNS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RNA silencing is an established method for investigating gene function and has attracted particular interest due to the potential for generating RNA-based therapeutics. Utilising lentiviral vectors as an efficient delivery system that offers stable, long term expression in post-mitotic cells further enhances the therapeutical applicability of an RNA-based gene therapy for the CNS. In this review we provide an overview of both lentiviral vectors and RNA silencing as well as presenting design considerations for generating lentiviral vectors capable of RNA silencing. We go on to describe the current pre-clinical data regarding lentiviral vector mediated RNA silencing for CNS disorders and discuss the concerns of non-specific side-effects associated with lentiviral vectors and siRNAs and how these might be mitigated.

Hutson TH; Foster E; Moon L; Yáñez-Muñoz RJ

2013-10-01

324

Engineering influenza viral vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influenza virus is a respiratory pathogen with a negative-sense, segmented RNA genome. Construction of recombinant influenza viruses in the laboratory was reported starting in the 1980s. Within a short period of time, pioneer researchers had devised methods that made it possible to construct influenza viral vectors from cDNA plasmid systems. Herein, we discuss the evolution of influenza virus reverse genetics, from helper virus-dependent systems, to helper virus-independent 17-plasmid systems, and all the way to 3- and 1- plasmid systems. Successes in the modification of different gene segments for various applications, including vaccine and gene therapies are highlighted.

Li J; Arévalo MT; Zeng M

2013-01-01

325

Vectors to success  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Vector Pipeline project linking the Chicago supply hub to markets in eastern Canada, the northeastern U.S. and the Mid-Atlantic states, is described. Subsidiary objectives of the promoters are to match market timing to upstream pipelines and market requirements, and to provide low cost expandability to complement upstream expandability. The presentation includes description of the project, costs, leased facilities, rates and tariffs, right of way considerations, storage facilities and a project schedule. Construction is to begin in March 1999 and the line should be in service in November 1999.

Otsason, J. [Vector Pipeline, Scarborough, ON (Canada)

1998-12-31

326

Warm vector inflation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Letter we introduce the "warm vector inflation" scenario. In warm inflation scenario radiation is produced during the inflation epoch and reheating is avoided. Slow-roll and perturbation parameters of this model are presented. We develop our model using intermediate inflation model. In this case, the model is compatible with observational data. We also study the model using another exact cosmological solution, named logamediate scenario. We present slow-roll and Hubble parameters, power spectrum and tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflaton. The model is compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

Setare, M. R.; Kamali, V.

2013-10-01

327

Warm Vector Inflation  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we introduce the "warm vector inflation" scenario. In warm inflation scenario radiation is produced during the inflation epoch and reheating is avoided. Slow-roll and perturbation parameters of this model are presented. We develop our model using intermediate inflation model. In this case, the model is compatible with observational data. We also study the model using another exact cosmological solution, named logamediate scenario. We present slow-roll and Hubble parameters, power spectrum and tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflaton. The model is compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

Setare, M R

2013-01-01

328

Mathematical tables vector entities  

CERN Document Server

Students and research workers in mathematics, physics, engineering and other sciences will find this compilation invaluable. All the information included is practical, rarely used results are excluded. Great care has been taken to present all results concisely and clearly. Excellent to keep as a handy reference! If you don't have a lot of time but want to excel in class, this book helps you: Brush up before tests Find answers fast Learn key formulas and tables Study quickly and more effectively Inside this guide, you will find: Most important Vector Identities Clear and concise explanations of

2010-01-01

329

HIV-1-Based Lentiviral Vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous viral vectors have been developed for the delivery of transgenes to specific target cells. For persistent transgene expression, vectors based on retroviruses are attractive delivery vehicles because of their ability to stably integrate their DNA into the host cell genome. Initially, vectors based on simple retroviruses were the vector of choice for such applications. However, these vectors can only transduce actively dividing cells. Therefore, much interest has turned to retroviral vectors based on the lentivirus genus because of their ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells. The best characterized lentiviral vectors are derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This chapter describes the basic features of the HIV-1 replication cycle and the many improvements reported for the lentiviral vector systems to increase the safety and efficiency. We also provide practical information on the production of HIV-1 derived lentiviral vectors, the cell transduction protocol and a method to determine the transduction titers of a lentiviral vector.

Liu YP; Berkhout B

2014-01-01

330

Effect of vector--axial-vector mixing to dilepton spectrum  

CERN Multimedia

In this write-up we summarize main results of our recent analyses on the mixing between transverse rho and a1 mesons in hot and/or dense matter. We show that the axial-vector meson contributes significantly to the vector spectral function in hot matter through the mixing. In dense baryonic matter, we include a mixing through a set of omega rho a1 -type interactions. We show that a clear enhancement of the vector spectral function appears below \\sqrt{s}=m_\\rho for small three-momenta of the rho meson, and thus the vector spectrum exhibits broadening.

Harada, Masayasu

2010-01-01

331

Vector C - a programming language for vector processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents the design of a vector language and its implementation on the CDC Cyber 205. Vector C, a superset of the (conventional) C programming language, allows users to implement vector algorithms in a direct and natural manner. Vector C retains the power and elegance of C while allowing users to fully exploit the underlying hardware features of a supercomputer (the 205). The implementation of Vector C was done in three major steps: extending the syntax of the base language to encompass the new vector processing features, bootstrapping an existing C compiler from a VAX/UNIX system to the Cyber 205, and installing the new vector processing features. The efficiency and usefulness of Vector C were carefully analyzed by using instrumentation features added to the compiler. This instrumentation provided data on the static characteristics and dynamic performance of Vector C programs. These experiments demonstrated that the new compiler could, in some cases, generate faster executing code than the existing 205 Fortran compiler. Several performance models were developed and used to analyze the effectiveness of algorithm implementation.

Li, K.C.

1984-01-01

332

Computing the solar vector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-concentration solar thermal systems require the Sun to be tracked with great accuracy. The higher the system concentration, the greater this accuracy must be. The current trend in solar concentrator tracking systems is to use open-loop controllers that compute the direction of the solar vector based on location and time. To keep down the price of the tracking system, the controller is based on a low-cost microprocessor. These two facts impose important restrictions on the Sun position algorithm to be used in the controller, as it must be highly accurate and efficiently computable at the same time. In this paper, various algorithms currently available in the solar literature are reviewed and a new algorithm, developed at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, which combines these two characteristics of accuracy and simplicity, is presented. The algorithm allows of the true solar vector to be determined with an accuracy of 0.5 minutes of arc for the period 1999-2015. (Author)

Blanco-Muriel, Manuel; Alarcon-Padilla, Diego C. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Almeria (Spain); Lopez-Moratalla, Teodoro; Lara-Coira, Martin [Real Instituto Observatorio de la Armada, Cadiz (Spain)

2001-07-01

333

A versatile vector set for animal transgenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic manipulation of a series of diverged arthropods is a highly desirable goal for a better understanding of developmental and evolutionary processes. A major obstacle so far has been the difficulty in obtaining marker genes that allow easy and reliable identification of transgenic animals. Here, we present a versatile vector set for germline transformation based on the promiscuous transposons mariner, Hermes and piggyBac. Into these vectors, we introduced a potentially universal marker system that is comprised of an artificial promoter containing three Pax-6 homodimer binding sites. This promoter drives strong expression of spectral variants of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in larval, pupal, and adult photoreceptors. Using special filter sets, the yellow (EYFP) and cyan (ECFP) variant are fully distinguishable and therefore represent a separable pair of markers. Furthermore, we adapted a simple plasmid-based transposition assay system to enable quick functional tests of our vectors in different arthropod species before employing them in more laborious germline transformation experiments. Using this system we demonstrate that our vectors transpose in both Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis.

Horn C; Wimmer EA

2000-12-01

334

Bioprocess development for canine adenovirus type 2 vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors overcome many of the clinical immunogenic concerns related to vectors derived from human adenoviruses (AdVs). In addition, CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons with an efficient traffic via axons to afferent regions when injected into the brain. To meet the need for preclinical and possibly clinical uses, scalable and robust production processes are required. CAV-2 vectors are currently produced in E1-transcomplementing dog kidney (DK) cells, which might raise obstacles in regulatory approval for clinical grade material production. In this study, a GMP-compliant bioprocess was developed. An MDCK-E1 cell line, developed by our group, was grown in scalable stirred tank bioreactors, using serum-free medium, and used to produce CAV-2 vectors that were afterwards purified using column chromatographic steps. Vectors produced in MDCK-E1 cells were identical to those produced in DK cells as assessed by SDS-PAGE and dynamic light scatering measurements (diameter and Zeta potential). Productivities of ?10(9) infectious particles (IP)?ml(-1) and 2 × 10(3)?IP per cell were possible. A downstream process using technologies transferable to process scales was developed, yielding 63% global recovery. The total particles to IP ratio in the purified product (<20:1) was within the limits specified by the regulatory authorities for AdV vectors. These results constitute a step toward a scalable process for CAV-2 vector production compliant with clinical material specifications.

Fernandes P; Peixoto C; Santiago VM; Kremer EJ; Coroadinha AS; Alves PM

2013-04-01

335

Present status of vectorization for particle transport Monte Carlo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conventional particle transport Monte Carlo algorithm is ill-suited for modern vector supercomputers. This history-based algorithm is not amenable to vectorization due to the random nature of the particle transport process, which inhibits the construction of vectors that are necessary for efficient utilization of a vector (pipelined) processor. An alternative algorithm, the event-based algorithm, is suitable for vectorization and has been used by several researchers in recent years to achieve impressive gains (5-20) in performance on modern vector supercomputers. This paper describes the event-based algorithm in some detail and discusses several implementations of this algorithm for specific applications in particle transport, including photon transport in a nuclear fusion plasma and neutron transport in a nuclear reactor. A discussion of the relative merits of these alternative approaches is included. A short discussion of the implementation of Monte Carlo methods on parallel processors, in particular multiple vector processors such as the Cray X-MP/48 and the IBM 3090/400, is included. The paper concludes with some thoughts regarding the potential of massively parallel processors (vector and scalar) for Monte Carlo simulation.

1987-01-01

336

Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric) to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm) are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.

Mark Burgin

2013-01-01

337

Distribution of Brugia malayi larvae and DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for molecular diagnostics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool) and non-vector (Culex pipiens) mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. Results Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was detected in only 24% of thorax pools from non-vectors; parasite DNA was detected in 56% of midgut pools and 47% of abdomen pools from non-vectors. Parasite DNA was detected in vectors in the head immediately after the blood meal and after 14 days. Parasite DNA was also detected in feces and excreta of the vector and non-vector mosquitoes which could potentially confound results obtained with field samples. However, co-housing experiments failed to demonstrate transfer of parasite DNA from infected to non-infected mosquitoes. Parasites were also visualized in mosquito tissues by immunohistololgy using an antibody to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Parasite larvae were detected consistently after mf ingestion in Ae. aegypti- Liverpool. Infectious L3s were seen in the head, thorax and abdomen of vector mosquitoes 14 days after Mf ingestion. In contrast, parasites were only detected by histology shortly after the blood meal in Cx. pipiens, and these were not labeled by the antibody. Conclusion This study provides new information on the distribution of filarial parasites and parasite DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes. This information should be useful for those involved in designing and interpreting molecular xenomonitoring studies.

Erickson Sara M; Fischer Kerstin; Weil Gary J; Christensen Bruce M; Fischer Peter U

2009-01-01

338

Quantization of Equivariant Vector Bundles  

CERN Document Server

The quantization of vector bundles is defined. Examples are constructed for the well controlled case of equivariant vector bundles over compact coadjoint orbits. (Coadjoint orbits are symplectic spaces with a transitive, semisimple symmetry group.) In preparation for the main result, the quantization of coadjoint orbits is discussed in detail. This subject should not be confused with the quantization of the total space of a vector bundle such as the cotangent bundle.

Hawkins, E

1997-01-01

339

Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization  

CERN Document Server

Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

2011-01-01

340

An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.

Thierry Bru; Sara Salinas; Eric J. Kremer

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Maths Help: Working with Vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of a wide range of physical properties such as force, velocity, and acceleration, requires a firm understanding of the mathematics of vectors. This comprehensive Web site covers many aspects of vector algebra and trigonometry. The often-used dot product and cross product are defined, as well as vector representations of lines and planes. Illustrations are used to demonstrate vector analysis and its real-world applications. A few extra sections delve into related topics, including transformation between Cartesian and spherical coordinates. The material is mostly suitable for high school or college students who have taken pre-calculus.

342

Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in ruminants have been attributed an increase in European temperatures. Mathematical models clearly demonstratethe potential for increased virus transmission at elevated temperatures. however there is little evidence to support the idea that the spread of these tropical viruses in northern Europe is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models to pinpoint the next outbreak of an exotic vector borne disease. A new outbreak will most likely be detected by a veterinarian deciding to submit a sample based on a subjective clinical suspicion. But the question is how far the epidemic will progress before a veterinarian decides to submit this crucial sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones, thus allowing easy access to risk estimates when in the field. Knowing when and where the potential risk for transmission of a specific vector borne disease is high is likely to help veterinarians decide when and when not to submit a sample to a diagnostic laboratory. This may both increase sensitivity of national surveillance and reduce the cost.

BØdker, Rene

343

Experimental infection of Hawai'i 'Amakihi (hemignathus virens) with West Nile virus and competence of a co-occurring vector, culex quinquefasciatus: potential impacts on endemic Hawaiian avifauna.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduced mosquito-borne avian disease is a major limiting factor in the recovery and restoration of native Hawaiian forest birds. Annual epizootics of avian pox (Avipoxvirus) and avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) likely led to the extinction of some species and continue to impact populations of susceptible Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae). The introduction of a novel pathogen, such as West Nile virus (WNV), could result in further population declines and extinctions. During September and October 2004, we infected Hawai'i' Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) with a North American isolate of WNV by needle inoculation and mosquito bite to observe susceptibility, mortality, and illness in this endemic passerine, and to determine the vector competence of the co-occurring, introduced mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. All experimentally infected Hawai'i ;Amakihi became viremic, with a mean titer >10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml, and they experienced clinical signs ranging from anorexia and lethargy to ataxia. The fatality rate among needle-inoculated Hawai'i' Amakihi (n=16) was 31.3%, but mortality in free-ranging birds is likely to increase due to predation, starvation, thermal stress, and concomitant infections of avian malaria and pox. Surviving Hawai'i' Amakihi seem to clear WNV from the peripheral blood by 7-10 days postinfection (DPI), and neutralizing antibodies were detected from 9 to 46 DPI. In transmission trials, Hawaiian Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be a competent vector and Hawai'i Amakihi an adequate amplification host of WNV, suggesting that epizootic WNV could readily become an additional limiting factor of some native Hawaiian bird populations.

Lapointe DA; Hofmeister EK; Atkinson CT; Porter RE; Dusek RJ

2009-04-01

344

Vector-Tensor and Vector-Vector Decay Amplitude Analysis of B0->phi K*0  

CERN Document Server

We perform an amplitude analysis of the decays B0->phi K^*_2(1430)0, phi K^*(892)0, and phi(K pi)^0_S-wave with a sample of about 384 million BBbar pairs recorded with the BABAR detector. The fractions of longitudinal polarization f_L of the vector-tensor and vector-vector decay modes are measured to be 0.853 +0.061-0.069 +-0.036 and 0.506 +-0.040 +-0.015, respectively. Overall, twelve parameters are measured for the vector-vector decay and seven parameters for the vector-tensor decay, including the branching fractions and parameters sensitive to CP-violation.

Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gao, Y; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Z J; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A

2007-01-01

345

Molecular cloning and characterization of major vault protein of Echinococcus multilocularis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cDNA clone coding a major vault protein (MVP)-like protein was derived from Echinococcus multilocularis cysts. MVP is a main component of vault particles, which are the largest cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles in eukaryotic cells. We sequenced and characterized E. multilocularis MVP (EmMVP). The nucleotide sequence of the emmvp cDNA clone was 2607 bp in the full length open reading frame and its deduced amino acid sequence had several signature motifs which were specific to MVP families. Immunoblot analysis with mouse anti-EmMVP antiserum revealed that crude antigens of E. multilocularis included EmMVP protein. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of EmMVP protein in an Sf9 insect cell line using a baculovirus vector directed the formation of particles that shared similar biochemical characteristics with other vault proteins and the distinct vault-like morphology when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy.

Goto A; Kouguchi H; Yamano K; Sawada Y

2013-05-01

346

Open reading frame vectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An open reading frame DNA vector is presented having a promoter-translation start region, and adjacent thereto and downstream therefrom, a first coding segment having a start codon, a second coding segment coding for detectable protein, and an insertion region between said first and second coding regions having an insertion site and being of such length that the first and second coding segments are not in reading frame phase with each other. A method for the cloning and positive selection of a DNA segment having an open reading frame is also presented, as well as a tribrid protein wherein each terminal region and the mid-section is derived from a different gene, and a method of identifying and quantifying a protein or polypeptide without regard to its structure or biological function by using a DNA segment coding for said protein or polypeptide as the mid-section of the tribrid protein.

BERMAN MICHAEL L; SILHAVY THOMAS J; WEINSTOCK GEORGE M

347

Open reading frame vectors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An open reading frame DNA vector is presented having a promoter-translation start region, and adjacent thereto and downstream therefrom, a first coding segment having a start codon, a second coding segment coding for detectable protein, and an insertion region between said first and second coding regions having an insertion site end being of such length that the first and second coding segments are not in reading frame phase with each other. A method for the coding and positive selection of a DNA segment having an open reading frame is also presented, as well as a tribrid protein wherein each terminal region and the mid-section is derived from a different gene, and a method of identifying and quantifying a protein or polypeptide without regard to its structure or biological function by using a DNA segment coding for said protein or polypeptide as the mid-section of the tribrid protein.

Berman Michael L.

348

Geometric Quantization of Vector Bundles  

CERN Document Server

I repeat my definition for quantization of a vector bundle. For the case of Toeplitz and geometric quantization of a compact Kaehler Manifold, I give a construction for quantizing any smooth vector bundle which depends functorially on a choice of connection on the bundle.

Hawkins, E

2000-01-01

349

Vector Measurement with Scalar Analyser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel method for vector scattering parameter measurement is presented. The method is based on scalar (SWR) measurement only. Vector data is obtained using a controlled perturbation two-port (CPTP). The method promises broadband operation and cost-effectiveness for both reflection and transmission measurements. Design considerations for CPTP synthesis are presented.

V. Klusacek; Z. Skvor; K. Hoffmann

1996-01-01

350

Estimation of Motion Vector Fields  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample fields by means of stochastic relaxation implemented via the Gibbs sampler.

Larsen, Rasmus

1993-01-01

351

A neural support vector machine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Support vector machines are state-of-the-art pattern recognition algorithms that are well founded in optimization and generalization theory but not obviously applicable to the brain. This paper presents Bio-SVM, a biologically feasible support vector machine. An unstable associative memory oscillates between support vectors and interacts with a feed-forward classification pathway. Kernel neurons blend support vectors and sensory input. Downstream temporal integration generates the classification. Instant learning of surprising events and off-line tuning of support vector weights trains the system. Emotion-based learning, forgetting trivia, sleep and brain oscillations are phenomena that agree with the Bio-SVM model. A mapping to the olfactory system is suggested.

Jändel M

2010-06-01

352

Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs

1992-01-01

353

Hybrid viral vectors for vaccine and antibody production in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plants have a demonstrated potential for large-scale, rapid production of recombinant proteins for diverse product applications, including subunit vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. In this field, the accent has recently shifted from the engineering of "edible" vaccines based on stable expression of target protein in transgenic or transplastomic plants to the development of purified formulated vaccines that are delivered via injection. The injectable vaccines are commonly produced using transient expression of target gene delivered into genetically unmodified plant host via viral or bacterial vectors. Most viral vectors are based on plant RNA viruses, where nonessential sequences are replaced with the gene of interest. Utilization of viral hybrids that consist of genes and regulatory elements of different virus species, or transcomplementation systems (vector/transgene) had a substantial impact on the level of target protein expression. Development and introduction of agroviral hybrid vectors that combine genetic elements of bacterial binary plasmids and plant viral vectors, and agroinfiltration as a tool of the vector delivery have resulted in significant progress in large-scale production of recombinant vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in plants. This article presents an overview of plant hybrid viral vector expression systems developed so far.

Yusibov V; Streatfield SJ; Kushnir N; Roy G; Padmanaban A

2013-01-01

354

Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism.

Killiny N; Rashed A; Almeida RP

2012-02-01

355

Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-11-18

356

Computing covariant vectors, Lyapunov vectors, Oseledets vectors, and dichotomy projectors: a comparative numerical study  

CERN Multimedia

Covariant vectors, Lyapunov vectors, or Oseledets vectors are increasingly being used for a variety of model analyses in areas such as partial differential equations, nonautonomous differentiable dynamical systems, and random dynamical systems. These vectors identify spatially varying directions of specific asymptotic growth rates and obey equivariance principles. In recent years new computational methods for approximating Oseledets vectors have been developed, motivated by increasing model complexity and greater demands for accuracy. In this numerical study we introduce two new approaches based on singular value decomposition and exponential dichotomies and comparatively review and improve two recent popular approaches of Ginelli et al. (2007) and Wolfe and Samelson (2007). We compare the performance of the four approaches via three case studies with very different dynamics in terms of symmetry, spectral separation, and dimension. We also investigate which methods perform well with limited data.

Froyland, Gary; Morriss, Gary P; Watson, Thomas M

2012-01-01

357

Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y)$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988) and Kozlova (1984) and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995) in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002) providing conditions on $(X,Y)$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

Claudio Pessoa; Jorge Sotomayor

2012-01-01

358

EXPRESSION VECTOR USING FOR ANIMAL CELL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a expression vector for animal cells. Specifically, the present invention relates to a expression vector, pMS vector, pSG vector and pMSG, vector, including the human beta-globin 5' MAR complementary sequence or/and the transcription termination site of gastrin gene. An expression system using the expression vector of the present invention can successfully produce recombinant proteins in various animals cells and recombinant protein having a unique structure and function.

KIM Jong-Mook; KIM Jung-Seob; OH Sun-Mo; YOON Jae-Seung; BAEK Kwang-Hee; CHUNG Soo-Il Hyundai Apt. 112-902; PARK Doo-Hong; YOON Yeup

359

Vector Preisach hysteresis modeling: Measurement, identification and application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents a Preisach model to simulate the vector hysteresis properties of ferromagnetic materials. The vector behavior has been studied using a single sheet tester with a disk-shaped specimen at low frequency. The locus of the magnetic flux density vector has been controlled by a digital measurement system. An inverse vector Preisach hysteresis model has been developed and identified by applying the measured data. Finally, the inverse model has been inserted into a finite element procedure through the fixed point technique and the reduced magnetic scalar potential formulation to simulate the measurement system. The applicability of the measurement system as well as the developed model has been proven by comparing measured and simulated results.

2011-04-01

360

Attainability in Repeated Games with Vector Payoffs  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the concept of attainable sets of payoffs in two-player repeated games with vector payoffs. A set of payoff vectors is called {\\em attainable} if player 1 can ensure that there is a finite horizon $T$ such that after time $T$ the distance between the set and the cumulative payoff is arbitrarily small, regardless of what strategy player 2 is using. This paper focuses on the case where the attainable set consists of one payoff vector. In this case the vector is called an attainable vector. We study properties of the set of attainable vectors, and characterize when a specific vector is attainable and when every vector is attainable.

Bauso, Dario; Solan, Eilon

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Comparison of mammalian cell expression vectors with and without an EBV-replicon.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have characterized the properties of an Epstein-Barr virus vector (EBV-CMV) and compared its expression potential with a respective integrating vector (CMV). These vectors were used to express chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in human HeLa, 293, monkey CV-1, dog MDCK, and hamster R 1610 cells. The EBV-CMV-cat DNA replicates extrachromosomally in HeLa, 293 and CV-1 cells, where also high expression of CAT gene was observed. The EBV-CMV vector integrated in MDCK and R 1610 cells and the CMV vector integrated in all cells tested. Integration yielded mostly clones with low CAT expression. In all cell lines, except HeLa cells, the existence of the extrachromosomal but not the integrated vector DNA is strictly dependent on the Hygromycin B selection pressure. The extrachromosomal state of the EBV vector is a prerequisite for good expression particularly in human and monkey cells. PMID:2850783

Jalanko, A; Kallio, A; Ulmanen, I

1988-01-01

362

Polynomial poly-vector fields  

CERN Document Server

In this text we give a decomposition result on polynomial poly-vector fields. This generalizes the decomposition of quadratic Poisson structures due to [Liu and Xu 1992]. We add an almost complete list of four dimensional quadratic Poisson structures.

Klinker, F

2004-01-01

363

Flag vectors of multiplicial polytopes  

CERN Multimedia

Bisztriczky introduced the multiplex as a generalization of the simplex. A polytope is multiplicial if all its faces are multiplexes. In this paper it is proved that the flag vectors of multiplicial polytopes depend only on their face vectors. A special class of multiplicial polytopes, also discovered by Bisztriczky, is comprised of the ordinary polytopes. These are a natural generalization of the cyclic polytopes. The flag vectors of ordinary polytopes are determined. This is used to give a surprisingly simple formula for the h-vector of the ordinary d-polytope with n+1 vertices and characteristic k: h_i=binom{k-d+i}{i}+(n-k)binom{k-d+i-1}{i-1}, for i at most d/2. In addition, a construction is given for 4-dimensional multiplicial polytopes having two-thirds of their vertices on a single facet, answering a question of Bisztriczky.

Bayer, M M

2003-01-01

364

Scalable production of adenovirus vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant adenoviruses (AdV) are highly efficient at gene transfer for a broad spectrum of cell types and species. They became one of the vectors of choice for gene delivery and expression of foreign proteins in gene therapy and vaccination purposes. To meet the need of significant amounts of adenoviral vectors for preclinical and possibly clinical uses, scalable and reproducible production processes are required.In this chapter, we review processes used for scalable production of two types of first generation (E1-deleted) adenoviral vectors (Human and Canine) using stirred tank bioreactors. The production of adenovirus vectors using either suspension (HEK 293) or anchorage-dependent cells (MDCK-E1) are described to exemplify scalable production processes with different cell-culture types. The downstream processes will be covered in the next chapter. PMID:24132486

Silva, Ana Carina; Fernandes, Paulo; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Alves, Paula M

2014-01-01

365

Scalable production of adenovirus vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant adenoviruses (AdV) are highly efficient at gene transfer for a broad spectrum of cell types and species. They became one of the vectors of choice for gene delivery and expression of foreign proteins in gene therapy and vaccination purposes. To meet the need of significant amounts of adenoviral vectors for preclinical and possibly clinical uses, scalable and reproducible production processes are required.In this chapter, we review processes used for scalable production of two types of first generation (E1-deleted) adenoviral vectors (Human and Canine) using stirred tank bioreactors. The production of adenovirus vectors using either suspension (HEK 293) or anchorage-dependent cells (MDCK-E1) are described to exemplify scalable production processes with different cell-culture types. The downstream processes will be covered in the next chapter.

Silva AC; Fernandes P; Sousa MF; Alves PM

2014-01-01

366

Dipole Vectors in Images Processing  

CERN Document Server

Instead of evaluating the gradient field of the brightness map of an image, we propose the use of dipole vectors. This approach is obtained by adapting to the image gray-tone distribution the definition of the dipole moment of charge distributions. We will show how to evaluate the dipoles and obtain a vector field, which can be a good alternative to the gradient field in pattern recognition.

Sparavigna, Amelia

2009-01-01

367

Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields  

CERN Multimedia

Consider in R^2 the semi-planes N={y>0} and S={y<0}$ having as common boundary the straight line D={y=0}$. In N and S are defined polynomial vector fields X and Y, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field Z=(X,Y). This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of Z between N and S, started by Filippov (1988) and Kozlova (1984) and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995) in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields Z_{\\epsilon}$, defined by averaging X and Y. This family approaches Z when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002) providing conditions on (X,Y) for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on R^2. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also...

Pessoa, Claudio

2012-01-01

368

Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

Weibin Liu; Janet Lei; Yang Liu; Dragana Slavkovic Lukic; Ann-Mareen Räthe; Qiuying Bao; Timo Kehl; Anne Bleiholder; Torsten Hechler; Martin Löchelt

2013-01-01

369

Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model  

Science.gov (United States)

New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

Liu, Weibin; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Slavkovic Lukic, Dragana; Rathe, Ann-Mareen; Bao, Qiuying; Kehl, Timo; Bleiholder, Anne; Hechler, Torsten; Lochelt, Martin

2013-01-01

370

Feline foamy virus-based vectors: advantages of an authentic animal model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism.

Liu W; Lei J; Liu Y; Lukic DS; Räthe AM; Bao Q; Kehl T; Bleiholder A; Hechler T; Löchelt M

2013-01-01

371

Refinement of lentiviral vector for improved RNA processing and reduced rates of self inactivation repair  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral gene therapy vectors are now finding clinical application. In order to fully exploit their potential it is important that vectors are made as efficient and as safe as possible. Accordingly, we have modified a previously reported vector to improve RNA processing, minimise Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) sequence content and reduce repair of the self inactivating (SIN) deletion. Results HIV-1 sequence in the vector was reduced by substituting the polyadenylation signal with a heterologous signal. Mutation of splice donor sites was undertaken to prevent the majority of splicing within the vector genomic RNA. In addition, a number of other sequences within the vector were deleted. The combination of these modifications was able to significantly reduce the rates of both vector mobilisation and repair of the self inactivating deletion after two rounds of marker rescue. Conclusion RNA processing can be improved by mutation of the major and minor HIV-1 splice donor sites in the vector. In addition the rate of vector mobilisation and repair of SIN vectors can be successfully reduced by careful vector design that reduces homology between the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats (LTRs) to a minimum.

Koldej Rachel M; Anson Donald S

2009-01-01

372

Vector control: a cornerstone in the malaria elimination campaign.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over many decades, malaria elimination has been considered to be one of the most ambitious goals of the international community. Vector control is a cornerstone in malaria control, owing to the lack of reliable vaccines, the emergence of drug resistance, and unaffordable potent antimalarials. In the recent past, a few countries have achieved malaria elimination by employing existing front-line vector control interventions and active case management. However, many challenges lie ahead on the long road to meaningful accomplishment, and the following issues must therefore be adequately addressed in malaria-prone settings in order to achieve our target of 100% worldwide malaria elimination and eventual eradication: (i) consistent administration of integrated vector management; (ii) identification of innovative user and environment-friendly alternative technologies and delivery systems; (iii) exploration and development of novel and powerful contextual community-based interventions; and (iv) improvement of the efficiency and efficacy of existing interventions and their combinations, such as vector control, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines, biological control of vectors, environmental management, and surveillance. I strongly believe that we are moving in the right direction, along with partnership-wide support, towards the enviable milestone of malaria elimination by employing vector control as a potential tool. PMID:21996100

Karunamoorthi, K

2011-11-01

373

Vector control: a cornerstone in the malaria elimination campaign.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over many decades, malaria elimination has been considered to be one of the most ambitious goals of the international community. Vector control is a cornerstone in malaria control, owing to the lack of reliable vaccines, the emergence of drug resistance, and unaffordable potent antimalarials. In the recent past, a few countries have achieved malaria elimination by employing existing front-line vector control interventions and active case management. However, many challenges lie ahead on the long road to meaningful accomplishment, and the following issues must therefore be adequately addressed in malaria-prone settings in order to achieve our target of 100% worldwide malaria elimination and eventual eradication: (i) consistent administration of integrated vector management; (ii) identification of innovative user and environment-friendly alternative technologies and delivery systems; (iii) exploration and development of novel and powerful contextual community-based interventions; and (iv) improvement of the efficiency and efficacy of existing interventions and their combinations, such as vector control, diagnosis, treatment, vaccines, biological control of vectors, environmental management, and surveillance. I strongly believe that we are moving in the right direction, along with partnership-wide support, towards the enviable milestone of malaria elimination by employing vector control as a potential tool.

Karunamoorthi K

2011-11-01

374

Efficient liver gene transfer with foamy virus vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Liver gene transfer offers hope for the correction of genetic and acquired disorders. Efficient gene transfer in large animals can be obtained with hydrodynamic gene transfer (HGT), a method that can achieve sufficient levels of gene delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To test the relative efficiency between plasmid versus foamy virus (FV) vector-based liver gene transfer efficiency, we applied HGT in 4 juvenile pigs, using the same plasmid backbone, either naked or coated as a FV vector particle. Gene transfer efficiency and persistence of expression was assayed by PCR and real-time PCR, respectively, at 1 week and at 1 month after the infusions. RESULTS: HGT was tolerated well and no adverse reactions were observed. Plasmid injections resulted in no detectable DNA sequences at 1 week. At the 1 month time point, 2/15 liver sections analyzed were positive for the presence of plasmid DNA. When FV vectors were infused under identical conditions, 18/28 (64.3%) of the liver samples were positive for the presence of vector sequences, and the expression levels reached 29.7 and 15.6% of the endogenous GAPDH levels in the injected and the adjacent liver lobes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that medium-term therapeutic levels of gene expression can be obtained with FV vectors, an effect that can be attributed to the potential of the HGT procedure and to the natural affinity of FV vectors for hepatocytes.

Zacharoulis D; Rountas C; Katsimpoulas M; Morianos J; Chatziandreou I; Vassilopoulos G

2013-01-01

375

Susceptibility and resistance to insecticides of Chagas disease vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical control of Chagas disease vectors appears to be the best practical way to reduce the incidence of the disease. DDT was initially tested in the 1950s for the campaigns of control of Chagas disease vectors. Its low level of effectiveness against triatomine caused the failure of these control actions. HCH was then introduced in the southern cone and Dieldrin in the north of Latinoamerica. Starting in the late 1960s anticholinesterasic organophosphorus and carbamate compounds were introduced in the control of Chagas vectors. The use of pyrethroid compounds began in 1980. This family of insecticides is now the most important tool in triatomines control because of its favorable toxicological properties. Other types of insecticides also studied for Chagas vector control were the insect growth regulators and the antifeeding compounds. Because of the mode of action of these insecticides they are now considered just a potential complement of neurotoxic insecticides for integrated programmes of Triatomines control. Innovative formulations such as fumigant canister and insecticidal paints have been successfully developed in Latinoamerica with the World Health Organization support. Resistance to insecticides of triatomines is not yet a great problem in Chagas vectors. However, some resistant strains to pyrethroids have been found in Rhodnius prolixus from Venezuela and in Triatoma infestans from Brazil. Some cases of T. infestans incipient resistance to deltamethrin have been detected in Argentina. According to the control tools now available it is possible to expect the interruption of vector transmission of Chagas disease in the near future. PMID:10668241

Zerba, E N

1999-01-01

376

Susceptibility and resistance to insecticides of Chagas disease vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical control of Chagas disease vectors appears to be the best practical way to reduce the incidence of the disease. DDT was initially tested in the 1950s for the campaigns of control of Chagas disease vectors. Its low level of effectiveness against triatomine caused the failure of these control actions. HCH was then introduced in the southern cone and Dieldrin in the north of Latinoamerica. Starting in the late 1960s anticholinesterasic organophosphorus and carbamate compounds were introduced in the control of Chagas vectors. The use of pyrethroid compounds began in 1980. This family of insecticides is now the most important tool in triatomines control because of its favorable toxicological properties. Other types of insecticides also studied for Chagas vector control were the insect growth regulators and the antifeeding compounds. Because of the mode of action of these insecticides they are now considered just a potential complement of neurotoxic insecticides for integrated programmes of Triatomines control. Innovative formulations such as fumigant canister and insecticidal paints have been successfully developed in Latinoamerica with the World Health Organization support. Resistance to insecticides of triatomines is not yet a great problem in Chagas vectors. However, some resistant strains to pyrethroids have been found in Rhodnius prolixus from Venezuela and in Triatoma infestans from Brazil. Some cases of T. infestans incipient resistance to deltamethrin have been detected in Argentina. According to the control tools now available it is possible to expect the interruption of vector transmission of Chagas disease in the near future.

Zerba EN

1999-01-01

377

[Transfection of HL-60 cells by Venus lentiviral vector].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to study the potential of Venus, lentiviral vector, applied to acute myeloid leukemia, the recombinant vector Venus-C3aR was transfected into 293T packing cells by DNA-calucium phosphate coprecipitation. All virus stocks were collected and transfected into HL-60, the GFP expression in HL-60 cells was measured by flow cytometry. The expression level of C3aR1 in transfected HL-60 cells was identified by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The lentiviral toxicity on HL-60 was measured by using CCK-8 method and the ability of cell differentiation was observed. The results indicated that the transfection efficacy of letivial vector on HL-60 cells was more than 95%, which meets the needs for further study. C3aR1 expression on HL-60 cells increased after being transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector. Before and after transfection, the proliferation and differentiation of cells were not changed much. It is concluded that the lentiviral vector showed a high efficacy to transfect AML cells and can be integrated in genome of HL-60 cells to realize the stable expression of interest gene. Meanwhile, lentiviral vector can not affect HL-60 cell ability to proliferate and differentiate.

Li Z; Hu SY; Cen JN; Chen ZX

2013-06-01

378

Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

Peterson A Townsend

2009-01-01

379

A Simple Proof of the Angular Momentum Helmholtz Theorem and the Relation of the Theorem to the Decomposition of Solenoidal Vectors into Poloidal and Toroidal Components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vector spherical harmonics are used in a simple proof of the angular-momentum Helmholtz theorem. The decomposition of vectors defined on a sphere into two components which this theorem gives is carried out explicitly. Furthermore, the potentials which occ...

H. E. Moses

1976-01-01

380

Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40) vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP). SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc) were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO) as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C). Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be