WorldWideScience

Sample records for vector potential mvp

  1. Theoretical and numerical difficulties in 3-D vector potential methods in finite element magnetostatic computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Wang, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of application of three well known 3D magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element formulations for computation of magnetostatic fields in electrical devices. The three methods were identically applied to three practical examples, the first of which contains only one medium (free space), while the second and third examples contained a mix of free space and iron. The first of these methods is based on the unconstrained curl-curl of the MVP, while the second and third methods are predicated upon constraining the divergence of the MVP 10 zero (Coulomb's Gauge). It was found that the two latter methods cease to give useful and meaningful results when the global solution region contains a mix of media of high and low permeabilities. Furthermore, it was found that their results do not achieve the intended zero constraint on the divergence of the MVP.

  2. Development of fast and accurate Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development work of fast and accurate Monte Carlo code MVP has started at JAERI in late 80s. From the beginning, the code was designed to utilize vector supercomputers and achieved higher computation speed by a factor of 10 or more compared with conventional codes. In 1994, the first version of MVP was released together with cross section libraries based on JENDL-3.1 and JENDL-3.2. In 1996, minor revision was made by adding several functions such as treatments of ENDF-B6 file 6 data, time dependent problem, and so on. Since 1996, several works have been carried out for the next version of MVP. The main works are (1) the development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN, (2) the development of a system to generate cross section libraries at arbitrary temperature, and (3) the study on error estimations and their biases in Monte Carlo eigenvalue calculations. This paper summarizes the main features of MVP, results of recent studies and future plans for MVP. (author)

  3. Combined magnetic vector-scalar potential finite element computation of 3D magnetic field and performance of modified Lundell alternators in Space Station applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren H.

    1991-01-01

    A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.

  4. Vectorization, parallelization and implementation of nuclear codes =MVP/GMVP, QMDRELP, EQMD, HSABC, CURBAL, STREAM V3.1, TOSCA, EDDYCAL, RELAP5/MOD2/C36-05, RELAP5/MOD3= on the VPP500 computer system. Progress report 1995 fiscal year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Hideo; Fujita, Toyozo [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kawai, Wataru; Harada, Hiroo; Gorai, Kazuo; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Shoji, Makoto; Fujii, Minoru

    1996-06-01

    At Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, time consuming eight nuclear codes suggested by users have been vectorized, parallelized on the VPP500 computer system. In addition, two nuclear codes used on the VP2600 computer system were implemented on the VPP500 computer system. Neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP/GMVP and relativistic quantum molecular dynamics code QMDRELP have been parallelized. Extended quantum molecular dynamics code EQMD and adiabatic base calculation code HSABC have been parallelized and vectorized. Ballooning turbulence simulation code CURBAL, 3-D non-stationary compressible fluid dynamics code STREAM V3.1, operating plasma analysis code TOSCA and eddy current analysis code EDDYCAL have been vectorized. Reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/MOD2/C36-05 and RELAP5/MOD3 were implemented on the VPP500 computer system. (author)

  5. Vectorization, parallelization and implementation of nuclear codes [MVP/GMVP, QMDRELP, EQMD, HSABC, CURBAL, STREAM V3.1, TOSCA, EDDYCAL, RELAP5/MOD2/C36-05, RELAP5/MOD3] on the VPP500 computer system. Progress report 1995 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, time consuming eight nuclear codes suggested by users have been vectorized, parallelized on the VPP500 computer system. In addition, two nuclear codes used on the VP2600 computer system were implemented on the VPP500 computer system. Neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP/GMVP and relativistic quantum molecular dynamics code QMDRELP have been parallelized. Extended quantum molecular dynamics code EQMD and adiabatic base calculation code HSABC have been parallelized and vectorized. Ballooning turbulence simulation code CURBAL, 3-D non-stationary compressible fluid dynamics code STREAM V3.1, operating plasma analysis code TOSCA and eddy current analysis code EDDYCAL have been vectorized. Reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/MOD2/C36-05 and RELAP5/MOD3 were implemented on the VPP500 computer system. (author)

  6. Magnetic monopole, vector potential and gauge transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the charge quantization condition, the role of gauge transformation of the vector potential is investigated in Zumino's and Wu and Yang's formalisms. It is pointed out that two vector potentials related to each other by a gauge transformation are not necessarily equivalent to each other. (author)

  7. An introduction to the vector potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a review and discussion of the physical meaning of the vector potential in electromagnetism by means of a classical experiment in which a long solenoid, connected to a sinusoidal voltage supply, produces an electric field and a vector potential in a circuit exterior to the solenoid itself. Some basic considerations are recalled concerning the meaning of action-at-a-distance and local description, in terms of 'real fields' of the induced electromotive force on the circuit outside the solenoid. From this viewpoint the roles played by the magnetic field, the electric field and the vector potential to account for the physical effects are reviewed. Finally, the connections between these considerations and the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect are recalled in the light of recent theoretical work aimed at explaining the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift in terms of the magnetic field without resorting to the vector potential

  8. Vector Potential, Electromagnetic Induction and "Physical Meaning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, G.

    2010-01-01

    A forgotten experiment by Andre Blondel (1914) proves, as held on the basis of theoretical arguments in a previous paper, that the time variation of the magnetic flux is not the cause of the induced emf; the physical agent is instead the vector potential through the term [equation omitted] (when the induced circuit is at rest). The "good…

  9. Faraday's law via the magnetic vector potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraday's law for a filamentary circuit which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves is derived via the magnetic vector potential. The derivation is simpler than the usual one, based on the Hertz-Helmholtz identity. (note)

  10. Localization in an imaginary vector potential

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrov, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Eigenfunctions of 1d disordered Hamiltonian with constant imaginary vector potential are investigated. Even within the domain of complex eigenvalues the wave functions are shown to be strongly localized. However, this localization is of a very unusual kind. The logarithm of the wave function at different coordinates $x$ fluctuates strongly (just like the position of Brownian particle fluctuates in time). After approaching its maximal value the logarithm decreases like the sq...

  11. Potential use of poliovirus as a vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M; Martin, A; van der Werf, S

    1993-12-01

    The live attenuated Sabin strains of poliovirus have proven their efficacy at inducing a good humoral and secretory antibody response in humans. The extensive characterization of poliovirus neutralization antigenic sites and the atomic resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the viral capsid have enabled the use of the most stably attenuated poliovirus strain (the Sabin type 1 strain) as a vector for the presentation of short foreign antigenic domains in place of one of its own neutralization antigenic sites. The creation of such chimeras has been achieved by manipulating poliovirus infectious cDNA and transfecting the resulting chimeric cDNAs onto susceptible cell cultures. However, this epitope-presentation system has a limitation in terms of the sequence and size of the foreign domain that can be incorporated into the poliovirus capsid without disrupting virus viability. This has led to the construction of poliovirus hybrid genomes bearing insertions of longer heterologous sequences in place of part of the poliovirus structural genes. Upon transfection onto susceptible cells providing the poliovirus structural proteins in trans (e.g. cells previously infected with the Sabin 1 strain), stocks of encapsidated RNA replicons which expressed the foreign protein could be obtained. In addition, viable recombinant viruses bearing insertions of heterologous sequences at various places into the poliovirus genome without deleting poliovirus sequences have been reported. Potential applications of these chimeric and recombinant polioviruses in the engineering of new recombinant vaccines are discussed. PMID:8024753

  12. The Connection Between Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2006-01-01

    . The inertia property of matter is discussed in terms of a type of induction law related to the extended charged particle's own vector potential. Our approach is based on the Lagrangian formalism of canonical momentum writing Newton's second law in terms of the vector potential and a development in terms of obtaining retarded potentials, that allow an intuitive physical interpretation of its main terms. This framework provides a clear physical insight on the physics of iner...

  13. Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Townson, H.; Nathan, M. B.; Zaim, M.; Guillet, P.; Manga, L.; Bos, R.; Kindhauser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases--with the exception of malaria in Africa--were n...

  14. Vector Potential and Magnetic Field of Axially Symmetric Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilyev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    A solution is proposed for finding the vector potential and magnetic field of any distribution of currents with axial symmetry. In this approach, the magnetic field and the vector potential are looked for not by solving a differential equation but rather through straightforward calculation of integrals of one scalar function. The solution is expressed in terms of the associated Legendre polynomials P_{lm} with the index m of the Legendre polynomials assuming one value only, m = 1. The solution has the form of a series, with the coefficients of the polynomials being combinations of multipole moments. Key words: electrodynamics, vector potential, spherical harmonics, Legendre polynomials, magnetic field.

  15. Vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams using Hertz vector potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxun; Dou, Wenbin; Meng, Hongfu

    2014-04-01

    Using the transverse Hertz vector potentials, vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams of arbitrary orders are presented in this paper. Expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of vector Bessel beams in free space that are rigorous solutions to the vector Helmholtz equation are derived. Their respective time averaged energy density and Poynting vector are also obtained, in order to exhibit their non-diffracting properties. Polarization patterns and magnitude profiles with different parameters are displayed. Particular emphasis is placed on the cases where the ratio of wave number over its transverse component k/kt approximately equals to one and largely exceeds it, which corresponding to the nonparaxial and paraxial condition, respectively. These results allow us to recognize that the vector Bessel beams exhibit new and important features, compared with the scalar fields. PMID:24718158

  16. Vector Potential and Magnetic Field of Axially Symmetric Currents

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    A solution is proposed for finding the vector potential and magnetic field of any distribution of currents with axial symmetry. In this approach, the magnetic field and the vector potential are looked for not by solving a differential equation but rather through straightforward calculation of integrals of one scalar function. The solution is expressed in terms of the associated Legendre polynomials P_{lm} with the index m of the Legendre polynomials assuming one value only, ...

  17. A Vector Potential implementation for Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stasyszyn, Federico; Elstner, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The development of smooth particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) has significantly improved the simulation of complex astrophysical processes. However, the preservation the solenoidality of the magnetic field is still a severe problem for the MHD. A formulation of the induction equation with a vector potential would solve the problem. Unfortunately all previous attempts suffered from instabilities. In the present work, we evolve the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge and sm...

  18. Thermal vector potential theory of magnon-driven magnetization dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tatara, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Thermal vector potential formulation is applied to study thermal dynamics of magnetic structures in insulating ferromagnets. By separating variables of the magnetic structure and magnons, the equation of motion for the structure including spin-transfer effect due to thermal magnons is derived in the case of a domain wall and a vortex. The magnon current is evaluated based on a linear response theory with respect to the thermal vector potential representing the temperature gr...

  19. Potential role of ticks as vectors of bluetongue virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bouwknegt, C.; Rijn, P. A.; Schipper, J. M. J.; Holzel, D. R.; Boonstra, J.; Nijhof, A.; Rooij, E. M. A.; Jongejan, F.

    2010-01-01

    When the first outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV8) was recorded in North-West Europe in August 2006 and renewed outbreaks occurred in the summer of 2007 and again in 2008, the question was raised how the virus survived the winter. Since most adult Culicoides vector midges are assumed not to survive the northern European winter, and transovarial transmission in Culicoides is not recorded, we examined the potential vector role of ixodid and argasid ticks for bluetongue virus. Four sp...

  20. Floppy mitral valve (FMV)/mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and the FMV/MVP syndrome: pathophysiologic mechanisms and pathogenesis of symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2013-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) results from the systolic movement of a portion or segments of the mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium during left ventricular systole. It is well appreciated today that floppy mitral valve (FMV) is the central issue in the MVP and mitral valve regurgitation (MVR) story. The term FMV refers to the expansion of the area of the mitral valve leaflets with elongated chordae tendineae, chordae rupture and mitral annular dilation. FMV/MVP occurs in a heterogeneous group of patients with a wide spectrum of mitral valve involvement from mild to severe. Two types of symptoms can be defined in FMV/MVP patients. In one group of patients, symptoms are directly related to progressive MVR. In the other group, symptoms cannot be explained by the degree of MVR alone; activation of the autonomic nervous system has been implicated for the explanation of symptoms in this group of patients which is referred to as the FMV/MVP syndrome. In this brief review, the natural history, pathophysiologic mechanisms and management of patients with FMV/MVP/MVR and FMV/MVP syndrome are discussed. PMID:23942374

  1. The Connection Between Inertial Forces and the Vector Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, A A; Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2006-01-01

    . The inertia property of matter is discussed in terms of a type of induction law related to the extended charged particle's own vector potential. Our approach is based on the Lagrangian formalism of canonical momentum writing Newton's second law in terms of the vector potential and a development in terms of obtaining retarded potentials, that allow an intuitive physical interpretation of its main terms. This framework provides a clear physical insight on the physics of inertia. It is shown that the electron mass has a complete electromagnetic origin and the covariant equation obtained solves the "4/3 mass paradox". This provides a deeper insight into the significance of the main terms of the equation of motion. In particular a force term is obtained from the approach based on the continuity equation for momentum that represents a drag force the charged particle feels when in motion relatively to its own vector potential field lines. Thus, the time derivative of the particle's vector potential leads to the ac...

  2. WKB method for Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential scheme of the WKB method is developed for the Dirac equation in a central symmetrical field with scalar and vector variants of interaction. The view of relativistic wave functions in the classical allowed and forbidden regions, and the conditions of their matching at transition through the turning points are found. As applications of the developed method the relativistic analogy of Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition which contains a spin-orbital interaction in a mixture of scalar S(r) and vector V(r) potentials, and relativistic generalization of the Gamov formula for quasistationary level width of the spin 1/2 particle interacting with scalar and vector fields simultaneously are obtained. It is shown that for Coulomb and oscillator potentials with the mixed Lorentz structure the obtained rule of quantization exactly reproduces the energy spectrum

  3. Expression and proteasomal degradation of the major vault protein (MVP) in mammalian oocytes and zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, Peter; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Laurincik, Jozef; Letko, Juraj; Caamaño, Jose Nestor; Day, Billy N; Lai, Liangxue; Prather, Randall S; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L; Zimmer, Randall; Sutovsky, Miriam

    2005-03-01

    Major vault protein (MVP), also called lung resistance-related protein is a ribonucleoprotein comprising a major part (>70%) of the vault particle. The function of vault particle is not known, although it appears to be involved in multi-drug resistance and cellular signaling. Here we show that MVP is expressed in mammalian, porcine, and human ova and in the porcine preimplantation embryo. MVP was identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide sequencing and Western blotting as a protein accumulating in porcine zygotes cultured in the presence of specific proteasomal inhibitor MG132. MVP also accumulated in poor-quality human oocytes donated by infertile couples and porcine embryos that failed to develop normally after in vitro fertilization or somatic cell nuclear transfer. Normal porcine oocytes and embryos at various stages of preimplantation development showed mostly cytoplasmic labeling, with increased accumulation of vault particles around large cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and membrane vesicles. Occasionally, MVP was associated with the nuclear envelope and nucleolus precursor bodies. Nucleotide sequences with a high degree of homology to human MVP gene sequence were identified in porcine oocyte and endometrial cell cDNA libraries. We interpret these data as the evidence for the expression and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent turnover of MVP in the mammalian ovum. Similar to carcinoma cells, MVP could fulfill a cell-protecting function during early embryonic development. PMID:15749954

  4. Deriving Potential Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    OpenAIRE

    Welsch, Brian T.; Fisher, George H.

    2015-01-01

    The minimum-energy configuration for the magnetic field above the solar photosphere is curl-free (hence, by Ampere's law, also current-free), so can be represented as the gradient of a scalar potential. Since magnetic fields are divergence free, this scalar potential obeys Laplace's equation, given an appropriate boundary condition (BC). With measurements of the full magnetic vector at the photosphere, it is possible to employ either Neumann or Dirichlet BCs there. Historica...

  5. A Vector Potential implementation for Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Stasyszyn, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The development of smooth particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) has significantly improved the simulation of complex astrophysical processes. However, the preservation the solenoidality of the magnetic field is still a severe problem for the MHD. A formulation of the induction equation with a vector potential would solve the problem. Unfortunately all previous attempts suffered from instabilities. In the present work, we evolve the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge and smooth the derived magnetic field for usage in the momentum equation. With this implementation we could reproduce classical test cases in a stable way. A simple test case demonstrates the possible failure of widely used direct integration of the magnetic field, even with the usage of a divergence cleaning method.

  6. A vector potential implementation for smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyszyn, Federico A.; Elstner, Detlef

    2015-02-01

    The development of smooth particle magnetohydrodynamic (SPMHD) has significantly improved the simulation of complex astrophysical processes. However, the preservation the solenoidality of the magnetic field is still a severe problem for the MHD. A formulation of the induction equation with a vector potential would solve the problem. Unfortunately all previous attempts suffered from instabilities. In the present work, we evolve the vector potential in the Coulomb gauge and smooth the derived magnetic field for usage in the momentum equation. With this implementation we could reproduce classical test cases in a stable way. A simple test case demonstrates the possible failure of widely used direct integration of the magnetic field, even with the usage of a divergence cleaning method.

  7. The Physical Entity of Vector Potential in Electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alexandr Leus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The scalar and vector potentials were introduced into electromagnetic physics in the second half of the nineteenth century. The chief aim was to use them as auxiliary mathematical quantities in order to solve certain practical problems.Nevertheless the discovery of the Aharonov-Bohm effect (1959 in quantum mechanics has suggested that vector potential rather than magnetic field is the causal agent in such an effect. Recent research on the Maxwell-Lodge paradox--induction of voltage in the loop circling a long solenoid carrying alternating current--has confirmed that induction occurs in a region of space effectively free from magnetic field. This again reinforces the idea of vector potential as a physical entity rather than the auxiliary artificial quantity of classical electrodynamics. The present investigation is intended to provide some degree of corroboration of the previous result.The experimental arrangement consists of a ‘special’ transformer containing movable, single turn coils wound onto rectangular frames. The primary coil is powered from a signal generator providing alternating current over a variable frequency range while the secondary output voltage is connected across a C.R.O./precision voltmeter. Measurements of transformer e.m.f. were carried out at several frequencies in the range 100 Hz–20 kHz and with various conditions of shielding around the primary and secondary coils.Certain additional experiments were carried out with a long solenoid and torus solenoid supplied with different core materials. Experimental results for induced e.m.f’s are presented and in special cases correlated with the calculated values of mutual inductance. Overall the results tend to confirm the primacy of vector potential over magnetic field as an explanation of the phenomenon.

  8. Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics IV - Using the Vector Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the vector potential as a means of maintaining the divergence constraint in the numerical solution of the equations of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. We derive a self-consistent formulation of the equations of motion using a variational principle that is constrained by the numerical formulation of both the induction equation and the curl operator used to obtain the magnetic field, whi...

  9. Thermal vector potential theory of transport induced by temperature gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Tatara, Gen

    2015-01-01

    A microscopic formalism to calculate thermal transport coefficients is presented based on a thermal vector potential, whose time-derivative is related to a thermal force. The formalism is free from unphysical divergences reported to arise when Luttinger's formalism is applied naively, because the equilibrium (\\textquoteleft diamagnetic\\textquoteright) currents are treated consistently. The mathematical structure for thermal transport coefficients are shown to be identical wi...

  10. Development of continuous energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn-up calculations based on the continuous energy Monte Carlo method became possible by development of MVP-BURN. To confirm the reliably of MVP-BURN, it was applied to the two numerical benchmark problems; cell burn-up calculations for High Conversion LWR lattice and BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. Major burn-up parameters have shown good agreements with the results obtained by a deterministic code (SRAC95). Furthermore, spent fuel composition calculated by MVP-BURN was compared with measured one. Atomic number densities of major actinides at 34 GWd/t could be predicted within 10% accuracy. (author)

  11. Stability estimate for the relativistic Schrödinger equation with time-dependent vector potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the relativistic Schrödinger equation with a time dependent vector and scalar potential on a bounded cylindrical domain. Using a geometric optics ansatz we establish a logarithmic stability estimate for the recovery of vector and scalar potentials. (paper)

  12. On the scalar potential representation of a three-dimentional vector field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convenient variables for describing vector fields are found. Possibility for introducing two scalars describing field without divergences is shown. Representations of three-dimensional vector field with scalar potentials have been obtained. Transformation properties of introduced potentials are discussed

  13. Recent developments of JAEA's Monte Carlo Code MVP for reactor physics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MVP is a general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculations that has been developed since the late 1980's at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA, formerly JAERI). The MVP code is designed for nuclear reactor applications such as reactor core design/analysis, criticality safety and reactor shielding. This paper describes the MVP code and present its latest developments. Among the new capabilities of MVP we find: -) the perturbation method has been implemented for the change in k(eff); -) the eigenvalue calculations can be performed with an explicit treatment of delayed neutrons in which their fission spectra are taken into account; -) the capability of tallying the scattering matrix (group-to-group scattering cross sections); -) the implementation of an exact model for resonance elastic scattering; and -) a Monte Carlo perturbation technique is used to calculate reactor kinetics parameters

  14. Deriving Potential Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, Brian T

    2015-01-01

    The minimum-energy configuration for the magnetic field above the solar photosphere is curl-free (hence, by Ampere's law, also current-free), so can be represented as the gradient of a scalar potential. Since magnetic fields are divergence free, this scalar potential obeys Laplace's equation, given an appropriate boundary condition (BC). With measurements of the full magnetic vector at the photosphere, it is possible to employ either Neumann or Dirichlet BCs there. Historically, the Neumann BC was used, since available line-of-sight magnetic field measurements approximated the radial field needed for the Neumann BC. Since each BC fully determines the 3D vector magnetic field, either choice will, in general, be inconsistent with some aspect of the observed field on the boundary, due to the presence of both currents and noise in the observed field. We present a method to combine solutions from both Dirichlet and Neumann BCs to determine a hybrid potential field that minimizes the integrated square of the residu...

  15. A symplectic integrator with arbitrary vector and scalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a new class of symplectic integrators for particles in arbitrary, time-dependent vector and scalar potentials. The methods were introduced in [Y.K. Wu, E. Forest, D.S. Robin, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 046502] and are based on the ability to integrate Hamiltonians of the form (pi-ai(q))2 exactly for a finite time-step. We show that the integrators are symplectic in the non-relativistic case but not symplectic in the full six-dimensional phase space for relativistic Hamiltonians

  16. Validation of the Monte Carlo method of MVP code on the first criticality of Indonesian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation research works in BATAN are focused using Monte Carlo method with recent nuclear data on the experimental results. In this paper, the validation results of Monte Carlo method of MVP code on the first criticality experimental of Indonesia Multipurpose Reactor (RSG GAS reactor) are presented. The MVP code is a vectorized and continuous energy Monte Carlo code developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The objective this paper is to show the accuracy of the code using recent nuclear data of JEF-3.0, JENDL- 3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8. The final goal of this research is to use the code as a in-core fuel management code since the code has a module of burn-up calculation (MVP-BURN). SG GAS reactor is a beryllium (Be)-reflected, light-water-moderated and -cooled, 30 MWth (max.) multipurpose reactor. Presently, the reactor uses MTR-type LEU (19.75 w/o) silicide fuel (U3Si2-Al) elements (FEs). On the 10 x 10 core grid positions there are 40 standard FEs (each consisting of 21 fuel plates), eight control elements (CEs, each consisting f 15 fuel plates) initially loaded with 250 and 178.6 g 235U respectively, Beryllium reflector elements and other irradiation facilities. This fuel loading corresponds to a uranium meat density of 2.96 g/cm3. The equilibrium core is achieved through some transition cores with smaller core and lower power. In the first transition core, all FEs and CEs were fresh oxide fuel with same uranium mewere fresh oxide fuel with same uranium meat density of 2.96 g/cm3. Some experiments were carried out in the core, including criticality experiments, as a part of commissioning activity. Since the first core using the fresh fuels, so the core can be used a bench mark core to validate the accuracy of a selected code. In the criticality experiments, there were some types of experiment have been performed as follows: - first criticality by adding FEs and CEs - criticality condition by adding the Beryllium reflector elements - criticality condition by adjustment various positions of six control rods - excess reactivity and total control rod worth In this paper, those criticality experimental results are compared to the calculated results by using the MVP code. The calculated results showed that using the selected nuclear data are very close to the experimental results. For example, the calculated core excess reactivity using JENDL-3.3 is in the range of 8.17 % ?k/k - 8.35 %?k/k. The calculated result is very close to the experimental result of 8.41 %?k/k. It can be concluded that the MVP code with JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8 nuclear data can be applied for the MTR type reactor with bulky Beryllium reflector. (author)

  17. Validation of the Monte Carlo code MVP on the first criticality of Indonesian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation research works in BATAN are focused using Monte Carlo codes with recent nuclear data on the experimental results. In this paper, the validation results of Monte Carlo code MVP on the first criticality experimental of Indonesia Multipurpose Reactor (RSG GAS reactor) are presented. The MVP code is a continuous energy Monte Carlo code developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The objective this paper is to show the accuracy of the code using recent nuclear data of JEF-3.0, JENDL-3.3 and ENDF/B-VI.8. The final goal of this research is to use the code as an in-core fuel management code since the code has a module of burn-up calculation (MVP-BURN). The MVP calculations with the three libraries produced keff values with excellent agreement to experiment data since the maximum differences are less than 0.5%. For the total control rod worth, the maximum difference is 3.6%. Systematically, ENDF/B-VI.8 library gave a maximum difference compared with other libraries. Therefore, the MVP code with recent libraries can be applied for the MTR type reactor with bulky Beryllium reflector. (author)

  18. On solution of Klein-Gordon equation in scalar and vector potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Changshi, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Coulomb gauge, the accurate Klein-Gordon equation in static scalar and vector potentials was derived from Klein-Gordon equation in electromagnetic environment. The correct equation developed in this comment demonstrates that so-called the Klein-Gordon equation with scalar and vector potentials is incorrect; therefore, some papers published to solve Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector potential are also wrong.

  19. MVP/GMVP 2: general purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, two vectorized Monte Carlo codes MVP and GMVP have been developed at JAERI. MVP is based on the continuous energy model and GMVP is on the multigroup model. Compared with conventional scalar codes, these codes achieve higher computation speed by a factor of 10 or more on vector super-computers. Both codes have sufficient functions for production use by adopting accurate physics model, geometry description capability and variance reduction techniques. The first version of the codes was released in 1994. They have been extensively improved and new functions have been implemented. The major improvements and new functions are (1) capability to treat the scattering model expressed with File 6 of the ENDF-6 format, (2) time-dependent tallies, (3) reaction rate calculation with the pointwise response function, (4) flexible source specification, (5) continuous-energy calculation at arbitrary temperatures, (6) estimation of real variances in eigenvalue problems, (7) point detector and surface crossing estimators, (8) statistical geometry model, (9) function of reactor noise analysis (simulation of the Feynman-? experiment), (10) arbitrary shaped lattice boundary, (11) periodic boundary condition, (12) parallelization with standard libraries (MPI, PVM), (13) supporting many platforms, etc. This report describes the physical model, geometry description method used in the codes, new functions and how to use them. (author)

  20. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  1. Comparison of gamma-ray skyshine dose evaluation performance among Monte Carlo codes; EGS, MVP, MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In applying the Monte Carlo method to skyshine calculations, examinations are required on the validity of the calculation methods such as variance reductions and the accuracy of the calculation. In this study, using typical codes of the continuous energy Monte Carlo method, i.e. EGS5, MVP2, and MCNP5, analyses were conducted of Kansas State University skyshine benchmark experiment. And the calculation results of the gamma-ray skyshine doses by these codes were compared with each other. The following results were obtained: (1) For the gamma-ray skyshine dose calculations using Monte Carlo codes, the method of using mass energy absorption coefficients as conversion factors was effective. And under this experimental condition, dose calculations were possible for about 50,000,000 histories without variation reduction techniques. (2) The photon spectrum calculation results by EGS5, MVP2, and MCNP5 were in good agreement. (3) The dose calculation results by EGS5 and MCNP5 were in good agreement and agreed well with the experimental values. (4) In the case of MVP2 dose calculations, if dose conversion was performed in multi-group form, about twenty percent error was observed. However, if dose conversion was performed using dosimetry files, the calculation results by MVP2 were significantly improved and agreed well with those by EGS5 and MCNP5, and experimental values. From these results, it was ascertained that EGS5, MVP2, and MCNP5 can evaluate gamma-ray skyshine doses withcan evaluate gamma-ray skyshine doses with sufficient accuracy to the same extent. In the case of MVP2, however, dose calculations using dosimetry files which are transformed from dose conversion factors are recommended. (author)

  2. Flux Ropes as Singularities of the Vector Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Kleman, M

    2014-01-01

    A flux rope is a domain of concentration of the magnetic field $\\textbf{B}$. Insofar as $\\textbf{B}$ outside such a domain is considered as vanishingly small, a flux rope can be described as the core of a singularity of the outer vector potential $\\textbf{A}$, whose topological invariant is the magnetic flux through the rope. By 'topological' it is meant that $\\oint_C\\textbf{A}\\cdot\\mathrm d\\textbf{s}$ measures along any loop $C$ surrounding the flux rope the same constant flux $\\Phi$. The electric current intensity is another invariant of the theory, but non-topological. We show that, in this theoretical framework, the linear force-free field (LFFF) Lundquist model and the non-linear (NLFFF) Gold-Hoyle model of a flux rope exhibit stable solutions distributed over quantized strata of increasing energies (an infinite number of strata in the first case, only one stratum in the second case); each stratum is made of a continuous set of stable states. The lowest LFFF stratum and the unique NLFFF stratum come nume...

  3. Leishmaniasis vector potential of Lutzomyia spp. in Colombian coffee plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, A; Montoya-Lerma, J; Jaramillo, C; Cruz-Ruiz, A L; Ostrovska, K

    1991-01-01

    Potential vectors of Leishmania braziliensis Vianna were assessed at four study sites in the mountainous Valle del Cauca, western Colombia, from March to June 1989. In an active focus of transmission at 1450 m altitude, a coffee plantation at Versalles, there were high densities of antropophilic phlebotomines: Lutzomyia columbiana (Ritorcelli & Van Ty) and Lu.townsendi (Ortiz), both in the verrucarum species group, and of Lu.pia (Fairchild & Hertig). At a comparable altitude in a forest reserve at Yotoco where leishmaniasis is unknown, Lu.pia was the prevalent species and Lu.townsendi was absent. In two localities at 1150 m altitude, there were plentiful Lu.lichyi (Floch & Abonnenc) plus both species in the verrucarum group, but Lu.pia was absent. One of these localities, a coffee plantation at Villa Hermosa where a leishmaniasis outbreak occurred in 1986, was compared with a leishmaniasis-free, partly wooded nature reserve at Mateguadua. No natural infections of Leishmania were found in a total of 1896 wild-caught female phlebotomines belonging to at least seven species. It remains unclear why Leishmaniasis transmission is associated with coffee plantations in this part of Colombia. Laboratory-bred Lu.lichyi females were invariably autogenous, and blood-seeking females of this species were always parous. Parity rates in wild-caught females of other species were 55% Lu.pia, 24% Lu.columbiana and 14% Lu.townsendi. Female Lutzomyia infected artificially with Le.braziliensis promastigotes developed peripylarian infections. Higher proportions of Lu.townsendi (96%) and Lu.columbiana (78%) became infected but these species developed lower rates of stomodaeal infections (P less than 0.1) than Lu.lichyi (37%) or Lu.pia (44%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1768906

  4. Integrated depletion code MVP-ORBURN. Development, validation and application study to the burnup credit evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES has been developing an integrated depletion code, named MVP-ORBURN, by means of combining the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP and point depletion code ORIGEN2. The present effort focuses the improvement of prediction accuracies of the nuclide composition of a spent LWR fuel and the evaluation of the burnup credit on criticality safety evaluation for the safety regulation. A detailed modeling of heterogeneous structure of the fuel assemblies, including control rods, gadolinium fuels etc. is achieved, and thereby stable and reliable techniques and latest nuclear data libraries for the depletion analysis are established. The accuracy of MVP-ORBURN for the nuclide composition analysis of spent fuel was validated against typical post irradiation data. For the PWR fuel, the MVP-ORBURN analysis showed sufficient accuracy, i.e. the differences of the calculated values to the experimentally measured values (C/E ratios) were less than 10% for the major actinide concentrations. On the other hand, for the BWR fuel it was suggested that further developments were required, because differences of the C/Es for the few actinides exceeded over 15%. Therefore new calculation schemes to include the axially distributed void fractions and the sophisticated allocations of burnable poison gadolinium were introduced, and the C/E differences were reduced to nearly 10%. Application studies were also made for the analysis of spent fuel composition and the evaluation of burnup credit ition and the evaluation of burnup credit with a transport cask containing spent fuels, mainly for the uncertainties and their causes. It revealed that the PWR fuel composition predicted by ORIGEN-2 was conservative especially for low burnup conditions compared with the realistic composition predicted by MVP-ORBURN. It is also confirmed that the uncertainty associated with defining acceptable ranges of burnup that must be specified an operation condition for the facility were another important causes of uncertainties. (author)

  5. The periodic solutions of the Ginzburg-landau equation with periodic vector-potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg-Landau equation for one-variable order parameter modulus is considered in dimensionless form.Stability/instability regions of GL equation are considered.The periodic solutions of this equation are obtained in the case of periodic generalized vector-potential.In this problem generalized vector-potential consist of vector-potentials of the external electromagnetic field and field connecting with internal electronic structure of system.Existence of solutions comprising 1-kind Mathieu functions means that band theory of superconductivity may be constructed in fact

  6. Vector potential versus colour charge density in low-x evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kovner, A; Kovner, Alex

    2000-01-01

    We reconsider the evolution equations for multigluon correlators derived in hep-ph/9709432. We show how to derive these equations directly in terms of vector potentials (or colour field strength) avoiding the introduction of the concept of colour charge density in the intermediate steps. The two step procedure of deriving the evolution of the charge density correlators followed by the solution of classical equations for the vector potentials is shown to be consistent with direct derivation of evolution for vector potentials. In the process we correct some computational errors of hep-ph/9709432 and present the corrected evolution equations which have a somewhat simpler appearance.

  7. Semiclassical methods to the Klein-Gordon equation with the unequal scalar and vector potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the scalar potential is larger than the vector potential there are very few exactly solvable Klein-Gordon equations. Based on a general transformation between the unequal scalar and vector potential, in this paper, we employ two semiclassical methods to determine the bound state energy spectrum of the Klein-Gordon equation. To illustrate this procedure, the scalar potentials are chosen as the linear, exponential and linear plus Coulomb potentials and the corresponding energy spectra are analytically obtained. It is shown that the energy spectrum can be obtained by a simple algebraic method and our proposal methods can be extended to discuss the quasi-exactly solvable cases

  8. Attractive Hofstadter-Hubbard model with imbalanced chemical and vector potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Iskin, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between the Hofstadter butterfly, strong interactions and Zeeman field within the mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory in real space, and explore the ground states of the attractive single-band Hofstadter-Hubbard Hamiltonian on a square lattice, including the exotic possibility of imbalanced vector potentials. We find that the cooperation between the vector potential and superfluid order breaks the spatial symmetry of the system, and flourish stripe-...

  9. An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Sara; Cavinato, Michela; Giliberti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present an educational path on the magnetic vector potential A addressed to undergraduate students and to pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampere-Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical referent, i. e. the conduction current. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows a clear and univocal physical determination of A o...

  10. Validation analysis of burnup code MVP-ORBURN using the SFCOMPO database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of burnup calculations was conducted for typical post irradiation experimental data prepared in SFCOMPO using Jones's MVP-ORBURN code, which is a coupling codes of MVP-II and ORIGEN2. The analyzed cases cover a wide range of data including four pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and three boiling water reactors (BWRs). As long as the post-irradiation composition of major actinides applied in the Level 1 burnup credit are concerned, the calculation results of end of cycle (EOC) compositions obtained using the JENDL-3.3 nuclear data library showed a good agreement within a range of 10% discrepancy between the calculations and the experiments. Consequently, the code system is found to be sufficiently applicable to burnup credit evaluations. (authors)

  11. Preliminary analyses for HTTR's start-up physics tests by Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of start-up physics tests for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out by Monte Carlo code MVP based on continuous energy method. Heterogeneous core structures were modified precisely, such as the fuel compacts, fuel rods, coolant channels, burnable poisons, control rods, control rod insertion holes, reserved shutdown pellet insertion holes, gaps between graphite blocks, etc. Such precise modification of the core structures was difficult with diffusion calculation. From the analytical results, the followings were confirmed; The first criticality will be achieved around 16 fuel columns loaded. The reactivity at the first criticality can be controlled by only one control rod located at the center of the core with other fifteen control rods fully withdrawn. The excess reactivity, reactor shutdown margin and control rod criticality positions have been evaluated. These results were used for planning of the start-up physics tests. This report presents analyses of start-up physics tests for HTTR by MVP code. (author)

  12. Neutronics analysis of Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor by MVP/GMVP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents neutronics calculation for Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) to validate MVP/GMVP Code. Beside fresh core calculation, burnt core and burn up distribution were also carried out and compared with experimental data or result obtained from other codes. With complex geometry and operating history like DNRR, burn up calculation by Monte Carlo Method is the better choice owing to the use of exact geometry description and continuous neutron energy in calculation. The discrepancy between calculated data and experimental data is good to compare. By using Monte Carlo method, continuous neutron energy from JENDL3.3 library and combined with burn up calculation, MVP/GMVP Code is a very useful tool for reactor calculation. (author)

  13. Bionomics and vector potential of Anopheles subpictus as a malaria vector in India: An overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raj Kumar Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles subpictus has been recognised as an important vector of malaria in Sri Lanka and some other countries like Malaysia and Maldives. It has been found to play an important role in malaria transmission as a secondary vector in certain parts of Odisha and coastal areas of south India. An. subpictus is a widely distributed mosquito species that breeds in a variety of fresh as well as saline water habitats. The species is a complex of four sibling species provisionally designated as: sibling species A, B, C and D, but the role of these sibling species in malaria transmission is not clearly known. As there is limited research work available on this species in India, it was thought prudent to review the bionomics and the role of An. subpictus in malaria transmission in Indian context. Further studies are required on the bionomics of An. subpictus and its role in malaria transmission in other parts of the country under the influence of changing ecological conditions.

  14. Benchmark analysis of SPERT-IV reactor with Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • MVP was used for SPERT-IV core modeling. • Neutronics analysis of SPERT-IV reactor was performed. • Calculation performed to estimate critical rod height, excess reactivity. • Neutron flux, time integrated neutron flux and Cd-ratio also calculated. • Calculated values agree with experimental data. - Abstract: The benchmark experiment of the SPERT-IV D-12/25 reactor core has been analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MVP using the cross-section libraries based on JENDL-3.3. The MVP simulation was performed for the clean and cold core. The estimated values of Keff at the experimental critical rod height and the core excess reactivity were within 5% with the experimental data. Thermal neutron flux profiles at different vertical and horizontal positions of the core were also estimated. Cadmium Ratio at different point of the core was also estimated. All estimated results have been compared with the experimental results. Generally good agreement has been found between experimentally determined and the calculated results

  15. A magnetic vector potential corresponding to a centrally conservative current element force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic vector potential (Coulomb gauge) is commonly introduced in magnetostatic chapters of electromagnetism textbooks. However, what is not typically presented are the infinite subsets of the Coulomb gauge associated with differential current elements. This work provides a comparison of various differential magnetic vector potentials, differential magnetostatic potential energies, as well as differential current element forces as a collective work not available elsewhere. The differential magnetic vector potential highlighted in this work is the Coulomb–Ampère gauge corresponding to the centrally conservative Ampère current element force. The centrally conservative force is modeled as a mean valued continual exchange of energy carrier mediators accounting for both the differential magnetostatic potential energy and Ampère current element force of two differential current elements. (paper)

  16. Ecological Niche Modeling of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Scott R; DeGroote, John P.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species fro...

  17. MVP/GMVP: general purpose Monte Carlo codes for neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to realize fast and accurate Monte Carlo simulation of neutron and photon transport problems, new algorithms have been studied, and two fully vectorized Monte Carlo codes MVP and GMVP have been developed for FACOM VP series vector supercomputers. The former and latter codes use the continuous energy model and the multi-group model, respectively. Compared with conventional scalar codes, these codes achieve higher computation speed by a factor of 10 or more on FACOM VP-2600. Both codes have functions for production use including accurate physics model, geometry description capability and variance reduction technique. In addition to the execution on the vector supercomputers, these codes can be used on vector-parallel supercomputers with parallel calculation capability and on workstations with an OS of UNIX. For the continuous energy method, many nuclear data libraries have been prepared based on mainly JENDL 3. This report describes the physics model, geometry description method used in the codes and how to use them. (author)

  18. Calculating Non-Potentiality in Solar Active Regions Using SDO/HMI Vector Magnetic Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Non-potential magnetic fields in solar active regions are thought to be associated with flare occurrence. In this study, we parametrize the non-potentiality of several active regions, using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and correlate these parameters with flare occurrence. In particular, we focus on a parameter that we call the Gradient-Weighted Inversion Line Length (GWILL). Using data from SOHO/MDI, Mason et al. found that GWILL generally tends to increase before a solar flare. We investigate whether extending the analysis of Mason et. al. to a three-dimensional field enables us to derive better near real-time indicators of flare occurrence. Before HMI, the availability of vector magnetograms was sparse at best. HMI provides continuous vector magnetogram data at a 12-minute cadence. As such, this study represents the first parametrization of non-potentiality in solar active regions using continuous vector magnetic field data.

  19. An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, S.; Cavinato, M.; Giliberti, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present an educational path for the magnetic vector potential A aimed at undergraduate students and pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampère-Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical references, i.e. the conduction currents. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows for a clear and univocal physical determination of A, overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the ‘natural’ gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of the calculation of A are analysed.

  20. An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Sara; Giliberti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We present an educational path on the magnetic vector potential A addressed to undergraduate students and to pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampere-Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical referent, i. e. the conduction current. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows a clear and univocal physical determination of A overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the natural gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of calculation of A are analysed.

  1. An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an educational path for the magnetic vector potential A aimed at undergraduate students and pre-service physics teachers. Starting from the generalized Ampère–Laplace law, in the framework of a slowly varying time-dependent field approximation, the magnetic vector potential is written in terms of its empirical references, i.e. the conduction currents. Therefore, once the currents are known, our approach allows for a clear and univocal physical determination of A, overcoming the mathematical indeterminacy due to the gauge transformations. We have no need to fix a gauge, since for slowly varying time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, the ‘natural’ gauge for A is the Coulomb one. We stress the difference between our approach and those usually presented in the literature. Finally, a physical interpretation of the magnetic vector potential is discussed and some examples of the calculation of A are analysed. (paper)

  2. Karyotype and spermatogenesis in Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a potential Chagas vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Succi, M; Pereira, N P; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2012-01-01

    All species of Triatominae are susceptible to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and consequently, potential insect vectors of Chagas disease. Currently, there are 140 known species of triatomine bugs, which can be grouped into specific species complexes. The species Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae) is found only in Brazil and is considered a potential vector of Chagas disease. We karyotyped male T. lenti and examined its spermatogenesis in detail. The karyotype was found to be 2n = 20A + XY, demonstrating that this organism has the modal chromosome set found in triatomines. This new information concerning males of this species contributed to biological data that will be useful for understanding this potentially important Chagas disease vector. PMID:23315807

  3. Calculation of the magnetic vector potential in the TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the vector magnetic potential and its usefulness to calculate magnetic fluxes in both stationary and time-dependent conditions are p revised in this report. We have adapted to the TJ-II Flexible Heliac efficient numerical expressions to calculate the vector potential, calculating in addition the magnetic flux with this formalism in circumstances whose complexity makes very convenient the use of the vector potential. The result on induced voltages offer theoretical support to the measurements of induced voltage due to the OH coils in the plasma, like the measurements provided by the loop voltage diagnostic installed in the TJ-II, as well as to the cylindrical approximation of the plasma often used to interpret experimental data. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Thermal Vector Potential Theory of Transport Induced by a Temperature Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Gen

    2015-05-01

    A microscopic formalism to calculate thermal transport coefficients is presented based on a thermal vector potential, whose time derivative is related to a thermal force. The formalism is free from the unphysical divergences reported to arise when Luttinger's formalism is applied naively, because the equilibrium ("diamagnetic") currents are treated consistently. The mathematical structure for the thermal transport coefficients is shown to be identical with that for the electric ones if the electric charge is replaced by the energy. The results indicate that the thermal vector potential couples to the energy current via the minimal coupling.

  5. C595 antibody: A potential vector for targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mucins are high molecular-weight heavily glycosylated glycoproteins with many oligosaccharide side-chains, linked to a protein backbone called apomucin. A total of 19 different mucin genes (MUC1-MUC4, MUC5B, MUC5AC, MUC6-MUC18) have been identified to date. Mucins are present on the surface of most epithelial cells and play a role in their protection and lubrication. In cancer cells the mucin molecule becomes altered, thus representing an important target for diagnosis and therapy. Urinary epithelial mucin1 (MUC1) is found to be frequently up-regulated and abnormally glycosylated in a number of common malignancies, including breast, bladder, colon, ovarian and gastric cancer. The monoclonal antibody C595 is an IgG3 murine MAb raised against the protein core of human MUC1. Epitope mapping has shown that C595 recognizes a tetrapeptide motif (RPAP) within the protein core of MUC1 mucin that contains a large domain of multiples of a highly conserved 20-amino-acid-repeat sequence (PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSA). This antibody has previously been radiolabelled with 99mTc and 111In and used for imaging a range of tumour types including ovary, breast and bladder. The antibody has also been radiolabelled with 67Cu and 188Re for the therapy of superficial bladder cancer. More recently we have investigated the pre-clinical use of the C595 antibody for targeted alpha therapy using 213Bi which emits alpha particles with highp>Bi which emits alpha particles with high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (80 m) radiation and has a short physical half-life of 45.6 minutes. Alpha particles are some 7300 times heavier than beta particles and in theory, following binding of an alpha immunocongugates to the target, a large fraction of the alpha particle energy is delivered to cancer cells, with minimal concomitant radiation of normal tissues. 213Bi was produced from the 225Ac/213Bi generator. For antibody conjugation the chelator, cyclic diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid anhydride (DTPA) was used. Initial experimental studies have concentrated on the targeted therapy of carcinoma of the prostate, pancreas and ovary. On 120 paraffin embedded specimens from patients who underwent radical retro-pubic prostatectomy or trans-urethralresection of the prostate for primary untreated carcinoma of the pancreas MUC1 expression was detected in 58% primary Ca prostate tissues and 90% lymph node metastases but not in normal prostates or benign tissues. The 213Bi-C595 conjugate demonstrated cell killing in PC-3 and DU 145 cell lines isolated from human prostatic adenocarcinoma. Other results indicate that 213Bi-C595 targeting efficacy is in accordance with the expression of MUC1 in three pancreatic cancer cell clusters CFPAC-1, PANC-1 and CAPAN-1 and demonstrated effective toxicity of tumour spheroids of up to 100 m in diameter. When administered to tumour bearing mice at 333 MBq/kg the c595 alpha conjugate caused significant tumour growth delay, compared with the non-specific control at after 16 weeks. Similar results have been obtained in monolayers and cell clusters of the ovarian OVCAR-3 cell line. We believe this antibody conjugate offers great potential for targeted alpha therapy of prostatic, pancreatic and ovarian tumours. (author)

  6. Comment on ‘An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their recent paper, Barbieri et al (2013 Eur. J. Phys. 34 1209) proposed an educational path for the magnetic vector potential. In this comment I point out that this educational path involves several inconsistencies and is therefore unattractive from a pedagogical point of view. (letters and comments)

  7. Reply to Comment on ‘An educational path for the magnetic vector potential and its physical implications’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this reply we respond to the comment made by Heras on our paper (Barbieri et al 2013 Eur. J. Phys. 34 1209), in which we presented an educational path on the magnetic vector potential A, aimed at undergraduate students and pre-service physics teachers. (letters and comments)

  8. The vector potential and stored energy of thin cosine (n?) helical wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expressions for pure multipole field components that are present in helical devices have been derived from a current distribution on the surface of an infinitely thin cylinder of radius R. The strength of such magnetic fields varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate Z in proportion to cos(n?- ?mz), where ?m = (2m-1)?/L, L denotes the half-period and m = 1, 2, 3 etc. As an alternative to describing such field components as given by the negative gradient of a scalar potential function (Appendix A), one of course can derive these same fields as the curle of a vector potential function rvec A--specifically one for which ? x ? x rvec A = 0 and ?· rvec A = 0. It is noted that we seek a divergence-free vector that exhibits continuity in any of its components across the interface r = R, a feature that is free of possible concern when applying Stokes' theorem in connection with this form of vector potential. Alternative simpler forms of vector potential, that individually are divergence-free in their respective regions (r R), do not exhibit full continuity on r = R and whose curl evaluations provide in these respective regions the correct components of magnetic field are not considered here. Such alternative forms must differ merely by the gradient of scalar functions that with the divergence-free property are required to be ''harmonic'' (?2? = 0)

  9. SWAT2: The improved SWAT code system by incorporating the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWAT is a code system, which performs the burnup calculation by the combination of the neutronics calculation code, SRAC95 and the one group burnup calculation code, ORIGEN2.1. The SWAT code system can deal with the cell geometry in SRAC95. However, a precise treatment of resonance absorptions by the SRAC95 code using the ultra-fine group cross section library is not directly applicable to two- or three-dimensional geometry models, because of restrictions in SRAC95. To overcome this problem, SWAT2 which newly introduced the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MVP into SWAT was developed. Thereby, the burnup calculation by the continuous energy in any geometry became possible. Moreover, using the 147 group cross section library called SWAT library, the reactions which are not dealt with by SRAC95 and MVP can be treated. OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality safety benchmark problems Phase-IB (PWR, a single pin cell model) and Phase-IIIB (BWR, fuel assembly model) were calculated as a verification of SWAT2, and the results were compared with the average values of calculation results of burnup calculation code of each organization. Through two benchmark problems, it was confirmed that SWAT2 was applicable to the burnup calculation of the complicated geometry. (author)

  10. Development of transformation vectors for the production of potentially high oleate transgenic oil palm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mat Yunus Abdul, Masani; Ghulam Kadir Ahmad, Parveez.

    2008-07-15

    Full Text Available The main target of Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) genetic engineering programme is to produce high oleate transgenic palms. The availability of effective transformation vector is one of the pre-requisites for genetic manipulation of oil palm through recombinant DNA technology. Here, we describe the [...] construction of a series of transformation vectors that have a maize ubiquitin promoter (UbiPro)-driven bar gene for selection of transformants on herbicide (Basta or Bialaphos), and mesocarp-specific promoter (MSP1) for expression of the transgenes [antisense palmitoyl-ACP-thioesterase (PAT) and sense ?-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase II (KASII) and sense ?9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase (SAD)] potentially responsible for high oleate content in oil palm mesocarp. The transformation vectors constructed in this study are suitable for use in both particle bombardment (biolistic) and Agrobacterium-based transformation protocols.

  11. Observational tests of models for a relativistic nucleon bound in scalar and vector potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is made of possible methods to verify features of the nuclear single-particle model in which the nucleon is assumed to move relativistically in a field of scalar character plus one given as the fourth component of a four-vector (sigma + ? model). Electromagnetic and weak probes are considered, and sensitivity to the nucleon effective mass - considerably changed in the precence of the scalar plus vector fields - is sought. A number of direct effects are in large measure lost because terms involving the mass usually involve gradient operators as well, and these tend to give little contribution when acting on the potentials in the nuclear interior where they are large but flat. A promising candidate as a probe is the ratio of induced pseudoscalar coupling constant to axial vector coupling constant, which is proportional to the effective mass. (orig.)

  12. Predicting and mapping malaria under climate change scenarios: the potential redistribution of malaria vectors in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangalawe Richard YM

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is rampant in Africa and causes untold mortality and morbidity. Vector-borne diseases are climate sensitive and this has raised considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease risk. The problem of malaria vectors (Anopheles mosquitoes shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is an important concern. The vision of this study was to exploit the sets of information previously generated by entomologists, e.g. on geographical range of vectors and malaria distribution, to build models that will enable prediction and mapping the potential redistribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in Africa. Methods The development of the modelling tool was carried out through calibration of CLIMEX parameters. The model helped estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of the species in relation to climatic factors. These included temperature, rainfall and relative humidity, which characterized the living environment for Anopheles mosquitoes. The same parameters were used in determining the ecoclimatic index (EI. The EI values were exported to a GIS package for special analysis and proper mapping of the potential future distribution of Anopheles gambiae and Anophles arabiensis within the African continent under three climate change scenarios. Results These results have shown that shifts in these species boundaries southward and eastward of Africa may occur rather than jumps into quite different climatic environments. In the absence of adequate control, these predictions are crucial in understanding the possible future geographical range of the vectors and the disease, which could facilitate planning for various adaptation options. Conclusion Thus, the outputs from this study will be helpful at various levels of decision making, for example, in setting up of an early warning and sustainable strategies for climate change and climate change adaptation for malaria vectors control programmes in Africa.

  13. Discrete vector potential representation of a divergence-free vector field in three-dimensional domains: numerical analysis of a model problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Franc?ois

    1990-01-01

    For the representation of a divergence-free vector field defined on a bounded simply connected three-dimensional domain of with a smooth boundary by its curl and its normal component on the boundary, a mixed formulation also involving a vector potential is proposed. The vector fields are discretized with help of curved finite elements that are conforming in H(div) or H(curl). A discrete gauge condition is proposed to assume the uniqueness of the stream function. Optimal error estimates are de...

  14. Stochastic and Deterministic Vector Chromatography of Suspended Particles in 1D-Periodic Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bernate, Jorge A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive description of vector chromatography that includes deterministic and stochastic transport in 1D-periodic free-energy landscapes, with both energetic and entropic contributions, and highlights the parameters governing the deflection angle, i.e. the Peclet number and the partition ratio. We also investigate the dependence of the deflection angle on the shape of the free-energy landscape by varying the width of the linear transitions in an otherwise dichotomous potential. Finally, we present experimental results obtained in a microfluidic system in which gravity drives the suspended particles and, in combination with a bottom surface patterned with shallow rectangular grooves, creates a periodic landscape of (potential) energy barriers. The experiments validate the model and demonstrate that a simple, passive microdevice can lead to vector separation of colloidal particles based on both size and density.

  15. Attractive Hofstadter-Hubbard model with imbalanced chemical and vector potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, M.

    2015-05-01

    We study the interplay between the Hofstadter butterfly, strong interactions, and the Zeeman field within the mean-field Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory in real space, and explore the ground states of the attractive single-band Hofstadter-Hubbard Hamiltonian on a square lattice, including the exotic possibility of imbalanced vector potentials. We find that the cooperation between the vector potential and superfluid order breaks the spatial symmetry of the system, and stripe-ordered Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-like superfluid and supersolid phases occur that can be distinguished and characterized according to their coexisting pair-density-, charge-density-, and spin-density-wave orders. We also discuss confined systems and comment on the likelihood of observing such stripe-ordered phases by loading neutral atomic Fermi gases on laser-induced optical lattices under laser-generated artificial gauge fields.

  16. Scattering and bound states of fermions in a mixed vector–scalar smooth step potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattering of a fermion in the background of a smooth step potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling. Charge-conjugation and chiral-conjugation transformations are discussed and it is shown that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions appears as poles of the transmission amplitude. It is also shown that those bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space–time. - Highlights: • Scattering and bound states of fermions in a kink-like potential. • No pair production despite the high localization. • No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries

  17. Scattering and bound states of fermions in a mixed vector–scalar smooth step potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, W.M., E-mail: castilho.w@gmail.com; Castro, A.S. de, E-mail: castro@pq.cnpq.br

    2014-07-15

    The scattering of a fermion in the background of a smooth step potential is considered with a general mixing of vector and scalar Lorentz structures with the scalar coupling stronger than or equal to the vector coupling. Charge-conjugation and chiral-conjugation transformations are discussed and it is shown that a finite set of intrinsically relativistic bound-state solutions appears as poles of the transmission amplitude. It is also shown that those bound solutions disappear asymptotically as one approaches the conditions for the realization of the so-called spin and pseudospin symmetries in a four-dimensional space–time. - Highlights: • Scattering and bound states of fermions in a kink-like potential. • No pair production despite the high localization. • No bounded solution under exact spin and pseudospin symmetries.

  18. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Terro?n-gonza?lez, L.; Medina, C.; Limo?n-morte?s, M. C.; Santero, E.

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary potential of metagenomic functional analyses to identify activities of interest present in uncultured microorganisms has been limited by reduced gene expression in surrogate hosts. We have developed vectors and specialized E. coli strains as improved metagenomic DNA heterologous expression systems, taking advantage of viral components that prevent transcription termination at metagenomic terminators. One of the systems uses the phage T7 RNA-polymerase to drive metagenomic ge...

  19. A Proposal of Potentially Meaningful Material for Teaching of Vector Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nunes Myrrha Ribeiro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents didactic solutions to the Vector Mechanics subject, which aims to teach the calculation and the representation of the acting forces on a given particle in space. It is about developed and applied activities in GeoGebra software, called potentially meaningful materials. The whole proposal was based on MLT?Meaningful Learning Theory, proposed by David Ausubel, in order to contribute to a more efficient learning in general disciplines of engineering courses.

  20. Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Rumi; Monika Ines Hamann

    1990-01-01

    Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out s...

  1. Vector potential of hospital houseflies with special reference to Klebsiella species.

    OpenAIRE

    Fotedar, R.; Banerjee, U.; Samantray, J. C.; Shriniwas

    1992-01-01

    The vector potential of houseflies (Musca domestica) for Klebsiella spp. was investigated. Klebsiella spp. (mostly Klebsiella pneumoniae) were isolated from 36.7% of hospital flies and 28.1% of infected wounds of patients. Antibiograms of Klebsiella spp. showed that 82.0% of isolates from hospital flies and 96.3% from infected wounds were resistant to four or more commonly used antimicrobials. In contrast, from the control group, only 8.7% klebsiella isolates showed similar antimicrobial resi...

  2. Effects of imaginary potentials on the vector analyzing power in elastic scattering of polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In elastic scattering from nuclei, the vector analyzing powers of polarized deuterons are found to be strongly affected by the imaginary parts of optical potentials. A definite relationship is postulated between the analyzing power and the imaginary potential depth. The relationship shows that the shell-closure effect of the analyzing power observed for Se isotope targets is the reflection of the isotope dependence of the imaginary potential. Coupled-channel calculations show that some low-lying levels of the target nuclei are responsible for the isotope dependence. By the use of the relationship, deuteron scattering from medium-weight nuclei at incident energies of about 15 MeV are reanalyzed to give a systematic variation with target mass number for the potential parameters, which is emphasized by a nearly constant volume integral of the real potential per pair of interacting nucleons. (orig.)

  3. Calculation of fuel and moderator temperature coefficients in APR1400 nuclear reactor by MVP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, these fuel and moderator temperature coefficients were calculated in APR1400 nuclear reactor by MVP code. APR1400 is an advanced water pressurized reactor, that was researched and developed by Korea Experts, its electric power is 1400 MW. The neutronics calculations of full core is very important to analysis and assess a reactor. Results of these calculation is input data for thermal-hydraulics calculations, such as fuel and moderator temperature coefficients. These factors describe the self-safety characteristics of nuclear reactor. After obtaining these reactivity parameters, they were used to re-run the thermal hydraulics calculations in LOCA and RIA accidents. These thermal-hydraulics results were used to analysis effects of reactor physics parameters to thermal hydraulics situation in nuclear reactors. (author)

  4. Enhancing the clinical potential of AAV vectors by capsid engineering to evade pre-existing immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidSchaffer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors based on adeno-associated viruses have shown considerable promise in both preclinical models and increasingly in clinical trials. However, one formidable challenge is pre-existing immunity due to widespread exposure to numerous AAV variants and serotypes within the human population, which affect efficacy of clinical trials due to the accompanying high levels of anti-capsid neutralizing antibodies. Transient immunosuppression has promise in mitigating cellular and humoral responses induced by vector application in naïve hosts, but cannot overcome the problem that pre-existing neutralizing antibodies pose towards the goal of safe and efficient gene delivery. Shielding of AAV from antibodies, however, may be possible by covalent attachment of polymers to the viral capsid or by encapsulation of vectors inside biomaterials. In addition, there has been considerable progress in using rational mutagenesis, combinatorial libraries, and directed evolution approaches to engineer capsid variants that are not recognized by anti-AAV antibodies generally present in the human population. While additional progress must be made, such strategies, alone or in combination with immunosuppression to avoid de novo induction of antibodies, have strong potential to significantly enhance the clinical efficacy of AAV vectors.

  5. Calculation of the magnetic vector potential in the TJ-II; Calculo del Potencial Magnetico Vector en el TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fraguas, A.; Lopez Bruna, D.; Romero, J. A.

    2005-07-01

    The properties of the vector magnetic potential and its usefulness to calculate magnetic fluxes in both stationary and time-dependent conditions are p revised in this report. We have adapted to the TJ-II Flexible Heliac efficient numerical expressions to calculate the vector potential, calculating in addition the magnetic flux with this formalism in circumstances whose complexity makes very convenient the use of the vector potential. The result on induced voltages offer theoretical support to the measurements of induced voltage due to the OH coils in the plasma, like the measurements provided by the loop voltage diagnostic installed in the TJ-II, as well as to the cylindrical approximation of the plasma often used to interpret experimental data. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Analysis of one month of CHAMP state vector and accelerometer data for the recovery of the gravity potential

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, E.; Stenseng, L.; Tscherning, C. C.

    2003-01-01

    The energy conservation method is based on knowledge of the state vector and measurements of nonconservative forces. This is or will be provided by CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE. Here the analysis of one month of CHAMP state vector and accelerometer data is described. The energy conservation method is used to estimate the gravity potential at satellite altitude. When doing so we consider the tidal potential from the sun and the moon, the explicit time variation of the gravity potential in inertial s...

  7. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.-potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50?=?5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90?=?29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India. PMID:25637241

  8. Vector potential-vorticity relationship for the Stokes flows: application to the Stokes eigenmodes in 2D/3D closed domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leriche, E. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Institut des Sciences de l' Energie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de l' Ingenieur, Ecublens (Switzerland); Labrosse, G. [University of Florida 227 ChE, Department of Chemical Engineering, PO Box 116005, Gainesville, FL (United States); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    The unsteady dynamics of the Stokes flows, where (vector)({nabla}){sup 2} ((p)/({rho})) =0, is shown to verify the vector potential-vorticity ((vector)({psi}),(vector)({omega})) correlation ({partial_derivative}(vector)({psi}))/({partial_derivative}t)+{nu}(vector)({omega})+(vector)({pi})=0, where the field (vector)({pi}) is the pressure-gradient vector potential defined by (vector)({nabla}) ((p)/({rho}))=(vector)({nabla}) x (vector)({pi}). This correlation is analyzed for the Stokes eigenmodes, ({partial_derivative}(vector)({psi}))/({partial_derivative}t)={lambda}(vector)({psi}), subjected to no-slip boundary conditions on any two-dimensional (2D) closed contour or three-dimensional (3D) surface. It is established that an asymptotic linear relationship appears, verified in the core part of the domain, between the vector potential and vorticity, {nu}((vector)({omega})-(vector)({omega}){sub 0})=-{lambda}(vector)({psi}), where (vector)({omega}){sub 0} is a constant offset field, possibly zero. (orig.)

  9. Oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica L. leaf extract against dengue vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahbirami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Yahaya, Zary Shariman; Dieng, Hamady; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Fadzly, Nik; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2014-09-01

    Bioprospecting of plant-based insecticides for vector control has become an area of interest within the last two decades. Due to drawbacks of chemical insecticides, phytochemicals of plant origin with mosquito control potential are being utilized as alternative sources in integrated vector control. In this regard, the present study aimed to investigate oviposition deterring and oviciding potentials of Ipomoea cairica (L.) (Family: Convolvulaceae) crude leaf extract against dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Ipomoea cairica is an indigenous plant that has demonstrated marked toxicity towards larvae of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaves of I. cairica were extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with acetone as solvent. Oviposition deterrent activity and ovicidal assay was carried out in oviposition site choice tests with three different concentrations (50, 100, 450 ppm). Acetone extract of I. cairica leaf strongly inhibited oviposition with 100% repellence to Ae. aegypti at lower concentration of 100 ppm, while for Ae. albopictus was at 450 ppm. The oviposition activity index (OAI) values which ranged from -0.69 to -1.00 revealed that I. cairica demonstrated deterrent effect. In ovicidal assay, similar trend was observed whereby zero hatchability was recorded for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus eggs at 100 and 450 ppm, respectively. It is noteworthy that I. cairica leaf extract had significantly elicited dual properties as oviposition deterrent and oviciding agent in both Aedes species. Reduction in egg number through oviposition deterring activity, reduction in hatching percentage and survival rates, suggested an additional hallmark of this plant to be integrated in Aedes mosquito control. Ipomoea cairica deserved to be considered as one of the potential alternative sources for the new development of novel plant based insecticides in future. PMID:25382472

  10. Calculations for a disk source and a general detector using a radiation vector potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closed form expression for a radiation vector potential is derived for a generalized disk radiation source. By applying Stokes's theorem the surface integral for the radiation flux into a general detector is converted into a much simpler line integral of the vector potential around the edge of the detector. This line integral can be easily evaluated for general detector geometry and general location and angular orientation relative to the disk source. For a number of cases the line integral reduces to integrals of Bessel functions which give various generalizations of Ruby's formula. Explicit formulas and numerical results for the geometric efficiency are given for circular and elliptical detectors displaced and rotated relative to the disk source. Detectors with general polygonal boundaries are considered and formulas and sample numerical results are given. For uniform surface emissivity the corresponding formulas for a disk detector and a general planar source are easily obtained. Formulas are also obtained for a scalar radiation potential and some limitations for its applicability are identified

  11. MHD Equilibrium with Reversed Current Density and Magnetic Islands Revisited: the Vacuum Vector Potential Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of Grad-Shafranov equation determines the stationary behavior of fusion plasma inside a tokamak. To solve the equation it is necessary to know the toroidal current density profile. Recent works show that it is possible to determine a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with reversed current density (RCD) profiles that presents magnetic islands. In this work we show analytical MHD equilibrium with a RCD profile and analyze the structure of the vacuum vector potential associated with these equilibria using the virtual casing principle

  12. Vector bundles over configuration spaces of nonidentical particles: Topological potentials and internal degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebner, H.; Mann, H. [Arnold Sommerfeld Institute for Mathematical Physics, Technical University of Clausthal, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    We consider configuration spaces of nonidentical pointlike particles. The physically motivated assumption that any two particles cannot be located at the same point in space{endash}time leads to nontrivial topological structure of the configuration space. For a quantum mechanical description of such a system, we classify complex vector bundles over the configuration space and obtain potentials of topological origin, similar to those that occur in the fiber bundle approach to Dirac{close_quote}s magnetic monopole or in Yang{endash}Mills theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. MHD Equilibrium with Reversed Current Density and Magnetic Islands Revisited: the Vacuum Vector Potential Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Braga, F.

    2013-10-01

    The solution of Grad-Shafranov equation determines the stationary behavior of fusion plasma inside a tokamak. To solve the equation it is necessary to know the toroidal current density profile. Recent works show that it is possible to determine a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with reversed current density (RCD) profiles that presents magnetic islands. In this work we show analytical MHD equilibrium with a RCD profile and analyze the structure of the vacuum vector potential associated with these equilibria using the virtual casing principle.

  14. A general method for deriving vector potentials produced by knotted solenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    A general method for deriving exact expressions for vector potentials produced by arbitrarily knotted solenoids is presented. It consists of using simple physics ideas from magnetostatics to evaluate the magnetic field in a surrogate problem. The latter is obtained by modeling the knot with wire segments carrying steady currents on a cubical lattice. The expressions for a 31 (trefoil) and a 41 (figure-eight) knot are explicitly worked out. The results are of some importance in the study of the Aharonov-Bohm effect generalized to a situation in which charged particles moving through force-free regions are scattered by fluxes confined to the interior of knotted impenetrable tubes.

  15. Humoral immunity to AAV vectors in gene therapy: challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masat, Elisa; Pavani, Giulia; Mingozzi, Federico

    2013-06-01

    Gene transfer trials with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have initiated to unveil the therapeutic potential of this approach, with some of the most exciting results coming from clinical studies of gene transfer for hemophilia B, congenital blindness, and the recent market approval of the first AAV-based gene therapy in Europe. With clinical development, however, some of the limitations of in vivo gene transfer have emerged; in particular the host immune system represents an important obstacle to be overcome in terms of both safety and efficacy of gene transfer in vivo with AAV vectors. Results in humans undergoing gene transfer indicate that capsid-specific T cell responses directed against transduced cells may limit the duration of transgene expression following AAV gene transfer, and similarly anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies can completely prevent transduction of a target tissue, resulting in lack of efficacy. Anti-AAV neutralizing antibodies are highly prevalent in humans, and the frequency of subjects with detectable titers can reach up to two thirds of the population. The approach to the problem of preexisting humoral immunity to AAV so far has been the exclusion of seropositive subjects, but this solution is far from being optimal. Several additional strategies have been proposed and tested in a variety of preclinical animal models. Future studies will help defining the optimal strategy, or combination of strategies, to successfully treat subjects with preexisting antibodies to AAV due to natural infection or to prior administration of AAV vectors. These advancements will likely have a significant impact on the field of gene transfer with AAV vectors. PMID:23819952

  16. Broader prevalence of Wolbachia in insects including potential human disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C D; Gonçalves, D S; Baton, L A; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, F D; Moreira, L A

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular, maternally transmitted bacteria considered the most abundant endosymbionts found in arthropods. They reproductively manipulate their host in order to increase their chances of being transmitted to the offspring, and currently are being used as a tool to control vector-borne diseases. Studies on distribution of Wolbachia among its arthropod hosts are important both for better understanding why this bacterium is so common, as well as for its potential use as a biological control agent. Here, we studied the incidence of Wolbachia in a broad range of insect species, collected from different regions of Brazil, using three genetic markers (16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ), which varied in terms of their sensitivity to detect this bacterium. The overall incidence of Wolbachia among species belonging to 58 families and 14 orders was 61.9%. The most common positive insect orders were Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Diptera and Hemiptera having the highest numbers of Wolbachia-positive families. They included potential human disease vectors whose infection status has never been reported before. Our study further shows the importance of using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for high-throughput and sensitive Wolbachia screening. PMID:25772521

  17. Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Rumi; Monika Ines, Hamann.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and es [...] timate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P0.05) was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP), pH and soil granulometry. Echinocercariae developed from rediae and belonging to Petasiger sp., Paryphostomum sp., and other undetermined species were found.

  18. Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, A; Hamann, M I

    1990-01-01

    Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P less than 0.05) were found between Biomphalaria abundance and some environmental parameters: conductivity, hardness, calcium, nitrites plus nitrates, ammonium and bicarbonates. Water temperature correlation was negative (P less than 0.05). No correlation (P less than 0.05) was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP), pH and soil granulometry. PMID:2134706

  19. Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1 to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2 to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3 to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P0.05 was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP, pH and soil granulometry. Echinocercariae developed from rediae and belonging to Petasiger sp., Paryphostomum sp., and other undetermined species were found.

  20. Genetic variability in the compatibility between Schistosoma haematobium and its potential vectors in Niger. Epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véra, C; Jourdane, J; Sellin, B; Combes, C

    1990-06-01

    A populational study of the compatibility between Schistosoma haematobium and its potential vectors has been carried out in the Niger, confronting samples of S. haematobium populations from three epidemiologic foci with Bulinus populations originating from the same focus (sympatric infection) and with Bulinus populations from other foci (allopatric infections). The three transmission foci selected were irrigation canals in ricefields along the Niger river where one finds: Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi, Bulinus globosus, Bulinus forskalii and Bulinus senegalensis; temporary pools in the Sahel area where one finds B. truncatus and B. senegalensis; permanent pools of the "guelta" type in Sahara area where only B. truncatus occurs. As a compatibility test, the snail infection test was selected, with particular emphasis on optimising its reliability. Snail-infection experiments showed that B. truncatus and B. senegalensis are very good potential vectors, with infection rates ranging between 71.5 and 85.9%. B. globosus and B. forskalii, on the other hand, are totally incompatible. The mean infection percentages in the sympatric and allopatric combinations carried out with the S. haematobium-B. truncatus couple were very similar. This character strongly suggests a lack of isolation in schistosome populations and a circulation of the parasite genome through the mobility of infected human populations (Peuls and Touaregs) in Sahel zone. This study, in relation with snail surveys carried out in parallel, shows that the main types of aquatic environments on the Niger act as high risk areas for schistosome transmission. PMID:2382092

  1. Spinless particles in the field of unequal scalar—vector Yukawa potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present analytical bound state solutions of the spin-zero Klein—Gordon (KG) particles in the field of unequal mixture of scalar and vector Yukawa potentials within the framework of the approximation scheme to the centrifugal potential term for any arbitrary l-state. The approximate energy eigenvalues and unnormalized wave functions are obtained in closed forms using a simple shortcut of the Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method. Further, we solve the KG—Yukawa problem for its exact numerical energy eigenvalues via the amplitude phase (AP) method to test the accuracy of the present solutions found by using the NU method. Our numerical tests using energy calculations demonstrate the existence of inter-dimensional degeneracy amongst the energy states of the KG—Yukawa problem. The dependence of the energy on the dimension D is numerically discussed for spatial dimensions D = 2–6. (general)

  2. Reptiles as potential vectors and hosts of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Vanessa L; Ibáñez, Roberto; Green, David M

    2011-12-01

    Chytridiomycosis, the disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is considered to be a disease exclusively of amphibians. However, B. dendrobatidis may also be capable of persisting in the environment, and non-amphibian vectors or hosts may contribute to disease transmission. Reptiles living in close proximity to amphibians and sharing similar ecological traits could serve as vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis, harbouring the organism on their skin without succumbing to disease. We surveyed for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA among 211 lizards and 8 snakes at 8 sites at varying elevations in Panama where the syntopic amphibians were at pre-epizootic, epizootic or post-epizootic stages of chytridiomycosis. Detection of B. dendrobatidis DNA was done using qPCR analysis. Evidence of the amphibian pathogen was present at varying intensities in 29 of 79 examined Anolis humilis lizards (32%) and 9 of 101 A. lionotus lizards (9%), and in one individual each of the snakes Pliocercus euryzonus, Imantodes cenchoa, and Nothopsis rugosus. In general, B. dendrobatidis DNA prevalence among reptiles was positively correlated with the infection prevalence among co-occurring anuran amphibians at any particular site (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). These reptiles, therefore, may likely be vectors or reservoir hosts for B. dendrobatidis and could serve as disease transmission agents. Although there is no evidence of B. dendrobatidis disease-induced declines in reptiles, cases of coincidence of reptile and amphibian declines suggest this potentiality. Our study is the first to provide evidence of non-amphibian carriers for B. dendrobatidis in a natural Neotropical environment. PMID:22303629

  3. Feeding behaviour of potential vectors of West Nile virus in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konaté Lassana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV is a widespread pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds with occasional spill-over into dead-end hosts such as horses and humans. Migratory birds are believed to play an important role in its dissemination from and to the Palaearctic area, as well as its local dispersion between wintering sites. The Djoudj Park, located in Senegal, is a major wintering site for birds migrating from Europe during the study period (Sept. 2008- Jan. 2009. In this work, we studied the seasonal feeding behaviour dynamics of the potential WNV mosquito vectors at the border of the Djoudj Park, using a reference trapping method (CDC light CO2-baited traps and two host-specific methods (horse- and pigeon-baited traps. Blood meals of engorged females were analysed to determine their origin. Results Results indicated that Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. neavei may play a key role in the WNV transmission dynamics, the latter being the best candidate bridging-vector species between mammals and birds. Moreover, the attractiveness of pigeon- and horse-baited traps for Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus varied with time. Finally, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was only active when the night temperature was above 20°C, whereas Cx. neavei was active throughout the observation period. Conclusions Cx. neavei and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus are the main candidate vectors for the transmission of WNV in the area. The changes in host attractiveness might be related to variable densities of the migratory birds during the trapping period. We discuss the importance of these results on the risk of WNV transmission in horses and humans.

  4. Support vector machine based artificial potential field for autonomous guided vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Feng-Yi; Yang, Chan-Yun; Yang-Syu, Jr.

    2008-12-01

    The path planning is developed on the subject which aim to guide a walking robot from a starting point forwards a goal. The paper presents a now model merging the optimization of support vector machine (SVM) into the artificial potential field path planning. Using the path planning, robots can estimate a free smooth walking path of obstacles. Based on the statistical learning theory, the SVM can be used to optimize a zero-potential decision boundary in the 2-dimemsional map with a large margin. The idea of large margin implies that a wide path can be obtained with the employment of the SVM. With the RBF kernel, the presented method produces a 2-dimemsional potential-field map. In the map, obstacles are modeled as the sum of various parametric Gaussian distributions. As known, a map composed with the superposition of 2-dimemsional smooth Gaussian functions can also achieve the walking path smooth. Upon this, potential-field or road map based robot navigation can easily be applied to achieve the path smoother. The proposed model provides a way to search a wide smooth road for the robot. Detailed experiments and discussions are included in the paper.

  5. Calculating the electrostatic potential of molecular models with separate evaluations by conventional, vector, and array processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J T; MacElroy, R D

    1984-01-01

    A simple computational scheme for estimating the electrostatic potential about molecular models of moderate size is given. The large amount of calculations required for the evaluation of the hypersurface lends itself to treatment by high speed, unconventional computing machines. The essence of these calculations lies in Coulombic interactions that are computed between hypothetical proton test probes positioned in a gridded region surrounding the model and the partial electrostatic charges (CNDO/2) of each atom in the model. A specific scientific application is discussed which involves the recognition of amino acids and nucleotide bases. Three different evaluations of the potential hypersurface within the context of this approach were made. The first was performed on a VAX 11/780 which is a general purpose machine widely used in the scientific community; the second was performed using a pipelined Vector Processor, the FPS AP-120B; and the third by a processor array, the ILLIAC-IV. A comparison of the architectures and processing speeds of each class of machines is made. The computing power observed is consistent with the design and purpose of each machine. Also discussed are methods for displaying the vast amount of data that result from such calculations. It is determined that computer graphics offers an effective means for extracting information from large amounts of data. Finally, the scientific value of the calculations are briefly discussed. If caution is applied to interpreting the results, then the electrostatic potential (EP) mappings can be useful in identifying sites of potential chemical interactions. PMID:11540822

  6. Relativistic comparison theorems for the Klein–Gordon equation with scalar and vector potentials in d-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic comparison theorems are established for discrete eigenvalues of Klein–Gordon equation with vector and scalar potentials in d-dimensions. Theorem 1: If V(?) and S(?) depend on a parameter ?, ?S/???0, S?0, ?V/???0, V?0, E>0, then it follows that ?En/???0. Theorem 2: If S2?S1?0, 0?V2?V1, E>0, then the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered as En(2)?En(1). Theorem 3: If 0?V2?V1, S2?|S1|, En(1)>0, En(2)>0, then En(2)?En(1). Some illustrative examples are given. -- Highlights: ? Generalize relativistic comparison theorems to scalar and vector potentials. ? We establish three theorems in different conditions. ? Theorem 1 applies to a family potential which contain a common parameter. ? Theorems 2, 3 are suitable for different two families of scalar and vector potentials.

  7. Culex gelidus: An emerging mosquito vector with potential to transmit multiple virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sudeep

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Culex gelidus Theobald has emerged as a major vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in India, Southeast Asian countries and Australia. The species has expanded its geographic distribution from the Indian subcontinent to Japan, China, other Southeast Asian countries, Island nations in Australasian region and Australia. In recent years, a sudden increase in its population especially in the urban and sub-urban areas has been observed in several countries, thus, becoming a dominant mosquito species. The virus has been repeatedly isolated from from different geographical locations making it one of the most important vectors of JEV. Apart from JEV, other viruses of public health importance, viz. Getah, Ross River (RRV, Sindbis and Tembusu have been isolated from the mosquito. Experimental studies have shown that the mosquito Cx. qelidus is highly competent to transmit West Nile, Kunjin and Murray valley encephalitis viruses with infection and transmission rates of >80 and >50%, respectively for each virus. The species is also found competent to transmit RRV, but at a lower rate. Experimental studies have shown that the species is susceptible to chikungunya, Chandipura and Chittoor (Batai viruses. Development of resistance to DDT and malathion has also been detected in the species recently. The invasive nature, ability to breed both in fresh and dirty waters, development of resistance to insecticides, high anthropophily and its potential to transmit important human viruses pose an increased threat of viral encephalitis in India and Oriental region especially in the light of explosive increase in its population.

  8. Culex gelidus: an emerging mosquito vector with potential to transmit multiple virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B

    2014-12-01

    Culex gelidus Theobald has emerged as a major vector of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in India, Southeast Asian countries and Australia. The species has expanded its geographic distribution from the Indian subcontinent to Japan, China, other Southeast Asian countries, Island nations in Australasian region and Australia. In recent years, a sudden increase in its population especially in the urban and sub-urban areas has been observed in several countries, thus, becoming a dominant mosquito species. The virus has been repeatedly isolated from from different geographical locations making it one of the most important vectors of JEV. Apart from JEV, other viruses of public health importance, viz. Getah, Ross River (RRV), Sindbis and Tembusu have been isolated from the mosquito. Experimental studies have shown that the mosquito Cx. qelidus is highly competent to transmit West Nile, Kunjin and Murray valley encephalitis viruses with infection and transmission rates of >80 and >50%, respectively for each virus. The species is also found competent to transmit RRV, but at a lower rate. Experimental studies have shown that the species is susceptible to chikungunya, Chandipura and Chittoor (Batai) viruses. Development of resistance to DDT and malathion has also been detected in the species recently. The invasive nature, ability to breed both in fresh and dirty waters, development of resistance to insecticides, high anthropophily and its potential to transmit important human viruses pose an increased threat of viral encephalitis in India and Oriental region especially in the light of explosive increase in its population. PMID:25540955

  9. Heterologous viral expression systems in fosmid vectors increase the functional analysis potential of metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-González, L; Medina, C; Limón-Mortés, M C; Santero, E

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinary potential of metagenomic functional analyses to identify activities of interest present in uncultured microorganisms has been limited by reduced gene expression in surrogate hosts. We have developed vectors and specialized E. coli strains as improved metagenomic DNA heterologous expression systems, taking advantage of viral components that prevent transcription termination at metagenomic terminators. One of the systems uses the phage T7 RNA-polymerase to drive metagenomic gene expression, while the other approach uses the lambda phage transcription anti-termination protein N to limit transcription termination. A metagenomic library was constructed and functionally screened to identify genes conferring carbenicillin resistance to E. coli. The use of these enhanced expression systems resulted in a 6-fold increase in the frequency of carbenicillin resistant clones. Subcloning and sequence analysis showed that, besides ?-lactamases, efflux pumps are not only able contribute to carbenicillin resistance but may in fact be sufficient by themselves to convey carbenicillin resistance. PMID:23346364

  10. New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species—Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns.

  11. New gastropod vectors and tetrodotoxin potential expansion in temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Rodriguez, Paula; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2012-04-01

    Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species-Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns. PMID:22690139

  12. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  13. BCI Based Wheelchair Control Using Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Singla

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Steady State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP based Brain Computer Interface (BCI system to control a wheelchair in forward, backward, left, right and in stop positions. Four different flickering frequencies in low frequency region were used to elicit the SSVEPs and were displayed on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD monitor using LabVIEW. The Electroencephalogram (EEG signals recorded from the occipital region were first segmented into 1 second window and features were extracted by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Three different classifiers, two based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN and one based on Support Vector Machine (SVM were designed and compared to yield better accuracy. Ten subjects were participated in the experiment and the accuracy was calculated by considering the number of correct detections produced while performing a predefined movement sequence. One-Against-All (OAA based multiclass SVM classifier showed better accuracy than the ANN classifiers.

  14. Zero vector potential mechanism of attosecond absorption in strongly relativistic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Baeva, T; Robinson, A P L; Norreys, P A

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of the physics of lasermatter interactions in the strongly relativistic regime is of fundamental importance. In this article, a new mechanism of fast electron generation at the vacuum-solid boundary of intense laser pulse interaction with overdense plasma is described. It is one that has no analogue in classical, non-relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Here, conclusive proof is provided that the key contribution to the fast electron generation is given by the zero points of the vector potential. We demonstrate that the new mechanism leads to scalings for the fast electron energy, which explicitly depend on the plasma density, thus providing a new insight into relativistic laser-matter interaction. Furthermore, it is shown that this new mechanism provides the dominant contribution to the interaction by the injection of energy into the overdense plasma delivered by attosecondduration electron bunches. This new understanding will allow the future generation of a single ultra-bright attoseco...

  15. Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential vector of endemic and exotic arboviruses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J; Ritchie, S A; van den Hurk, A F

    2014-05-01

    In 2005, established populations of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were discovered in the Torres Strait, the region that separates Papua New Guinea from northern Australia. This increased the potential for this species to be introduced to mainland Australia. Because it is an arbovirus vector elsewhere, we undertook laboratory-based infection and transmission experiments to determine the potential for Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait to become infected with and transmit the four major Australian endemic arboviruses--Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus Kunjin strain (WNV(KUN)), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus--as well as the exotic Japanese encephalitis virus. Ae. albopictus is susceptible to infection with all viruses, with infection rates ranging between 8% for WNV(KUN) and 71% for RRV. Transmission rates of approximately 25% were observed for RRV and Barmah Forest virus, but these were virus, WNV(KUN), and Japanese encephalitis virus. Given its relative vector competence for alphaviruses, we also examined the replication kinetics and extrinsic incubation periods required for transmission of RRV and chikungunya virus. Despite lower body titers, more mosquitoes reared and maintained at 28 degrees C became infected with and transmitted the virus than those reared and maintained at 22 degrees C. The minimum time between Ae. albopictus consuming an infected bloodmeal and transmitting chikungunya virus was 2 d at 28 degrees C and 4 d at 22 degrees C, and for RRV, it was 4 d, irrespective of the temperature. Given its opportunistic feeding habits and aggressive biting behavior, the establishment of Ae. albopictus on the Australian mainland could have a considerable impact on alphavirus transmission. PMID:24897860

  16. Aedes hensilli as a Potential Vector of Chikungunya and Zika Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Guillaumot, Laurent; Yug, Lawrence; Saweyog, Steven C.; Tided, Mary; Machieng, Paul; Pretrick, Moses; Marfel, Maria; Griggs, Anne; Bel, Martin; Duffy, Mark R; Hancock, W Thane; Ho-Chen, Tai; Powers, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at...

  17. Exchange-correlation vector potentials and vorticity-dependent exchange-correlation energy densities in two-dimensional systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wensauer, Andreas; Rössler, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    We present a new approach how to calculate the scalar exchange-correlation potentials and the vector exchange-correlation potentials from current-carrying ground states of two-dimensional quantum dots. From these exchange-correlation potentials we derive exchange-correlation energy densities and examine their vorticity (or current) dependence. Compared with parameterizations of current-induced effects in literature we find an increased significance of corrections due to para...

  18. Bound states of the Klein-Gordon equation with vector and scalar Rosen-Morse-type potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solving Klein-Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector Rosen-Morse-type potentials, we obtain the exact energy equation for the s-wave bound states. It has been shown that the energy equations and corresponding wavefunctions for the standard Rosen-Morse well, Eckart potential and their PT-symmetric versions are included in those for Rosen-Morse-type potential as special cases

  19. Application of kernel principal component analysis and support vector regression for reconstruction of cardiac transmembrane potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-invasively reconstructing the transmembrane potentials (TMPs) from body surface potentials (BSPs) constitutes one form of the inverse ECG problem that can be treated as a regression problem with multi-inputs and multi-outputs, and which can be solved using the support vector regression (SVR) method. In developing an effective SVR model, feature extraction is an important task for pre-processing the original input data. This paper proposes the application of principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) to the SVR method for feature extraction. Also, the genetic algorithm and simplex optimization method is invoked to determine the hyper-parameters of the SVR. Based on the realistic heart-torso model, the equivalent double-layer source method is applied to generate the data set for training and testing the SVR model. The experimental results show that the SVR method with feature extraction (PCA-SVR and KPCA-SVR) can perform better than that without the extract feature extraction (single SVR) in terms of the reconstruction of the TMPs on epi- and endocardial surfaces. Moreover, compared with the PCA-SVR, the KPCA-SVR features good approximation and generalization ability when reconstructing the TMPs.

  20. Search for potential vectors of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’: population dynamics in host crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Teresani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ has recently been reported to be associated with vegetative disorders and economic losses in carrot and celery crops in Spain. The bacterium is a carrot seedborne pathogen and it is transmitted by psyllid vector species. From 2011 to 2014 seasonal and occasional surveys in carrot, celery and potato plots were performed. The sticky plant method was used to monitor the arthropods that visited the plants. The collected arthropods were classified into Aphididae and Cicadellidae, and the superfamily Psylloidea was identified to the species level. The superfamily Psylloidea represented 35.45% of the total arthropods captured on celery in Villena and 99.1% on carrot in Tenerife (Canary Islands. The maximum flight of psyllid species was in summer, both in mainland Spain and the Canary Islands, reaching a peak of 570 specimens in August in Villena and 6,063 in July in Tenerife. The main identified psyllid species were as follows: Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson, B. tremblayi Wagnerand B. nigricornis Förster. B. trigonica represented more than 99% of the psyllids captured in the Canary Islands and 75% and 38% in 2011 and 2012 in Villena, respectively. In addition, Trioza urticae Linnaeus, Bactericera sp.,Ctenarytaina sp., Cacopsylla sp., Trioza sp. and Psylla sp. were captured. ‘Ca. L. solanacearum’ targets were detected by squash real-time PCR in 19.5% of the psyllids belonging to the different Bactericera species. This paper reports at least three new psyllid species that carry the bacterium and can be considered as potential vectors.

  1. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  2. Possible physical self-asserting of the homogeneous vector potential. A testing puzzle based on a G.P. Thomson-like arrangement

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitru, Spiridon

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested a testing puzzle able to reveal the self-asserting property of the homogeneous vector potential field. As pieces of the puzzle are taken three reliable entities : (i) influence of a potential vector on the de Broglie wavelength (ii) a G.P. Thomson-like experimental arrangement and (iii) a special coil designed to create a homogeneous vector potential. The alluded property is not connected with magnetic fluxes surrounded by the vector potential field lines, but it depends on the fluxes which are outside of the respective lines. Also the same property shows that in the tested case the vector potential field is uniquely defined physical quantity, free of any adjusting gauge. So the phenomenology of the suggested quantum test differs on that of macroscopic theory where the vector potential is not uniquely defined and allows a gauge adjustment. Of course that the proposed test has to be subjected to adequate experimental validation.

  3. Evaluations of physical parameters of HEU and LEU fuel assemblies used in Dalat nuclear research reactor using MVP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattice cell calculations for VVR-M2 fuel assemblies of DaLat Nuclear Research reactor were performed using Monte Carlo code MVP. The physical parameters like infinite multiplication factors, few group constants, neutron flux distributions and temperature effects were investigated for both HEU and LEU configurations. The infinite multiplication factor and thermal neutron flux for LEU fuel are lower than HEU one. In order to effectively use Monte Carlo codes the high performance computing with cluster technique is proposed for large problems. (author)

  4. Magnetic potential, vector and gradient tensor fields of a tesseroid in a geocentric spherical coordinate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinsong; Chen, Chao; Lesur, Vincent; Lane, Richard; Wang, Huilin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the mathematical and computational aspects of the magnetic potential, vector and gradient tensor fields of a tesseroid in a geocentric spherical coordinate system (SCS). This work is relevant for 3-D modelling that is performed with lithospheric vertical scales and global, continent or large regional horizontal scales. The curvature of the Earth is significant at these scales and hence, a SCS is more appropriate than the usual Cartesian coordinate system (CCS). The 3-D arrays of spherical prisms (SP; `tesseroids') can be used to model the response of volumes with variable magnetic properties. Analytical solutions do not exist for these model elements and numerical or mixed numerical and analytical solutions must be employed. We compared various methods for calculating the response in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. The methods were (1) the spherical coordinate magnetic dipole method (MD), (2) variants of the 3-D Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration method (3-D GLQI) with (i) different numbers of nodes in each of the three directions, and (ii) models where we subdivided each SP into a number of smaller tesseroid volume elements, (3) a procedure that we term revised Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration (3-D RGLQI) where the magnetization direction which is constant in a SCS is assumed to be constant in a CCS and equal to the direction at the geometric centre of each tesseroid, (4) the Taylor's series expansion method (TSE) and (5) the rectangular prism method (RP). In any realistic application, both the accuracy and the computational efficiency factors must be considered to determine the optimum approach to employ. In all instances, accuracy improves with increasing distance from the source. It is higher in the percentage terms for potential than the vector or tensor response. The tensor errors are the largest, but they decrease more quickly with distance from the source. In our comparisons of relative computational efficiency, we found that the magnetic potential takes less time to compute than the vector response, which in turn takes less time to compute than the tensor gradient response. The MD method takes less time to compute than either the TSE or RP methods. The efficiency of the (GLQI and) RGLQI methods depends on the polynomial order, but the response typically takes longer to compute than it does for the other methods. The optimum method is a complex function of the desired accuracy, the size of the volume elements, the element latitude and the distance between the source and the observation. For a model of global extent with typical model element size (e.g. 1 degree horizontally and 10 km radially) and observations at altitudes of 10s to 100s of km, a mixture of methods based on the horizontal separation of the source and observation separation would be the optimum approach. To demonstrate the RGLQI method described within this paper, we applied it to the computation of the response for a global magnetization model for observations at 300 and 30 km altitude.

  5. Bound states of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation with a mixed minimal-nonminimal vector cusp potential

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons subject to a general mixing of minimal and nonminimal vector cusp potentials is explored in a unified way in the context of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. Effects on the bound-state solutions due to a short-range interaction are discussed in some detail.

  6. Solutions to the Klein—Gordon Equation with Equal Scalar and Vector Modified Hylleraas Plus Exponential Rosen Morse Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the bound-state solutions to the Klein—Gordon equation with equal scalar and vector modified Hylleraas plus exponential Rosen Morse potentials using the parametric Nikiforov—Uvarov method. We use the elegant approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. The bound state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave function are obtained. We also discuss the special cases. (general)

  7. Analysis of void coefficient in fast spectrum BWR core with Monte Carlo code 'MVP'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An innovative large BWR core concept has been proposed for aiming at fuel breeding as well as negative void reactivity coefficient. The core consists of two types of MOX fuel assemblies. One is a triangular tight lattice bundle 1.6 m in active core height and the other is the same bundle 0.8 m. The ratio of flow area to fuel area of the bundle is set at about 0.5 in order to increase breeding ratio. A neutron-streaming channel that consists of a cavity-can containing helium gas and a flow gap between the cavity-can and the channel box is located above each short bundle. It will decrease void reactivity coefficient by enhancing neutron leakage from the core when the void fraction is increased in the flow gap. A core composed of tight lattice bundles provides a much harder neutron spectrum than that of conventional BWRs but a slightly softer one than that of typical FBRs. The cavity-can and the flow gap will cause a steep gradient of neutron flux. The neutronics for such a complicated core structure could not be properly analyzed by conventional analysis methods. In particular, the analysis of void reactivity coefficient requires a sophisticated method because it deals with a small change in core composition. In the analysis of the void reactivity coefficient, we adopted a three-dimensional Monte Carlo code 'MVP', which has been developed by JAERI and has many advantages such as an easy input form for lattice structures, a short run time and a continuous neutron energy run time and a continuous neutron energy method. The continuous neutron energy method is important for the analysis of this core because fission reactions occur mainly in the resonance energy region, where the evaluation of accurate cross sections is difficult with conventional methods. The library used is JENDL-3.2. The multi-layer structure of lattices is also essential for the analysis because its hard spectrum and relatively long neutron mean free path require a modeling for the full core with a lot of bundles. The analysis indicates that the void reactivity coefficient depends on flow gap width of the streaming channel and has a minimum value of about -2x10-4 ?k/k/%void, which is evaluated within an accuracy of about +-0.6x10-4 ?k/k/%void. The CPU time for one million histories calculating the full core model was about five hours with a PENTIUM-2 processor personal computer. (author)

  8. An eddy current vector potential formulation for estimating hysteresis losses of superconductors with FEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many people these days employ only commercial finite element method (FEM) software when solving for the hysteresis losses of superconductors. Thus, the knowledge of a modeller is in the capability of using the black boxes of software efficiently. This has led to a relatively superficial examination of different formulations while the discussion stays mainly on the usage of the user interfaces of these programs. Also, if we stay only at the mercy of commercial software producers, we end up having less and less knowledge on the details of solvers. Then, it becomes more and more difficult to conceptually solve new kinds of problem. This may prevent us finding new kinds of method to solve old problems more efficiently, or finding a solution for a problem that was considered almost impossible earlier. In our earlier research, we presented the background of a co-tree gauged T-? FEM solver for computing the hysteresis losses of superconductors. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of FEM and eddy current vector potential formulation in the same problem.

  9. Intercontinental genetic structure and gene flow in Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a potential vector of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Ruan, Luzhang; Casler, Bruce; Dondua, Alexei; Gates, River H.; Johnson, J. Matthew; Kendall, Steve J.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Tracy, Diane; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in northern Alaska. Using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate genetic structure among six subspecies: C. a. arcticola,C. a. pacifica, C. a. hudsonia, C. a. sakhalina, C. a. kistchinski, and C. a. actites. We demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA can help distinguish C. a. arcticola on the Asian nonbreeding grounds with >70% accuracy depending on their relative abundance, indicating that genetics can help determine whether C. a. arcticola occurs where they may be exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) during outbreaks. Our data reveal asymmetric intercontinental gene flow, with some C. a. arcticola short-stopping migration to breed withC. a. pacifica in western Alaska. Because C. a. pacifica migrates along the Pacific Coast of North America, interactions between these subspecies and other taxa provide route for transmission of HPAI into other parts of North America.

  10. An eddy current vector potential formulation for estimating hysteresis losses of superconductors with FEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, A; Tarhasaari, T, E-mail: antti.stenvall@tut.f [Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    Many people these days employ only commercial finite element method (FEM) software when solving for the hysteresis losses of superconductors. Thus, the knowledge of a modeller is in the capability of using the black boxes of software efficiently. This has led to a relatively superficial examination of different formulations while the discussion stays mainly on the usage of the user interfaces of these programs. Also, if we stay only at the mercy of commercial software producers, we end up having less and less knowledge on the details of solvers. Then, it becomes more and more difficult to conceptually solve new kinds of problem. This may prevent us finding new kinds of method to solve old problems more efficiently, or finding a solution for a problem that was considered almost impossible earlier. In our earlier research, we presented the background of a co-tree gauged T-{psi} FEM solver for computing the hysteresis losses of superconductors. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of FEM and eddy current vector potential formulation in the same problem.

  11. Potential of cancer screening with serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and a support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is the most common disease to threaten human health. The ability to screen individuals with malignant tumours with only a blood sample would be greatly advantageous to early diagnosis and intervention. This study explores the possibility of discriminating between cancer patients and normal subjects with serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a support vector machine (SVM) through a peripheral blood sample. A total of 130 blood samples were obtained from patients with liver cancer, colonic cancer, esophageal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, gastric cancer, as well as 113 blood samples from normal volunteers. Several diagnostic models were built with the serum SERS spectra using SVM and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The results show that a diagnostic accuracy of 85.5% is acquired with a PCA algorithm, while a diagnostic accuracy of 95.8% is obtained using radial basis function (RBF), PCA–SVM methods. The results prove that a RBF kernel PCA–SVM technique is superior to PCA and conventional SVM (C-SVM) algorithms in classification serum SERS spectra. The study demonstrates that serum SERS, in combination with SVM techniques, has great potential for screening cancerous patients with any solid malignant tumour through a peripheral blood sample. (letters)

  12. Medfly Ceratitis capitata as Potential Vector for Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora: Survival and Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordax, Mónica; Piquer-Salcedo, Jaime E; Santander, Ricardo D; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Biosca, Elena G; López, María M; Marco-Noales, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring the ability of bacterial plant pathogens to survive in insects is required for elucidating unknown aspects of their epidemiology and for designing appropriate control strategies. Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogenic bacterium that causes fire blight, a devastating disease in apple and pear commercial orchards. Studies on fire blight spread by insects have mainly focused on pollinating agents, such as honeybees. However, the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most damaging fruit pests worldwide, is also common in pome fruit orchards. The main objective of the study was to investigate whether E. amylovora can survive and be transmitted by the medfly. Our experimental results show: i) E. amylovora can survive for at least 8 days inside the digestive tract of the medfly and until 28 days on its external surface, and ii) medflies are able to transmit the bacteria from inoculated apples to both detached shoots and pear plants, being the pathogen recovered from lesions in both cases. This is the first report on E. amylovora internalization and survival in/on C. capitata, as well as the experimental transmission of the fire blight pathogen by this insect. Our results suggest that medfly can act as a potential vector for E. amylovora, and expand our knowledge on the possible role of these and other insects in its life cycle. PMID:25978369

  13. Effects of a mixed vector-scalar kink-like potential for spinless particles in two-dimensional spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Antonio S.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsically relativistic problem of spinless particles subject to a general mixing of vector and scalar kink-like potentials ($\\sim \\mathrm{tanh} ,\\gamma x$) is investigated. The problem is mapped into the exactly solvable Surm-Liouville problem with the Rosen-Morse potential and exact bounded solutions for particles and antiparticles are found. The behaviour of the spectrum is discussed in some detail. An apparent paradox concerning the uncertainty principle is solved...

  14. Ruthenium complexing during sorption by graft copolymer of polyacrylonitrile fibre with poly-2-methyl-5-vnylpyridine (PAN-MVP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption of ruthenium chlorocomplexes is studied on graft copolymer of polyacrylonitrile fibre with poly-2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine (PAN-MVP). The sorption has been performed under static conditions in the course of mixing at 20 and 98 deg from 0.1-2 OM HCl, 0.1-1 m NaCl solutions. The volume of the investigated solutions constituted 25 ml, fibre weight -0.1-0.3 g. Ruthenium concentration in solutions has been changed in the limits of 5x103-2x10-2 mol/l. The fibre has been preliminarily moistened by a solution containing no ruthenium. In all cases fresh-prepared ruthenium chlorocomplex solutions have been used. It has been found that with temperature increase the PAN-MVP sorption capacitance relative to ruthenium increases (at 20 deg-1.15 mmol/g, at 98 deg-1.70 mmol/g. The ruthenium chlorocomplex sorption by pyridine fibrous sorbent from salt-acid solutions occurs by anionoexchange mechanism and is related to the formation in the sorbent phase of onium chlorocomplexes - (RPyH)2 [RuCl6]. In the course of sorbents heating pyridine compounds are subject to Anderson regroupping with formation of compounds of diamine type-[Ru(RPy)2Cl4

  15. Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.

  16. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the Palestinian West Bank: potential vectors of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Samir S; Shtayeh, Muhamad S; Khanfar, Haroun M; Warburg, Alon; Abdeen, Ziad A

    2003-05-01

    Two forms of leishmaniasis are endemic to the Jenin district in the northern region of the West Bank. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum, mainly affects infants. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects a broader age group and is probably caused by L. tropica. Although the Jenin district is the most important focus of leishmaniasis in the West Bank, the sand fly fauna of the area has never been studied in a systematic manner. We collected base-line data on sand fly species, their distribution, and their feeding preferences to facilitate risk assessments for contracting leishmaniasis. Light traps, sticky traps, insecticide knockdown collections, aspirator, and human-landing collections were used. A total of 4,082 sand flies was collected in foci of confidence limits and/or VL between June and December 1998. Nine Phlebotomus species representing seven subgenera were identified: P. (Larroussius) perfiliewi transcaucasicus Perfil'ev, P. (La.) tobbi Adler & Theodor, P. (La.) mascitti canaaniticus Adler & Theodor, P. (La.) mascitti mascitti Grassi, P. (La.) syriacus Adler & Theodor, P. (Phlebotomus) papatasi Scopoli, P. (Synphlebotomus) s.p., P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot, P. (Par.) jacusieli Theodor, P. (Adlerius) halepensis Theodor. Two other Phlebotomus subspecies, P. (La.) major major Annandale, P. (La .) neglectus Tonnoir, require confirmation. In addition, four species of the closely related genus, Sergentomyia were also found: S. (Sergentomyia) theodori Parrot, S. (S.) fallax Parrot, S. (Sintonitus) tiberiadis Adler, Theodor & Lourie, S. (Sin.) christophersi Sinton. Among five species of sand flies collected on human bait, P. papatasi constituted approximately 90% followed by P. major syriacus (8%) and P. mascitti (2%). Sand fly human-biting activity occurred through the night and it was highest between 2400 and 0300 hours. P. papatasi. P. perfiliewi, P. major and P. tobbi were the more endophilic species constituting 93% of all flies caught indoors. Seven Phlebotomus spp. constitute potential vectors of leishmaniasis but the most probable ones are as follows: P. papatasi the main human-biting species, a recognized vector of L. major (CL), P. sergenti, L. tropica (CL) and P. syriacus, L. infantum (VL). PMID:12943111

  17. Aedes hensilli as a potential vector of Chikungunya and Zika viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Guillaumot, Laurent; Yug, Lawrence; Saweyog, Steven C; Tided, Mary; Machieng, Paul; Pretrick, Moses; Marfel, Maria; Griggs, Anne; Bel, Martin; Duffy, Mark R; Hancock, W Thane; Ho-Chen, Tai; Powers, Ann M

    2014-10-01

    An epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) illness that occurred in July 2007 on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia prompted entomological studies to identify both the primary vector(s) involved in transmission and the ecological parameters contributing to the outbreak. Larval and pupal surveys were performed to identify the major containers serving as oviposition habitat for the likely vector(s). Adult mosquitoes were also collected by backpack aspiration, light trap, and gravid traps at select sites around the capital city. The predominant species found on the island was Aedes (Stegomyia) hensilli. No virus isolates were obtained from the adult field material collected, nor did any of the immature mosquitoes that were allowed to emerge to adulthood contain viable virus or nucleic acid. Therefore, laboratory studies of the probable vector, Ae. hensilli, were undertaken to determine the likelihood of this species serving as a vector for Zika virus and other arboviruses. Infection rates of up to 86%, 62%, and 20% and dissemination rates of 23%, 80%, and 17% for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue-2 viruses respectively, were found supporting the possibility that this species served as a vector during the Zika outbreak and that it could play a role in transmitting other medically important arboviruses. PMID:25299181

  18. Vector constants of motion for time-dependent Kepler and isotropic harmonic oscillator potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, O. M.; Santos, F. C.; Tort, A. C

    2000-01-01

    A method of obtaining vector constants of motion for time-independent as well as time-dependent central fields is discussed. Some well-established results are rederived in this alternative way and new ones obtained.

  19. Genetic specificity and potential for local adaptation between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jason H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.

  20. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A.; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T.; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H. L.; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A.; Wilson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13–41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  1. Potential effects of warmer worms and vectors on onchocerciasis transmission in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Perry, Malorie; White, Michael T; Garms, Rolf; Obuobie, Emmanuel; Lamberton, Poppy H L; Young, Stephen; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Intsiful, Joseph; Shen, Mingwang; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D

    2015-04-01

    Development times of eggs, larvae and pupae of vectors of onchocerciasis (Simulium spp.) and of Onchocerca volvulus larvae within the adult females of the vectors decrease with increasing temperature. At and above 25°C, the parasite could reach its infective stage in less than 7 days when vectors could transmit after only two gonotrophic cycles. After incorporating exponential functions for vector development into a novel blackfly population model, it was predicted that fly numbers in Liberia and Ghana would peak at air temperatures of 29°C and 34°C, about 3°C and 7°C above current monthly averages, respectively; parous rates of forest flies (Liberia) would peak at 29°C and of savannah flies (Ghana) at 30°C. Small temperature increases (less than 2°C) might lead to changes in geographical distributions of different vector taxa. When the new model was linked to an existing framework for the population dynamics of onchocerciasis in humans and vectors, transmission rates and worm loads were projected to increase with temperature to at least 33°C. By contrast, analyses of field data on forest flies in Liberia and savannah flies in Ghana, in relation to regional climate change predictions, suggested, on the basis of simple regressions, that 13-41% decreases in fly numbers would be expected between the present and before 2040. Further research is needed to reconcile these conflicting conclusions. PMID:25688018

  2. Validation of a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burn-up code MVP-BURN and its application to analysis of post irradiation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to confirm the reliability of a continuous-energy Monte Carlo burn-up calculation code MVP-BURN, it was applied to the burn-up benchmark problems for a high conversion LWR lattice and a BWR lattice with burnable poison rods. The results of MVP-BURN have shown good agreements with those of a deterministic code SRAC95 for burn-up changes of infinite neutron multiplication factor, conversion ratio, power distribution, and number densities of major fuel nuclides. Serious propagation of statistical errors along burn-up was not observed even in a highly heterogeneous lattice. MVP-BURN was applied to the analysis of a post irradiation experiment for a sample fuel irradiated up to 34.1 GWd/t, together with SRAC95 and SWAT. It was confirmed that the effect of statistical errors of MVP-BURN on a burned fuel composition was sufficiently small, and it could give a reference solution for other codes. In the analysis, the results of the three codes with JENDL-3.2 agreed with measured values within an error of 10% for most nuclides. However, large underestimation by about 20% was observed for 238Pu, 242mAm and 244Cm. It is probable that these discrepancies are a common problem for most current nuclear data files. (author)

  3. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Moreira, Carvalho; Cristina Maria Giordano, Dias; Elizabeth Ferreira, Rangel.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly [...] recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp.) and Lutzomyia (57 spp.). Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) whitmani, L. (N.) flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  4. Global climate change and its potential impact on disease transmission by salinity-tolerant mosquito vectors in coastal zones

    OpenAIRE

    RanjanRamasamy

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water...

  5. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Luciana Urbano dos; Andrade Carlos Fernando S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were...

  6. SWAT3.1 - the integrated burnup code system driving continuous energy Monte Carlo codes MVP and MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT is a system that combines neutronics calculation code SRAC,which is widely used in Japan, and point burnup calculation code ORIGEN2. It has been used to evaluate the composition of the uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and the fission products in the spent nuclear fuel. Based on this idea, the integrated burnup calculation code system SWAT3.1 was developed by combining the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MVP and MCNP, and ORIGEN2. This enables us to treat the arbitrary fuel geometry and to generate the effective cross section data to be used in the burnup calculation with few approximations. This report describes the outline, input data instruction and several examples of the calculation. (author)

  7. Effects of a mixed vector-scalar kink-like potential for spinless particles in two-dimensional spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro, A S

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsically relativistic problem of spinless particles subject to a general mixing of vector and scalar kink-like potentials ($\\sim \\mathrm{tanh} ,\\gamma x$) is investigated. The problem is mapped into the exactly solvable Surm-Liouville problem with the Rosen-Morse potential and exact bounded solutions for particles and antiparticles are found. The behaviour of the spectrum is discussed in some detail. An apparent paradox concerning the uncertainty principle is solved by recurring to the concept of effective Compton wavelength.

  8. Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rudiney, Ringenberg; João Roberto Spotti, Lopes; Cristiane, Müller; Wilson Sampaio de, Azevedo-Filho; Beatriz Aguiar Jordão, Paranhos; Marcos, Botton.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey of potential sharpshooter and spittlebug vectors of Xylella fastidiosa to grapevines at the São Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Pierce's disease of grapevines, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is a serious problem in some regions of North America, not yet reported in Brazil. In this study, a sur [...] vey of potential sharpshooter (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae) and spittlebug (Hemiptera, Cercopidae) vectors of X. fastidiosa was conducted in vineyards at the São Francisco River Valley, a major grape growing region in Brazil. Four vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. were sampled fortnightly from June/2005 to June/2007, using yellow sticky cards, each placed at two different heights (45 cm aboveground and 45 cm above the crop canopy) in 10 sampling localities. A total of 4,095 specimens of sharpshooters were collected, nearly all from 3 Proconiini species, Homalodisca spottii Takiya, Cavichioli & McKamey, 2006 (96.8% of the specimens), Tapajosa fulvopunctata (Signoret, 1854) (3.1%), and Tretogonia cribrata Melichar, 1926 (1 specimen). Hortensia similis (Walker, 1851) (2 specimens) was the only Cicadellini species. Only 1 cercopid specimen, belonging to Aeneolamia colon (Germar, 1821), was trapped. Even though they are not considered potential Xylella vectors, 2 Gyponini leafhoppers were collected: Curtara samera DeLong & Freytag, 1972 (11 specimens) and Curtara inflata DeLong & Freytag, 1976 (1 specimen). Homalodisca spottii was observed feeding and mating on green branches of grapevines, in addition to egg masses. Because of its prevalence on the crop canopy, occurrence throughout the year (with peaks from February to August), and ability to colonize grapevines, H. spottii could be an important vector if a X. fastidiosa strain pathogenic to grapevines becomes introduced at the São Francisco River Valley.

  9. Leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), as a potential vector of sorghum fungal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf-footed bugs from a sorghum ergot-infected field located at the USDA-ARS, Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center, College Station, TX, were collected on a weekly basis to determine whether the insects can be passive vectors of sorghum fungal pathogens. Spores from several pathogens of sor...

  10. Potential for a Second Generation of Emerging Vector Borne Diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    North America has been dealing with the consequences of the introduction of West Nile virus since it was first discovered in New York City in 1999. Currently there are numerous other vector-borne pathogens that occur in various parts of the world that could be introduced into North America and becom...

  11. Virtual screening of potential bioactive substances using the support vector machine approach

    OpenAIRE

    Byvatov, Evgeny

    2006-01-01

    Die vorliegende Dissertation stellt eine kumulative Arbeit dar, die in insgesamt acht wissenschaftlichen Publikationen (fünf publiziert, zwei eingerichtet und eine in Vorbereitung) dargelegt ist. In diesem Forschungsprojekt wurden Anwendungen von maschinellem Lernen für das virtuelle Screening von Moleküldatenbanken durchgeführt. Das Ziel war primär die Einführung und Überprüfung des Support-Vector-Machine (SVM) Ansatzes für das virtuelle Screening nach potentiellen Wirkstoffkandidat...

  12. West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Lancelot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4 in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals.

  13. Worldwide Niche and Future Potential Distribution of Culicoides imicola, a Major Vector of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Sylvain; Guis, Hélène; Tran, Annelise; Garros, Claire; Balenghien, Thomas; Kriticos, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    We modelled the ecoclimatic niche of Culicoides imicola, a major arthropod vector of midge-borne viral pathogens affecting ruminants and equids, at fine scale and on a global extent, so as to provide insight into current and future risks of disease epizootics, and increase current knowledge of the species' ecology. Based on the known distribution and ecology of C. imicola, the species' response to monthly climatic conditions was characterised using CLIMEX with 10? spatial resolution climatic datasets. The species' climatic niche was projected worldwide and under future climatic scenarios. The validated model highlights the role of irrigation in supporting the occurrence of C. imicola in arid regions. In Europe, the modelled potential distribution of C. imicola extended further West than its reported distribution, raising questions regarding ongoing process of colonization and non-climatic habitat factors. The CLIMEX model highlighted similar ecological niches for C. imicola and the Australasian C. brevitarsis raising questions on biogeography and biosecurity. Under the climate change scenarios considered, its' modelled potential distribution could expand northward in the Northern hemisphere, whereas in Africa its range may contract in the future. The biosecurity risks from bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses need to be re-evaluated in regions where the vector's niche is suitable. Under a warmer climate, the risk of vector-borne epizootic pathogens such as bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses are likely to increase as the climate suitability for C. imicola shifts poleward, especially in Western Europe. PMID:25391148

  14. Worldwide niche and future potential distribution of Culicoides imicola, a major vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Sylvain; Guis, Hélène; Tran, Annelise; Garros, Claire; Balenghien, Thomas; Kriticos, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    We modelled the ecoclimatic niche of Culicoides imicola, a major arthropod vector of midge-borne viral pathogens affecting ruminants and equids, at fine scale and on a global extent, so as to provide insight into current and future risks of disease epizootics, and increase current knowledge of the species' ecology. Based on the known distribution and ecology of C. imicola, the species' response to monthly climatic conditions was characterised using CLIMEX with 10' spatial resolution climatic datasets. The species' climatic niche was projected worldwide and under future climatic scenarios. The validated model highlights the role of irrigation in supporting the occurrence of C. imicola in arid regions. In Europe, the modelled potential distribution of C. imicola extended further West than its reported distribution, raising questions regarding ongoing process of colonization and non-climatic habitat factors. The CLIMEX model highlighted similar ecological niches for C. imicola and the Australasian C. brevitarsis raising questions on biogeography and biosecurity. Under the climate change scenarios considered, its' modelled potential distribution could expand northward in the Northern hemisphere, whereas in Africa its range may contract in the future. The biosecurity risks from bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses need to be re-evaluated in regions where the vector's niche is suitable. Under a warmer climate, the risk of vector-borne epizootic pathogens such as bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses are likely to increase as the climate suitability for C. imicola shifts poleward, especially in Western Europe. PMID:25391148

  15. Potential for entomopathogenic fungi to control Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a vector of Chagas disease in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Guadalupe, Vázquez-Martínez; Blanca Elva, Cirerol-Cruz; José Luis, Torres-Estrada; Mario Henry Rodríguez, López.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control disease vectors has become relevant because traditional chemical control methods have caused damage to the environment and led to the development of resi [...] stance among vectors. Thus, this study assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in Triatoma dimidiata. Methods Preparations of 108 conidia/ml of Gliocladium virens, Talaromyces flavus, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied topically on T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. Controls were treated with the 0.0001% Tween-80 vehicle. Mortality was evaluated and recorded daily for 30 days. The concentration required to kill 50% of T. dimidiata (LC50) was then calculated for the most pathogenic isolate. Results Pathogenicity in adults was similar among B. bassiana, G. virens and T. flavus (p>0.05) and differed from that in triatomine nymphs (p=0.009). The most entomopathogenic strains in adult triatomines were B. bassiana and G. virens, which both caused 100% mortality. In nymphs, the most entomopathogenic strain was B. bassiana, followed by G. virens. The native strain with the highest pathogenicity was G. virens, for which the LC50 for T. dimidiata nymphs was 1.98 x108 conidia/ml at 13 days after inoculation. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana and G. virens showed entomopathogenic potential in T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. However, the native G. virens strain presents a higher probability of success in the field, and G. virens should thus be considered a potential candidate for the biological control of triatomine Chagas disease vectors.

  16. West Nile virus transmission in sentinel chickens and potential mosquito vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Assane Gueye; Diaïté, Amadou; Seck, Momar Talla; Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Faye, Ousmane; Konaté, Lassana; Lancelot, Renaud

    2013-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals. PMID:24084679

  17. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  18. The distribution of potential West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae, in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Perez Alfonso

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culex spp. mosquitoes are considered to be the most important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV detected in at least 34 species of mosquitoes in the United States. In North America, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, and Culex tarsalis are all competent vectors of WNV, which is considered to be enzootic in the United States and has also been detected in equines and birds in many states of Mexico and in humans in Nuevo Leon. There is potential for WNV to be introduced into Mexico City by various means including infected mosquitoes on airplanes, migrating birds, ground transportation and infected humans. Little is known of the geographic distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and hybrids in Mexico City. Culex pipiens pipiens preferentially feed on avian hosts; Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus have historically been considered to prefer mammalian hosts; and hybrids of these two species could theoretically serve as bridge vectors to transmit WNV from avian hosts to humans and other mammalian hosts. In order to address the potential of WNV being introduced into Mexico City, we have determined the identity and spatial distribution of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes and their hybrids. Results Mosquito larvae collected from 103 sites throughout Mexico City during 2004-2005 were identified as Culex, Culiseta or Ochlerotatus by morphological analysis. Within the genus Culex, specimens were further identified as Culex tarsalis or as belonging to the Culex pipiens complex. Members of the Culex pipiens complex were separated by measuring the ratio of the dorsal and ventral arms (DV/D ratio of the male genitalia and also by using diagnostic primers designed for the Ace.2 gene. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was the most abundant form collected. Conclusions Important WNV vectors species, Cx. p. pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis, are all present in Mexico City. Hybrids of Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus were also collected and identified. The presence and abundance of these WNV competent vectors is a cause for concern. Understanding the distribution of these vectors can help improve viral surveillance activities and mosquito control efforts in Mexico City.

  19. Nielsen identities for gauge-fixing vectors and composite effective potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how to derive the Nielsen identities which govern the gauge dependence of physical quantities and the effective action for the gauge fixing vectors in both the 't Hooft gauge and in the planar gauge by using an extended set of BRS transformations. We also show that it is possible to derive the identities for an effective action which depends on composite operators. (orig.)

  20. DYNAMICS OF THE PLAGUE TRANSMISSION CYCLE IN CENTRAL JAVA (ECOLOGY OF POTENTIAL FLEA VECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Turner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Setelah begitu lama tidak ada laporan mengenai peristiwa penyakit pes di Indonesia, maka tiba-tiba pada tahun 1968 - 1969 dilaporkan adanya 102 penderita, 42 meninggal dan tahun 1969 - 1970 penderita, 2 meninggal. Oleh karena itu diadakan suatu penelitian untuk mendapatkan data-data ecology penyakit pes di Boyolali, Jawa Tengah. Walaupun tidak ada peningkatan jumlah penderita, pada waktu itu telah dapat diisolasi adanya bakteri pes dari binatang mengerat dan pinjal. Ini berarti transmisi masih berlangsung; terus dan selalu mengancam kesehatan penduduk. Daerah infeksi Boyolali terdapat dilereng gunung Merapi dan Merbabu diatas ketinggian 1.000 m. Tiga jenis pinjal Xenopsylla cheopis, Stivalius cognatus dan Neopsylla sondaica ada hubungannya dengan binatang menyusui didaerah tersebut. Diatas ketinggian 1.000 m S. cognatus dan N. sondaica merupakan pinjal yang paling banyak ditemukan didaerah ladang, dan X. cheopis diperumahan des Pada ketinggian kurang dari 1.000 m tidak ditemukan S. cognatus dan N. sondaica sedangkan X. cheopis ditemukan didaerah ladang dan perumahan desa. Walaupun X. cheopis merupakan vector yang effisien dan jarang ditemukan didaerah ladang maka diduga bahwa pinjal tersebut tidak utama memegang peranan dalam penularan ini. Namun demikian pada masa epizootik X. cheopis mempunyai peranan pada siklus penularan antara binatang menyusui, binatang mengerat dan manusia. Sedangkan S. cognatus diduga merupakan vector utama, dan N. sondaica vector kedua, pada penularan pes. Jarangnya vector pada daerah ketinggian kurang 1.000 m, memperlihatkan bahwa pes di Jawa bersifat pegunungan. Kepadatan binatang menyusui yang merupakan reservoir utama dari penyakit pes yaitu Rattus exulans dan tiomanicus lebih banyak pada daerah ketinggian diatas 1.000 m. Binatang mengerat dan pinjal jarang ditemukan didaerah ladang, sedangkan jenis hutan di pinggiran sering ditemukan didaerah tempat tinggal, sehingga mengakibatkan kemungkinan terjadinya penularan penyakit pes pada manusia. Pengamatan pendahuluan menunjukkan bahwa berbagai jenis pinjal hidup pada binatang menyusui yang paling sering ditemukan saja baik diladang maupun di perumahan.

  1. Leafhoppers and Cixiids in Phytoplasma-infected Carrot Fields: Species Composition and Potential Phytoplasma Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Drobnjakovi?; Pantelija Peri?; Dejan Mar?i?; Luca Picciau; Alberto Alma; Jelena Mitrovi?; Bojan Duduk; Assunta Bertaccini

    2010-01-01

    The first molecular analysis of samples collected in southern Backa (Serbia) confirmed the presence of aster yellows (16SrI) and stolbur phytoplasmas (16SrXII) in insects belonging to the family Cicadellidae, as well as in carrot plants where the insects were collected. A correct identification of the phytoplasmas and their vectors is essential to arrange effective control strategies to prevent diseases associated with phytoplasmas from spreading to carrots...

  2. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Gianotti, Rebecca Louise; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less tha...

  3. Gap opening in single-layer graphene in the presence of periodic scalar and vector potentials within the continuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gap opening at the Dirac point of the single-layer graphene with periodic scalar and vector potentials has been theoretically investigated under the continuum model. The symmetry analysis indicates that the two-fold degeneracy at the Dirac point can be lifted when the potentials break both the chiral symmetry and the time-reversal symmetry. With the perturbation theory, we derive an analytical expression (gap equation) for gap opening at the Dirac point. Furthermore, the bandgap from the gap equation agrees well with the exact result, when the applied potentials are weak. -- Highlights: ? We analysis the relationship of the degeneracy of the Dirac point and the symmetry of the Hamiltonian. ? We derive a gap equation at the Dirac point analytically with perturbation theory. ? Our gap equation shows a gap would be opened at the Dirac point with both electric and magnetic superlattice. ? Our gap equation is confirmed by the numerical calculation.

  4. Analysis of one month of CHAMP state vector and accelerometer data for the recovery of the gravity potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Howe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy conservation method is based on knowledge of the state vector and measurements of nonconservative forces. This is or will be provided by CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE. Here the analysis of one month of CHAMP state vector and accelerometer data is described. The energy conservation method is used to estimate the gravity potential at satellite altitude. When doing so we consider the tidal potential from the sun and the moon, the explicit time variation of the gravity potential in inertial space and loss of energy due to external forces. Fast Spherical Collocation have been used to estimate a gravity field model to degree and order 90, UCPH2002 04. This gravity field model is compared to EGM96 and EIGEN-2. The largest differences with respect to EGM96 are found at those places where the gravity data used to determine EGM96 had the largest uncertainty. EIGEN-2 and UCPH2002 04 are similar, though there are some differences in Antarctica and Central Asia.

  5. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Luciana Urbano dos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  6. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (vectorization and parallelization). Progress report fiscal 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuki, Shigeru; Kawai, Wataru; Nemoto, Toshiyuki [Fujitsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ogasawara, Shinobu; Kume, Etsuo; Adachi, Masaaki; Kawasaki, Nobuo [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (Tokai Site), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yatake, Yo-ichi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

  7. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (vectorization and parallelization). Progress report fiscal 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors. In this vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics NTV (n-particle, Temperature and Velocity) Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated Propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model / multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. In the porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. (author)

  8. Boundary element analysis method for 3-D transient eddy current problems based on the second order vector potential formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of transient eddy current has drawn more and more attention in the research of electrical engineering, for instance, in the design of Tokamak fusion device. This paper deals with the Boundary Element Analysis Method for 3-D transient eddy current problems formulated in terms of the Second Order Vector Potential (SOVP). Indirect boundary integral equations are derived using time-dependent fundamental solution and the fictitious source densities. In numerical implementation, a time stepping convolution approach is adopted to eliminate the need for volume discretization and domain integration. Numerical results of a benchmark problem are provided to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the technique

  9. West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Renaud Lancelot; Ousmane Faye; Lassana Konaté; Nathalie Vachiéry; Rosalie Aprelon; Jérémy Bouyer; Momar Talla Seck; Thierry Lefrançois; Amadou Diaïté; Assane Gueye Fall

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the riv...

  10. The masses of vector mesons in holographic QCD at finite chiral chemical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Afonin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Central heavy-ion collisions may induce sizeable fluctuations of the topological charge. This effect is expected to distort the dispersion relation for the hadron masses. We construct a general setup for a compact description of this phenomenon in the framework of bottom-up holographic approach to QCD. A couple of soft wall holographic models are proposed for the vector mesons. The states having different circular polarizations are shown to have different effective mass. The requirement of stability imposes strong constraints on the possible choice of models.

  11. The masses of vector mesons in holographic QCD at finite chiral chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, S. S.; Andrianov, A. A.; Espriu, D.

    2015-05-01

    Central heavy-ion collisions may induce sizeable fluctuations of the topological charge. This effect is expected to distort the dispersion relation for the hadron masses. We construct a general setup for a compact description of this phenomenon in the framework of bottom-up holographic approach to QCD. A couple of soft wall holographic models are proposed for the vector mesons. The states having different circular polarizations are shown to have different effective mass. The requirement of stability imposes strong constraints on the possible choice of models.

  12. Complexing of ruthenium during sorption by a graft copolymer of a polyacrylonitrile fiber with poly-2-methvl-5-vinylpyridine (PAN-MVP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the sorption of chlorine complexes of ruthenium (IV) on the graft copolymer of a polyacrylonitrile fiber with poly-2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine (PAN-MVP). The composition of the fiber is illustrated. It is shown that sorption of chlorine complexes of ruthenium (IV) from acid solutions by a pyridine fiber sorbent takes place according to an anion-exchange mechanism and is due to the formation of compounds of the diamine type (Ru(RPy)2Cl4)

  13. Leafhoppers and Cixiids in Phytoplasma-infected Carrot Fields: Species Composition and Potential Phytoplasma Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Drobnjakovi?

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first molecular analysis of samples collected in southern Ba?ka (Serbia confirmed the presence of aster yellows (16SrI and stolbur phytoplasmas (16SrXII in insects belonging to the family Cicadellidae, as well as in carrot plants where the insects were collected. A correct identification of the phytoplasmas and their vectors is essential to arrange effective control strategies to prevent diseases associated with phytoplasmas from spreading to carrots and other vegetable crops. In order to enhance knowledgeabout insect vectors of aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas in Serbia, Cicadellidae and Cixiidae (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha, the most common vectors of these phytoplasmas,were monitored in southern Ba?ka during 2008. Adults leaf- and planthoppers were collected and identified at species level using standard entomological methods,and tested for phytoplasma presence by means of PCR/RFLP. A total of 13 insect species of Cicadellidae were identified, as follows: a three species of the subfamily Agallinae: Anaceratagallia ribauti (Ossiannilsson, Anaceratagallia venosa (Fourcroy,and Anaceratagallia laevis (Ribaut; b seven species of the subfamily Deltocephalinae: Psammotettix confinis (Dahlbom, Psammotettix striatus (Linnaues Psammottettix alienus (Dahlbom, Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén, Ophiola decumana (Kontkanen,Errastunus ocellaris Fallén, and Scaphoideus titanus Ball; c three species of the subfamily Typhlocibinae: Eupteryx atropunctata (Goeze, Eupteryx mellissae Curtis, Zyginidia pullula (Boheman. Female specimens of the genus Euscelis (Deltocephalinae were also collected, as well as one species of Reptalus quinquecostatus (Dufour of the family Cixiidae. Stolbur phytoplasmas were detected in A. laevis, A. ribauti, A. venosa, P. striatus, P. confinis and P. alienus. The species: A. laevis, O. decumana, and P. confinis were AY-infected (subgroup 16SrI-A, while subgroup 16SrI-C was found only in one specimen of P. confinis. Since some aster yellows- and stolbur-infected species of the genera Psammotettix and Anaceratagallia (especially P. confinis and A. laevis were regularly and commonly found in the infected carrot fields during the whole vegetative period, they could play a significant role in transmitting and spreading these pathogens in natural environment.

  14. Ecological niche modelling of potential West Nile virus vector mosquito species and their geographical association with equine epizootics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Mulatti, Paolo; Severini, Francesco; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Bongiorno, Gioia; Khoury, Cristina; Bianchi, Riccardo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Patregnani, Tommaso; Bonfanti, Lebana; Rezza, Giovanni; Capelli, Gioia; Busani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, West Nile virus (WNV) equine outbreaks have occurred annually since 2008. Characterizing WNV vector habitat requirements allows for the identification of areas at risk of viral amplification and transmission. Maxent-based ecological niche models were developed using literature records of 13 potential WNV Italian vector mosquito species to predict their habitat suitability range and to investigate possible geographical associations with WNV equine outbreak occurrence in Italy from 2008 to 2010. The contribution of different environmental variables to the niche models was also assessed. Suitable habitats for Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles maculipennis were widely distributed; Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus geniculatus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Coquillettidia richiardii, Aedes vexans, and Anopheles plumbeus were concentrated in north-central Italy; Aedes cinereus, Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus dorsalis, and Culiseta longiareolata were restricted to coastal/southern areas. Elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables showed the highest predictive power. Host population and landscape variables provided minor contributions. WNV equine outbreaks had a significantly higher probability to occur in habitats suitable for Cx. modestus and Cx. pipiens, providing circumstantial evidence that the potential distribution of these two species coincides geographically with the observed distribution of the disease in equines. PMID:24121802

  15. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Nyamunura Mweya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods: Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results: Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion: Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods.

  16. Predicting distribution of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex, potential vectors of Rift Valley fever virus in relation to disease epidemics in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement Nyamunura; Kimera, Sharadhuli Iddi; Kija, John Bukombe; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The East African region has experienced several Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks since the 1930s. The objective of this study was to identify distributions of potential disease vectors in relation to disease epidemics. Understanding disease vector potential distributions is a major concern for disease transmission dynamics. Methods Diverse ecological niche modelling techniques have been developed for this purpose: we present a maximum entropy (Maxent) approach for estimating distributions of potential RVF vectors in un-sampled areas in East Africa. We modelled the distribution of two species of mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens complex) responsible for potential maintenance and amplification of the virus, respectively. Predicted distributions of environmentally suitable areas in East Africa were based on the presence-only occurrence data derived from our entomological study in Ngorongoro District in northern Tanzania. Results Our model predicted potential suitable areas with high success rates of 90.9% for A. aegypti and 91.6% for C. pipiens complex. Model performance was statistically significantly better than random for both species. Most suitable sites for the two vectors were predicted in central and northwestern Tanzania with previous disease epidemics. Other important risk areas include western Lake Victoria, northern parts of Lake Malawi, and the Rift Valley region of Kenya. Conclusion Findings from this study show distributions of vectors had biological and epidemiological significance in relation to disease outbreak hotspots, and hence provide guidance for the selection of sampling areas for RVF vectors during inter-epidemic periods. PMID:24137533

  17. Assessing the potential of support vector machine for estimating daily solar radiation using sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Support vector machine is used to estimate daily solar radiation from sunshine duration. • Seven SVM models using different input attributes are evaluated using 35 years long term data. • SVM models significantly outperform the empirical models. • The optimal SVM model is proposed. - Abstract: Estimation of solar radiation from sunshine duration offers an important alternative in the absence of measured solar radiation. However, due to the dynamic nature of atmosphere, accurate estimation of daily solar radiation has been being a challenging task. This paper presents an application of Support vector machine (SVM) to estimation of daily solar radiation using sunshine duration. Seven SVM models using different input attributes and five empirical sunshine-based models are evaluated using meteorological data at three stations in Liaoning province in China. All the SVM models give good performances and significantly outperform the empirical models. The newly developed model, SVM1 using sunshine ratio as input attribute, is preferred due to its greater accuracy and simple input attribute. It performs better in winter, while highest root mean square error and relative root mean square error are obtained in summer. The season-dependent SVM model is superior to the fixed model in estimation of daily solar radiation for winter, while consideration of seasonal variation of the data sets cannot improve the results for spring, summer and autumn. Moreover, daily solar radiation could be well estimated by SVM1 using the data from nearby stations. The results indicate that the SVM method would be a promising alternative over the traditional approaches for estimation of daily solar radiation

  18. The fully non-linear post-Friedmann frame-dragging vector potential: Magnitude and time evolution from N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Daniel B; Wands, David

    2015-01-01

    Newtonian simulations are routinely used to examine the matter dynamics on non-linear scales. However, even on these scales, Newtonian gravity is not a complete description of gravitational effects. A post-Friedmann approach shows that the leading order correction to Newtonian theory is the existence of a vector potential in the metric. This vector potential can be calculated from N-body simulations, requiring a method for extracting the velocity field. Here, we present the full details of our calculation of the post-Friedmann vector potential, using the Delauney Tesselation Field Estimator (DTFE) code. We include a detailed examination of the robustness of our numerical result, including the effects of box size and mass resolution on the extracted fields. We present the power spectrum of the vector potential and find that the power spectrum of the vector potential is $\\sim 10^5$ times smaller than the power spectrum of the fully non-linear scalar gravitational potential at redshift zero. Comparing our numeri...

  19. Comparison of osteogenic potentials of human rat BMP4 and BMP6 gene therapy using [E1-] and [E1-,E2b-] adenoviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Li, Jin Zhong Li, Debra D. Pittman, Andy Amalfitano, Gerald R. Hankins, Gregory A. Helm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenic potentials of some recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP first-generation adenoviral vectors (ADhBMPs are significantly limited in immunocompetent animals. It is unclear what role expression of viral proteins and foreign proteins transduced by adenoviral vectors play in the host immune response and in ectopic bone formation. In this study two sets of experiments were designed and performed. First, rat BMP6 cDNA were amplified, sequenced, and recombined in first-generation adenoviral vector (ADrBMP6. A comparison of human and rat BMP6 adenoviral vectors demonstrated identical osteogenic activities in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent rats. Second, the activities of recombinant human BMP6 in E1- (ADhBMP6 and [E1-,E2b-] ( [E1-,E2b-]ADGFP&hBMP6, and [E1-,E2b-]ADhBMP6 adenoviral vectors were compared in both in vitro and in vivo models. Similar activities of these two generations of BMP adenoviral vectors were found in all models. These results indicate that the amount of viral gene expression and the source of the BMP cDNA are not major factors in the interruption of osteogenic potentials of recombinant BMP6 adenoviral vectors in immunocompetent animals.

  20. Preliminary assessment of avian stomach oils: a vector of contaminants to chicks and potential for diet analysis and biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen L; Wang, Shiway W; Mackay, Don; Mallory, Mark L; Blais, Jules M

    2010-09-01

    Bird species from the order Procellariiformes or petrels, including the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), produce high lipid and high energy content stomach oils from the prey they consume, which enables them to exploit distant marine food sources. Stomach oils are also used as a food source for chicks and for defensive purposes. Samples of stomach oils from two Arctic colonies, St. George Island Alaska, USA and Cape Vera, Devon Island Nunavut, Canada, were collected and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. SigmaPCB concentrations ranged from 13 to 236 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and SigmaDDT concentrations from 5 to 158 ng g(-1) ww and were similar in both sites, though differences in chemical signatures were apparent. Stomach oils are a rich energy source; however, they may also provide a higher dose of contaminants per unit energy than the direct consumption of prey items, as illustrated using mass and energy balance calculations to estimate chick exposure to SigmaDDT for hypothetical stomach oil and whole prey diets. The results of this study suggest that stomach oils are an important vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and should be considered in future risk assessments of northern fulmars and other species of petrels. To our knowledge this is the first study of stomach oils as an overlooked vector of organochlorine contaminants to chicks and as a potentially valuable medium for dietary analysis and noninvasive biomonitoring both of petrel dietary exposure and of marine contaminant concentrations. PMID:20707316

  1. Evaluation of a temperate climate mosquito, Ochlerotatus detritus (=Aedes detritus), as a potential vector of Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie-Impoinvil, L; Impoinvil, D E; Galbraith, S E; Dillon, R J; Ranson, H; Johnson, N; Fooks, A R; Solomon, T; Baylis, M

    2015-03-01

    The U.K. has not yet experienced a confirmed outbreak of mosquito-borne virus transmission to people or livestock despite numerous autochthonous epizootic and human outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases on the European mainland. Indeed, whether or not British mosquitoes are competent to transmit arboviruses has not been established. Therefore, the competence of a local (temperate) British mosquito species, Ochlerotatus detritus (=Aedes detritus) (Diptera: Culicidae) for transmission of a member of the genus Flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as a model for mosquito-borne virus transmission was assessed. The JEV competence in a laboratory strain of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), a previously incriminated JEV vector, was also evaluated as a positive control. Ochlerotatus detritus adults were reared from field-collected juvenile stages. In oral infection bioassays, adult females developed disseminated infections and were able to transmit virus as determined by the isolation of virus in saliva secretions. When pooled at 7-21?days post-infection, 13% and 25% of O.?detritus were able to transmit JEV when held at 23?°C and 28?°C, respectively. Similar results were obtained for C.?quinquefasciatus. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that a British mosquito species, O.?detritus, is a potential vector of an exotic flavivirus. PMID:25087926

  2. Mapping the potential distribution of #Bandicota indica$, vector of zoonoses in Thailand, by use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (a case of Nakhon Pathom Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Herbreteau, Vincent; Gonzalez, Jean-paul; Andrianasolo, Haja; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Hugot, Jean-pierre

    2005-01-01

    Space technologies have been used increasingly for assessing the risk of infection by vector-borne diseases, providing tools for delimiting the distribution of vectors. As rodent-borne diseases are a growing concern in Thailand since the emergence of leptospirosis starting in 1998, this study was set up to determine the hazard, related to the potential presence of the main rodent with medical importance, Bandicota indica (Bechstein, 1800), the great bandicoot rat, widely distributed in the co...

  3. Linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan and Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller Douglas O; Parenti Michael S; Hassan Ali N; Beier John C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as An. arabiensis. Methods Two different but complementary spatial models were linked to demonstrate the...

  4. [The relationship between mosquito vectors and aquatic birds in the potential transmission of 2 arboviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adames, A J; Dutary, B; Tejera, H; Adames, E; Galindo, P

    1993-05-01

    The authors studied for two years the role of the chicks of aquatic birds in the arboviral cycles in coastal lagoons in central Panama in order to determine the relation between Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa and Mansonia (Mansonia) dyari mosquitoes in the transmission and dissemination of the viruses of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE). Mosquitoes were captured every fifteen days on two consecutive nights to isolate the virus, using light traps (CDC) and baited traps. The attempts to isolate the virus were made using Vero cell cultures and the determination of antibodies was performed. The results of the serologic tests seem to indicate that four bird species: the ex (?) heron (Bubulcus ibis), the American heron (Casmerodius albus), the spoon-billed duck (Cochlearius cochlearius) and the needle crow (Anhinga anhinga) could function as intermediate hosts in the transmission cycle of SLE. Two species, the ibis (Endocimus albus) and the spoon-billed duck (Cochlearius cochlearius) could also be intermediate hosts of VEE in the coastal lagoons of Panama. The presence of antibodies in chicks could indicate an infection acquired recently, after their birth, in this area. The VEE virus was recovered from blood filled mosquitoes which had fed on a spoon-billed duck probably infected and exposed in a Trinidad #10 trap. No SLE virus was isolated. Other unknown viruses were isolated from mosquitoes selected for these studies, such as C. ocossa and M. dyari. The results obtained with these studies indicate the need for more studies utilizing new field techniques in order to establish a link between SLE and VEE, the vector mosquitoes and the aquatic birds in the coastal lagoons of the area under investigation. PMID:8101009

  5. On the effects of grid ill-conditioning in three dimensional finite element vector potential magnetostatic field computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Demerdash, N. A.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of finite element grid geometries and associated ill-conditioning were studied in single medium and multi-media (air-iron) three dimensional magnetostatic field computation problems. The sensitivities of these 3D field computations to finite element grid geometries were investigated. It was found that in single medium applications the unconstrained magnetic vector potential curl-curl formulation in conjunction with first order finite elements produce global results which are almost totally insensitive to grid geometries. However, it was found that in multi-media (air-iron) applications first order finite element results are sensitive to grid geometries and consequent elemental shape ill-conditioning. These sensitivities were almost totally eliminated by means of the use of second order finite elements in the field computation algorithms. Practical examples are given in this paper to demonstrate these aspects mentioned above.

  6. Kronig-Penney model of scalar and vector potentials in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a one-dimensional (1D) superlattice (SL) on graphene consisting of very high and very thin (?-function) magnetic and potential barriers with zero average potential and zero magnetic field. We calculate the energy spectrum analytically, study it in different limiting cases, and determine the condition under which an electron beam incident on an SL is highly collimated along its direction. In the absence of the magnetic SL the collimation is very sensitive to the value of W/Ws and is optimal for W/Ws = 1, where W is the distance between the positive and negative barriers and L = W + Ws is the size of the unit cell. In the presence of only the magnetic SL the collimation decreases and the symmetry of the spectrum around ky is broken for W/Ws?1. In addition, a gap opens which depends on the strength of the magnetic field. We also investigate the effect of spatially separated potential and magnetic ?-function barriers and predict a better collimation in specific cases.

  7. Potential transmission of West Nile virus in the British Isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, J M; Snow, K R; Leach, S

    2005-03-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) transmitted by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans. After its discovery in tropical Africa, sporadic outbreaks of WNV occurred during recent decades in Eurasia, but not the British Isles. WNV reached New York in 1999 and spread to California by 2003, causing widespread outbreaks of West Nile encephalitis across North America, transmitted by many species of mosquitoes, mainly Culex spp. The periodic reappearance of WNV in parts of continental Europe (from southern France to Romania) gives rise to concern over the possibility of WNV invading the British Isles. The British Isles have about 30 endemic mosquito species, several with seasonal abundance and other eco-behavioural characteristics predisposing them to serve as potential WNV bridge vectors from birds to humans. These include: the predominantly ornithophilic Culex pipiens L. and its anthropophilic biotype molestus Forskal; tree-hole adapted Anopheles plumbeus Stephens; saltmarsh-adapted Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas, Oc. detritus Haliday and Oc. dorsalis (Meigen); Coquillettidia richiardii Ficalbi, Culiseta annulata Schrank and Cs. morsitans (Theobald) from vegetated freshwater pools; Aedes cinereus Meigen, Oc. cantans Meigen and Oc. punctor Kirby from seasonal woodland pools. Those underlined have been found carrying WNV in other countries (12 species), including the rarer British species Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex europaeus Ramos et al., Cx. modestus Ficalbi and Oc. sticticus (Meigen) as well as the Anopheles maculipennis Meigen complex (mainly An. atroparvus van Thiel and An. messeae Falleroni in Britain). Those implicated as key vectors of WNV in Europe are printed bold (four species). So far there is no proof of any arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes in the British Isles, although antibodies to Sindbis, Tahyna, Usutu and West Nile viruses have been detected in British birds. Neighbouring European countries have enzootic WNV and human infections transmitted by mosquito species that are present in the British Isles. However, except for localized urban infestations of Cx. pipiens biotype molestus that can be readily eliminated, there appear to be few situations in the British Isles where humans and livestock are exposed to sustained risks of exposure to potential WNV vectors. Monitoring of mosquitoes and arbovirus surveillance are required to guard the British Isles against WNV outbreaks and introduction of more anthropophilic mosquitoes such as Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) that have recently invaded Europe, since they transmit arboviruses elsewhere. PMID:15752172

  8. Ants in a hospital environment and their potential as mechanical bacterial vectors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wanda Ramos dos Santos, Lima; Sirlei Garcia, Marques; Fernanda Souto, Rodrigues; Jose Manuel Macario, Rebelo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We studied the richness and abundance of ant species, their bacteria and the bacteria isolated from patient clinical samples. Methods Ants were collected with baited traps at 64 sites in a public hospital in São Luis, State of Maranhão, Brazil. Results In total, 1,659 ants from 14 [...] species were captured. The most frequent species were Crematogaster victima, Solenopsis saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Camponotus vittatus and Paratrechina fulva. Forty-one species of bacteria were isolated from the ants and 18 from patients. Conclusions Ants are potential vehicles for pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, and they can represent a risk factor in nosocomial infections.

  9. Analysis of sodium void reactivity of control rod regions in Phenix sized core with Monte Carlo Code MVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cause of the abnormal power change phenomenon of Phenix core is studied under the assumption that a negative reactivity insertion is induced by a gas blow into the control rod assemblies. The size and layout of the core analyzed are set to simulate the Phenix core while material compositions of the assemblies are assumed to be a typical MOX fuel core and the control rod channel is assumed to be a simple sodium plenum zone at intact. The calculation has been conducted by using three-dimensional continuation energy Monte Carlo code MVP with JENDL-3.3 library so that the neutron moderation and leakage through the void channel can be evaluated exactly. The result of the analysis shows the negative void reactivity is about -80 cents when the sodium below the level of 1/3 of core height from the core bottom of the seven control assemblies including the center shutdown system is voided while it is about -1 cents when the sodium between the core bottom to the core top is voided in the same assemblies. The void reactivity for the region above the level of 2/3 of core height is again about -80 cents. The negative reactivity of -80 cents is consistent to the power decrease of about 40 % at the beginning of the event if zero-power reactor model can be applied to the transient of this phenomenon. The successive power swing observed can be explained by the reactivity change if the gas flows up through the control assemblies in which the cross sectional area of the gas is reduce cross sectional area of the gas is reduced by a half at the upper level of the assembly due to the absorber pins. (authors)

  10. Maggots as potential vector for pathogen transmission and consequences for infection control in waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeschlein, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Debridement therapy with sterile bred larvae in non-healing wounds is a widely accepted safe and efficient treatment modality. However, during application in the contaminated wound bed microbial contamination with potential microbial pathogen spread after escape from the wound or after unreliable disposal procedure may happen, particularly in the case of not using bio-bags. The aims of this work were first to investigate the release of ingested bacteria into the environment by maggots and second to examine the common practice of freezing the maggots after use and/or disposal in trash-bags. Potential methods for hygienic safe disposal of used maggots should be deduced.Methods: First, Maggots were contaminated with by allowing them to crawl over an agar surface completely covered with bacterial growth over 24 h at 37°C. After external disinfection maggots were transferred onto sterile Columbia agar plates and shedding of was visualized. Second, maggots were frozen at –20°C for 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min. After exposure, the larvae were transferred onto Columbia blood agar with consecutive incubation at 37°C over 48 h. The larvae were analyzed visually for mobility and eating activities. The frozen bodies of dead larvae were examined for viable bacteria.Results: We could demonstrate that maggots release formerly ingested pathogens (. Freezing at –20°C for at least 60 min was able to kill all maggots, however the contaminant bacteria inside could survive.Conclusion: Since freezing is apparently able to kill maggots but not to reliabely inactivate the ingested bacterial pathogens, we recommend the disposal of free-range larvae in screw cap vials after use to achieve full hygienic control.

  11. A potential vector of Schistosoma mansoni in Uruguay Um vetor potencial do Schistosoma mansoni no Uruguai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibily experiments were carried out with a Biomphalaria straminea-like planorbid snail (Biomphalaria aff. straminea, species inquirenda from Espinillar, near Salto (Uruguay, in the area of the Salto Grande reservoir, exposed individually to 5 miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni (SJ2 and BH2 strains. Of 130 snails exposed to the SJ2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria tenagophila, 30 became infected (23%. The prepatent (precercaria period ranged from 35 to 65 days. The cercarial output was irregular, following no definite pattern, varying from 138 to 76,075 per snail (daily average 4.3 to 447.5 and ending up with death. Three specimens that died, without having shed cercarie, on days 69 (2 and 80 after exposure to miracidia, had developing secondary sporocysts in their tissues, justifying the prospect of a longer precercarial period in these cases. In a control group of 120 B. teangophila, exposed to the SJ2 strain, 40 became infected, showing an infection rate (33.3% not significantly different from that of the Espinillar snail (X [raised to the power of] 2 = 3.26. No cercarie were produced by any of the Espinilar snails exposed to miracidia of the BH2 strain, originally infective to Biomphalaria glabrata. Four specimens showed each a primary sporocyst in one tentacle, which disappeared between 15 and 25 days post-exposure, and two others died with immature, very slender sporocysts in their tissues on days 36 and 54. In a control group of 100 B. glabrata exposed to BH2 miracidia, 94 shed cercariae (94% and 6 remained negative. Calculation of Frandsen's (1979a, b TCP/100 index shows that "Espinillar Biomphalaria-SJ2 S. mansoni" is a vector-parasite "compatible" combination. Seeing that tenagophila-borne schistosomiasis is prevalent in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states and has recently spread sothwards to Santa Catarina state, and the range of B. tenagophila overlaps taht of the Espinillar Biomphalaria, the possibility of schistosomiais establishing itself in Uruguay, although not imminent, is not to be disregarded.Foram feitas provas de suscetibilidade com um molusco planorbídeo semelhante à Biomphalaria straminea (species inquirenda de Espinillar, localidade próxima a Salto (Uruguay, na área da represa de Salto Grande, cada exemplar sendo exposto individualmente a 5 miracídios de Schistosom mansoni (cepas SJ2 e BH2. De 130 exemplares expostos à cepa SJ2, originalmente infectante para B. tenagophila, 30 se infectaram (23%. O período pré-patente (pré-cercariano variou de 35 a 65 dias. A emissão de cercárias foi irregular, não seguindo padrão definido, variando de 138 a 76.075 por exemplar (média diária de 4,3 a 447,5 e teminando com a morte. Três exemplares que morreram, sem ter eliminado cercárias, no 69º (2 e no 80º dia após exposição aos miracídios, tinham esporocistos secundários em desenvolvimento nos tecidos, justificando a expectativa de um período pré-patente mais longo nestes casos. Em um grupo-controle de 120 B. tenagophila, exposta à cepa SJ2, 40 se infectaram, não diferindo significativamente seu índice de infecção (33.3% daquele do planorbídeo de Espinillar (X [ao quadrado]=3.26. De 100 exemplares de Espinillar expostos a miracídios da cepa BH2, originalmente infectante para B. glabrata, nenhum produziu cercárias. Um esporocisto primário formou-se em um tentáculo em 4 exemplares, desaparecendo entre 15 e 25 dias após a exposição. Dois outros exemplares morreram com esporocistos imaturos e muito delgados nos tecidos (4 em um caso e 3 no outro, no 36º e 54º dias. Em um grupo-controle de 100 B. glabrata exposto à cepa BH2, 94 emitiram cercárias (94% e 6 permaneceram negativos. De acordo com o índice TCP/100 de Frandsen (1979a,b, a combinação Biomphalaria de Espinillar-S. mansoni SJ2 constitui uma relação vetor-parasito "compatível". Tendo em vista que a xistosomose transmitida pela B. tenagophila é prevalente nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo e recentemente propagou-se para o sul até o estado de Santa Catarina, e a dist

  12. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. A.; Hayhoe, K.; Presley, S. M.; Allen, L. J. S.; Long, K. R.; Cox, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems.

  13. Potential impacts of climate change on the ecology of dengue and its mosquito vector the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns caused by global climate change may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases. We examine the potential impacts of climate change on the transmission and maintenance dynamics of dengue, a resurging mosquito-vectored infectious disease. In particular, we project changes in dengue season length for three cities: Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL and Lubbock, TX. These cities are located on the edges of the range of the Asian tiger mosquito within the United States of America and were chosen as test cases. We use a disease model that explicitly incorporates mosquito population dynamics and high-resolution climate projections. Based on projected changes under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1fi (higher) and B1 (lower) emission scenarios as simulated by four global climate models, we found that the projected warming shortened mosquito lifespan, which in turn decreased the potential dengue season. These results illustrate the difficulty in predicting how climate change may alter complex systems. (letter)

  14. Personal clothing as a potential vector of respiratory virus transmission in childcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralton, Jan; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Rawlinson, William D

    2015-06-01

    Previous investigations of fomite transmission have focused on the presence of pathogens on inanimate objects in clinical settings. There has been limited investigation of fomite transmission in non-clinical pediatric settings where there is a high prevalence of respiratory virus infections. Over a 5 week period, this study investigated whether the personal clothing of teachers working in childcare centers was contaminated with viral RNA, and potentially could mediate virus transmission. Matched morning and evening clothing and nasal samples were collected for 313 teacher work days (TWDs). Human rhinoviruses (hRV) RNA were detected from samples using real-time PCR. Human rhinovirus RNA was detected in clothing samples on 16 TWDs and in nasal samples on 32 TWDs. There were no TWDs when teachers provided both positive nasal and clothing samples and only three TWDs when hRV persisted on clothing for the entire day. The detection of hRV RNA was significantly predicted by self-recognition of symptomatic illness by the teacher 2 days prior to detection. These findings suggest that teachers' personal clothing in childcare settings is unlikely to facilitate the transmission of hRV. J. Med. Virol. 87:925-930, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25649480

  15. Assessment of cholesterol-derived ionic copolymers as potential vectors for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli, Sema; Sagnella, Sharon; Kavallaris, Maria; Bulmus, Volga; Davis, Thomas P

    2013-11-11

    A library of cholesterol-derived ionic copolymers were previously synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization as 'smart' gene delivery vehicles that hold diverse surface charges. Polyplex systems formed with anionic poly(methacrylic acid-co-cholesteryl methacrylate) (P(MAA-co-CMA)) and cationic poly(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate-co-cholesteryl methacrylate) (Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)) copolymer series were evaluated for their therapeutic efficiency. Cell viability assays, conducted on SHEP, HepG2, H460, and MRC5 cell lines, revealed that alterations in the copolymer composition (CMA mol %) affected the cytotoxicity profile. Increasing the number of cholesterol moieties in Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA) copolymers reduced the overall toxicity (in H460 and HepG2 cells) while P(MAA-co-CMA) series displayed no significant toxicity regardless of the CMA content. Agarose gel electrophoresis was employed to investigate the formation of stable polyplexes and determine their complete conjugation ratios. P(MAA-co-CMA) copolymer series were conjugated to DNA through a cationic linker, oligolysine, while Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)-siRNA complexes were readily formed via electrostatic interactions at conjugation ratios beginning from 6:1:1 (oligolysine-P(MAA-co-CMA)-DNA) and 20:1 (Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)-siRNA), respectively. The hydrodynamic diameter, ? potential and complex stability of the polyplexes were evaluated in accordance to complexation ratios and copolymer composition by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The therapeutic efficiency of the conjugates was assessed in SHEP cells via transfection and imaging assays using RT-qPCR, Western blotting, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. DNA transfection studies revealed P(MAA-co-CMA)-oligolysine-DNA ternary complexes to be ineffective transfection vehicles that mostly adhere to the cell surface as opposed to internalizing and partaking in endosomal disrupting activity. The transfection efficiency of Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)-GFP siRNA complexes were found to be polymer composition and N/P ratio dependent, with Q-2% CMA-GFP siRNA polyplexes at N/P ratio 20:1 showing the highest gene suppression in GFP expressing SHEP cells. Cellular internalization studies suggested that Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)-siRNA conjugates efficiently escaped the endolysosomal pathway and released siRNA into the cytoplasm. The gene delivery profile, reported herein, illuminates the positive and negative attributes of each therapeutic design and strongly suggests Q-P(DMAEMA-co-CMA)-siRNA particles are extremely promising candidates for in vivo applications of siRNA therapy. PMID:24125032

  16. Exact solution of the one-dimensional Klein–Gordon equation with scalar and vector linear potentials in the presence of a minimal length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the momentum space representation, we solve the Klein–Gordon equation in one spatial dimension for the case of mixed scalar and vector linear potentials in the context of deformed quantum mechanics characterized by a finite minimal uncertainty in position. The expressions of bound state energies and the associated wave functions are exactly obtained. (general)

  17. Exact Solutions of the Klein-Gordon Equation with Position-Dependent Mass for Mixed Vector and Scalar Kink-Like Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relativistic problem of spinless particles with position-dependent mass subject to kink-like potentials is investigated. By using the basic concepts of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics formalism and the functional analysis method, we solve exactly the position-dependent effective mass Klein-Gordon equation with the vector and scalar kink-like potential coupling, and obtain the bound state solutions in the closed form. It is found that in the presence of position-dependent mass there exists the symmetry that the discrete positive energy spectra and negative energy spectra are symmetric about zero energy for the case of a mixed vector and scalar kink-like potential coupling, and in the presence of constant mass this symmetry only appears for the cases of a pure scalar kink-like potential coupling or massless particles. (author)

  18. Tagosodes orizicolus: nuevo vector potencial del Mal de Río Cuarto virus / Tagosodes orizicolus: a new potential vector of Mal de Río Cuarto virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Fernanda, Mattio; Agustina, Cassol; Ana Marino de, Remes Lenicov; Graciela, Truol.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Una enfermedad que afecta severamente el rendimiento del cultivo de maíz es conocida como mal de Río Cuarto. El vector más importante es Delphacodes kuscheli. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la capacidad vectora de una nueva especie, Tagosodes orizicolus, en campo y bajo condiciones exper [...] imentales. Los ensayos de transmisión se realizaron con ambas especies simultáneamente. Para la adquisición, latencia e infección se utilizaron los tiempos considerados óptimos para D. kuscheli. Las plantas fueron analizadas por DAS-ELISA. Se observaron glándulas salivales de T. orizicolus por microscopía electrónica. En las pruebas experimentales se obtuvieron porcentajes de transmisión del 10% para T. orizicolus y 42% para D. kuscheli. Los cortes ultrafinos de las glándulas salivales de T. orizicolus evidenciaron agregados de partículas virales de 70 nm de diámetro. No pudo comprobarse la capacidad vectora en condiciones naturales a partir de ensayos realizados con insectos capturados en campo. Asimismo, se mencionan por primera vez el trigo, la cebada y el triticale como cultivos adecuados para la cría de T. orizicolus. Estos resultados señalan a T. orizicolus como una especie de interés epidemiológico en el Noreste de Argentina, por la capacidad demostrada de adquirir y trasmitir en condiciones experimentales dicho agente viral. Abstract in english An important disease affecting the yield of corn crops is known as mal de Río Cuarto. Delphacodes kuscheli is the most important vector. The objective of this work was to determine the vector capacity of a new species, Tagosodes orizicolus, both in the field and under experimental conditions. Transm [...] ission trials were carried out on both species simultaneously. For acquisition, latency and infection the times considered optimum for D. kuscheli were used. The plants were analyzed by DAS-ELISA. Salivary glands of T. orizicolus were observed by electron microscopy. In experimental tests, values of percentages of transmission of 10% for T. orizicolus and 42% for D. kuscheli were obtained. The ultra-fine sections of the salivary glands of T. orizicolus showed the aggregation of viral particles 70 nm in diameter. Vectoral capacity could not be proven under natural conditions from a test conducted with insects captured in the field. Likewise, for the first time wheat, barley and triticale are mentioned as suitable crops for breeding T. orizicolus. These results show T. orizicolus to be a species of epidemiological interest in the northeast of Argentina due to the proven capacity of acquiring and transmitting this viral agent under experimental conditions.

  19. Tagosodes orizicolus: nuevo vector potencial del Mal de Río Cuarto virus Tagosodes orizicolus: a new potential vector of Mal de Río Cuarto virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Mattio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Una enfermedad que afecta severamente el rendimiento del cultivo de maíz es conocida como mal de Río Cuarto. El vector más importante es Delphacodes kuscheli. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la capacidad vectora de una nueva especie, Tagosodes orizicolus, en campo y bajo condiciones experimentales. Los ensayos de transmisión se realizaron con ambas especies simultáneamente. Para la adquisición, latencia e infección se utilizaron los tiempos considerados óptimos para D. kuscheli. Las plantas fueron analizadas por DAS-ELISA. Se observaron glándulas salivales de T. orizicolus por microscopía electrónica. En las pruebas experimentales se obtuvieron porcentajes de transmisión del 10% para T. orizicolus y 42% para D. kuscheli. Los cortes ultrafinos de las glándulas salivales de T. orizicolus evidenciaron agregados de partículas virales de 70 nm de diámetro. No pudo comprobarse la capacidad vectora en condiciones naturales a partir de ensayos realizados con insectos capturados en campo. Asimismo, se mencionan por primera vez el trigo, la cebada y el triticale como cultivos adecuados para la cría de T. orizicolus. Estos resultados señalan a T. orizicolus como una especie de interés epidemiológico en el Noreste de Argentina, por la capacidad demostrada de adquirir y trasmitir en condiciones experimentales dicho agente viral.An important disease affecting the yield of corn crops is known as mal de Río Cuarto. Delphacodes kuscheli is the most important vector. The objective of this work was to determine the vector capacity of a new species, Tagosodes orizicolus, both in the field and under experimental conditions. Transmission trials were carried out on both species simultaneously. For acquisition, latency and infection the times considered optimum for D. kuscheli were used. The plants were analyzed by DAS-ELISA. Salivary glands of T. orizicolus were observed by electron microscopy. In experimental tests, values of percentages of transmission of 10% for T. orizicolus and 42% for D. kuscheli were obtained. The ultra-fine sections of the salivary glands of T. orizicolus showed the aggregation of viral particles 70 nm in diameter. Vectoral capacity could not be proven under natural conditions from a test conducted with insects captured in the field. Likewise, for the first time wheat, barley and triticale are mentioned as suitable crops for breeding T. orizicolus. These results show T. orizicolus to be a species of epidemiological interest in the northeast of Argentina due to the proven capacity of acquiring and transmitting this viral agent under experimental conditions.

  20. Quark magnetar in the three-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with vector interactions and a magnetized gluon potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lie-Wen; Huang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of strange quark matter in the framework of the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with vector interactions under strong magnetic fields. The effects of vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector interactions on the equation of state of strange quark matter are investigated, and it is found that the equation of state is not sensitive to the vector-isovector interaction; however, a repulsive interaction in the vector-isoscalar channel gives a stiffer equation of state for cold dense quark matter. In the presence of a magnetic field, gluons will be magnetized via quark loops, and the contribution from magnetized gluons to the equation of state is also estimated. The sound velocity square is a quantity to measure the hardness or softness of dense quark matter, and in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model without vector interaction at zero magnetic field, the sound velocity square is always less than 1 /3 . It is found that a repulsive vector-isoscalar interaction and a positive pressure contribution from magnetized gluons can enhance the sound velocity square, which can even reach 1. To construct quark magnetars under strong magnetic fields, we consider anisotropic pressures and use a density-dependent magnetic field profile to mimic the magnetic field distribution in a quark star. We also analyze the parameter region for the magnitude of vector-isoscalar interaction and the contribution from magnetized gluons in order to produce two-solar-mass quark magnetars.

  1. Dos nuevos registros de vectores potenciales de Fiebre Amarilla selvática y Mayaro para el Ecuador / Two new records of potential Sylvan Yellow Fever and Mayaro species vectors from Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Navarro, Juan Carlos; Patricio, Ponce; Varsovia, Cevallos.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez en el Ecuador dos especies de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae), vectores potenciales de los virus de la Fiebre Amarilla y Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans y Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar fueron colectados en fase adulta en una localidad de la provincia de Zamora [...] -Chinchipe, en la cual se han presentado casos de Fiebre Amarilla selvática con anterioridad. Este hallazgo muestra la importancia de profundizar los estudios de linea base de vectores en el país, distribución geográfica y aspectos ecológicos y su posible relación epidemiológica con enfermedades emergentes y re-emergentes. Abstract in english Two new records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented from Ecuador, and both potential vectors of yellow fever virus and Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans and Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar adults were collected in a locality in the province of Zamora-Chinchipe, in which there ha [...] ve been cases of yellow fever previously. This finding shows the importance of further studies of baseline vector in the country, geographical distribution and ecological aspects and possible epidemiological link with emerging and re-emerging diseases.

  2. Oviposition-altering and ovicidal potentials of five essential oils against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warikoo, Radhika; Wahab, Naim; Kumar, Sarita

    2011-10-01

    The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%) of the oils and 199 mL of water were used for oviposition. The number of eggs laid and the larvae hatched in each cup were scored to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal potentials of the oils. Our investigations revealed that the addition of 100% oil (pure oil) caused complete oviposition deterrence except in A. graveolens which resulted in 75% effective repellency. The use of 10% oil resulted in the maximum deterrence of 97.5% as shown by the M. piperita oil while other oils caused 36-97% oviposition deterrence as against the control. The oviposition medium with 1% oil showed decreased deterrent potential with 30-64% effective repellency, the M. piperita oil being exceptional. However, as the concentrations of the oil were reduced further to 0.1%, the least effective oil observed was A. graveolens (25% ER). Also, the M. piperita oil showed much reduced activity (40%) as compared to the control, while the other oils exhibited 51-58% repellency to oviposition. The studies on the ovicidal effects of these oils revealed that the eggs laid in the water with 100% essential oils did not hatch at all, whereas when 10% oils were used, only the R. officinalis oil resulted in 28% egg hatch. At lower concentrations (1%), the oils of M. piperita, O. basilicum, and C. nardus showed complete egg mortality while those of A. graveolens and R. officinalis resulted in 71% and 34% egg hatches, respectively. When used at 0.1%, the O. basilicum oil was found to be the only effective oil with 100% egg mortality, whereas other oils resulted in 16-76% egg mortality, the least mortality caused by the A. graveolens oil. These results suggest that these essential oils can be employed in a resistance-management program against A. aegypti. Further detailed research is needed to identify the active ingredient in the extracts and implement the effective mosquito management program. PMID:21445613

  3. Quark magnetar in three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with vector interaction and magnetized gluon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Chen, Lie-Wen; Huang, Mei

    2014-01-01

    We investigate properties of strange quark matter in the framework of SU(3) Nambu--Jona-Lasinio(NJL) model with vector interaction under strong magnetic fields. The effects of vector-isoscalar and vector-isovector interaction on the equation of state of strange quark matter are investigated, and it is found that the equation of state is not sensitive to the vector-isovector interaction, however, a repulsive interaction in the vector-isoscalar channel gives a stiffer equation of state for cold dense quark matter. In the presence of magnetic field, gluons will be magnetized via quark loops, and the contribution from magnetized gluons to the equation of state is also estimated. The sound velocity square is a quantity to measure the hardness or softness of dense quark matter, and in the NJL model without vector interaction at zero magnetic field the sound velocity square is always less than 1/3. It is found that a repulsive vector-isoscalar interaction and a positive pressure contribution from magnetized gluons c...

  4. A lentiviral vector with expression controlled by E2F-1: A potential tool for the study and treatment of proliferative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed a lentiviral vector with expression limited to cells presenting active E2F-1 protein, a potential advantage for gene therapy of proliferative diseases. For the FE2FLW vector, the promoter region of the human E2F-1 gene was utilized to drive expression of luciferase cDNA, included as a reporter of viral expression. Primary, immortalized, and transformed cells were transduced with the FE2FLW vector and cell cycle alterations were induced with serum starvation/replacement, contact inhibition or drug treatment, revealing cell cycle-dependent changes in reporter activity. Forced E2F-1 expression, but not E2F-2 or E2F-3, increased reporter activity, indicating a major role for this factor in controlling expression from the FE2FLW virus. We show the utility of this vector as a reporter of E2F-1 and proliferation-dependent cellular alterations upon cytotoxic/cytostatic treatment, such as the introduction of tumor suppressor genes. We propose that the FE2FLW vector may be a starting point for the development of gene therapy strategies for proliferative diseases, such as cancer or restinosis

  5. Áreas de abundancia potencial en México del vector del Huanglongbing, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) / Areas of potential abundance of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of the citrus greening disease in Mexico)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Díaz-Padilla; J. Isabel, López-Arroyo; Ignacio, Sánchez-Cohen; Rafael Alberto, Guajardo-Panes; Gustavo, Mora-Aguilera; Juan Ángel, Quijano-Carranza.

    1137-11-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de Huanglongbing y su vector: Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) en México, aunado a la gran dispersión de la citricultura, dificultan su detección, control y manejo. Con el propósito de generar herramientas que faciliten la aplicación de estrategias para confrontar la prob [...] lemática asociada al Huanglongbing y su vector, el presente estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de implementar una metodología práctica y de uso sencillo para clasificar la presencia y abundancia potencial del vector y generar un mapa con la delimitación de las zonas potenciales de riesgo de desarrollo del insecto en el país. Se modelaron tres índices, dos basados en la temperatura (índice de generaciones potenciales, y días con condiciones favorables), y uno en la disponibilidad del hospedero (superficie plantada con cítricos). En el mapa final, cada índice fue ponderado respecto a su máximo, interpolado mediante el método de inverso de la distancia optimizado, y promediado con los demás para obtener el índice de riesgo promedio. Se encontró que los municipios con mayor índice de días con condiciones favorables fueron: Tuzantán, Chiapas, y Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero. Referente al índice de generaciones potenciales, los municipios de Rosario, Sonora, y Pichucalco, Chiapas, resultaron con 34 y 28 generaciones potenciales anuales, respectivamente. El máximo riesgo, índice de riesgo promedio, se encontró en los municipios de Álamo Temapache, Martínez de la Torre, y Papantla, Veracruz, y Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero. El método propuesto es práctico, económico y sin cálculos complicados; para mejorarlo, sería necesario incorporar información de humedad relativa, precipitación, fenología y especie de cítricos. Su utilidad radica en que auxilia en la toma de decisiones relacionadas con acciones de detección, monitoreo, muestreo y control del vector. Abstract in english The presence of the citrus greening disease (HLB) and its vector: Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico, coupled with the large spread of the citrus industry, impede the detection, control and management. In order to generate tools that facilitate the implementation of strategies [...] to confront the problems associated with HLB and its vector, this study was developed with the goal of implementing a practical and easy way to use a methodology for classifying the presence and potential of vector abundance and generate a map, showing the delineation of potential risk areas within the country. Three indices were modeled, two temperature-based (index of potential generations, IGP, and days with favorable conditions, IDCF), and another one on the availability of the host (citrus plantings, ISPC). On the final map, each index was weighted with respect to its maximum, interpolated using the inverse distance optimized method and averaged with others for the Egalitarian Risk Index (IRPM). We found that, the municipalities with the highest IDCF were Tuzantán, Chiapas, and Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero. Concerning IGP, the municipalities of Rosario, Sonora, and Pichucalco, Chiapas, presented 34 and 28 potential generations per year respectively. The maximum risk, IRPM, was found in the municipalities of Alamo Temapache, Martínez de la Torre, and Papantla, Veracruz, and Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero. The proposed method is practical, cheap and without complicated calculations; for improving it, it would be necessary to incorporate information regarding relative humidity, rainfall, phenology and species of citrus. Its usefulness lies by helping for decision making about actions for detection, monitoring, sampling and vector control.

  6. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  7. Muscoid Diptera as potential vectors of bacterial agents on dairy farms in the northern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josaine Leila Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the isolation frequency and microbial sensitivity profiles of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from synanthropic flies captured in entomological traps placed near the milking parlors of 30 dairy farms located in Northern Paraná, Brazil. In total, 192 flies were captured, and the isolation frequencies of muscids (21/30 = 70% and califorids (27/30 = 90% were significantly higher than that of sarcophagids (7/30 = 23.3%. Bacteriological tests on the internal contents and external surfaces of the flies showed that E. coli was present only in muscids (14.3% and caliphorids (33.3%. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 9.5% of the muscids, 7.4% of the caliphorids, and 14.29% of the sarcophagids. Staphylococcus spp. was isolated from 28.5% of the muscids and 29.6% of the caliphorids. E. coli isolation was more frequent in flies captured on farms at which domestic chickens were housed near the milking parlors (p = 0.031 and which did not use sugarcane for animal feed (p = 0.042. Two out of 27 (7.4% Staphylococcus spp. strains presented a phenotype of coagulase enzyme production. Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli and Salmonella spp. Tetracycline was the least effective antibiotic against the isolates. The Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated did not show the phenotype of oxacillin resistance. We conclude that regional flies are potential mechanical vectors of microbial agents able to cause enteritis in goats, mastitis in cows, and contamination of milk products for human consumption.

  8. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  9. Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, C; Frokjaer, J B

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV, with brain activity recorded as multi-channel electroencephalography evoked brain potentials (EPs) elicited by painful electrical stimulations in the esophagus. The single-sweep EPs were decomposed by an optimized discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and averaged for each channel. The DWT features from the DM patients were discriminated from the HV by a support vector machine (SVM) applied in regression mode. For the optimal DWT, the discriminative features were extracted and the SVM regression value representing the overall alteration of the EP was correlated to the clinical scores. A classification performance of 86.2% (P=0.01) was obtained by applying a majority voting scheme to the 5 best performing channels. The biomarker was identified as decreased theta band activity. The regression value was correlated to symptoms reported by the patients (P=0.04). The methodology is an improvement of the present approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients.

  10. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement N. Mweya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective: To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results: A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588 were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226 Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9 Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095 of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225 of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78% of C. pipiens complex and most (85% of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions: These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania.

  11. Inter-epidemic abundance and distribution of potential mosquito vectors for Rift Valley fever virus in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweya, Clement N.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.; Mellau, Lesakit S. B.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that primarily affects ruminants but also has the capacity to infect humans. Objective To determine the abundance and distribution of mosquito vectors in relation to their potential role in the virus transmission and maintenance in disease epidemic areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional entomological investigation was carried out before the suspected RVF outbreak in October 2012. Mosquitoes were sampled both outdoors and indoors using the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnets baited with attractants. Outdoor traps were placed in proximity with breeding sites and under canopy in banana plantations close to the sleeping places of animals. Results A total of 1,823 mosquitoes were collected, of which 87% (N=1,588) were Culex pipiens complex, 12% (N=226) Aedes aegypti, and 0.5% (N=9) Anopheles species. About two-thirds (67%; N=1,095) of C. pipiens complex and nearly 100% (N=225) of A. aegypti were trapped outdoors using Mosquito Magnets. All Anopheles species were trapped indoors using CDC light traps. There were variations in abundance of C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti among different ecological and vegetation habitats. Over three quarters (78%) of C. pipiens complex and most (85%) of the A. aegypti were trapped in banana and maize farms. Both C. pipiens complex and A. aegypti were more abundant in proximity with cattle and in semi-arid thorn bushes and lower Afro-montane. The highest number of mosquitoes was recorded in villages that were most affected during the RVF epidemic of 2007. Of the tested 150 pools of C. pipiens complex and 45 pools of A. aegypti, none was infected with RVF virus. Conclusions These results provide insights into unique habitat characterisation relating to mosquito abundances and distribution in RVF epidemic-prone areas of Ngorongoro district in northern Tanzania. PMID:25613346

  12. Host Feeding Patterns of Established and Potential Mosquito Vectors of West Nile Virus in the Eastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Apperson, Charles S.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Harrison, Bruce A.; Savage, Harry M.; Aspen, Stephen E.; Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Wayne; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Benedict, Mark; Anderson, Michael; Mcmillen, Larry; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    An important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. This parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. Serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from New York, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with West Nile v...

  13. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D. J.; Reiter, P.; Ebi, K. L.; Yap, W.; Nasci, R.; Patz, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector...

  14. Five Proteins of Laodelphax striatellus Are Potentially Involved in the Interactions between Rice Stripe Virus and Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuo; Xiong, Ruyi; Wang, Xifeng; Zhou, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) is the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, which relies on the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén) for its transmission in a persistent, circulative-propagative manner. To be transmitted, virus must cross the midgut and salivary glands epithelial barriers in a transcytosis mechanism where vector receptors interact with virions, and as propagative virus, RSV need utilize host components to complete viral propagation in vector cells. At present, the...

  15. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the previously unseen parasite movement between lemurs, but also allowed us to infer social interactions between them. As lice are known pathogen vectors, our method also allowed us to identify the lemurs most likely to facilitate louse-mediated epidemics. Our approach demonstrates the potential to uncover otherwise inaccessible parasite-host, and host social interaction data in any trappable species parasitized by sucking lice.

  16. Linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan and Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Douglas O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles arabiensis is a particularly opportunistic feeder and efficient vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa and may invade areas outside its normal range, including areas separated by expanses of barren desert. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how spatial models can project future irrigated cropland and potential, new suitable habitat for vectors such as An. arabiensis. Methods Two different but complementary spatial models were linked to demonstrate their synergy for assessing re-invasion potential of An. arabiensis into Upper Egypt as a function of irrigated cropland expansion by 2050. The first model (The Land Change Modeler was used to simulate changes in irrigated cropland using a Markov Chain approach, while the second model (MaxEnt uses species occurrence points, land cover and other environmental layers to project probability of species presence. Two basic change scenarios were analysed, one involving a more conservative business-as-usual (BAU assumption and second with a high probability of desert-to-cropland transition (Green Nile to assess a broad range of potential outcomes by 2050. Results The results reveal a difference of 82,000 sq km in potential An. arabiensis range between the BAU and Green Nile scenarios. The BAU scenario revealed a highly fragmented set of small, potential habitat patches separated by relatively large distances (maximum distance?=?64.02?km, mean?=?12.72?km, SD?=?9.92, while the Green Nile scenario produced a landscape characterized by large patches separated by relatively shorter gaps (maximum distance?=?49.38, km, mean?=?4.51?km, SD?=?7.89 that may be bridged by the vector. Conclusions This study provides a first demonstration of how land change and species distribution models may be linked to project potential changes in vector habitat distribution and invasion potential. While gaps between potential habitat patches remained large in the Green Nile scenario, the models reveal large areas of future habitat connectivity that may facilitate the re-invasion of An. arabiensis from Sudan into Upper Egypt. The methods used are broadly applicable to other land cover changes as they influence vector distribution, particularly those related to tropical deforestation and urbanization processes.

  17. Flood boundary delineation through clouds and vegetation using l-band space-borne radar: A potential new tool for disease vector control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; McCandless, S. W.

    In October 1984, space-borne multiple incidence angle synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B Program were used to delineate pools of standing water beneath a 12.5 m tall 100% closed forest canopy and to map flood boundaries for the assessment of flood damage in the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The projects, as described here, demonstrate the potential use of SAR systems as input to disease and disease vector control programs in monsoon countries.

  18. Any l-state improved quasi-exact analytical solutions of the spatially dependent mass Klein-Gordon equation for the scalar and vector Hulthen potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhdair, Sameer M.; sever, Ramazan

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approximation scheme for the centrifugal term to obtain a quasi-exact analytical bound state solutions within the framework of the position-dependent effective mass radial Klein-Gordon equation with the scalar and vector Hulth\\'{e}n potentials in any arbitrary $D$ dimension and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers $l.$ The Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in the calculations. The relativistic real energy levels and corresponding eigenfunctions for th...

  19. Adenovirus-vectored drug-vaccine duo as a potential driver for conferring mass protection against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Tarbet, E Bart; Toro, Haroldo; Tang, De-chu C

    2011-11-01

    The disease-fighting power of vaccines has been a public health bonanza credited with the worldwide reduction of mortality and morbidity. The goal to further amplify its power by boosting vaccine coverage requires the development of a new generation of rapid-response vaccines that can be mass produced at low costs and mass administered by nonmedical personnel. The new vaccines also have to be endowed with a higher safety margin than that of conventional vaccines. The nonreplicating adenovirus-vectored vaccine holds promise in boosting vaccine coverage because the vector can be rapidly manufactured in serum-free suspension cells in response to a surge in demand, and noninvasively administered by nasal spray into human subjects in compliance with evolutionary medicine. In contrast to parenteral injection, noninvasive mucosal vaccination minimizes systemic inflammation. Moreover, pre-existing adenovirus immunity does not interfere appreciably with the potency of an adenovirus-vectored nasal vaccine. Nasal administration of adenovirus vectors encoding pathogen antigens is not only fear-free and painless, but also confers rapid and sustained protection against mucosal pathogens as a drug-vaccine duo since adenovirus particles alone without transgene expression can induce an anti-influenza state in the airway. In addition to human vaccination, animals can also be mass immunized by this class of vectored vaccines. PMID:22043954

  20. Theileriosis (Cytauxzoonosis in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus: Field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan C.A. Steyl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Four hand-reared, naïve roan antelope, 4 months of age, were exposed to naturally infected pasture on a game farm in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, where roan are known to die from theileriosis. Various clinical parameters were recorded during this period. The predominant ticks parasitising these animals at the time (January to February, were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi adults. After a period of 5?weeks the animals developed signs of clinical theileriosis and were treated with buparvaquone to prevent mortality. Primary hyperplasia of the local draining lymph nodes (Lnn. anorectales near the feeding site of adult R. evertsi evertsi indicated possible transmission of Theileria sp. (sable by this tick species. After recovery from theileriosis, these animals were confirmed carriers of Theileria sp. (sable by PCR (polymerase chain reaction and DNA probe analysis. Laboratory-bred larvae and nymphs of R. evertsi evertsi and R. appendiculatus respectively, were fed on the ears of these roan antelope. Salivary glands from moulted and prefed adult ticks of each species were dissected and stained for Theileria spp., and the PCR and DNA probe applied to a representative batch of dissected glands. R. appendiculatus adults collected from grass in infected camps were also dissected after prefeeding them on rabbits. Salivary glands of both tick species showed infected acini on staining and were also positive for Theileria sp. (sable only, on multiprotozoal PCR-screening analysis. There was no statistical significant difference between the infection rate and the intensity of infection between the two tick species. R. appendiculatus ticks collected from grass were also PCR-positive for Theileria sp. (sable.

    How to cite this article: Steyl, J.C.A., Prozesky, L., Stoltsz, W.H. & Lawrence, J.A., 2012, ‘Theileriosis (Cytauxzoonosis in Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus: Field exposure to infection and identification of potential vectors’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 79(1, Art. #367, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v79i1.367

  1. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae): potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro, Galardo; Clícia Denis, Galardo; Guilherme Abbad, Silveira; Kaio Augusto Nabas, Ribeiro; Andréa Valadão, Hijjar; Liliane Leite, Oliveira; Thiago Vasconcelos dos, Santos.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leis [...] hmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season), May/June (dry season), and September/October (intermediary season) using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m). RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root) (36.67%), Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira) (8.51%), Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha) (6.14%), Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira) (5.74%), and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira) (5.25%). These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  2. Beyond platinum: synthesis, characterization, and in vitro toxicity of Cu(II-releasing polymer nanoparticles for potential use as a drug delivery vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Alesha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of drug delivery focuses primarily on delivering small organic molecules or DNA/RNA as therapeutics and has largely ignored the potential for delivering catalytically active transition metal ions and complexes. The delivery of a variety of transition metals has potential for inducing apoptosis in targeted cells. The chief aims of this work were the development of a suitable delivery vector for a prototypical transition metal, Cu2+, and demonstration of the ability to impact cancer cell viability via exposure to such a Cu-loaded vector. Carboxylate-functionalized nanoparticles were synthesized by free radical polymerization and were subsequently loaded with Cu2+ via binding to particle-bound carboxylate functional groups. Cu loading and release were characterized via ICP MS, EDX, XPS, and elemental analysis. Results demonstrated that Cu could be loaded in high weight percent (up to 16 wt.% and that Cu was released from the particles in a pH-dependent manner. Metal release was a function of both pH and the presence of competing ligands. The toxicity of the particles was measured in HeLa cells where reductions in cell viability greater than 95% were observed at high Cu loading. The combined pH sensitivity and significant toxicity make this copper delivery vector an excellent candidate for the targeted killing of disease cells when combined with an effective cellular targeting strategy.

  3. Analytic l-STATE Solutions of the Klein-Gordon Equation for q-DEFORMED Woods-Saxon Plus Generalized Ring Shape Potential for the Two Cases of Equal and Different Mixed Vector and Scalar Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabab, M.; Lahbas, A.; Oulne, M.

    2012-10-01

    The analytical expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Klein-Gordon equation for q-deformed Woods-Saxon plus new generalized ring shape potential are derived within the asymptotic iteration method in two cases, namely, the case of equal mixed vector and scalar potentials and the case when the vector potential is chosen to be equal to the q-deformed Woods-Saxon plus the new generalized ring-shaped potential while the scalar one is taken equal to the ring-shaped potential. The latter is considered as a small perturbation. The obtained eigenvalues are given in a closed form and the corresponding normalized eigenvectors, for any l, are formulated in terms of the generalized Jacobi polynomials for the radial part of the Klein-Gordon equation and associated Legendre polynomials for its angular one. When the shape deformation is canceled, we recover the same solutions previously obtained by the Nikiforov-Uvarov method for the standard spherical Woods-Saxon potential. It is also shown that, from the obtained results, we can derive the solutions of this problem for Hulthen potential.

  4. Analytic l-state solutions of the Klein–Gordon equation for q-deformed Woods–Saxon plus generalized ring shape potential for the two cases of equal and different mixed vector and scalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytical expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Klein–Gordon equation for q-deformed Woods–Saxon plus new generalized ring shape potential are derived within the asymptotic iteration method in two cases, namely, the case of equal mixed vector and scalar potentials and the case when the vector potential is chosen to be equal to the q-deformed Woods–Saxon plus the new generalized ring-shaped potential while the scalar one is taken equal to the ring-shaped potential. The latter is considered as a small perturbation. The obtained eigenvalues are given in a closed form and the corresponding normalized eigenvectors, for any l, are formulated in terms of the generalized Jacobi polynomials for the radial part of the Klein–Gordon equation and associated Legendre polynomials for its angular one. When the shape deformation is canceled, we recover the same solutions previously obtained by the Nikiforov–Uvarov method for the standard spherical Woods–Saxon potential. It is also shown that, from the obtained results, we can derive the solutions of this problem for Hulthen potential. (author)

  5. Worldwide Niche and Future Potential Distribution of Culicoides imicola, a Major Vector of Bluetongue and African Horse Sickness Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Guichard, Sylvain; Guis, Hélène,; Tran, Annelise; Garros, Claire; Balenghien, Thomas; Kriticos, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    We modelled the ecoclimatic niche of Culicoides imicola, a major arthropod vector of midge-borne viral pathogens affecting ruminants and equids, at fine scale and on a global extent, so as to provide insight into current and future risks of disease epizootics, and increase current knowledge of the species' ecology. Based on the known distribution and ecology of C. imicola, the species' response to monthly climatic conditions was characterised using CLIMEX with 10? spatial resolution climatic ...

  6. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction detection of human host preference and Plasmodium parasite infections in field collected potential malaria vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiman, Sunil; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Kumar, Dinesh; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the human host preference and presence of Plasmodium parasite in field collected Anopheles mosquitoes among four villages around a military cantonment located in malaria endemic Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Encountered malaria vector mosquitoes were identified and tested for host preference and Plasmodium presence using PCR method. Human host preference was detected using simple PCR, whereas vectorial status for Plasmodium parasite was confirmed u...

  8. Potential of Herpesvirus Saimiri-Based Vectors To Reprogram a Somatic Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumor Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Hannah F.; Unger, Christian; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) infects a range of human cell types with high efficiency. Upon infection, the viral genome can persist as high-copy-number, circular, nonintegrated episomes that segregate to progeny cells upon division. This allows HVS-based vectors to stably transduce a dividing cell population and provide sustained transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the HVS episome is able to persist and provide prolonged transgene expression during in vitro differentiation of mo...

  9. Key Source Habitats and Potential Dispersal of Triatoma infestans Populations in Northwestern Argentina: Implications for Vector Control

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.; CECERE, MARÍA C.; Fernández, María del Pilar; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, GONZALO M.; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Cohen, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    The major vectors of Chagas disease are species of triatomine bugs adapted to human sleeping quarters and peridomestic annexes where they feed on humans and domestic or synanthropic mammals or birds. Knowledge of the demography and nutritional status of Triatominae in real-life settings is still fragmentary, and this affects our ability to prevent or reduce house reinfestation after insecticide spraying. In addition to showing where the bugs are likely to live (occupancy and density informati...

  10. Biology and population dynamics of the potential sugarcane Fiji disease vector Perkinsiella saccharicida (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in Réunion: evidence of its loss of biotic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    There is a risk that irrigation schemes that have been developed to enhance sugarcane, Saccharum spp, cropping on the island of Réunion could markedly broaden the distribution range in which outbreaks of the insect Persinkiella saccharicida Kirkaldy (Homoptera: Delphacidae), a sugarcane Fiji virus disease vector, have already occurred. This trend was confirmed by the results of laboratory studies and monthly surveys carried out in six sugarcane fields distributed throughout the island. A comp...

  11. Generalization of the Second Order Vector Potential Formulation for Arbitrary Non-Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates Systems from the Covariant Form of Maxwell's Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Prémel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A great number of semi-analytical models, notably the representation of electromagnetic fields by integral equations are based on the second order vector potential (SOVP formalism which introduces two scalar potentials in order to obtain analytical expressions of the electromagnetic fields from the two potentials. However, the scalar decomposition is often known for canonical coordinate systems. This paper aims in introducing a specific SOVP formulation dedicated to arbitrary non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates systems. The electromagnetic field representation which is derived in this paper constitutes the key stone for the development of semi-analytical models for solving some eddy currents moelling problems and electromagnetic radiation problems considering at least two homogeneous media separated by a rough interface. This SOVP formulation is derived from the tensor formalism and Maxwell’s equations written in a non-orthogonal coordinates system adapted to a surface characterized by a 2D arbitrary aperiodic profile.

  12. Characterization of a Neuraminidase-Deficient Influenza A Virus as a Potential Gene Delivery Vector and a Live Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya, Kyoko; Fujii, Yutaka; Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    We recently identified a packaging signal in the neuraminidase (NA) viral RNA (vRNA) segment of an influenza A virus, allowing us to produce a mutant virus [GFP(NA)-Flu] that lacks most of the NA open reading frame but contains instead the gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). To exploit the expanding knowledge of vRNA packaging signals to establish influenza virus vectors for the expression of foreign genes, we studied the replicative properties of this virus in cell culture and mic...

  13. The first dairy product exclusively fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii: a new vector to study probiotic potentialities in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Louesdon, Séverine; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Parayre, Sandrine; Falentin, Hélène; Deutsch, Stéphanie-Marie; Boudry, Gaëlle; Jan, Gwénaël

    2012-10-01

    Dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties which require high populations of live and metabolically active propionibacteria in the colon. In this context, the probiotic vector determines probiotic efficiency. Fermented dairy products protect propionibacteria against digestive stresses and generally contain a complex mixture of lactic and propionic acid bacteria. This does not allow the identification of dairy propionibacteria specific beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to develop a dairy product exclusively fermented by dairy propionibacteria. As they grow poorly in milk, we determined their nutritional requirements concerning carbon and nitrogen by supplementing milk ultrafiltrate (UF) with different concentrations of lactate and casein hydrolysate. Milk or UF supplemented with 50 mM lactate and 5 g L(-1) casein hydrolysate allowed growth of all dairy propionibacteria studied. In these new fermented dairy products, dairy propionibacteria remained viable and stress-tolerant in vitro during minimum 15 days at 4 °C. The efficiency of milk fermented by the most tolerant Propionibacterium freudenreichii strain was evaluated in piglets. Viability and SCFA content in the colon evidenced survival and metabolic activity of P. freudenreichii. This work results in the design of a new food grade vector, which will allow preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:22850385

  14. Production of neutron cross section library based on JENDL-4.0 to continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP and its application to criticality analysis of benchmark problems in the ICSBEP handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2010, JENDL-4.0 was released from Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the updated Japanese Nuclear Data Library. It was processed by the nuclear data processing system LICEM and an arbitrary-temperature neutron cross section library MVPlib-nJ40 was produced for the neutron and photon transport calculation code MVP based on the continuous-energy Monte Carlo method. The library contains neutron cross sections for 406 nuclides on the free gas model, thermal scattering cross sections, and cross sections of pseudo fission products for burn-up calculations with MVP. Criticality benchmark calculations were carried out with MVP and MVPlib-nJ40 for about 1,000 cases of critical experiments stored in the hand book of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), which covers a wide variety of fuel materials, fuel forms, and neutron spectra. We report all comparison results (C/E values) of effective neutron multiplication factors between calculations and experiments to give a validation data for the prediction accuracy of JENDL-4.0 for criticalities. (author)

  15. Role of Culex and Anopheles mosquito species as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus in Sudan outbreak, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal Fatma H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rift Valley fever (RVF is an acute febrile arthropod-borne viral disease of man and animals caused by a member of the Phlebovirus genus, one of the five genera in the family Bunyaviridae. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. Methods Experiments were designed during RVF outbreak, 2007 in Sudan to provide an answer about many raised questions about the estimated role of vector in RVFV epidemiology. During this study, adult and immature mosquito species were collected from Khartoum and White Nile states, identified and species abundance was calculated. All samples were frozen individually for further virus detection. Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. In addition, data were collected about human cases up to November 24th, 2007 to asses the situation of the disease in affected states. Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. Results A total of 978 mosquitoes, belonging to 3 genera and 7 species, were collected during Sudan outbreak, 2007. Anopheles gambiae arabiensis was the most frequent species (80.7% in White Nile state. Meanwhile, Cx. pipiens complex was the most abundant species (91.2% in Khartoum state. RT-PCR was used and successfully amplified 551 bp within the M segment of the tripartite negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of RVFV. The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval was 15-29 years old followed by ? 45 years old, 30-44 years old, and then 5-14 years old. Regarding to the profession, housewives followed by farmers, students, shepherd, workers and the free were more vulnerable to the infection. Furthermore, connection between human and entomological studies results in important human case-vulnerability relatedness findings. Conclusion Model performance, integrated with epidemiologic and environmental surveillance systems should be assessed systematically for RVF and other mosquito-borne diseases using historical epidemiologic and satellite monitoring data. Case management related interventions; health education and vector control efforts are extremely effective in preparedness for viral hemorrhagic fever and other seasonal outbreaks.

  16. Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras, Matías Ariel; Rosa, Juan Ramón; Szelag, Enrique Alejandro; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia Benítez: 39). A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January) and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July). These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures. PMID:22666869

  17. Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ariel Parras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio, in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resistencia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez, from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia Benítez: 39. A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July. These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures.

  18. Identification of the natural breeding sites of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), potential vectors of leishmaniasis, in the province of Chaco, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matías Ariel, Parras; Juan Ramón, Rosa; Enrique Alejandro, Szelag; Oscar Daniel, Salomón.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the natural breeding sites of sandflies in the province of Chaco, Argentina, for the first time. Preliminary studies were conducted in two different phytogeographic regions: dry Chaco (Parque Provincial Pampa del Indio), in January 2010, and humid Chaco (Resisten [...] cia, Margarita Belén and Colonia Benítez), from May-September 2010. A total of 127 samples were collected (Pampa del Indio: 15, Resistencia: 37, Margarita Belén: 36, Colonia Benítez: 39). A female of Migonemyia migonei was found in Pampa del Indio at the base of a bromeliad in the summer (January) and a pupal exuvium of a phlebotomine fly was found in Resistencia, in a place where dogs rested, in the winter (July). These findings highlighted these two sites as potential breeding sites. Because the existence of potential natural breeding sites for sandflies has been demonstrated in both forest and periurban areas, expanding the search efforts and characterising these sites will enable the development of specific study designs to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the risks posed by these vectors. The resulting information will serve as a basis for proposing and evaluating vector control measures.

  19. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  20. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-de la Puente Josué

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both haplotypes belong to Culicoides obsoletus, a potential BTV vector. As well, using molecular tools we identified the feeding sources of 136 biting midges and were able to confirm that C. obsoletus females feed on goats and sheep on both islands. Conclusions These results confirm that the feeding pattern of C. obsoletus is a potentially important factor in BTV transmission to susceptible hosts in case of introduction into the archipelago. Consequently, in the Canary Islands it is essential to maintain vigilance of Culicoides-transmitted viruses such as BTV and the novel Schmallenberg virus.

  1. Synthesis, and Characterization, and Evaluation of Cellular Effects of the FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL Nanoparticles as a Potential Non-Viral Vector for Gene Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript, we synthesized the potential non viral vector for gene delivery with proper transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a well-known cationic polymer which has high positive surface charge for condensing plasmid DNA. However; it is highly cytotoxic in many cell lines because of the high surface charge, non-biodegradability and non-biocompatibility. To enhance PEI biodegradability, the graft copolymer PEG-g-PEI was synthesized. To target cancer liver cells, two targeting ligands folic acid and galactose (lactobionic acid) which are over expressed on human hepatocyte carcinoma were attached to graft copolymer and FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL copolymer was synthesized. Composition of this grafted copolymer was characterized using 1H-NMR and FTIR spectra. The molecular weight and zeta potential of this copolymer was compared to PEI. The particle size and zeta potential of FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratio were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cytotoxicity of the copolymer was also studied in cultured HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cell line. The FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratios exhibited no cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line compared to PEI 25K as a control. The novel copolymer showed enhanced biodegradability in physiological conditions in compared with PEI and targeted cultured HepG2 cells. More importantly, significant transfection efficiency was exhibited in cancer liver cells. Togethes exhibited in cancer liver cells. Together, our results showed that FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL nanoparticles could be considered as a useful non-viral vector for targeted gene delivery.

  2. Synthesis, and Characterization, and Evaluation of Cellular Effects of the FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL Nanoparticles as a Potential Non-Viral Vector for Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghiamkazemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we synthesized the potential non viral vector for gene delivery with proper transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Polyethylenimine (PEI is a well-known cationic polymer which has high positive surface charge for condensing plasmid DNA. However; it is highly cytotoxic in many cell lines because of the high surface charge, non-biodegradability and non-biocompatibility. To enhance PEI biodegradability, the graft copolymer “PEG-g-PEI” was synthesized. To target cancer liver cells, two targeting ligands folic acid and galactose (lactobionic acid which are over expressed on human hepatocyte carcinoma were attached to graft copolymer and “FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL” copolymer was synthesized. Composition of this grafted copolymer was characterized using 1H-NMR and FTIR spectra. The molecular weight and zeta potential of this copolymer was compared to PEI. The particle size and zeta potential of FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratio were measured using dynamic light scattering (DLS. Cytotoxicity of the copolymer was also studied in cultured HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cell line. The FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL/DNA complexes at various N/P ratios exhibited no cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line compared to PEI 25K as a control. The novel copolymer showed enhanced biodegradability in physiological conditions in compared with PEI and targeted cultured HepG2 cells. More importantly, significant transfection efficiency was exhibited in cancer liver cells. Together, our results showed that “FOL-PEG-g-PEI-GAL” nanoparticals could be considered as a useful non-viral vector for targeted gene delivery.

  3. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2012-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  4. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    2012-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  5. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes. PMID:25961834

  6. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a non-pyrethroid insecticide will lead to improvement in the efficiency treatments thus reducing both the concentration of active ingredients and side effects for non-target organisms. The discovery of this insect specific site may pave the way for the development of new strategies essential in the management of chemical use against resistant mosquitoes. PMID:25961834

  7. Influence of container design on predation rate of potential biocontrol agent, Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) against dengue vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, N; Zuharah, W F

    2014-03-01

    Toxorhynchites splendens larvae are a natural predator of dengue vector mosquito larvae, Aedes albopictus. This study was carried out to evaluate the predation rate of Tx. splendens third instar larvae on Ae. albopictus larvae in 24 h. Each predator was offered prey at a density between 10 to 50 individuals. Predation rate of Tx. splendens were also tested with two manipulated factors; various types of container and different water volumes. The experiment was evaluated in man-made containers (tin cans, plastic drinking glasses and rubber tires) and natural container (bamboo stumps) which were filled with different water volumes (full, half full, 1/4 full, and 1/8 full). The prey density and the characteristics of the container were found as significant factors which influence the predation rate of Tx. splendens. The predator consumed significantly more prey at higher prey densities (40 and 50 preys) compared to the lowest density (10 preys) (F=3.935, df=4, p=0.008). The results showed significantly higher consumption in horizontal shaped container of rubber tire than in vertical shape of bamboo stumps (F=3.100, df=3, p=0.029). However, the water volume had no significant effect on predation rate of Tx. splendens (F=1.736, df=3, p=0.162). We generally suggest that Tx. splendens is best to be released in discarded tires or any other containers with horizontal shape design with wide opening since Tx. splendens can become more effective in searching prey in this type of container design. This predator is also a suitable biocontrol candidates to be introduced either in wet and dry seasons in Malaysia. PMID:24862057

  8. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 12 codes in fiscal 1998. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the parallelization on scalar processors part and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2 and Reactor Safety Analysis code RELAP5 on the AP3000 are described. In the vectorization and parallelization on vector processors part, the vectorization of General Tokamak Circuit Simulation Program code GTCSP, the vectorization and parallelization of Molecular Dynamics Ntv Simulation code MSP2, Eddy Current Analysis code EDDYCAL, Thermal Analysis Code for Test of Passive Cooling System by HENDEL T2 code THANPACST2 and MHD Equilibrium code SELENEJ on the VPP500 are described. In the parallelization on scalar processors part, the parallelization of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code MCNP4B2, Plasma Hydrodynamics code using Cubic Interpolated propagation Method PHCIP and Vectorized Monte Carlo code (continuous energy model/multi-group model) MVP/GMVP on the Paragon are described. (author)

  9. Any l-state improved quasi-exact analytical solutions of the spatially dependent mass Klein-Gordon equation for the scalar and vector Hulthen potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new approximation scheme for the centrifugal term to obtain a quasi-exact analytical bound state solution within the framework of the position-dependent effective mass radial Klein-Gordon equation with the scalar and vector Hulthen potentials in any arbitrary D dimension and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers l. The Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method is used in the calculations. The relativistic real energy levels and corresponding eigenfunctions for the bound states with different screening parameters have been given in a closed form. It is found that the solutions in the case of constant mass and in the case of s-wave (l=0) are identical with the ones obtained in the literature.

  10. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponçon, N; Toty, C; L'ambert, G; le Goff, G; Brengues, C; Schaffner, F; Fontenille, D

    2007-12-01

    The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7%) of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use. PMID:18092973

  11. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and applicat

  12. A Potential Role for Ixodid (Hard) Tick Vectors in the Transmission of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, E S M; Stoltsz, W H; Troskie, M; Wallace, D B; Oura, C A L; Mellor, P S; Coetzer, J A W; Venter, E H

    2010-11-30

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important cattle disease. The disease is endemic in many African countries, but outbreaks have also been reported in Madagascar and the Middle East. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ixodid (hard) ticks in the transmission of the disease. Cattle were infected with a virulent, South African field isolate of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Three common African tick species (genera Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)) in different life cycle stages were fed on the infected animals during the viraemic stage and on skin lesions. Post-feeding, the partially fed male ticks were transferred to the skin of non-infected 'recipient' animals, while females were allowed to lay eggs that were then tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and virus isolation. Nymphs were allowed to develop for 2-3?weeks after which time they were tested. The non-infected 'recipient' cattle were closely monitored, both skin and blood samples were tested using PCR and virus isolation, and serum samples were tested by the serum neutralization test. This is the first report showing molecular evidence of potential transmission of LSDV by ixodid ticks. The study showed evidence of transstadial and transovarial transmission of LSDV by R. (B.) decoloratus ticks and mechanical or intrastadial transmission by R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum ticks. PMID:21114790

  13. Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

    2004-03-01

    The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual temperature and readily available soil moisture of the CPSZ data as the best ecological determinants for P. martini while LST annual composite was the only important ecological determinant for P. orientalis. Spearman's rank correlation revealed several factors to be important determinants for the distribution of the two vectors. None of the soil types analysed appeared to be important determinant for the two species in East Africa, unlike in Sudan where P. orientalis is mainly associated with eutric vertisol (black cotton clay soil). PMID:14739026

  14. Force Dependent Internalization of Magnetic Nanoparticles Results in Highly Loaded Endothelial Cells for Use as Potential Therapy Delivery Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cristin; Barbee, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the kinetics, mechanism and extent of MNP loading into endothelial cells and the effect of this loading on cell function. Methods MNP uptake was examined under field on/off conditions, utilizing varying magnetite concentration MNPs. MNP-loaded cell viability and functional integrity was assessed using metabolic respiration, cell proliferation and migration assays. Results MNP uptake in endothelial cells significantly increased under the influence of a magnetic field versus non-magnetic conditions. Larger magnetite density of the MNPs led to a higher MNP internalization by cells under application of a magnetic field without compromising cellular respiration activity. Two-dimensional migration assays at no field showed that higher magnetite loading resulted in greater cell migration rates. In a three-dimensional migration assay under magnetic field, the migration rate of MNP-loaded cells was more than twice that of unloaded cells and was comparable to migration stimulated by a serum gradient. Conclusions Our results suggest that endothelial cell uptake of MNPs is a force dependent process. The in vitro assays determined that cell health is not adversely affected by high MNP loadings, allowing these highly magnetically responsive cells to be potentially beneficial therapy (gene, drug or cell) delivery systems. PMID:22234617

  15. Ecology of potential West Nile virus vectors in southeastern Louisiana: enzootic transmission in the relative absence of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, Marvin S., Jr.; King, Raymond J.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Delorey, Mark; Colton, Leah; Charnetzky, Dawn; Sutherland, Genevieve; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Wilson, Lawrence A.; Coffey, Michelle; Milheim, Lesley E.; Taylor, Viki G.; Palmisano, Charles; Wesson, Dawn M.; Guptill, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This article has been peer reviewed and approved for publication consistent with U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices (http//pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1367/). Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

  16. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the gallery forest of Brasilia National Park, Brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Raquel, Lira-Vieira; Rodrigo, Gurgel-Goncalves; Israel Martins, Moreira; Maria Amelia Cavalcanti, Yoshizawa; Milton Lopes, Coutinho; Paulo Sousa, Prado; Jorge Lopes de, Souza; Antonio Jesus de Melo, Chaib; Joao Suender, Moreira; Cleudson Nery de, Castro.

    2013-10-15

    Full Text Available Introduction We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF). Methods Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the ca [...] nopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69%) during the rainy season (86%). The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes) albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (p

  17. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ? We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ? The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ? This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  18. SEASONAL POPULATION DYNAMICS AND INCIDENCE OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA INFECTION IN POTENTIAL INSECT VECTORS OF THE ALMOND LEAF SCORCH PATHOGEN IN CALIFORNIA'S SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease, caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) has reemerged as a serious disease threat to almond production areas throughout California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). The vector(s) of ALS strains of Xf, however, have not been as well documented and research is un...

  19. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread. PMID:25564746

  20. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  1. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  2. Adaptive Potential of Hybridization among Malaria Vectors: Introgression at the Immune Locus TEP1 between Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae in ‘Far-West’ Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emiliano; Spinaci, Maria Ida; Gordicho, Vasco; Caputo, Beniamino; Pombi, Marco; Vicente, José Luis; Dinis, João; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Weetman, David; Pinto, João; della Torre, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    “Far-West” Africa is known to be a secondary contact zone between the two major malaria vectors Anopheles coluzzii and A. gambiae. We investigated gene-flow and potentially adaptive introgression between these species along a west-to-east transect in Guinea Bissau, the putative core of this hybrid zone. To evaluate the extent and direction of gene flow, we genotyped site 702 in Intron-1 of the para Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel gene, a species-diagnostic nucleotide position throughout most of A. coluzzii and A. gambiae sympatric range. We also analyzed polymorphism in the thioester-binding domain (TED) of the innate immunity-linked thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) to investigate whether elevated hybridization might facilitate the exchange of variants linked to adaptive immunity and Plasmodium refractoriness. Our results confirm asymmetric introgression of genetic material from A. coluzzii to A. gambiae and disruption of linkage between the centromeric "genomic islands" of inter-specific divergence. We report that A. gambiae from the Guinean hybrid zone possesses an introgressed TEP1 resistant allelic class, found exclusively in A. coluzzii elsewhere and apparently swept to fixation in West Africa (i.e. Mali and Burkina Faso). However, no detectable fixation of this allele was found in Guinea Bissau, which may suggest that ecological pressures driving segregation between the two species in larval habitats in this region may be different from those experienced in northern and more arid parts of the species’ range. Finally, our results also suggest a genetic subdivision between coastal and inland A. gambiae Guinean populations and provide clues on the importance of ecological factors in intra-specific differentiation processes. PMID:26047479

  3. Chromosomal plasticity and evolutionary potential in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto: insights from three decades of rare paracentric inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Alessandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Anopheles gambiae complex, paracentric chromosomal inversions are non-randomly distributed along the complement: 18/31 (58% of common polymorphic inversions are on chromosome arm 2R, which represents only ~30% of the complement. Moreover, in An. gambiae sensu stricto, 6/7 common polymorphic inversions occur on 2R. Most of these inversions are considered markers of ecological adaptation that increase the fitness of the carriers of alternative karyotypes in contrasting habitats. However, little is known about the evolutionary forces responsible for their origin and subsequent establishment in field populations. Results Here, we present data on 82 previously undescribed rare chromosomal inversions (RCIs recorded during extensive field sampling in 16 African countries over a 30 year period, which may shed light on the dynamics of chromosomal plasticity in An. gambiae. We analyzed breakpoint distribution, length, and geographic distribution of RCIs, and compared these measures to those of the common inversions. We found that RCIs, like common inversions, are disproportionately clustered on 2R, which may indicate that this arm is especially prone to breakages. However, contrasting patterns were observed between the geographic distribution of common inversions and RCIs. RCIs were equally frequent across biomes and on both sides of the Great Rift Valley (GRV, whereas common inversions predominated in arid ecological settings and west of the GRV. Moreover, the distribution of RCI lengths followed a random pattern while common inversions were significantly less frequent at shorter lengths. Conclusion Because 17/82 (21% RCIs were found repeatedly at very low frequencies – at the same sampling location in different years and/or in different sampling locations – we suggest that RCIs are subject mainly to drift under unperturbed ecological conditions. Nevertheless, RCIs may represent an important reservoir of genetic variation for An. gambiae in response to environmental changes, further testifying to the considerable evolutionary potential hidden within this pan-African malaria vector.

  4. An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli ?-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; ts mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses ?-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system

  5. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators Levantamento de ciclopídeos (Crustacea, Copepoda) no Brasil e avaliação preliminar de seu potencial como predadores dos vetores da dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos; Andrade, Carlos Fernando S.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were...

  6. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2013-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  7. Vector carpets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovey, D.

    1995-03-22

    Previous papers have described a general method for visualizing vector fields that involves drawing many small ``glyphs`` to represent the field. This paper shows how to improve the speed of the algorithm by utilizing hardware support for line drawing and extends the technique from regular to unstructured grids. The new approach can be used to visualize vector fields at arbitrary surfaces within regular and unstructured grids. Applications of the algorithm include interactive visualization of transient electromagnetic fields and visualization of velocity fields in fluid flow problems.

  8. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Jack B; Anderson, Robert D; Williams, Gregory M; O'Connor, Linda; Harkins, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    We performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in Delaware from June to September 2004. We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. The 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce Aedes vexans, culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex restuans. Retention ponds generally produced the same species as wetlands, except that Cx. p. pipiens was more abundant than Cx. restuans in retention ponds. Aedes vexans and Culex salinarius were the most abundant species to Conservation Restoration Enhancement Program ponds. Sand filters uniquely produced high numbers of Cx. restuans, Cx. p. pipiens, and Aedes japonicus japonicus, a newly invasive vector species. Site that alternately dried and flooded, mostly detention ponds, forebays of retention ponds, and some wetlands often produced Ae. vexans, an occasional WNV bridge vector species. Overall, seasonal distribution of vectors was bimodal, with peaks occurring during early and late summer. Ponds with shallow sides and heavy shade generally produced an abundance of mosquitoes, unless insect predators were abundant. Bright, sunny ponds with steep sides and little vegetation generally produced the fewest mosquitoes. The associations among mosquito species and selected vegetation types are discussed. PMID:17019774

  9. Does Cattle Milieu Provide a Potential Point to Target Wild Exophilic Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) with Entomopathogenic Fungus? A Bioinsecticide Zooprophylaxis Strategy for Vector Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Issa N; Ng'habi, Kija R.; Mpingwa, Monica W.; Ally A. Daraja; Dickson D. Mwasheshe; Nchimbi, Nuru S.; Lwetoijera, Dickson W.; Mnyone, Ladslaus L

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anopheles arabiensis is increasingly dominating malaria transmission in Africa. The exophagy in mosquitoes threatens the effectiveness of indoor vector control strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of fungus against An. arabiensis when applied on cattle and their environments. Methods. Experiments were conducted under semi-field and small-scale field conditions within Kilombero valley. The semi-field reared females of 5–7 days old An. arabiensis were expose...

  10. Evaluation of Multi Potential Bioactive Endod, Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit) Berries Extracts Against Immature Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagappan Raja; Tigab Temesgen; Mamaye Tesera; Muche Tadele; Shiferaw Moges; Nurie Misganaw

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Phytolacca dodecandra plant extracts against immature filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The powdered berries were extracted with petroleum ether, acetone, benzene, methanol and water. The crude residue obtained from the extraction was used to prepare 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentration, respectively. The experiment was conducted by using standard WHO protocol with modifications. The immature mosq...

  11. Comparison of Potato and Asian Citrus Psyllid Adult and Nymph Transcriptomes Identified Vector Transcripts with Potential Involvement in Circulative, Propagative Liberibacter Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonja W. Fisher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid (PoP Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc and Asian citrus psyllid (ACP Diaphorina citri Kuwayama are the insect vectors of the fastidious plant pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso and Ca. L. asiaticus (CLas, respectively. CLso causes Zebra chip disease of potato and vein-greening in solanaceous species, whereas, CLas causes citrus greening disease. The reliance on insecticides for vector management to reduce pathogen transmission has increased interest in alternative approaches, including RNA interference to abate expression of genes essential for psyllid-mediated Ca. Liberibacter transmission. To identify genes with significantly altered expression at different life stages and conditions of CLso/CLas infection, cDNA libraries were constructed for CLso-infected and -uninfected PoP adults and nymphal instars. Illumina sequencing produced 199,081,451 reads that were assembled into 82,224 unique transcripts. PoP and the analogous transcripts from ACP adult and nymphs reported elsewhere were annotated, organized into functional gene groups using the Gene Ontology classification system, and analyzed for differential in silico expression. Expression profiles revealed vector life stage differences and differential gene expression associated with Liberibacter infection of the psyllid host, including invasion, immune system modulation, nutrition, and development.

  12. Expression of VP7, a Bluetongue Virus Group Specific Antigen by Viral Vectors: Analysis of the Induced Immune Responses and Evaluation of Protective Potential in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Contreras, Vanessa; Caruso, Agathe; Top, Sokunthea; Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Viarouge, Cyril; Desprat, Alexandra; Relmy, Anthony; Guibert, Jean-Michel; Dubois, Eric; Thiery, Richard; Bréard, Emmanuel; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Richardson, Jennifer; Foucras, Gilles; Meyer, Gilles; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important Orbivirus transmitted by biting midges to domestic and wild ruminants. The need for new vaccines has been highlighted by the occurrence of repeated outbreaks caused by different BTV serotypes since 1998. The major group-reactive antigen of BTV, VP7, is conserved in the 26 serotypes described so far, and its role in the induction of protective immunity has been proposed. Viral-based vectors as antigen delivery systems display considerable promise as veterinary vaccine candidates. In this paper we have evaluated the capacity of the BTV-2 serotype VP7 core protein expressed by either a non-replicative canine adenovirus type 2 (Cav-VP7 R0) or a leporipoxvirus (SG33-VP7), to induce immune responses in sheep. Humoral responses were elicited against VP7 in almost all animals that received the recombinant vectors. Both Cav-VP7 R0 and SG33-VP7 stimulated an antigen-specific CD4+ response and Cav-VP7 R0 stimulated substantial proliferation of antigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Encouraged by the results obtained with the Cav-VP7 R0 vaccine vector, immunized animals were challenged with either the homologous BTV-2 or the heterologous BTV-8 serotype and viral burden in plasma was followed by real-time RT-PCR. The immune responses triggered by Cav-VP7 R0 were insufficient to afford protective immunity against BTV infection, despite partial protection obtained against homologous challenge. This work underscores the need to further characterize the role of BTV proteins in cross-protective immunity. PMID:25364822

  13. Culicoides aspirated from cattle in Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama and Puerto Rico, and their role as potential vectors of bluetongue viruses. Regional Bluetongue Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz, M R; Greiner, E C

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, as part of an epidemiological study of bluetongue viruses (BTV) in the Central American and Caribbean region, eight farms located in Costa Rica, Honduras, Panamá and Puerto Rico were sampled for Culicoides spp. attacking cattle. Using cattle bait, 3884 biting midges were collected with an electric aspirator during both crepuscular periods. The predominant species captured was Culicoides insignis Lutz (95%), followed by C.furens (Poey) (3.4%), C.filarifer Hoffman/C.ocumarensis Ortiz (0.9%), C.lahillei (Iches) (0.7%), C.arubae Fox and Hoffman (vectors of BTV in the region. PMID:8161838

  14. Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention / Exploitation des possibilités de la lutte antivectorielle dans la prévention des maladies / Aprovechar el potencial de la lucha antivectorial como medio de prevención de enfermedades

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H, Townson; MB, Nathan; M, Zaim; P, Guillet; L, Manga; R, Bos; M, Kindhauser.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Aunque ha demostrado ser muy eficaz como medio de prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades, la lucha antivectorial no se explota al máximo, y eso priva a las poblaciones desfavorecidas de los beneficios de algunos métodos de probada eficacia. Tras el descubrimiento de los insecticidas sintéticos [...] de acción residual, en los años cuarenta, los programas a gran escala emprendidos consiguieron controlar muchas de las más importantes enfermedades de transmisión vectorial. A finales de los años sesenta, la mayoría de esas enfermedades -exceptuando la malaria en África- dejaron de ser un problema relevante de salud pública. El resultado fue que los programas de control cayeron en desuso, los recursos menguaron, y los especialistas en lucha antivectorial desaparecieron de las unidades de salud pública. En el término de dos décadas, muchas enfermedades importantes de transmisión vectorial reaparecieron o se propagaron a nuevas zonas. Ha llegado el momento de restituir a la lucha antivectorial su papel clave en la prevención de la transmisión de enfermedades, si bien es necesario hacer más hincapié en la adopción de múltiples medidas, basadas ya sea en el uso de plaguicidas o en la ordenación del medio, y en el refuerzo de la capacidad administrativa y operacional. El control integrado de los vectores brinda un marco conceptual sólido para desplegar métodos costoeficaces sostenibles de lucha antivectorial. Mediante este enfoque es posible abordar de forma exhaustiva los complejos determinantes de la transmisión de enfermedades, entre ellos su ecología local, el papel de la contribución humana a los riesgos de transmisión, y la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades afectadas. Abstract in english Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, l [...] arge-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases - with the exception of malaria in Africa - were no longer considered to be of primary public health importance. The result was that control programmes lapsed, resources dwindled, and specialists in vector control disappeared from public health units. Within two decades, many important vector-borne diseases had re-emerged or spread to new areas. The time has come to restore vector control to its key role in the prevention of disease transmission, albeit with an increased emphasis on multiple measures, whether pesticide-based or involving environmental modification, and with a strengthened managerial and operational capacity. Integrated vector management provides a sound conceptual framework for deployment of cost-effective and sustainable methods of vector control. This approach allows for full consideration of the complex determinants of disease transmission, including local disease ecology, the role of human activity in increasing risks of disease transmission, and the socioeconomic conditions of affected communities.

  15. Vectorization, parallelization and porting of nuclear codes (porting). Progress report fiscal 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several computer codes in the nuclear field have been vectorized, parallelized and transported on the FUJITSU VPP500 system, the AP3000 system, the SX-4 system and the Paragon system at Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. We dealt with 18 codes in fiscal 1999. These results are reported in 3 parts, i.e., the vectorization and the parallelization part on vector processors, the parallelization port on scalar processors and the porting part. In this report, we describe the porting. In this porting part, the porting of Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement code version 5 (AMBER5), general purpose Monte Carlo codes far neutron and photon transport calculations based on continuous energy and multigroup methods (MVP/GMVP), automatic editing system for MCNP library code (autonj), neutron damage calculations for materials irradiations and neutron damage calculations for compounds code (SPECTER/SPECOMP), severe accident analysis code (MELCOR) and COolant Boiling in Rod Arrays, Two-Fluid code (COBRA-TF) on the VPP500 system and/or the AP3000 system are described. (author)

  16. New Constitutive Vectors: Useful Genetic Engineering Tools for Biocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

  17. Vector fields in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.

  18. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first detector array comprises a first detector array of first detector elements, each of the first detector elements convertingthe intensity of the interfering signal beam and reference beam incident thereupon into a corresponding electronic detector element signal thereby generating an oscillating electronic detector element signal when the fringe pattern formed by the interfering signal beam and reference beam moves across the first detector array; and a signal processor that is adapted for generation of a velocity signal corresponding to a first velocity component of movement of the object in the measurement volume in the longitudinal direction of the measurement volume based on the electronic detector element signals from each of the first detector elements.

  19. Vector and Axial Vector Pion Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, Michael; PEN Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Radiative pion decay ?+ -->e+ ?? (RPD) provides critical input to chiral perturbation theory (?PT). Aside from the uninteresting ``inner bremsstrahlung'' contribution from QED, the RPD rate contains ``structure dependent'' terms given by FV and FA, the vector and axial-vector pion form factors, respectively. The two appear in the decay rate in combinations FV -FA and FV +FA , i.e., in the so-called SD- and SD+ terms, respectively. The latter has been measured to high precision by the PIBETA collaboration. We report on the analysis of new data, measured by the PEN collaboration in runs between 2008 and 2010 at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. We particularly focus on the possibility of improvement in the determination of the SD- term. Precise determinations of FV and FA test the validity of the CVC hypothesis, provide numerical input for the l9 +l10 terms in the ?PT lagrangian, and constrain potential non-(V - A) terms, such as a possible tensor term FT. NSF grants PHY-0970013, 1307328, and others.

  20. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  1. The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 and its application potential for the sterile insect technique in integrated vector management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tschirk, Wolfgang; Chadee, Dave D; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-02-01

    The Anopheles arabiensis genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 was developed based on a dieldrin resistant mutation. The strain has been shown to be practical and reliable in terms of female elimination by dieldrin treatments at larval stages, but has provided some difficulties when treatments were applied at the egg stage. The high natural sterility of this strain has advantages and disadvantages in both mass rearing and the sterilization process. In addition, its recombination rate, although relatively low, poses a threat of strain deterioration if left unchecked in a mass-rearing setting. The males of the ANO IPCL1 have been shown to be equally competitive as lab-reared males of the wild-type Dongola strain, but competitiveness decreased by half when irradiated with 75 Gy—a dose conferring >98% sterility. More controversial issues surround the use of dieldrin—a highly persistent organochlorine that is known to bioaccumulate in the food chain. The prospective use of large volumes of dieldrin in a mass-rearing facility and the retention of its residues by the male mosquitoes makes the use of the strain in the context of the sterile insect technique against this vector highly questionable, and therefore its implementation at a large scale cannot be recommended. PMID:25438257

  2. Evaluation of Multi Potential Bioactive Endod, Phytolacca dodecandra (L’ Herit Berries Extracts Against Immature Filarial Vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagappan Raja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate larvicidal and pupicidal properties of Phytolacca dodecandra plant extracts against immature filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The powdered berries were extracted with petroleum ether, acetone, benzene, methanol and water. The crude residue obtained from the extraction was used to prepare 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentration, respectively. The experiment was conducted by using standard WHO protocol with modifications. The immature mosquitoes were exposed to selected concentration and the percentage mortality was observed continuously for 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Among the various solvent extracts tested, petroleum ether, acetone and benzene showed maximum mortality at 125 ppm concentration and above. At 1000 ppm concentration, all the solvent extracts tested showed 100% mortality. The III-instar larva was highly susceptible compared to IV-instar and pupa. The water and methanol extract was also proved to have larvicidal and pupicidal properties. This study showed P. dodecandra plant extract have bioactivity compound to kill the immature Cx. quinquefasciatus. These plants are growing naturally in Ethiopian highlands and proper utilization may prevent unwanted pollution to the environment.

  3. A low-cost mesocosm for the study of behaviour and reproductive potential in Afrotropical mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B T; Stone, C M; Ebrahimi, B; Briët, O J T; Foster, W A

    2015-03-01

    A large-scale mesocosm was constructed and tested for its effectiveness for use in experiments on behaviour, reproduction and adult survivorship in the Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) in temperate climates. The large space (82.69 m(3) ) allowed for semi-natural experiments that increased demand on a mosquito's energetic reserves in an environment of widely distributed resources. A one-piece prefabricated enclosure, made with white netting and vinyl, prevented the ingress of predators and the egress of mosquitoes. Daylight and white materials prompted the mosquitoes to seclude themselves in restricted daytime resting sites and allowed the easy collection of dead bodies so that daily mortality could be assessed accurately using a method that accounts for the loss of a proportion of bodies. Here, daily, age-dependent mortality rates of males and females were estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. In overnight experiments, mosquitoes successfully located plants and took sugar meals. A 3-week survival trial with a single cohort demonstrated successful mating, blood feeding, oviposition and long life. The relatively low cost of the mesocosm and the performance of the mosquitoes in it make it a viable option for any behavioural or ecological study of tropical mosquitoes in which space and seasonal cold are constraining factors. PMID:25294339

  4. [Spatial vector electrocardiography: technique, perspectives of use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakutski?, V N; Volobuev, A N; Kriukov, N N; Romanchuk, P I

    2003-01-01

    Potentials of the use of computer synthesis of integral electrical vector of the heart D0 are described. Calculation of spatial angular vector velocity and linear velocity of its movement along trajectory can be carried out in a framework of biophysical dipole model. Spatial presentation of vector is realized and its behavior in accordance with established pathologies discussed. Possible diagnostic value of obtained results and utility of their introduction into clinical practice are stressed. PMID:12891251

  5. The use of annual killifish in the biocontrol of the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in temporary bodies of fresh water; a potential new tool in vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrias Araceli Q

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes that breed in temporary pools in remote areas that dry up seasonally are especially difficult to control through chemical or biological means. The annual killifish has been suggested as a means of eradicating the aquatic stages of mosquitoes in transient pools because they can maintain permanent populations in such habitats by undergoing suspended animation or diapause during the embryonic stages to survive periodic drought. However, very little is known about the predatory activity of annual killifish and their usefulness in mosquito control. Results The annual killifish, Nothobranchius guentheri, native to Tanzania, was used in this investigation. Food preference was tested under laboratory conditions by feeding juvenile killifish with 2nd instar mosquito larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative food sources, such as rotifers and chironomid larvae. Semi-field tests were conducted by introduction of hibernating killifish embryos and juvenile fish to artificial ponds in an outdoor open environment that allowed natural oviposition of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Food preference studies show that N. guentheri preferred to prey on mosquito larvae than either chironomid or rotifers. When hibernating killifish embryos were added to ponds simultaneously with the addition of freshwater, the embryos hatched and fed on mosquito larval population resulting in complete elimination of the immature stages. The introduction of juvenile fish to ponds with high density of mosquito larvae resulted in total eradication of the mosquito population due to predation by fish. Complete biocontrol of the mosquito larval population was achieved in the presence of 3 fish per m2 of pond surface area. Conclusions The annual killifish provides yet another tool that may be employed in the eradication diseases carried by mosquitoes through vector control, particularly in temporary bodies of freshwater. The fish can be conveniently transported in the absence of water in the form of hibernating embryos. Once introduced either as embryos or juveniles in ponds, the annual killifish can effectively reduce the larval population because of its aggressive predatory activity.

  6. Gene therapy using retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E M; Anderson, W F

    1994-12-01

    Gene therapy is a novel approach for treating various congenital and acquired genetic disorders, including cancer, heart disease, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Amongst possible gene delivery systems, retroviral vector mediated gene transfer has been the most extensively studied and has been approved for use in over 40 current Phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of various disorders, primarily cancers. Recent technological improvements include the optimization of vector production by concentration and lyophilization, resulting in high titers of vectors, as well as the large-scale production of vector-produced cells for the treatment of brain cancer. Present clinical protocols require specialized care centers with expertise in molecular biology and cell transplantation. Considerable effort is under way to develop retroviral vectors that can be both injected directly into the body and targeted to specific cell types within the body. Such vectors could be administered to patients by physicians in their offices. Successful development of this new technology would greatly expand the clinical potential of gene therapy. PMID:7765744

  7. Thrust vectoring for Eurofighter - The first steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikaza, D. [Project Manager, Nozzles With Industria de Turbo Propulsores, Muenchen (Germany); Rausch, Ch. [Project Manager, Thrust Vector Engine Control With MTU Motoren-und Turbinen-Union, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-02-01

    Thrust vectoring has the potential to provide significant improvements in combat aircraft performance and stability. As Eurofighter Typhoon moves into production, ITP and MTU are pursing a research and technology acquisition project to investigate the design of a thrust vectoring nozzle system suitable for future application to the EJ2000 engine. This paper describes the current status and progress of this project. (authors)

  8. Larvicidal, Repellent, and Irritant Potential of the Seed-Derived Essential oil of Apium graveolens Against Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarita; Mishra, Monika; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. is one of the primary disease vectors spreading various dreadful diseases throughout the world, specifically over tropics and subtropics. Keeping in view the adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures, the eco-friendly and bio-degradable essential oil extracted from the seeds of celery, Apium graveolens were investigated for its efficacy against Ae. aegypti. Larvicidal bioassay carried out with the seed oil against early fourth instars of Ae. aegypti caused an LC50 and LC90 values of 16.10 and 29.08?ppm, respectively, after an exposure to 24?h. The cidal effect of the celery seed oil augmented by 1.2-fold; after an exposure to 48?h; revealing an LC50 value of 13.22?ppm. Interestingly, the seed oil did not cause immediate larval mortality, suggesting a delayed toxicity against the larval stage. Present investigations also revealed remarkable effective repellency of the oil leading to 100% protection till 165?min as compared to control that did not result in any repellency against adult Ae. aegypti. Interestingly, only one bite was recorded in the 165th-min after which only two bites were scored until 180?min of exposure of the adult mosquitoes to the oil. An exciting observation was that the knocked-down effect in adults exposed to 10% oil-impregnated papers. The contact irritancy assays with paper impregnated with 1% celery seed oil caused first flight only after 4?s resulting in an average of 63.66 flights during 15?min of exposure revealing the relative irritability of 26.97. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the seed oil showed the presence of flavonoids, lactones, and terpenoids as the major constituents suggesting their probable role in the toxicity. Our results confirmed that celery seed essential oil can be used as an efficient larvicide and repellent against Ae. aegypti. The identification of the bioactive components, their mode of action, and studying effects on non-target organisms and the environment would help in devising mosquito-management strategies. PMID:25279371

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease based on [123I]FP-CIT SPECT binding potential images, using the voxels-as-features approach and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco P. M.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study was to develop a fully-automated computational solution for computer-aided diagnosis in Parkinson syndrome based on [123I]FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Approach. A dataset of 654 [123I]FP-CIT SPECT brain images from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative were used. Of these, 445 images were of patients with Parkinson’s disease at an early stage and the remainder formed a control group. The images were pre-processed using automated template-based registration followed by the computation of the binding potential at a voxel level. Then, the binding potential images were used for classification, based on the voxel-as-feature approach and using the support vector machines paradigm. Main results. The obtained estimated classification accuracy was 97.86%, the sensitivity was 97.75% and the specificity 98.09%. Significance. The achieved classification accuracy was very high and, in fact, higher than accuracies found in previous studies reported in the literature. In addition, results were obtained on a large dataset of early Parkinson’s disease subjects. In summation, the information provided by the developed computational solution potentially supports clinical decision-making in nuclear medicine, using important additional information beyond the commonly used uptake ratios and respective statistical comparisons. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01141023)

  10. Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey Artsob

    This online encyclopedia article discusses vector-borne diseases. It defines vectors as the transmitters of disease-causing organisms that carry the pathogens from one host to another. The article reviews the biological range of vectors, the transmission and types of vector-borne diseases, patterns of occurrence and existing control measures.

  11. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Sterculia foetida L. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and HeLa cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (Ag-PL NPs) (core–shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild Indian Almond tree, Sterculia foetida (L.) (Sterculiaceae). The reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of NPs. The amount of NPs synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. TEM studies exhibited controlled dispersity of spherical shaped NPs with an average size of 6.9 ± 0.2 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed ‘fcc’ phase and crystallinity of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the protein–lipid (PL) bilayer that appears as a shell around the Ag core particles. The thermal stability of the Ag-PL NPs was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further analysis was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where the spectra provided evidence for the presence of proteins and lipid moieties ((2n-octylcycloprop-1-enyl)-octanoic acid (I)), and their role in synthesis and stabilization of Ag NPs. This is the first report of plant seed assisted synthesis of PL conjugated Ag NPs. These formed Ag-PL NPs showed potential mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These Ag-PL NPs can also act as promising agents in cancer therapy. They exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and a promising toxicity was observed in a dose dependent manner. Toxicity studies were further supported by the cellular DNA fragmentation in the Ag-PL NPs treated HeLa cells. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of protein-lipid conjugated Ag NPs using S. foetida L. seed extract. • S. foetida seed extract acted as good reducing and stabilizing agent for Ag NPs. • XPS and FTIR confirm the biomolecules associated with Ag NPs. • Synthesized Ag NPs showed potential biological activities

  12. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators Levantamento de ciclopídeos (Crustacea, Copepoda no Brasil e avaliação preliminar de seu potencial como predadores dos vetores da dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01 of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.INTRODUÇÃO: Copépodos ciclopídeos são conhecidos como bons controladores de mosquitos, especialmente quando considerado as larvas dos vetores da dengue Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Onze corpos d'água em Campinas, SP, Brasil, foram avaliados para copépodos coletando-se 1,5 l de água de cada um deles. O potencial predador dos copépodos adultos foi avaliado por 24 h, em laboratório, em grupos de 5 indivíduos predadando sobre 30 larvas de 1° estádio de Ae. albopictus. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: No presente levantamento as seguintes espécies de ciclopídeos foram encontradas: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. O potencial predador desses copépodos variou de zero a 97,3%. A amostra coletada no campo contendo apenas com M. longisetus var. longisetus mostrou a melhor eficiência de controle, sem diferença significativa de uma cultura de laboratório (ML-01 criada por 3 anos, desta mesma espécie, que foi avaliada para comparação. A amostra com poucos M. albidus var. albidus foi cotada em segundo melhor lugar, apresentando em média 25,9% de eficiência. O uso de copépodos em pneus armadilha como controladores dos vetores da dengue é discutido.

  13. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators / Levantamento de ciclopídeos (Crustacea, Copepoda) no Brasil e avaliação preliminar de seu potencial como predadores dos vetores da dengue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Urbano dos, Santos; Carlos Fernando S. de, Andrade.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Copépodos ciclopídeos são conhecidos como bons controladores de mosquitos, especialmente quando considerado as larvas dos vetores da dengue Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Onze corpos d'água em Campinas, SP, Brasil, foram avaliados para copépodos coletando-se 1,5 l de [...] água de cada um deles. O potencial predador dos copépodos adultos foi avaliado por 24 h, em laboratório, em grupos de 5 indivíduos predadando sobre 30 larvas de 1° estádio de Ae. albopictus. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: No presente levantamento as seguintes espécies de ciclopídeos foram encontradas: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. O potencial predador desses copépodos variou de zero a 97,3%. A amostra coletada no campo contendo apenas com M. longisetus var. longisetus mostrou a melhor eficiência de controle, sem diferença significativa de uma cultura de laboratório (ML-01) criada por 3 anos, desta mesma espécie, que foi avaliada para comparação. A amostra com poucos M. albidus var. albidus foi cotada em segundo melhor lugar, apresentando em média 25,9% de eficiência. O uso de copépodos em pneus armadilha como controladores dos vetores da dengue é discutido. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. lo [...] ngisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01) of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  14. Introduction to Vector Spaces, Vector Algebras, and Vector Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    An introductory overview of vector spaces, algebras, and linear geometries over an arbitrary commutative field is given. Quotient spaces are emphasized and used in constructing the exterior and the symmetric algebras of a vector space. Affine geometries are introduced and generalized by projective completion. General projective geometries are briefly introduced. Tensor products and multilinear functions are treated. The exterior algebra of a vector space and that of its dual are used in treating linear geometry and Grassmann's regressive product is treated. Scalar product spaces, orthogonality, and the Hodge star based on a general basis are covered.

  15. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  16. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  17. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-03-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  18. The Hertz vector revisited: a simple physical picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Aiello, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The polarization potentials, also known as Hertz vectors, are useful auxiliary fields that permit the calculation of the fundamental electromagnetic fields in many cases of practical importance. In this article we show that in a vacuum a single Hertz vector written as the product of a scalar potential and a constant vector, naturally arises as consequence of the transversality of the electromagnetic fields. Thus, our treatment shines a new light on the physical meaning of a Hertz potential.

  19. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest. Fipronil is a GABA-gated chloride channel-inhibiting insecticide that has been commonly used for the management of different pests including M. domestica throughout the world. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A field-collected strain of M. domestica was selected with fipronil for continuous 11 generations to assess the cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability for designing a resistance management strategy. Laboratory bioassays were performed using the feeding method of mixing insecticide concentrations with 20% sugar solutions and cotton soaks dipped in insecticide solutions were provided to tested adult flies. Bioassay results at G12 showed that the fipronil-selected strain developed a resistance ratio of 140-fold compared to the susceptible strain. Synergism bioassay with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) indicated that fipronil resistance was associated with microsomal oxidase and also esterase. Reciprocal crosses between resistant and susceptible strains showed an autosomal and incompletely dominant resistance to fipronil. The LC50 values of F1 and F'1 strains were not significantly different and dominance values were 0.74 and 0.64, respectively. The resistance to fipronil was completely recessive (D(ML) = 0.00) at the highest dose and incompletely dominant at the lowest dose (D(ML) = 0.87). The monogenic resistance based on chi-square goodness of fit test and calculation of the minimum number of segregating genes showed that resistance to fipronil is controlled by multiple genes. The fipronil resistance strain confirmed very low cross-resistance to emamectin benzoate and spinosad while no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid when compared to that of the field population. The heritability values were 0.112, 0.075, 0.084, 0.008, and 0.052 for fipronil, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, acetamiprid, and chlorpyrifos, respectively. It was concluded that fipronil resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. These findings would be helpful for the better and successful management of M. domestica. PMID:24481906

  20. In vitro and in vivo characterization of several functionalized ultrasmall particles of iron oxide, vectorized against amyloid plaques and potentially able to cross the blood-brain barrier: toward earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease by molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansciaux, Emilie; Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Crombez, Deborah; Nonclercq, Denis; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder most often diagnosed 10?years after its onset and development. It is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid-? peptide (ABP) into amyloid plaques between nerve cells, which produces a massive local neurodegeneration. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging allows diagnosis of AD by showing ABP accumulation in the brain. The ultrasmall particles of iron oxide (USPIO) derivatives proposed in the present work were functionalized with peptides that present an affinity for ABP, independently of its state of aggregation. Their nanomolar Kd * confirms the high affinity of our vectorized contrast agents (VCA) for ABP and therefore their high labeling potential, specificity and sensitivity. Their lack of toxicity has been demonstrated, both by in vitro studies using the MTT method on several cell types, and by in vivo investigations with assessment of renal and hepatic biomarkers and by histopathology evaluation. The results of biodistribution studies corroborated by MRI demonstrate that USPIO-PHO (USPIO coupled to peptide C-IPLPFYN-C) are able to cross the blood-brain barrier without any facilitating strategy, and accumulates in the brain 90?min after its injection in NMRI mice. None of the USPIO derivatives were found in any organs one week after administration. To conclude, USPIO-PHO seems to have a genuine potential for labeling amyloid plaques in the brain; it has a nanomolar binding affinity, no toxic effects, and its elimination half-life is about 3?h. Further tests will be made on transgenic mice, aimed at confirming the potential of early AD diagnosis using our VCA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25284012

  1. Vector Curvaton without Instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2009-01-01

    A vector curvaton model with a Maxwell kinetic term and varying kinetic function and mass during inflation is studied. It is shown that, if light until the end of inflation, the vector field can generate statistical anisotropy in the curvature perturbation spectrum and bispectrum, with the latter being predominantly anisotropic. If by the end of inflation the vector field becomes heavy, then particle production is isotropic and the vector curvaton can alone generate the curv...

  2. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  3. Vector diffraction theory for electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathay, A S; McCalmont, J F

    2001-10-01

    The scalar Huygens-Fresnel principle is reformulated to take into account the vector nature of light and its associated directed electric and magnetic fields. Based on Maxwell's equations, a vector Huygens secondary source is developed in terms of the fundamental radiating units of electromagnetism: the electric and magnetic dipoles. The formulation is in terms of the vector potential from which the fields are derived uniquely. Vector wave propagation and diffraction formulated in this way are entirely consistent with Huygens's principle. The theory is applicable to apertures larger than a wavelength situated in dark, perfectly absorbing screens and for points of observation in the right half-space at distances greater than a wavelength beyond the aperture. Alternatively, a formulation in terms of the fields is also developed; it is referred to as a vector Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed method permits the determination of the diffracted electromagnetic fields along with the detected irradiance. PMID:11583276

  4. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  5. Phytoplasmas and their insect vectors in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskas, Algirdas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the phytoplasmas detected in insects that were found on various phytoplasma-infected plants, and to reveal phytoplasma insect-vectors as well as phytogenetical relationships of identified phytoplasmas. From previous research, we already know a few mostly widespread phytoplasma groups, subgroups, and many of their host plants in Lithuania. The data on potential vectors of these bacteria are very scarce in Lithuania. The identification and research o...

  6. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ti...

  7. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  8. Monopole Vector Spherical Harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Erick J.

    1993-01-01

    Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set o...

  9. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  10. Vector curvaton without instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vector curvaton model with a Maxwell kinetic term and varying kinetic function and mass during inflation is studied. It is shown that, if light until the end of inflation, the vector field can generate statistical anisotropy in the curvature perturbation spectrum and bispectrum, with the latter being predominantly anisotropic. If by the end of inflation the vector field becomes heavy, then particle production is isotropic and the vector curvaton can alone generate the curvature perturbation. The model does not suffer from instabilities such as ghosts and is the only concrete model, to date, which can produce the curvature perturbation without direct involvement of fundamental scalar fields.

  11. Vector Curvaton without Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Wagstaff, Jacques M

    2009-01-01

    A vector curvaton model with a Maxwell kinetic term and varying kinetic function and mass during inflation is studied. It is shown that, if light until the end of inflation, the vector field can generate statistical anisotropy in the curvature perturbation spectrum and bispectrum, with the latter being predominantly anisotropic. If by the end of inflation the vector field becomes heavy, then particle production is isotropic and the vector curvaton can alone generate the curvature perturbation. The model does not suffer from instabilities such as ghosts and is the only concrete model, to date, which can produce the curvature perturbation without direct involvement of fundamental scalar fields.

  12. Vector curvaton without instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Kar?iauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2010-01-01

    A vector curvaton model with a Maxwell kinetic term and varying kinetic function and mass during inflation is studied. It is shown that, if light until the end of inflation, the vector field can generate statistical anisotropy in the curvature perturbation spectrum and bispectrum, with the latter being predominantly anisotropic. If by the end of inflation the vector field becomes heavy, then particle production is isotropic and the vector curvaton can alone generate the curvature perturbation. The model does not suffer from instabilities such as ghosts and is the only concrete model, to date, which can produce the curvature perturbation without direct involvement of fundamental scalar fields.

  13. Short vector solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, E. M.; Tyutin, V. V.; Vorontzov, D. E.

    2001-08-01

    A class of short vector solitons in the frame of the coupled third-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CNSE-3) is found. Stability of the solitons in adiabatic approximation is considered. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the perturbed short vector solitons in the frame of the CNSE-3.

  14. Insect vector transmission assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

  15. Covariant and Contravariant Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Alok

    2010-01-01

    Vector is a physical quantity and it does not depend on any co-ordinate system. It need to be expanded in some basis for practical calculation and its components do depend on the chosen basis. The expansion in orthonormal basis is mathematically simple. But in many physical situations we have to choose an non-orthogonal basis (or oblique co-ordinate system). But the expansion of a vector in non-orthogonal basis is not convenient to work with. With the notion of contravariant and covariant components of a vector, we make non-orthogonal basis to behave like orthonormal basis. The same notion appears in quantum mechanics as Ket and Bra vectors and we compare the two equivalent situation via the completeness relation. This notion appears in the differential geometry of a metric manifold for tangent vectors at a point, where it takes into account the non-orthogonality of basis as well as non-Euclidean geometry.

  16. On cosmic inflation in vector field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the longitudinal ghost issue in Abelian vector inflation. It turns out that, within the class of Lorentz-invariant vector field theories with three degrees of freedom and without any extra (scalar) fields, the possibilities are essentially exhausted by the classical solution due to Larry Ford with an extremely flat potential which does not feel the fast roll of its argument. And, moreover, one needs to fulfill an extra condition on that potential in order to avoid severe gradient instability. At the same time, some Lorentz-violating modifications are worth exploring. (paper)

  17. On cosmic inflation in vector field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the longitudinal ghost issue in Abelian vector inflation. It turns out that, within the class of Lorentz-invariant vector field theories with three degrees of freedom and without any extra (scalar) fields, the possibilities are essentially exhausted by the classical solution due to Larry Ford with an extremely flat potential which does not feel the fast roll of its argument. And, moreover, one needs to fulfill an extra condition on that potential in order to avoid severe gradient instability. At the same time, some Lorentz-violating modifications are worth exploring.

  18. On cosmic inflation in vector field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the longitudinal ghost issue in vector inflation. It turns out that, within the class of Lorentz-invariant vector field theories with three degres of freedom and without any extra (scalar) fields, the possibilities are essentially exhausted by the classical solution due to Larry Ford with an extremely flat potential which doesn't feel the fast roll of its argument. And, moreover, one needs to fulfill an extra condition on that potential in order to avoid severe gradient instability. At the same time, some Lorentz-violating modifications are worth to be explored.

  19. Null Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twistfree class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shearfree eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning and charged source. (author)

  20. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniyandi, M.

    2012-01-01

    There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disea...

  1. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  2. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  3. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  4. Variational Relevance Vector Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Christopher M.; Tipping, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) of Vapnik (1998) has become widely established as one of the leading approaches to pattern recognition and machine learning. It expresses predictions in terms of a linear combination of kernel functions centred on a subset of the training data, known as support vectors. Despite its widespread success, the SVM suffers from some important limitations, one of the most significant being that it makes point predictions rather than generating pre...

  5. Exotic composite vector boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exotic composite vector boson V is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W, and Z. One is based on four-Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2)L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, ?, and V

  6. Dynamic vector hysteresis modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of considering dynamic effects in three vector hysteresis models is investigated. The friction model of oriented Preisach operators which rotate due to the torque exerted by the external field, the coercive spheres model, the 3D analogue of the classical Preisach model, and a further collective model based on micromagnetic analogy are considered. Furthermore, the 'external' dynamic generalization of the static hysteresis models is introduced for the vector case

  7. The Vector Curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Andres A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...

  8. A vector-based approach to modeling knowledge in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws attention to two important characteristics of knowledge which so far have been left unexplored, and proposes a new method to capture them in economic modeling with the help of vectors. The direction of the vector represents the knowledge's complementarity with other knowledge and its norm represents its potential economic value.

  9. Unimodality and convexity of f-vectors of polytopes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Axel

    2005-01-01

    We consider unimodality and related properties of f-vectors of polytopes in various dimensions. By a result of Kalai (1988), f-vectors of 5-polytopes are unimodal. In higher dimensions much less can be said; we give an overview on current results and present a potentially interesting construction as well as a conjecture arising from this.

  10. Ontology for vector surveillance and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Bandyopadhyay, Aritra; Cowell, Lindsay G; Goldfain, Albert; Eisen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies, which are made up by standardized and defined controlled vocabulary terms and their interrelationships, are comprehensive and readily searchable repositories for knowledge in a given domain. The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry was initiated in 2001 with the aims of becoming an "umbrella" for life-science ontologies and promoting the use of ontology development best practices. A software application (OBO-Edit; *.obo file format) was developed to facilitate ontology development and editing. The OBO Foundry now comprises over 100 ontologies and candidate ontologies, including the NCBI organismal classification ontology (NCBITaxon), the Mosquito Insecticide Resistance Ontology (MIRO), the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO), the IDOMAL malaria ontology, and ontologies for mosquito gross anatomy and tick gross anatomy. We previously developed a disease data management system for dengue and malaria control programs, which incorporated a set of information trees built upon ontological principles, including a "term tree" to promote the use of standardized terms. In the course of doing so, we realized that there were substantial gaps in existing ontologies with regards to concepts, processes, and, especially, physical entities (e.g., vector species, pathogen species, and vector surveillance and management equipment) in the domain of surveillance and management of vectors and vector-borne pathogens. We therefore produced an ontology for vector surveillance and management, focusing on arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens with relevance to humans or domestic animals, and with special emphasis on content to support operational activities through inclusion in databases, data management systems, or decision support systems. The Vector Surveillance and Management Ontology (VSMO) includes >2,200 unique terms, of which the vast majority (>80%) were newly generated during the development of this ontology. One core feature of the VSMO is the linkage, through the has vector relation, of arthropod species to the pathogenic microorganisms for which they serve as biological vectors. We also recognized and addressed a potential roadblock for use of the VSMO by the vector-borne disease community: the difficulty in extracting information from OBO-Edit ontology files (*.obo files) and exporting the information to other file formats. A novel ontology explorer tool was developed to facilitate extraction and export of information from the VSMO*.obo file into lists of terms and their associated unique IDs in *.txt or *.csv file formats. These lists can then be imported into a database or data management system for use as select lists with predefined terms. This is an important step to ensure that the knowledge contained in our ontology can be put into practical use. PMID:23427646

  11. Efficacy of sunlight-activatable porphyrin formulates on larvae of Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms and An. arabiensis: a potential novel biolarvicide for integrated malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Clara; Ouédraogo, Robert Kossivi; Coppellotti, Olimpia; Dabiré, Roch K; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Di Martino, Piera; Guidolin, Laura; Jori, Giulio; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Lupidi, Giulio; Martena, Valentina; Sawadogo, Simon P; Soncin, Marina; Habluetzel, Annette

    2012-09-01

    Biolarvicides, such as microbial formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus, have been found to be highly effective against mosquito larvae and are currently employed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for vector control. Recently, a porphyrin of natural origin has been suggested as a sunlight-activatable larvicide against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In order to validate the approach for the control of the malaria vector, we tested the photo-larvicidal activity of a novel porphyrin, namely meso-tri(N-methyl-pyridyl), mono(N-dodecyl-pyridyl)porphine, C12, associated with two specifically selected carriers, against Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis larvae, both laboratory reared and collected from malaria endemic sites in Burkina Faso. Both C12-porphyrin formulates, when administered to larvae at a 50?M porphyrin dose, were accumulated in the alimentary canal. Subsequent exposure of the porphyrin-loaded larvae to sunlight for short times (0.5-3h) led to a complete mortality. The high efficacy exhibited by a "foodstuff" porphyrin formulate also in the presence of typical larval food particles opens promising perspectives for the development of an effective photocidal larvicide. PMID:22668835

  12. Isotropy theorem for cosmological vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, J A R; Maroto, A L; Jareño, S J Núñez

    2012-01-01

    We consider homogeneous abelian vector fields in an expanding universe. We find a mechanical analogy in which the system behaves as a particle moving in three dimensions under the action of a central potential. In the case of bounded and rapid evolution compared to the rate of expansion, we show by making use of the virial theorem that for arbitrary potential and polarization pattern, the average energy-momentum tensor is always diagonal and isotropic despite the intrinsic anisotropic evolution of the vector field. For simple power-law potentials of the form V=\\lambda (A^\\mu A_\\mu)^n, the average equation of state is found to be w=(n-1)/(n+1). This implies that vector coherent oscillations could act as natural dark matter or dark energy candidates. Finally, we show that under very general conditions, the average energy-momentum tensor of a rapidly evolving bounded vector field in any background geometry is always isotropic and has the perfect fluid form for any locally inertial observer.

  13. The mass spectra of the old neutral vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac's equation with a harmonic potential is used to obtain the mass spectro of the neutral vector mesons rho sup(o), ?, phi and K sup(o*). Predictions are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results

  14. Analysis in Vector Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Akcoglu, Mustafa A; Ha, Dzung Minh

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous introduction to calculus in vector spaces The concepts and theorems of advanced calculus combined with related computational methods are essential to understanding nearly all areas of quantitative science. Analysis in Vector Spaces presents the central results of this classic subject through rigorous arguments, discussions, and examples. The book aims to cultivate not only knowledge of the major theoretical results, but also the geometric intuition needed for both mathematical problem-solving and modeling in the formal sciences. The authors begin with an outline of key concepts, ter

  15. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  16. Unit Vector Games

    OpenAIRE

    Savani, Rahul; Von Stengel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    McLennan and Tourky (2010) showed that "imitation games" provide a new view of the computation of Nash equilibria of bimatrix games with the Lemke-Howson algorithm. In an imitation game, the payoff matrix of one of the players is the identity matrix. We study the more general "unit vector games", which are already known, where the payoff matrix of one player is composed of unit vectors. Our main application is a simplification of the construction by Savani and von Stengel (2...

  17. BRST quantization of vector and axial-vector gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vector and axial-vector gauge theory is quantized in the geometrical BRST formalism. By applying the so-called horizontality condition, the BRST and anti-BRST transformation rules under the vector and axial-vector gauge transformations are obtained. At the same time, a quantum Lagrangian which is BRST and anti-BRST invariant is obtained. We discuss how the vector--axial-vector gauge theory [UV(N)xUA(N)] is related to the ''right''- and ''left''-handed gauge theory [UR(N)xUL(N)

  18. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Ph.D. project is to initiate a classification of bifurcations of meromorphic vector fields and to clarify their relation to circle packings. Technological applications are to image analysis and to effective grid generation using discrete conformal mappings. The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic vector fields. Restricting to structurally stable vector fields, there is an underlying dynamically defined triangulation of the plane. Circle packings are a means to realize such a given combinatorial structure. About 20 years ago, W. Thurston suggested applying circle packings to obtain approximations to Riemann mappings. This gave rise to the development of a theory of discrete analytic functions, which is a new tool in conformal geometry that can be used to implement many of the classical tools from complex analysis. Circle packing is a relatively new subject that has a great potential for technological applications, specifically for imaging problems. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. The same holds true for questions related to vector fields on the Riemann sphere and Riemann surfaces of higher genus. The overall objectives of this Ph.D.-study are to characterize the decomposition of parameter spaces of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces of low genus and a description of the bifurcations and to implement characteristic vector fields on such surfaces using circle packings. Furthermore, when the implementations using circle packings have been established, applications in conformal geometry and image analysis will be investigated in collaboration with faculty members at MAT and IMM.

  19. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  20. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  1. Perceptual vector quantization for video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valin, Jean-Marc; Terriberry, Timothy B.

    2015-03-01

    This paper applies energy conservation principles to the Daala video codec using gain-shape vector quantization to encode a vector of AC coefficients as a length (gain) and direction (shape). The technique originates from the CELT mode of the Opus audio codec, where it is used to conserve the spectral envelope of an audio signal. Conserving energy in video has the potential to preserve textures rather than low-passing them. Explicitly quantizing a gain allows a simple contrast masking model with no signaling cost. Vector quantizing the shape keeps the number of degrees of freedom the same as scalar quantization, avoiding redundancy in the representation. We demonstrate how to predict the vector by transforming the space it is encoded in, rather than subtracting off the predictor, which would make energy conservation impossible. We also derive an encoding of the vector-quantized codewords that takes advantage of their non-uniform distribution. We show that the resulting technique outperforms scalar quantization by an average of 0.90 dB on still images, equivalent to a 24.8% reduction in bitrate at equal quality, while for videos, the improvement averages 0.83 dB, equivalent to a 13.7% reduction in bitrate.

  2. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Savic?, Sara; Vidic?, Branka; Grgic?, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same pla...

  3. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may increase Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10/26

  4. Vector quantization by neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Zhang, Qianren; Ye, Yizheng; Li, Zhong-Rong

    1990-07-01

    Vector quantization has been widely used in image encoding systems and speech recognition systems science 1980's. In this paper, three kinds of vector quantization approaches are introduced, which are based on neural networks. The principles of using neural networks to improve the performance of vector quantization are described. Because of high parallel computation, learning function, high fault tolerance and selforganizing capability of neural networks, the performance of vector quantizers is improved.

  5. Vector Machine Inverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the online detection problem of rotor speed for Bearingless Induction Motor (BIM, a speed identification scheme based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM inverse is presented in this study. According to the inherent relationship among the variables of BIM, the speed subsystem is first built and proved to be invertible. Secondly, the inverse model was constructed using LSSVM which has good function approximation characteristics. And then the obtained inverse model is combined with this subsystem, which well realized the real-time rotation speed identification. Finally, a vector control simulation platform of BIM is established to evaluate the proposed method. The simulation results demonstrates the proposed LSSVM inverse method can accurately identify the speed parameter in a full speed operation region with good dynamic and static performance.

  6. Vectorization for Java

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Jiutao; Cheng, Buqi; Li, Shisheng; Wang, Ligang; Li, Xiao-feng

    2010-01-01

    Java is one of the most popular programming languages in today's software development, but the adoption of Java in some areas like high performance computing, gaming, and media processing is not as universal as in general-purpose computing. A major drawback preventing it from being extensively adopted in those areas is its lower performance than the traditional or domain-specific languages. This paper describes two approaches to improve Java's usability in those areas by introducing vector pr...

  7. Longitudinal vector field Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canonical transformation is used to study the Hamiltonian for the interaction of a Dirac field with a longitudinal vector field. The transformed Hamiltonian has a lower degree of formal divergence of its perturbation series than does the untransformed one. Its semirelativistic approximant has no divergences; hence, variational methods can be applied. The single-particle and infinite-uniform-matter cases are treated by variational methods in the semirelativistic approximation

  8. Helices and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Rudakov, A N

    1990-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the use of helices as a method for studying exceptional vector bundles, an important and natural concept in algebraic geometry. The work arises out of a series of seminars organised in Moscow by A. N. Rudakov. The first article sets up the general machinery, and later ones explore its use in various contexts. As to be expected, the approach is concrete; the theory is considered for quadrics, ruled surfaces, K3 surfaces and P3(C).

  9. Supersymmetric vector particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a relativistic generalization of Witten's supersymmetric quantum mechanics yields the Proca field equations describing a spin one particle, and, in the massless case, the Maxwell equations and the Lorentz gauge condition. The generalization is based on a representation of the pseudoclassical complex Grassmann variables by rectangular rather than quadratic matrices at the quantum level and on a non-associative operator product. We study all possible supersymmetric couplings to external fields. These include scalar, vector and tensor fields. The couplings exhibit a quadrupole characteristics of the pseudoclassical particle. In particular the coupling to an external vector field may be formulated in a purely geometrical manner and interpreted as that of a pure electric quadrupole to the Maxwell field. The corresponding Schroedinger equation does therefore not obey the minimal coupling prescription. The tensor field may represent not only a Riemannian, but also a complex hermitian metric. In the Riemannian case the quantization prescription entails the well-known covariant generalization of the classical vector field equations. We also derive a classical limit of the quantum theory that involves only real numbers. Finally we speculate on the existance of na analogous non-standard quantization for extended supersymmetric field theories. (Author)

  10. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  11. Cosmological implications of bumblebee vector models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Diogo; Páramos, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    The bumblebee model of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is explored in a cosmological context, considering a single nonzero time component for the vector field. The relevant dynamic equations for the evolution of the Universe are derived and their properties and physical significance are studied. We conclude that a late-time de Sitter expansion of the Universe can be replicated, and attempt to constrain the parameter of the potential driving the spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  12. Cosmological implications of Bumblebee vector models

    CERN Document Server

    Capelo, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Bumblebee Model of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking is explored in a cosmological context, considering a single non-zero time component for the vector field. The relevant dynamic equations for the evolution of the Universe are derived and its properties and physical significance studied. We conclude that a late-time de Sitter expansion of the Universe can be replicated, and attempt to constrain the parameter of the potential driving the spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  13. Vector properties of magnetostriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, E.; Jamali, A.; ElBidweihy, H.; Bennett, L. H.

    2015-05-01

    The vector properties of a newly developed Preisach-type magnetostriction model are discussed. The model uses a modified version of the Della Torre-Pinzaglia-Cardelli model to compute the irreversible and the reversible components of the magnetization. The magnetostriction can then be simulated by assuming that its magnitude is proportional to the magnetization and its direction is dependent on the magnetization history. The modeling approach is outlined for two types of isotropic media: native and polycrystalline. The preliminary results show excellent agreement with the rotational magnetization measurements for a sample of high-strength steel.

  14. Warm vector inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we introduce the “warm vector inflation” scenario. In warm inflation scenario radiation is produced during the inflation epoch and reheating is avoided. Slow-roll and perturbation parameters of this model are presented. We develop our model using intermediate inflation model. In this case, the model is compatible with observational data. We also study the model using another exact cosmological solution, named logamediate scenario. We present slow-roll and Hubble parameters, power spectrum and tensor–scalar ratio in terms of inflaton. The model is compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data

  15. Effect of Coflow on Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Krothapalli, A.; Strykowski, P. J.

    1997-11-01

    A unique, fluidic-based thrust vectoring technique known as CounterFlow Thrust Vector Control (CFTVC) has been investigated at the Fluid Mechanics Research Laboratory (FMRL) over the past few years. These studies have demonstrated that CFTVC is a simple, robust and efficient method for thrust vectoring of supersonic jets of various geometries. In an effort to better evaluate the system performance under real flight conditions, a study of the CFTVC system under "wind-on" conditions, using a rectangular Mach 1.4 jet, is currently in progress. The wind-on condition is simulated by providing a coflowing stream (i.e. flowing in the same direction as the primary jet) at the periphery of the countercurrent stream which surrounds the primary jet. Coflowing streams over a range of Mach numbers, from 0.3 to 0.7, will be tested. Preliminary results show that the coflowing stream has a relatively minor influence on CFTVC and that the jet can be easily vectored to large angles in the presence of coflow. These encouraging reuslts further demonstrate the potential of this system for future propulsion applications.

  16. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BØdker, Rene

    Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall pattern are likely to facilitate the spread and establishment of new vector borne diseases in the Baltic See Region. There are a large number of potential vector borne threats to the area. Existing endemic vector borne diseases are likely to increase and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus in ruminants have been attributed an increase in European temperatures. Mathematical models clearly demonstratethe potential for increased virus transmission at elevated temperatures. however there is little evidence to support the idea that the spread of these tropical viruses in northern Europe is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified an increasing trend in transmission potential over the last 25 years. However the model suggested that the climate in the Baltic See Region has always permitted transmission of these diseases. The model therefore suggests that a presently unknown factor until recently prevented introduction and spread in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models to pinpoint the next outbreak of an exotic vector borne disease. A new outbreak will most likely be detected by a veterinarian deciding to submit a sample based on a subjective clinical suspicion. But the question is how far the epidemic will progress before a veterinarian decides to submit this crucial sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones, thus allowing easy access to risk estimates when in the field. Knowing when and where the potential risk for transmission of a specific vector borne disease is high is likely to help veterinarians decide when and when not to submit a sample to a diagnostic laboratory. This may both increase sensitivity of national surveillance and reduce the cost.

  17. Nonlinear birefringence in plasmas: Polarization dynamics, vector modulational instability, and vector solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhanian, Jafar, E-mail: borhanian@uma.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    The propagation of an elliptically polarized intense laser pulse in an unmagnetized collisionless uniform plasma is considered. A multiple scale perturbation theory is employed to show that in a weakly relativistic regime, evolution of the components of vector potential is governed by two coherently coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations. A set of equations describing the evolution of Stokes parameters is derived within the continuous wave approximation and the dynamics of components of field amplitude is studied. The polarization dynamics of a pulse is investigated by means of numerical solution of the coupled NLS equations. A detailed analysis of vector modulational instability is presented and the possibility for occurrence of various kinds of vector solitary waves is addressed.

  18. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Kremer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2 biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1-deleted to helper-dependent (HD CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.

  19. On Killing vectors and harmonic vectors at quantization of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is paid to two shortcomings occuring at quantization in the curved spacetime: mathematical shortcoming consisting in the killing vector absence in arbitrary Riemann space and physical one consisting in absence of energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field. It is shown, that both shortcomings may be removed, if the killing vectors are replaced by harmonic vectors corresponding to shift generators of the Poincare group existing in arbitrary Riemann space

  20. Model suicide vector for containment of genetically engineered microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A. K.; Perlin, M. H.; Atlas, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    A model suicide vector (pBAP19h), designed for the potential containment of genetically engineered microorganisms, was made by constructing a plasmid with the hok gene, which codes for a lethal polypeptide, under the control of the lac promoter. The vector plasmid also codes for carbenicillin resistance. In the absence of carbenicillin, induction of the hok gene in vitro caused elimination of all detectable cells containing the suicide vector; pBAP19h-free cells of the culture survived and gr...

  1. Analysis of Vector-Inflation Models Using Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose F

    2015-01-01

    We analyze two possible vector-field models using the techniques of dynamical systems. The first model involves a U(1)-vector field and the second a triad of SU(2)-vector fields. Both models include a gauge-fixing term and a power-law potential. A dynamical system is formulated and it is found that one of the critical points, for each model, corresponds to inflation, the origin of these critical points being the respective gauge-fixing terms. The conditions for the existence of an inflationary era which lasts for at least 60 efolds are studied.

  2. Risk assessment framework for emerging vector-borne livestock diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, C. J.; Hoek, M. R.; Fischer, E. A. J.; Koeijer, A. A.; Bremmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a framework for risk assessment of introduction, establishment, spread and persistence of vector-borne livestock diseases by integrating the essential elements of different approaches. This framework will help risk analysts to assess the risk of vector-borne diseases, considering both likelihood of occurrence and potential impact to inform stakeholders on behalf of their decision making.

  3. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Day Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although signif...

  4. Effective Vector Data Transmission and Visualization Using HTML5

    OpenAIRE

    Corcoran, Padraig; Mooney, Peter; Winstanley, Adam; Bertolotto, Michela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the potential of the next major revision of HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), that is HTML5, to provide an effective platform for the transmission and visualization of vector based geographical data. Relative to the current version of HTML, HTML 4.01, HTML5 offers an improved platform to perform these tasks through greater interoperability with existing technologies and the introduction of many new API’s. Visualization of vector data can be achieved ...

  5. Semitopological Vector Spaces and Hyperseminorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce and study semitopological vector spaces. The goal is to provide an efficient base for developing the theory of extrafunction spaces in an abstract setting of algebraic systems and topological spaces. Semitopological vector spaces are more general than conventional topological vector spaces, which proved to be very useful for solving many problems in functional analysis. To study semitopological vector spaces, hypermetrics and hyperpseudometrics are introduced and it is demonstrated that hyperseminorms, studied in previous works of the author, induce hyperpseudometrics, while hypernorms induce hypermetrics. Sufficient and necessary conditions for a hyperpseudometric (hypermetric to be induced by a hyperseminorm (hypernorm are found. We also show that semitopological vector spaces are closely related to systems of hyperseminorms. Then defining boundedness and continuity relative to associated systems of hyperseminorms, we study relations between relative boundedness and relative continuity for mappings of vector spaces with systems of hyperseminorms and systems of hypernorms.

  6. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydock, Roger [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274 (United States); Nex, C M M [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1274 (United States); Wexler, Geoffrey [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-09

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically.

  7. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  8. Vector Continued Fractions using a Generalised Inverse

    CERN Document Server

    Haydock, R; Wexler, G; Haydock, Roger; Wexler, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A real vector space combined with an inverse for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically.

  9. Novel bacteriophage lambda cloning vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Karn, J.; Brenner, S.; Barnett, L.; Cesareni, G.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method for generating phage collections representing eukaryotic genomes has been developed by using a novel bacteriophage lambda vector, lambda 1059. The phage is a BamHI substitution vector that accommodates DNA fragments 6-24 kilobases long. Production of recombinants in lambda 1059 requires deletion of the lambda red and gamma genes. The recombinants are therefore spi- and may be separated from the spi+ vector phages by plating on strains lysogenic for bacteriophage P2. Random fra...

  10. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory...

  11. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    2011-01-01

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of General Relativity. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Depending on the relations between the particular parameters and the symmetry of a problem, the vector fields can be longitudinal and/or transverse, ultrarelativistic (i.e. massless) or nonrelativistic (massive), and so ...

  12. Vector Graphics Stylized Stroke Fonts

    OpenAIRE

    Jägenstedt, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Stylized Stroke Fonts (SSF) are stroke fonts which allow variable stroke widths and arbitrary stroke ends. In this thesis project we implement SSF by extending concepts of the traditional vector graphics paradigm, giving what we call Vector Graphics Stylized Stroke Fonts (VGSSF). A stroking algorithm for the new stroke model is developed and implemented in the Opera web browser's internal vector graphics drawing toolkit. Both the HTML 5 Canvas JavaScript interface and SVG fonts are extended t...

  13. Polynomial Interpretation of Multipole Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Gabriel; Weeks, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Copi, Huterer, Starkman and Schwarz introduced multipole vectors in a tensor context and used them to demonstrate that the first-year WMAP quadrupole and octopole planes align at roughly the 99.9% confidence level. In the present article the language of polynomials provides a new and independent derivation of the multipole vector concept. Bezout's Theorem supports an elementary proof that the multipole vectors exist and are unique (up to rescaling). The constructive nature o...

  14. All optical vector magnetometer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector...

  15. Maths Help: Working with Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of a wide range of physical properties such as force, velocity, and acceleration, requires a firm understanding of the mathematics of vectors. This comprehensive Web site covers many aspects of vector algebra and trigonometry. The often-used dot product and cross product are defined, as well as vector representations of lines and planes. Illustrations are used to demonstrate vector analysis and its real-world applications. A few extra sections delve into related topics, including transformation between Cartesian and spherical coordinates. The material is mostly suitable for high school or college students who have taken pre-calculus.

  16. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robert T.; Hall, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles.

  17. Multiple-Description Multistage Vector Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa Yahampath

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Multistage vector quantization (MSVQ is a technique for low complexity implementation of high-dimensional quantizers, which has found applications within speech, audio, and image coding. In this paper, a multiple-description MSVQ (MD-MSVQ targeted for communication over packet-loss channels is proposed and investigated. An MD-MSVQ can be viewed as a generalization of a previously reported interleaving-based transmission scheme for multistage quantizers. An algorithm for optimizing the codebooks of an MD-MSVQ for a given packet-loss probability is suggested, and a practical example involving quantization of speech line spectral frequency (LSF vectors is presented to demonstrate the potential advantage of MD-MSVQ over interleaving-based MSVQ as well as traditional MSVQ based on error concealment at the receiver.

  18. Multiple-Description Multistage Vector Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahampath Pradeepa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multistage vector quantization (MSVQ is a technique for low complexity implementation of high-dimensional quantizers, which has found applications within speech, audio, and image coding. In this paper, a multiple-description MSVQ (MD-MSVQ targeted for communication over packet-loss channels is proposed and investigated. An MD-MSVQ can be viewed as a generalization of a previously reported interleaving-based transmission scheme for multistage quantizers. An algorithm for optimizing the codebooks of an MD-MSVQ for a given packet-loss probability is suggested, and a practical example involving quantization of speech line spectral frequency (LSF vectors is presented to demonstrate the potential advantage of MD-MSVQ over interleaving-based MSVQ as well as traditional MSVQ based on error concealment at the receiver.

  19. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  20. Almost purity for overconvergent Witt vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, we stated a general almost purity theorem in the style of Faltings: if R is a ring for which the Frobenius maps on finite p-typical Witt vectors over R are surjective, then the integral closure of R in a finite etale extension of R[1/p] is “almost” finite etale over R. Here, we use almost purity to lift the finite ?etale extension of R[1/p] to a finite etale extension of rings of overconvergent Witt vectors. The point is that no hypothesis of p-adic completeness is needed; this result thus points towards potential global analogues of p-adic Hodge theory. As an illustration, we construct (?,?)-modules associated to Artin Motives over Q. The (?, ?)-modules we construct are defined over a base ring which seems well-suited to generalization to a more global setting; we plan to pursue such generalizations in later work.

  1. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    2014-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution as a by-product. We apply the methods to postwar quarterly U.S. inflation and GDP growth series. The noncausal VAR model turns out to be superior in terms of both in-sample fit and out-of-sample forecasting performance over its conventional causal counterpart. In addition, we find GDP growth to have predictive power for the future distribution of inflation over and above the own history of inflation, but not vice versa. This may be interpreted as evidence against the new Keynesian model that implies Granger causality from inflation to GDP growth, provided GDP growth is a reasonable proxy of the marginal cost.

  2. Renormalization of Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, H

    2006-01-01

    These notes cover some of the recent developments in the renormalization of quasiperiodic flows. This includes skew flows over tori, Hamiltonian flows, and other flows on $\\torus^d\\times\\real^\\ell$. After stating some of the problems and describing alternative approaches, we focus on the definition and basic properties of a single renormalization step. A second part deals with the construction of conjugacies and invariant tori, including shearless tori, and non-differentiable tori for critical Hamiltonians. Then we discuss properties related to the spectrum of the linearized renormalization transformation, such as the accumulation rates for sequences of closed orbits. The last part describes extensions from "self-similar" to Diophantine rotation vectors. This involves sequences of renormalization transformations that are related to continued fractions expansions in one and more dimensions. Whenever appropriate, the discussion of details is restricted to special cases where inessential technical complications ...

  3. Electrostatic potential in a superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Lipavsky, Pavel; Kolacek, Jan; Morawetz, Klaus; Brandt, Ernst Helmut

    2001-01-01

    The electrostatic potential in a superconductor is studied. To this end Bardeen's extension of the Ginzburg-Landau theory to low temperatures is used to derive three Ginzburg-Landau equations - the Maxwell equation for the vector potential, the Schroedinger equation for the wave function and the Poisson equation for the electrostatic potential. The electrostatic and the thermodynamic potential compensate each other to a great extent resulting into an effective potential acti...

  4. Evaluation of leading scalar and vector architectures for scientific computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.; Oliker, Leonid; Canning, Andrew; Carter, Jonathan; Ethier, Stephane; Shalf, John

    2004-04-20

    The growing gap between sustained and peak performance for scientific applications is a well-known problem in high performance computing. The recent development of parallel vector systems offers the potential to reduce this gap for many computational science codes and deliver a substantial increase in computing capabilities. This project examines the performance of the cacheless vector Earth Simulator (ES) and compares it to superscalar cache-based IBM Power3 system. Results demonstrate that the ES is significantly faster than the Power3 architecture, highlighting the tremendous potential advantage of the ES for numerical simulation. However, vectorization of a particle-in-cell application (GTC) greatly increased the memory footprint preventing loop-level parallelism and limiting scalability potential.

  5. Optimization of self-complementary AAV vectors for liver-directed expression results in sustained correction of hemophilia B at low vector dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhijian; Sun, Junjiang; Zhang, Taiping; Yin, Chaoying; Yin, Fang; Van Dyke, Terry; Samulski, Richard J; Monahan, Paul E

    2008-02-01

    Self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors can significantly minimize the vector load required to achieve sustained transgene expression. In this study, transcriptional regulatory elements were systematically screened to produce constitutive and liver-specific scAAV factor IX (FIX) expression cassettes. In addition, optimization of GC content, cis- regulatory elements, and codon usage in the human FIX (hFIX) transgene increased expression 4-20-fold. A vector was developed that was capable of expressing high FIX levels in comparison with the single-stranded (ss) AAV vector used in a recent clinical trial. The ssAAV and scAAV vectors display different transgene expression and genome stability patterns in the liver, as determined by immunohistochemical staining, in situ messenger RNA (mRNA) hybridization and vector genome quantitation. The ssAAV2 vector promoted strong FIX expression in only a subset of hepatocytes. The scAAV2-hFIX vector showed widespread ( approximately 80% of hepatocytes), moderate FIX expression levels similar to normal livers with correction of coagulation function in FIX-deficient mice. The ability of low dose scAAV-FIX vectors to achieve near-physiological expression may circumvent inflammatory responses in the liver. In addition to providing an improved scAAV vector for potential application in future hemophilia B clinical trials and liver-directed gene delivery, these studies underscore the need for rigorous analysis and optimization of vector genome cassettes. PMID:18059373

  6. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  7. Science of NFL Football: Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    NBC's Lester Holt looks at the role vectors play every time an NFL quarterback throws a pass. With the help of former NFL quarterback Joey Harrington, NSF-funded scientist John Ziegert of Clemson University and NSF-funded mathematician Rhonda Hughes of Bryn Mawr College explain how to use vectors to calculate the speed and direction needed for a completed pass.

  8. Cosmological perturbations from vector inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the behavior of linear perturbations in vector inflation. In contrast to scalar field inflation, the linearized theory with vector fields contains couplings between scalar, vector, and tensor modes. The perturbations decouple only in the ultraviolet limit, which allows us to carry out the canonical quantization. Superhorizon perturbations can be approximately analyzed due to suppressed mixing between different modes in the small field models. We find that the vector perturbations of the metric decay exponentially, but the scalar and tensor modes could remain weakly coupled throughout the evolution. As a result, vector inflation can produce significant correlations of the scalar and tensor modes in the CMB. For realistic models the effect is rather small, but not negligible.

  9. Segmentation of discrete vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Chen, Wenbin; Shen, I-Fan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for 2D discrete vector field segmentation based on the Green function and normalized cut. The method is inspired by discrete Hodge Decomposition such that a discrete vector field can be broken down into three simpler components, namely, curl-free, divergence-free, and harmonic components. We show that the Green Function Method (GFM) can be used to approximate the curl-free and the divergence-free components to achieve our goal of the vector field segmentation. The final segmentation curves that represent the boundaries of the influence region of singularities are obtained from the optimal vector field segmentations. These curves are composed of piecewise smooth contours or streamlines. Our method is applicable to both linear and nonlinear discrete vector fields. Experiments show that the segmentations obtained using our approach essentially agree with human perceptual judgement. PMID:16640243

  10. Intracellular Transport of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; Weber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) have been widely used for gene delivery in animal models, and are currently evaluated for human gene therapy after successful clinical trials in the treatment of inherited, degenerative or acquired diseases such as Leber congenital amaurosis, Parkinson disease, or heart failure. However, limitations in vector tropism, such as limited tissue specificity and insufficient transduction efficiencies of particular tissues and cell types, still preclude therapeutic applications in certain tissues. Wild-type AAVs are defective viruses that require the presence of a helper virus to complete their life cycle. One the one hand, this unique property makes AAV vectors one of the safest available viral vectors for gene delivery. On the other hand, it also represents a potential obstacle because rAAV vectors have to overcome several biological barriers in the absence of a helper virus to transduce successfully a cell. Consequently, a better understanding of the cellular roadblocks that limit rAAV gene delivery is crucial and, during the last 15 years, numerous studies resulted in an expanding body of knowledge of the intracellular trafficking pathways of rAAV vectors. This review describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in rAAV attachment to target cells, endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, capsid processing, nuclear import and genome release with an emphasis on the most recent discoveries in the field and the emerging strategies used to improve the efficiency of AAV-derived vectors. PMID:22357511

  11. Nuevos registros de vectores potenciales de Fiebre Amarilla y Mayaro para el estado Guárico, Venezuela: Primer registro de Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar para los Llanos centrales de Venezuela / New records of potential yellow fever and mayaro vectors from Guarico State, Venezuela: First record of Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar from the central plains of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elvira, Sánchez-González; Jonathan, Liria; Rodrigo, Ramírez; Manuel, Muñoz; Juan-Carlos, Navarro.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar y Hg. equinus Theobald, con base en capturas realizadas en un área rural del municipio Roscio, estado Guárico y se señala por primera vez la presencia de Hg. janthinomys para la subregión de los Llanos Centrales. Este hallazgo, constituye un factor de riesgo [...] potencial en la emergencia y transmisión de arbovirosis, por lo que se recomienda a los organismos de salud del estado realizar la vigilancia entomológica y epidemiológica respectiva en el área. Abstract in english Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar and Hg. equinus Theobald were captured from a rural area in the Roscio municipality, Guarico State, Venezuela, and Hg. janthinomys was reported for the first time from the central lowland plains subregion of Venezuela. These findings represent potential risk factors for [...] the emergence of arboviruses and their transmission. We thus recommend that the respective health authorities undertake entomological and epidemiological surveillance in this region.

  12. Máquinas de vectores de soporte / Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elkin Eduardo, García Díaz; Fernando, Lozano Martínez.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificacion binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Maquinas de Vectores de Soporte) que combinado apropiadamente con tecnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeno en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva caracteristicas similares de genera [...] lizacion con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representacion mas compacta. Abstract in english In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation. [...

  13. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsun Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model for generalizing the structure model. The paper has the contributions as following: (1 automatically learn the structure of attack vectors from practical data analysis to modeling a structure model of attack vectors, (2 mimic the manners and the elements of attack vectors to extend the ability of testing tool for identifying XSS vulnerabilities, (3 be helpful to verify the flaws of blacklist sanitization procedures of Web applications. We evaluated the proposed mechanism by Burp Intruder with a dataset collected from public XSS archives. The results show that mutated XSS attack generation can identify potential vulnerabilities.

  14. Live bacterial vaccine vectors: An overview

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adilson José da, Silva; Teresa Cristina, Zangirolami; Maria Teresa Marques, Novo-Mansur; Roberto de Campos, Giordano; Elizabeth Angélica Leme, Martins.

    1117-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetically attenuated microorganisms, pathogens, and some commensal bacteria can be engineered to deliver recombinant heterologous antigens to stimulate the host immune system, while still offering good levels of safety. A key feature of these live vectors is their capacity to stimulate mucosal as [...] well as humoral and/or cellular systemic immunity. This enables the use of different forms of vaccination to prevent pathogen colonization of mucosal tissues, the front door for many infectious agents. Furthermore, delivery of DNA vaccines and immune system stimulatory molecules, such as cytokines, can be achieved using these special carriers, whose adjuvant properties and, sometimes, invasive capacities enhance the immune response. More recently, the unique features and versatility of these vectors have also been exploited to develop anti-cancer vaccines, where tumor-associated antigens, cytokines, and DNA or RNA molecules are delivered. Different strategies and genetic tools are constantly being developed, increasing the antigenic potential of agents delivered by these systems, opening fresh perspectives for the deployment of vehicles for new purposes. Here we summarize the main characteristics of the different types of live bacterial vectors and discuss new applications of these delivery systems in the field of vaccinology.

  15. Circadian rhythms in insect disease vectors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Carlos Alves, Meireles-Filho; Charalambos Panayiotis, Kyriacou.

    Full Text Available Organisms from bacteria to humans have evolved under predictable daily environmental cycles owing to the Earth’s rotation. This strong selection pressure has generated endogenous circadian clocks that regulate many aspects of behaviour, physiology and metabolism, anticipating and synchronising inter [...] nal time-keeping to changes in the cyclical environment. In haematophagous insect vectors the circadian clock coordinates feeding activity, which is important for the dynamics of pathogen transmission. We have recently witnessed a substantial advance in molecular studies of circadian clocks in insect vector species that has consolidated behavioural data collected over many years, which provided insights into the regulation of the clock in the wild. Next generation sequencing technologies will facilitate the study of vector genomes/transcriptomes both among and within species and illuminate some of the species-specific patterns of adaptive circadian phenotypes that are observed in the field and in the laboratory. In this review we will explore these recent findings and attempt to identify potential areas for further investigation.

  16. Vector Dark Matter from Inflationary Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Peter W; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the production of a massive vector boson by quantum fluctuations during inflation. This gives a novel dark-matter production mechanism quite distinct from misalignment or thermal production. While scalars and tensors are typically produced with a nearly scale-invariant spectrum, surprisingly the vector is produced with a power spectrum peaked at intermediate wavelengths. Thus dangerous, long-wavelength, isocurvature perturbations are suppressed. Further, at long wavelengths the vector inherits the usual adiabatic, nearly scale-invariant perturbations of the inflaton, allowing it to be a good dark matter candidate. The final abundance can be calculated precisely from the mass and the Hubble scale of inflation, H_I. Saturating the dark matter abundance we find a prediction for the mass m = 10^-5 eV (10^14 GeV/H_I)^4. High-scale inflation, potentially observable in the CMB, motivates an exciting mass range for recently proposed direct detection experiments for hidden photon dark matter. Such experim...

  17. Nonlinear vector perturbations in a contracting universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of scalar field models proposed as alternatives to the standard inflationary scenario involve contracting phases which precede the universe's present phase of expansion. An important question concerning such models is whether there are effects which could potentially distinguish them from purely expanding cosmologies. Vector perturbations have recently been considered in this context. At first order such perturbations are not supported by a scalar field. In this paper, therefore, we consider second-order vector perturbations. We show that such perturbations are generated by first-order scalar mode-mode couplings, and give an explicit expression for them. We compare the magnitude of vector perturbations produced in collapsing models with the corresponding amplitudes produced during inflation, using a number of suitable power-law solutions to model the inflationary and collapsing scenarios. We conclude that the ratios of the magnitudes of these perturbations depend on the details of the collapsing scenario as well as on how the hot big bang is recovered, but for certain cases could be large, growing with the duration of the collapse

  18. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  19. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of general relativity. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Depending on the relations between the particular parameters and the symmetry of a problem, the vector fields can be longitudinal and/or transverse, ultrarelativistic (i.e. massless) or nonrelativistic (massive), and so on. The longitudinal and transverse vector fields are considered separately in detail in the background of the de Sitter cosmological metric. In most cases the field equations reduce to Bessel equations, and their temporal evolution is analyzed analytically. The energy-momentum tensor of the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector fields enters the Einstein equations as an additive to the cosmological constant. In this case the de Sitter metric is the exact solution of the Einstein equations. Hence, the most simple zero-mass longitudinal vector field pretends to be an adequate tool for macroscopic description of dark energy as a source of the expansion of the Universe at a constant rate. The zero-mass vector field does not vanish in the process of expansion. On the contrary, massive fields vanish with time. Though their amplitude is falling down, the massive fields make the expansion accelerated.

  20. Vector volume and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballik, William; Lake, Kayll

    2013-11-01

    By examining the rate of growth of an invariant volume V of some spacetime region along a divergence-free vector field v?, we introduce the concept of a “vector volume” Vv. This volume can be defined in various equivalent ways. For example, it can be given as dV(?)/d?, where v???=d/d? and ? is a parameter distance along the integral curve of v. Equivalently, it can be defined as ?v?d??, where d?? is the directed surface element. We find that this volume is especially useful for the description of black holes, but it can be used in other contexts as well. Moreover, this volume has several properties of interest. Among these is the fact that the vector volume is linear with respect to the the choice of vector v?. As a result, for example, in stationary axially symmetric spacetimes with timelike Killing vectors t? and axially symmetric Killing vectors ??, the vector volume of an axially symmetric region with respect to the vector t?+??? is equal for any value of ?, a consequence of the additional result that ?? does not contribute to Vv. Perhaps of most interest is the fact that in Kerr-Schild spacetimes the volume element for the full spacetime is equal to that of the background spacetime. We discuss different ways of using the vector volume to define volumes for black holes. Finally, we relate our work to the recent widespread thermodynamically motivated study of the “volumes” of black holes associated with nonzero values of the cosmological constant ?.

  1. An efficient and flexible system for construction of adenovirus vectors with insertions or deletions in early regions 1 and 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Bett, A J; Haddara, W; Prevec, L; Graham, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (Ads) are attracting considerable attention because of their potential utility for gene transfer and gene therapy, for development of live viral vectored vaccines, and for protein expression in mammalian cells. Engineering Ad vectors for these applications requires a variety of reagents in the form of Ads and bacterial plasmids containing viral DNA sequences and requires different strategies for construction of vectors for different purposes. To simplify Ad vector construct...

  2. Violation of Vector Dominance in the Vector Manifestation

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, C

    2003-01-01

    The vector manifestation (VM) is a new pattern for realizing the chiral symmetry in QCD. In the VM, the massless vector meson becomes the chiral partner of pion at the critical point, in contrast with the restoration based on the linear sigma model. Including the intrinsic temperature dependences of the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian determined from the underlying QCD through the Wilsonian matching together with the hadronic thermal corrections, we present a new prediction of the VM on the direct photon-$\\pi$-$\\pi$ coupling which measures the validity of the vector dominance (VD) of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion. We find that the VD is largely violated at the critical temperature, which indicates that the assumption of the VD made in several analysis on the dilepton spectra in hot matter may need to be weakened for consistently including the effect of the dropping mass of the vector meson.

  3. Chiral structure of vector and axial-vector tetraquark currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Xing [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering and International Research Center for Nuclei and Particles in the Cosmos, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    We investigate the chiral structure of local vector and axial-vector tetraquark currents, and study their chiral transformation properties. We consider the charge-conjugation parity and classify all the isovector vector and axial-vector local tetraquark currents of quantum numbers I{sup G} J{sup PC} =1{sup -}1{sup -+}, I{sup G} J{sup PC} =1{sup +}1{sup --}, I{sup G} J{sup PC} = 1{sup -}1{sup ++} and I{sup G} J{sup PC} = 1{sup +}1{sup +-}. We find that there is a one to one correspondence among them. Using these currents, we perform QCD sum rule analyses. Our results suggest that there is a missing b{sub 1} state having I{sup G} J{sup PC} =1{sup +}1{sup +-} and a mass around 1.47-1.66 GeV. (orig.)

  4. ESTIMATING ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM SEQUENCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the electric field distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This electric field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how observed vector magnetogram time series can be used to estimate the photospheric electric field. Our method uses a 'poloidal-toroidal decomposition' (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. These solutions provide an electric field whose curl obeys all three components of Faraday's Law. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD electric field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We then present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique electric field, a generalization of Longcope's 'Minimum Energy Fit'. The PTD technique, the iterative technique, and the variational technique are used to estimate electric fields from a pair of synthetic vector magnetograms taken from an MHD simulation; and these fields are compared with the simulation's known electric fields. The PTD and iteration techniques compare favorably to results from existing velocity invebly to results from existing velocity inversion techniques. These three techniques are then applied to a pair of vector magnetograms of solar active region NOAA AR8210, to demonstrate the methods with real data. Careful examination of the results from all three methods indicates that evolution of the magnetic vector by itself does not provide enough information to determine the true electric field in the photosphere. Either more information from other measurements, or physical constraints other than those considered here are necessary to find the true electric field. However, we show it is possible to construct physically reasonable electric field distributions whose curl matches the evolution of all three components of B. We also show that the horizontal and vertical Poynting flux patterns derived from the three techniques are similar to one another for the cases investigated.

  5. On the Witt vector Frobenius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Kedlaya, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    We study the kernel and cokernel of the Frobenius map on the p-typical Witt vectors of a commutative ring, not necessarily of characteristic p. We give many equivalent conditions to surjectivity of the Frobenius map on both finite and infinite length Witt vectors. In particular, surjectivity on finite Witt vectors turns out to be stable under certain integral extensions; this provides a clean formulation of a strong generalization of Faltings’s almost purity theorem from p-adic Hodge theory, incorporating recent improvements by Kedlaya–Liu and by Scholze.

  6. Inflation with Massive Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Junyu; Zhou, Siyi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the coupling between the inflaton and massive vector fields. All renormalizable couplings with shift symmetry of the inflaton are considered. The massive vector can be decomposed into a scalar mode and a divergence-free vector mode. We show that the former naturally interacts with the inflaton and the latter decouples at tree level. The model in general predicts $f_{NL}^\\mathrm{equil} = \\mathcal{O}(1)$, while in some regions of the parameter space large non-Gaussianity can arise.

  7. Initial Conditions for Vector Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a model of inflation using non-minimally coupled massive vector fields has been proposed. For a particular choice of non-minimal coupling parameter and for a flat FRW model, the model is reduced to the model of chaotic inflation with massive scalar field. We study the effect of non-zero curvature of the universe on the onset of vector inflation. We find that in a curved universe the dynamics of vector inflation can be different from chaotic inflation, and the fract...

  8. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  9. Structure of Kahler manifolds in N=2 vector multiplet-supergravity couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper entitled the 'Structure of Kahler manifolds in the N=2 vector multiplet - supergravity couplings' was presented to the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. The subject is discussed under the following topic headings: N=2 vector and super-gravity multiplets, Lagrangian for N=2 supergravity coupled to ?vector supermultiplets, Kahlerian structure of scalar fields, and flat potentials and duality invariance. (U.K.)

  10. Standard Model Effective Field Theory: Integrating out Vector-Like Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Huo, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We apply the covariant derivative expansion of the Coleman-Weinberg potential to vector-like fermion models, matching the UV theory to the relevant dimension-6 operators in the standard model effective field theory. The $\\gamma$ matrix induced complication in the fermionic covariant derivative expansion is studied in detail, and all the contributing combinations are enumerated. From this analytical result we also provide numerical constraints for a generation of vector-like quarks and vector-like leptons.

  11. On an identity for the volume integral of the square of a vector field

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    A proof is given of the vector identity proposed by Gubarev, Stodolsky and Zakarov that relates the volume integral of the square of a 3-vector field to non-local integrals of the curl and divergence of the field. The identity is applied to the case of the magnetic vector potential and magnetic field of a rotating charged shell. The latter provides a straightforward exercise in the use of the addition theorem of spherical harmonics.

  12. Ocean parameter estimation with high-frequency signals using a vector sensor array

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, P.

    2012-01-01

    Vector sensors began to emerge in 1980s as potential competitors to omni directional pressure driven hydrophones, while their practical usage in underwater applications started in the last two decades. The crucial advantage of vector sensors relative to hydrophones is that they are able to record both the omni-directional pressure and the three vectorial components of the particle velocity. A claimed advantage of vector sensors over hydrophones is the quantity of information...

  13. A hybrid approach to the solution of open boundary eddy current problems under TM field excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper extends the modified hybrid integrodifferential finite element (IDFE) Green's function method to the solution of 2D unbounded eddy current problems under transverse magnetic (TM) field excitation. To illustrate this formulation, the magnetic vector potentials (MVP) of a solid and a hollow conducting cylinder under TM field excitations are computed. Current distributions and power losses are obtained. The formulation is validated by comparing calculated results with analytic solutions

  14. Vector Fields and Line Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knill, Oliver

    Created by Oliver Knill and Dale Winter for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module introduces vector fields, the concept of "work," and the line integral. This is one of a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  15. Polynomial interpretation of multipole vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copi, Huterer, Starkman, and Schwarz introduced multipole vectors in a tensor context and used them to demonstrate that the first-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) quadrupole and octopole planes align at roughly the 99.9% confidence level. In the present article, the language of polynomials provides a new and independent derivation of the multipole vector concept. Bezout's theorem supports an elementary proof that the multipole vectors exist and are unique (up to rescaling). The constructive nature of the proof leads to a fast, practical algorithm for computing multipole vectors. We illustrate the algorithm by finding exact solutions for some simple toy examples and numerical solutions for the first-year WMAP quadrupole and octopole. We then apply our algorithm to Monte Carlo skies to independently reconfirm the estimate that the WMAP quadrupole and octopole planes align at the 99.9% level

  16. Polynomial Interpretation of Multipole Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, G; Katz, Gabriel; Weeks, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Copi, Huterer, Starkman and Schwarz introduced multipole vectors in a tensor context and used them to demonstrate that the first-year WMAP quadrupole and octopole planes align at roughly the 99.9% confidence level. In the present article the language of polynomials provides a new and independent derivation of the multipole vector concept. Bezout's Theorem supports an elementary proof that the multipole vectors exist and are unique (up to rescaling). The constructive nature of the proof leads to a fast, practical algorithm for computing multipole vectors. We illustrate the algorithm by finding exact solutions for some simple toy examples, and numerical solutions for the first-year WMAP quadrupole and octopole. We then apply our algorithm to Monte Carlo skies to independently re-confirm the estimate that the WMAP quadrupole and octopole planes align at the 99.9% level.

  17. Vector triplets at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lizana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Several popular extensions of the Standard Model predict extra vector fields that transform as triplets under the gauge group SU(2)_L. These multiplets contain Z' and W' bosons, with masses and couplings related by gauge invariance. We review some model-independent results about these new vector bosons, with emphasis on di-lepton and lepton-plus-missing-energy signals at the LHC.

  18. Sparse Overcomplete Word Vector Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Faruqui, Manaal; Tsvetkov, Yulia; Yogatama, Dani; Dyer, Chris; Smith, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Current distributed representations of words show little resemblance to theories of lexical semantics. The former are dense and uninterpretable, the latter largely based on familiar, discrete classes (e.g., supersenses) and relations (e.g., synonymy and hypernymy). We propose methods that transform word vectors into sparse (and optionally binary) vectors. The resulting representations are more similar to the interpretable features typically used in NLP, though they are disco...

  19. Evaluation of integrated vector management

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, H.; Takken, W.

    2009-01-01

    Initiatives on integrated vector management (IVM) approaches are increasingly undertaken as alternatives to existing vector control. An impact model of IVM is presented with performance and impact indicators at six causal steps from coverage of the intervention to impact on disease. Impacts in fields other than health are also discussed because of the emphasis in IVM on capacity building, partnerships and sustainability. A conceptual framework for evaluation of IVM is designed, based on consi...

  20. Dipole Vectors in Images Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    Instead of evaluating the gradient field of the brightness map of an image, we propose the use of dipole vectors. This approach is obtained by adapting to the image gray-tone distribution the definition of the dipole moment of charge distributions. We will show how to evaluate the dipoles and obtain a vector field, which can be a good alternative to the gradient field in pattern recognition.

  1. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pessoa, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Consider in R^2 the semi-planes N={y>0} and S={y<0}$ having as common boundary the straight line D={y=0}$. In N and S are defined polynomial vector fields X and Y, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field Z=(X,Y). This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of Z between N and S, started by Filippov (1988) and Kozlova (1984) and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995) in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields Z_{\\epsilon}$, defined by averaging X and Y. This family approaches Z when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002) providing conditions on (X,Y) for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on R^2. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also...

  2. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L. [Utah State University, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Logan, UT (United States)

    2009-01-15

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach<0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r-{theta} directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets. (orig.)

  3. Singular vectors, predictability and ensemble forecasting for weather and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local instabilities of a nonlinear dynamical system can be characterized by the leading singular vectors of its linearized operator. The leading singular vectors are perturbations with the greatest linear growth and are therefore key in assessing the system’s predictability. In this paper, the analysis of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate and ensemble forecasting is discussed. An overview of the role of singular vectors in informing about the error growth rate in numerical models of the atmosphere is given. This is followed by their use in the initialization of ensemble weather forecasts. Singular vectors for the ocean and coupled ocean–atmosphere system in order to understand the predictability of climate phenomena such as ENSO and meridional overturning circulation are reviewed and their potential use to initialize seasonal and decadal forecasts is considered. As stochastic parameterizations are being implemented, some speculations are made about the future of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate for theoretical applications and at the operational level. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (review)

  4. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson A Townsend

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. Methods I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. Results For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Conclusion Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  5. Vector-Quantization using Information Theoretic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-SchiØler, Tue; Hegde, Anant

    2005-01-01

    The process of representing a large data set with a smaller number of vectors in the best possible way, also known as vector quantization, has been intensively studied in the recent years. Very efficient algorithms like the Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM) and the Linde Buzo Gray (LBG) algorithm have been devised. In this paper a physical approach to the problem is taken, and it is shown that by considering the processing elements as points moving in a potential field an algorithm equally efficient as the before mentioned can be derived. Unlike SOM and LBG this algorithm has a clear physical interpretation and relies on minimization of a well defined cost-function. It is also shown how the potential field approach can be linked to information theory by use of the Parzen density estimator. In the light of information theory it becomes clear that minimizing the free energy of the system is in fact equivalent to minimizing a divergence measure between the distribution of the data and the distribution of the processing element, hence, the algorithm can be seen as a density matching method.

  6. Estimating Electric Fields from Vector Magnetogram Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, G H; Abbett, W P; Bercik, D J

    2009-01-01

    Determining the electric field (E-field) distribution on the Sun's photosphere is essential for quantitative studies of how energy flows from the Sun's photosphere, through the corona, and into the heliosphere. This E-field also provides valuable input for data-driven models of the solar atmosphere and the Sun-Earth system. We show how Faraday's Law can be used with observed vector magnetogram time series to estimate the photospheric E-field, an ill-posed inversion problem. Our method uses a "poloidal-toroidal decomposition" (PTD) of the time derivative of the vector magnetic field. The PTD solutions are not unique; the gradient of a scalar potential can be added to the PTD E-field without affecting consistency with Faraday's Law. We present an iterative technique to determine a potential function consistent with ideal MHD evolution; but this E-field is also not a unique solution to Faraday's Law. Finally, we explore a variational approach that minimizes an energy functional to determine a unique E-field, sim...

  7. Color Transparency at COMPASS via Exclusive Coherent Vector Meson Production

    OpenAIRE

    Moinester, Murray; Grajek, Oleg A.; Piasetzky, Eli; Sandacz, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    We examine the potential of the COMPASS experiment at CERN to study color transparency via exclusive coherent vector meson production in hard muon-nucleus scattering. It is demonstrated that COMPASS has high sensitivity to test this important prediction of perturbative QCD.

  8. Color transparency at COMPASS via exclusive coherent vector meson production

    CERN Document Server

    Moinester, Murray Aaron; Piasetzky, E; Sandacz, A

    2003-01-01

    We examine the potential of the COMPASS experiment at CERN to study color transparency via exclusive coherent vector meson production in hard muon-nucleus scattering. It is demonstrated that COMPASS has high sensitivity to test this important prediction of perturbative QCD. (18 refs).

  9. Designing gene therapy vectors targeting tumor cell endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?nar O?ZKAL BAYDIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Targeting angiogenesis is one of the recent progresses in the therapeutic area of cancer. Gene therapy is one of the promis- ing strategies in the treatment of cancer. The gene therapy vectors targeting tumor endothelium carry the great therapeu- tic potential in cancer.

  10. Color transparency at COMPASS via exclusive coherent vector meson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the potential of the COMPASS experiment at CERN to study color transparency via exclusive coherent vector meson production in hard muon-nucleus scattering. It is demonstrated that COMPASS has high sensitivity to test this important prediction of perturbative QCD. (author)

  11. Locking internal and space-symmetries. Relativistic vector condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal and Lorentz symmetries are necessarily linked when considering non scalar condensates. Here I review vectorial type condensation due to a non zero chemical potential associated to some of the global conserved charges of the theory. The phase structure is very rich since three distinct phases exists depending on the value assumed by one of the zero chemical potential vector self interaction terms. In a certain limit of the couplings and for large chemical potential the theory is not stable. This limit corresponds to a gauge type limit often employed to economically describe the ordinary vector mesons self interactions in QCD. Our analysis is relevant since it leads to a number of physical applications not limited to strongly interacting theories at non zero chemical potential. (author)

  12. Simian virus 40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheim Ariella

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. One of the primary organs affected by sepsis is the lung, presenting as the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS. Organ damage in sepsis involves an alteration in gene expression, making gene transfer a potential therapeutic modality. This work examines the feasibility of applying simian virus 40 (SV40 vectors for pulmonary gene therapy. Methods Sepsis-induced ARDS was established by cecal ligation double puncture (2CLP. SV40 vectors carrying the luciferase reporter gene (SV/luc were administered intratracheally immediately after sepsis induction. Sham operated (SO as well as 2CLP rats given intratracheal PBS or adenovirus expressing luciferase served as controls. Luc transduction was evaluated by in vivo light detection, immunoassay and luciferase mRNA detection by RT-PCR in tissue harvested from septic rats. Vector abundance and distribution into alveolar cells was evaluated using immunostaining for the SV40 VP1 capsid protein as well as by double staining for VP1 and for the surfactant protein C (proSP-C. Immunostaining for T-lymphocytes was used to evaluate the cellular immune response induced by the vector. Results Luc expression measured by in vivo light detection correlated with immunoassay from lung tissue harvested from the same rats. Moreover, our results showed vector presence in type II alveolar cells. The vector did not induce significant cellular immune response. Conclusion In the present study we have demonstrated efficient uptake and expression of an SV40 vector in the lungs of animals with sepsis-induced ARDS. These vectors appear to be capable of in vivo transduction of alveolar type II cells and may thus become a future therapeutic tool.

  13. Ciclo biológico em laboratório de Rhodnius brethesi Matta, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), potencial vetor silvestre da doença de Chagas na Amazônia / Life cycle of Rhodnius brethesi Matta, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), a potential vector of Chagas disease in the Amazon region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dayse da Silva, Rocha; Carolina Magalhães dos, Santos; Vanda, Cunha; José, Jurberg; Cleber, Galvão.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english R. brethesi is a sylvatic species from the Amazon region; it has been incriminated as responsible for the transmission of Chagas disease in collectors of piaçaba in this region. The aim of present study was to investigate the efficiency of these insects as potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. Asp [...] ects related with feeding and defecation patterns, life time, and mortality had been observed in each instar of R. brethesi. We use 5th instar nymphs to get adults virgins, after the moulting 3 groups with 6 females and 2 males each were created to obtain eggs. After hatching, 1st instar nymphs had been weighed and kept in bottles until the next moult. Insects were fed once a week in mice. Results showed that the average period of incubation was 17 days, the number of blood meal was increasing from the 1st to the 5th instar nymph with 7 (average) to become adult, a significative numbers of the defecations occurring immediately after the bloodmeals. The total percentual of mortality was 16%. This results suggests that this species presents a good exploitation of blood meals and a brief nymphal development in laboratory conditions reflecting its behavior in sylvatic environments.

  14. Vector meson-vector meson interaction and dynamically generated resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report upon 11 composite meson states, dynamically generated from the vector meson–vector meson interaction using the local hidden gauge formalism within a unitary approach. Six of these states are associated to the f0(1370), f0(1710), f2(1270), f'2(1525), a2(1320) and K*2(1430) resonances. At the same time we predict five other states with the quantum numbers of h1, a0, b1, K*0, and K1 which could be tested by future experiments.

  15. Vector-valued automorphic forms and vector bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Saber, Hicham

    2013-01-01

    For an arbitrary discrete group $\\Gamma$ and an $n$-dimensional complex representation $R$ of $\\Gamma$, we prove the existence of $n$ linearly independent vector-valued automorphic forms for $\\Gamma$ with multiplier $R$. To this end, we realize these automorphic forms as sections of a rank $n$ vector bundle attached to a 1-cocycle with coefficients in the sheaf $\\mbox{GL}(n,{\\mathcal O}_X)$, $X$ being the quotient of the Poincar\\'e half-plane by $\\Gamma$ completed with the cusps of $\\Gamma$.

  16. Vector-valued automorphic forms and vector bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Saber, Hicham; Sebbar, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    For an arbitrary discrete group $\\Gamma$ and an $n$-dimensional complex representation $R$ of $\\Gamma$, we prove the existence of $n$ linearly independent vector-valued automorphic forms for $\\Gamma$ with multiplier $R$. To this end, we realize these automorphic forms as sections of a rank $n$ vector bundle attached to a 1-cocycle with coefficients in the sheaf $\\mbox{GL}(n,{\\mathcal O}_X)$, $X$ being the quotient of the Poincar\\'e half-plane by $\\Gamma$ completed with the c...

  17. Ensemble Dynamics and Bred Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balci, Nusret; Restrepo, Juan M; Sell, George R

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of an EBV to assess the sensitivity of model outputs to changes in initial conditions for weather forecasting. The new algorithm, which we call the "Ensemble Bred Vector" or EBV, is based on collective dynamics in essential ways. By construction, the EBV algorithm produces one or more dominant vectors. We investigate the performance of EBV, comparing it to the BV algorithm as well as the finite-time Lyapunov Vectors. We give a theoretical justification to the observed fact that the vectors produced by BV, EBV, and the finite-time Lyapunov vectors are similar for small amplitudes. Numerical comparisons of BV and EBV for the 3-equation Lorenz model and for a forced, dissipative partial differential equation of Cahn-Hilliard type that arises in modeling the thermohaline circulation, demonstrate that the EBV yields a size-ordered description of the perturbation field, and is more robust than the BV in the higher nonlinear regime. The EBV yields insight into the fractal structure of th...

  18. Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Meierovich, Boris E

    2011-01-01

    Vector fields in the expanding Universe are considered within the multidimensional theory of General Relativity. In application to elementary particles in the flat space-time the divergence of the field $\\phi^{I}$ is traditionally set to zero in order to avoid the negative energy problems : $\\partial\\phi^{K}/\\partial x^{K}=0$. Our consideration includes the fields with a nonzero covariant divergence. Vector fields in general relativity form a three-parametric variety. The longitudinal and transverse vector fields are considered separately in detail in the background of the de Sitter cosmological metric. The field equations reduce to Bessel equations, and their temporal evolution is analyzed analytically. The energy-momentum tensor of the zero-mass longitudinal vector fields enters the Einstein equations as an additive to the cosmological constant. The de Sitter metric is the exact solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a zero-mass longitudinal vector field. Hence, a zero-mass longitudinal vecto...

  19. Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - ? directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.

  20. Comparison of lentiviral vector titration methods

    OpenAIRE

    Debyser Zeger; Baekelandt Veerle; Willems Sofie; Geraerts Martine; Gijsbers Rik

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors are efficient vehicles for stable gene transfer in dividing and non-dividing cells. Several improvements in vector design to increase biosafety and transgene expression, have led to the approval of these vectors for use in clinical studies. Methods are required to analyze the quality of lentiviral vector production, the efficiency of gene transfer and the extent of therapeutic gene expression. Results We compared lentiviral vector titration methods that ...

  1. Reorientation effects for 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential cross sections and the vector analysing powers were measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons from 20Ne, 22Ne, 26Mg, 28Si, 32S, 34S, 36Ar and 40Ar nuclei. Coupled channels analysis was carried out using an axially symmetric rotational model with either prolate or oblate quadrupole deformations for each isotope. Calculations assuming harmonic vibrator model were also carried out. In general, reorientation effects were found to be weak. A global optical model potential containing an imaginary spin-orbit component was found to be the most suitable in describing the experimental data at this energy

  2. Doubly-boosted vector cosmologies from disformal metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Koivisto, Tomi S

    2015-01-01

    A systematic dynamical system approach is applied to study the cosmology of anisotropic Bianchi I universes in which a vector field is assumed to operate on a disformal frame. This study yields a number of new fixed points, among which anisotropic scaling solutions. Within the simplifying assumption of (nearly) constant-slope potentials these are either not stable attractors, do not describe accelerating expansion or else they feature too large anisotropies to be compatible with observations. Nonetheless, some solutions do have an appeal for cosmological applications in that isotropy is retained due to rapid oscillations of the vector field.

  3. ZM theory V: Lorentz force equation and the vector potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2010-01-01

    In ZM theory the direction of time has a non-zero projection onto space and this projection corresponds to the local velocity relative to the observer. Classical trajectories can be obtained by following the local direction of time. The relationship of time to space enables the change in momentum over time to be related to the spatial change in energy and momentum. Previously Hamilton's equations-of-motion were derived by considering trajectories in one space and one time di...

  4. Comment on a Tonomura Experiment Locality of the Vector Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Costa de Beauregard, O; Beauregard, Olivier Costa De; Lochak, Georges

    1999-01-01

    Three predictions for additional tests in a Tonomura experiment: 1,2: TheFresnel frin-ges displayed outside and inside the geometric shadow of atoroidal magnet should subsist intact, the ones if the others are masked, andvice versa ; 3 : Placing the registering film just before the magnet and thusuncovering the entire fringe pattern should display the curved fringesconnecting the outer and inner straight ones. Physicality of the vectorpotential expressed in the source adhering gauge will thus be unequivocallyproved.

  5. Pseudacteon decapitating flies: Potential vectors of a fire ant virus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV-1) is a positive-stranded RNA virus recently found to infect all stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV-1 and a second genotype have been tentatively assigned to the Dicistroviridae (Mayo 2002). Infected individuals or colonies did not exhibit any immediate, discernible symptoms in the field. However, under stress from introduction into the laboratory, brood death was often observed among infected colonies, ultimately leading to the death of the entire colony (Valles et al. 2004). These characteristics are consistent with other insect-infecting positive-stranded RNA viruses. They often persist as inapparent, asymptomatic infections that, under certain conditions, induce replication within the host, resulting in observable symptoms and often death (Christian and Scotti 1998; Fernandez et al. 2002). The SINV infection rate among colonies was reported to be around 25% in Gainesville, Florida (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV vertical and horizontal transmission were inferred based on RT-PCR detection of virus genome in eggs and successful colony to colony transfer under lab conditions (Valles et al. 2004). However, the exact mechanisms by which the virus is spread from nest to nest in the field are unknown. Our results indicate that SINV does not replicate within Pseudacteon decapitating flies that parasitize S. invicta. Flies appeared to develop normally ficta. Flies appeared to develop normally from SINV-infected S. invicta workers. Mechanical transmission of SINV to uninfected ants by oviposition appears unlikely

  6. Microorganisms as potential vectors of the migration of radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of our work are the study of the sorption of radionuclides by bacteria as the first step in the microorganism-metal interaction. The latter involves the fixation of ions on a surface layer and it results in the immobilization of the metal, thus possibly being the primary step of bioaccumulation. After a rapid presentation of the direct and indirect mechanisms of the interactions, we shall present our experiments of radionuclide biosorption by bacteria. A salient feature of biosorption is the selectivity of the adsorption of some radionuclides from a composed solution. For example, Andres et al. (1993, 1995) have shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis, from a composed solution containing uranium, thorium, lanthanum, europium and ytterbium, selectively adsorbs thorium ions. The sequence of preferential fixation is: Th4+ > UO22+ > La3+ = Eu3+ = Yb3+. This selectivity is a function of the cell wall organization and of the speciation of the metal in the solution. Yet, each species of bacteria has characteristic and specific cell wall layer composition and organization. Moreover, the culture and the environmental conditions change the surface layer properties. Another parameter in the migration of radionuclides is the transfer from the soil to the microorganisms. In column experiments, Gd, and likely the rare earths, in general, adsorbed on sand can be removed with a suspension of bacteria (Thouand and Andres 1997). These examples will be discussed and serve as a basis to illustrate the diversity of the interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides

  7. Adenoviral Vectors in Veterinary Vaccine Development: Potential for Further Development

    OpenAIRE

    Olasumbo L. Ndi; Mary D. Barton; Thiru Vanniasinkam

    2013-01-01

     Vaccines are an integral part of veterinary disease prevention. However there are still a significant number of veterinary diseases for which vaccines do not currently exist or where currently available vaccines do not provide adequate immunity. Adenoviruses have transitioned from tools for gene replacement therapy to bona fide vaccine delivery vehicles because of their ability to elicit potent cell-mediated and humoral responses making them ideal for use against viruses and other intracellu...

  8. Fiber propagation of vector modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; McLaren, Melanie; Duparre, Michael; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Here we employ both dynamic and geometric phase control of light to produce radially modulated vector-vortex modes, the natural modes of optical fibers. We then measure these modes using a vector modal decomposition set-up as well as a tomography measurement, the latter providing a degree of the non-separability of the vector states, akin to an entanglement measure for quantum states. We demonstrate the versatility of the approach by creating the natural modes of a step-index fiber, which are known to exhibit strong mode coupling, and measure the modal cross-talk and non-separability decay during propagation. Our approach will be useful in mode division multiplexing schemes for transport of classical and quantum states.

  9. Skyrmions with vector mesons revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Yongseok

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a model that can describe both a single baryon and multi-baryon systems on the same footing, we re-investigate the Skyrme model in a chiral Lagrangian derived from the hidden local symmetry (HLS) up to $O(p^4)$ including the homogeneous Wess-Zumino terms. We use the master formulas that connect the parameters of the HLS Lagrangian and a class of holographic QCD models, which provides a controllable way to determine the low-energy constants of the Lagrangian once the pion decay constant and the vector meson mass are given. Therefore, this model allows us to study the role of vector mesons in the skyrmion structure. We find that the $\\rho$ and $\\omega$ vector mesons have different roles in the skyrmion structure and that the $\\omega$ meson has an important role in the properties of the nucleon.

  10. Quantum contextuality for rational vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabello, Adan, E-mail: adan@us.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Larsson, Jan-Ake, E-mail: jan-ake.larsson@liu.s [Institutionen foer Systemteknik, Linkoepings Universitet, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    The Kochen-Specker theorem states that noncontextual hidden variable models are inconsistent with the quantum predictions for every yes-no question on a qutrit, corresponding to every projector in three dimensions. It has been suggested [D.A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 3751] that the inconsistency would disappear when restricting to projectors on unit vectors with rational components; that noncontextual hidden variables could reproduce the quantum predictions for rational vectors. Here we show that a qutrit state with rational components violates an inequality valid for noncontextual hidden-variable models [A.A. Klyachko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 020403] using rational projectors. This shows that the inconsistency remains even when using only rational vectors.

  11. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  12. Introduction of a foreign gene into zebrafish and medaka cells using adenoviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Toshihiro; Saito, Kenji; Mitsui, Kaoru; Ikawa, Masahito; Yamashita, Masakane; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Takeda, Shunichi; Mitani, Kohnosuke; Sakai, Noriyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Viral vectors represent a tractable system that can efficiently introduce an exogenous gene into different target cells and are thus a potentially powerful genetic manipulation tool. In our current study, we investigated the infection efficiency of mammalian virus vectors, adenoviruses (Ads), adeno-associated viruses, and lentiviruses to the Sertoli cell line and the newly established cell line from a single embryo in zebrafish. Among the viral vectors tested, Ads showed the highest infection efficiency of 10(7)-10(8) green fluorescent protein-transducing units (gtu)/mL in zebrafish cells. In addition, the adenoviral vector was also infected at 10(5) gtu/mL in the medaka testicular somatic cell line that was established from the testes of p53-deficient mutant. Further, we found that Ads could successfully infect cultured male zebrafish germ cells. Our results thus indicate that the adenoviral vector could be used as a chromosomally nonintegrating vector system in zebrafish. PMID:19715489

  13. Notable reduction in illegitimate integration mediated by a PPT-deleted, nonintegrating lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Boris; Bayer, Matthew; Ma, Hong; Samulski, Jude; Li, Chengwen; McCown, Thomas; Kafri, Tal

    2011-03-01

    Nonintegrating lentiviral vectors present a means of reducing the risk of insertional mutagenesis in nondividing cells and enabling short-term expression of potentially hazardous gene products. However, residual, integrase-independent integration raises a concern that may limit the usefulness of this system. Here we present a novel 3' polypurine tract (PPT)-deleted lentiviral vector that demonstrates impaired integration efficiency and, when packaged into integrase-deficient particles, significantly reduced illegitimate integration. Cells transduced with PPT-deleted vectors exhibited predominantly 1-long terminal repeat (LTR) circles and a low level of linear genomes after reverse transcription (RT). Importantly, the PPT-deleted vector exhibited titers and in vitro and in vivo expression levels matching those of conventional nonintegrating lentiviral vectors. This safer nonintegrating lentiviral vector system will support emerging technologies, such as those based on transient expression of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) for gene editing, as well as reprogramming factors for inducing pluripotency. PMID:21157436

  14. Improved adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 and 5 vectors for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dwaipayan; Balakrishnan, Balaji; Gabriel, Nishanth; Agrawal, Prachi; Roshini, Vaani; Samuel, Rekha; Srivastava, Alok; Jayandharan, Giridhara R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advancements with recombinant AAV2 or AAV8 vectors for liver directed gene therapy in humans, it is well-recognized that host and vector-related immune challenges need to be overcome for long-term gene transfer. To overcome these limitations, alternate AAV serotypes (1–10) are being rigorously evaluated. AAV5 is the most divergent (55% similarity vs. other serotypes) and like AAV1 vector is known to transduce liver efficiently. AAV1 and AAV5 vectors are also immunologically distinct by virtue of their low seroprevalence and minimal cross reactivity against pre-existing AAV2 neutralizing antibodies. Here, we demonstrate that targeted bio-engineering of these vectors, augment their gene expression in murine hepatocytes in vivo (up to 16-fold). These studies demonstrate the feasibility of the use of these novel AAV1 and AAV5 vectors for potential gene therapy of diseases like hemophilia. PMID:23665951

  15. Challenges and future perspective for dengue vector control in the Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Md Abdur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue remains a significant public health issue in the Western Pacific Region. In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas.Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. However, there are several new innovative tools in the pipeline. These include Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal system and Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium, to inhibit dengue virus in the vector. In addition, the use of biological control such as larvivorous fish in combination with community participation has potential to be scaled up. Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. Community participation and interagency collaboration are required for effective and sustainable dengue prevention and control. Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management.

  16. Looking forward by looking back: using historical calibration to improve forecasts of human disease vector distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Emily Sohanna; Kerr, Jeremy Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Arthropod disease vectors, most notably mosquitoes, ticks, tsetse flies, and sandflies, are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and responsible for the vast majority of global vector-borne human diseases. The most widely used statistical models to predict future vector distributions model species niches and project the models forward under future climate scenarios. Although these methods address variations in vector distributions through space, their capacity to predict changing distributions through time is far less certain. Here, we review modeling methods used to validate and forecast future distributions of arthropod vectors under the effects of climate change and outline the uses or limitations of these techniques. We then suggest a validation approach specific to temporal extrapolation models that is gaining momentum in macroecological modeling and has great potential for epidemiological modeling of disease vectors. We performed systematic searches in the Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar to identify peer-reviewed English journal articles that model arthropod disease vector distributions under future environment scenarios. We included studies published up to and including June, 2014. We identified 29 relevant articles for our review. The majority of these studies predicted current species niches and projected the models forward under future climate scenarios without temporal validation. Historically calibrated forecast models improve predictions of changing vector distributions by tracking known shifts through recently observed time periods. With accelerating climate change, accurate predictions of shifts in disease vectors are crucial to target vector control interventions where needs are greatest. PMID:25793472

  17. The Klein Paradox and the mass spectra of the neutral vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac's equation with a long range harmonic potential is used to obtain the mass ofthe neutral vector mesons rho sup(o), ?, phi, K sup(o*) and PSI. Predictions are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results

  18. On spinors and null vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relations between spinors and null vectors in Clifford algebra of any dimension with particular emphasis on the conditions that a spinor must satisfy to be simple (also: pure). In particular, we prove: (i) a new property for null vectors: each of them bisects spinor space into two subspaces of equal size; (ii) that simple spinors form one-dimensional subspaces of spinor space; (iii) a necessary and sufficient condition for a spinor to be simple that generalizes a theorem of Cartan and Chevalley which becomes a corollary of this result. We also show how to write down easily the most general spinor with a given associated totally null plane. (paper)

  19. Topological vector spaces and distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, John

    2013-01-01

    ""The most readable introduction to the theory of vector spaces available in English and possibly any other language.""-J. L. B. Cooper, MathSciNet ReviewMathematically rigorous but user-friendly, this classic treatise discusses major modern contributions to the field of topological vector spaces. The self-contained treatment includes complete proofs for all necessary results from algebra and topology. Suitable for undergraduate mathematics majors with a background in advanced calculus, this volume will also assist professional mathematicians, physicists, and engineers.The precise exposition o

  20. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  1. Vector Acoustics, Vector Sensors, and 3D Underwater Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, D.

    2007-12-01

    Vector acoustic data has two more dimensions of information than pressure data and may allow for 3D underwater imaging with much less data than with hydrophone data. The vector acoustic sensors measures the particle motions due to passing sound waves and, in conjunction with a collocated hydrophone, the direction of travel of the sound waves. When using a controlled source with known source and sensor locations, the reflection points of the sound field can be determined with a simple trigonometric calculation. I demonstrate this concept with an experiment that used an accelerometer based vector acoustic sensor in a water tank with a short-pulse source and passive scattering targets. The sensor consists of a three-axis accelerometer and a matched hydrophone. The sound source was a standard transducer driven by a short 7 kHz pulse. The sensor was suspended in a fixed location and the hydrophone was moved about the tank by a robotic arm to insonify the tank from many locations. Several floats were placed in the tank as acoustic targets at diagonal ranges of approximately one meter. The accelerometer data show the direct source wave as well as the target scattered waves and reflections from the nearby water surface, tank bottom and sides. Without resorting to the usual methods of seismic imaging, which in this case is only two dimensional and relied entirely on the use of a synthetic source aperture, the two targets, the tank walls, the tank bottom, and the water surface were imaged. A directional ambiguity inherent to vector sensors is removed by using collocated hydrophone data. Although this experiment was in a very simple environment, it suggests that 3-D seismic surveys may be achieved with vector sensors using the same logistics as a 2-D survey that uses conventional hydrophones. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, program element 61153N.

  2. Alpharetroviral Vectors: From a Cancer-Causing Agent to a Useful Tool for Human Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia D. Suerth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy using integrating retroviral vectors has proven its effectiveness in several clinical trials for the treatment of inherited diseases and cancer. However, vector-mediated adverse events related to insertional mutagenesis were also observed, emphasizing the need for safer therapeutic vectors. Paradoxically, alpharetroviruses, originally discovered as cancer-causing agents, have a more random and potentially safer integration pattern compared to gammaretro- and lentiviruses. In this review, we provide a short overview of the history of alpharetroviruses and explain how they can be converted into state-of-the-art gene delivery tools with improved safety features. We discuss development of alpharetroviral vectors in compliance with regulatory requirements for clinical translation, and provide an outlook on possible future gene therapy applications. Taken together, this review is a broad overview of alpharetroviral vectors spanning the bridge from their parental virus discovery to their potential applicability in clinical settings.

  3. Attractor solutions in Lorentz violating scalar-vector-tensor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate properties of attractors for the scalar field in the Lorentz violating scalar-vector-tensor theory of gravity. In this framework, both the effective coupling and potential functions determine the stabilities of the fixed points. In the model, we consider the constants of the slope of the effective coupling and potential functions which lead to the quadratic effective coupling vector with the (inverse) power-law potential. For the case of a purely scalar field, there are only two stable attractor solutions in the inflationary scenario. In the presence of a barotropic fluid, the fluid dominated solution is absent. We find two scaling solutions: the kinetic scaling solution and the scalar field scaling solutions. We show the stable attractors in regions of (?,?) parameter space and in a phase plane plot for different qualitative evolutions. From the standard nucleosynthesis, we derive the constraints for the value of the coupling parameter

  4. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k' vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X2?) and Ne-OCS(X1?) in an electrostatic field, Na+-N2(X1?) in a laser field, and He-CaH(2?), He-O2(X3?), and He-OH(X2?) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k'-j' vector correlation in Ar-NO(X2?) and He-NO(X2?) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the diffractive part of the scattering amplitude which is governed by a single Legendre moment characterizing the anisotropy of the hard-core part of the system's potential energy surface. The alignment moments obtained for He-OH(X2?), He-O2(X3?), and He-CaH(X2?) allowed to identify the fingerprints of diffraction, which can be used to discern diffraction-driven stereodynamics in future experiments and exact computations. Analytic results for the Ne-NO(A2?) system were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations for low rotational energy transfer; the discrepancy found for higher excitation channels could be traced back to the breakdown of the sudden approximation. The model was also applied to the k-j-k' and k-j-k'-j' correlations in rotationally inelastic Ar-NO(X2?) scattering. It was shown that preparing the reagents with polarized angular momentum j makes it possible to significantly alter the collision dynamics and stereodynamics. In the final part of the thesis the analytic theory was extended to the study of multiple scattering of matter waves propagating through atomic and molecular gases. The combination of the Fraunhofer model with the semiclassical approximation to account, respectively, for the repulsive and attractive part of the potential energy surface resulted in a simple analytic formula, which agree well with experiment for the refraction of a Li beam passing through Xe gas. (orig.)

  5. Vector correlations in rotationally inelastic molecular collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2011-04-13

    The thesis presents an analytic model that describes scalar and vector properties of molecular collisions, both field-free and in fields. The model is based on the sudden approximation and treats molecular scattering as the Fraunhofer diffraction of matter waves from the hard-core part of the interaction potential. The theory has no fitting parameters and is inherently quantum, rendering fully state- and energy-resolved scattering amplitudes and all the quantities that unfold from them in analytic form. This allows to obtain complex polarization moments inherent to quantum stereodynamics, and to account for interference and other non-classical effects. The simplicity and analyticity of the model paves a way to understanding the origin of the features observed in experiment and exact computations, such as the angular oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections and the polarization moments, the rotational-state dependent variation of the integral cross sections, and change of these quantities as a function of the applied field. The theory was applied to study the k - k{sup '} vector correlation (differential cross section) for the following collision systems: Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and Ne-OCS(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in an electrostatic field, Na{sup +}-N{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}) in a laser field, and He-CaH({sup 2}{sigma}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}) in a magnetic field. The model was able to reproduce the behavior of the differential cross sections and their variation with field strength. Combining the Fraunhofer model with the quantum theory of vector correlations made it possible to study three- and four-vector properties. The model results for the k-k{sup '}-j{sup '} vector correlation in Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) and He-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations. This allowed to demonstrate that the stereodynamics of such collisions is contained solely in the diffractive part of the scattering amplitude which is governed by a single Legendre moment characterizing the anisotropy of the hard-core part of the system's potential energy surface. The alignment moments obtained for He-OH(X{sup 2}{pi}), He-O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{sigma}), and He-CaH(X{sup 2}{sigma}) allowed to identify the fingerprints of diffraction, which can be used to discern diffraction-driven stereodynamics in future experiments and exact computations. Analytic results for the Ne-NO(A{sup 2}{sigma}) system were found to be in good agreement with experiment and exact computations for low rotational energy transfer; the discrepancy found for higher excitation channels could be traced back to the breakdown of the sudden approximation. The model was also applied to the k-j-k{sup '} and k-j-k{sup '}-j{sup '} correlations in rotationally inelastic Ar-NO(X{sup 2}{pi}) scattering. It was shown that preparing the reagents with polarized angular momentum j makes it possible to significantly alter the collision dynamics and stereodynamics. In the final part of the thesis the analytic theory was extended to the study of multiple scattering of matter waves propagating through atomic and molecular gases. The combination of the Fraunhofer model with the semiclassical approximation to account, respectively, for the repulsive and attractive part of the potential energy surface resulted in a simple analytic formula, which agree well with experiment for the refraction of a Li beam passing through Xe gas. (orig.)

  6. Diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    We confront saturation-based results for diffractive $\\psi(2s)$ and $\\rho$ production at HERA and $J/\\psi$ photoproduction with all available data including recent ones from HERA, ALICE and LHCb, finding a good agreement. We show that the $t$-distribution of differential cross-section of photoproduction of vector mesons offers a unique opportunity to discriminate among saturation and non-saturation models. This is due to emergence of a pronounced dip (or multiple dips) in the $t$-distribution of diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at relatively large, but potentially accessible $|t|$ that can be traced back to the unitarity features of colour dipole amplitude in the saturation regime. We provide various predictions for exclusive (photo)-production of different vector mesons including the ratio of $\\psi(2s)/J/\\psi$ at HERA, the LHC and at future colliders.

  7. The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The canine vector-borne infectious diseases (CVBDs are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. The successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. Although significant advances have been made in the areas of molecular speciation and the epidemiology of these infections and their vectors, basic knowledge of the pathology and immunology of the diseases has lagged behind. This review summarizes recent studies of the pathology and host immune response in the major CVBDs (leishmaniosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, hepatozoonosis, anaplasmosis, bartonellosis and borreliosis. The ultimate application of such immunological investigation is the development of effective vaccines. The current commercially available vaccines for canine leishmaniosis, babesiosis and borreliosis are reviewed.

  8. Non-linear vector perturbations in a contracting universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, F C; Tavakol, R; Mena, Filipe C.; Mulryne, David J.; Tavakol, Reza

    2007-01-01

    A number of scalar field models proposed as alternatives to the standard inflationary scenario involve contracting phases which precede the universe's present phase of expansion. An important question concerning such models is whether there are effects which could potentially distinguish them from purely expanding cosmologies. Vector perturbations have recently been considered in this context. At first order such perturbations are not supported by a scalar field. In this paper, therefore, we consider second order vector perturbations. We show that such perturbations are generated by first order scalar mode-mode couplings, and give an explicit expression for them. We compare the magnitude of vector perturbations produced in collapsing models with the corresponding amplitudes produced during inflation, using a number of suitable power-law solutions to model the inflationary and collapsing scenarios. We conclude that the ratios of the magnitudes of these perturbations depend on the details of the collapsing scen...

  9. Disformal vectors and anisotropies on a warped brane

    CERN Document Server

    Koivisto, Tomi S

    2014-01-01

    The Maxwell action is conformally invariant and classically ignorant of conformally flat metrics. However, if the vector lives in a disformal metric---which is the typical case in moving extra dimensional warped branes---this is no longer true. The disformal coupling is then mediated by a Dirac-Born-Infeld scalar field. Here a systematic dynamical system analysis is developed for anisotropic Bianchi I cosmology with a massive disformally coupled vector field. Several new fixed points are found, including anisotropic scaling solutions. Within the simplest assumption of (nearly) exponential potentials the anisotropic fixed points are either not attractors, do not describe accelerating expansion or else they feature too large anisotropies to be compatible with observations. Nonetheless, viable classes of models exist where isotropy is retained due to rapid oscillations of the vector field, thus providing a possible realisation of the disformally interacting massive dark matter. The formalism presented here can a...

  10. [Omics of vector mosquitoes: a big data platform for vector biology and vector-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Xie, Li-Hua; Liu, Pei-Wen; Li, Xiao-Cong; Yan, Gui-Yun; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2015-05-20

    Recently the studies on mosquito genomics, transcriptomics and small RNAomics developed rapidly with the novel biotechnologies of the next generation sequencing techniques. The genome sequences of several important vector mosquitoes including Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti have been published. The genome sizes vary among the different species of mosquitoes and are consistent with the number of the repeat regions. The released genome sequences facilitate gene cloning and identification as for OBP, OR and dsx genes. Transcriptomics provides a useful tool for functional analyses of the mosquito genes, and using this technique, the molecular basis of mosquito blooding, gland proteins and diapauses have been explored. Studies on small RNAomics suggest important roles of miRNAs and piRNAs in ovary development, blood digestion, and immunity against virus infection. The studies on mosquito omics have generated a big data platform for investigation of vector biology and vector-transmitted disease prevention. PMID:26018253

  11. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author)

  12. Vector spherical quasi-Gaussian vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2014-02-01

    Model equations for describing and efficiently computing the radiation profiles of tightly spherically focused higher-order electromagnetic beams of vortex nature are derived stemming from a vectorial analysis with the complex-source-point method. This solution, termed as a high-order quasi-Gaussian (qG) vortex beam, exactly satisfies the vector Helmholtz and Maxwell's equations. It is characterized by a nonzero integer degree and order (n,m), respectively, an arbitrary waist w(0), a diffraction convergence length known as the Rayleigh range z(R), and an azimuthal phase dependency in the form of a complex exponential corresponding to a vortex beam. An attractive feature of the high-order solution is the rigorous description of strongly focused (or strongly divergent) vortex wave fields without the need of either the higher-order corrections or the numerically intensive methods. Closed-form expressions and computational results illustrate the analysis and some properties of the high-order qG vortex beams based on the axial and transverse polarization schemes of the vector potentials with emphasis on the beam waist. PMID:25353593

  13. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown. PMID:25674945

  14. Vector spherical quasi-Gaussian vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2014-02-01

    Model equations for describing and efficiently computing the radiation profiles of tightly spherically focused higher-order electromagnetic beams of vortex nature are derived stemming from a vectorial analysis with the complex-source-point method. This solution, termed as a high-order quasi-Gaussian (qG) vortex beam, exactly satisfies the vector Helmholtz and Maxwell's equations. It is characterized by a nonzero integer degree and order (n,m), respectively, an arbitrary waist w0, a diffraction convergence length known as the Rayleigh range zR, and an azimuthal phase dependency in the form of a complex exponential corresponding to a vortex beam. An attractive feature of the high-order solution is the rigorous description of strongly focused (or strongly divergent) vortex wave fields without the need of either the higher-order corrections or the numerically intensive methods. Closed-form expressions and computational results illustrate the analysis and some properties of the high-order qG vortex beams based on the axial and transverse polarization schemes of the vector potentials with emphasis on the beam waist.

  15. Intraoperative Vector Flow Imaging of the Heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; MØller-SØrensen, Hasse

    2013-01-01

    The cardiac flow is complex and multidirectional, and difficult to measure with conventional Doppler ultrasound (US) methods due to the one-dimensional and angle-dependent velocity estimation. The vector velocity method Transverse Oscillation (TO) has been proposed as a solution to this. TO is implemented on a conventional US scanner (Pro Focus 2202 UltraView, BK Medical) using a linear transducer (8670, BK Medical) and can provide real-time, angle-independent vector velocity estimates of the cardiac blood flow. During cardiac surgery, epicardiac US examinations using TO were performed on three patients. Antegrade central jet and retrograde flow near the vessel wall in the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery were seen during systole, while stable vortices were seen in the aortic sinuses and complex flow patterns were seen around the valves during diastole. In the right atrium, a stable vortex was seen during the entire heart cycle. For comparison, simultaneous Measurements were obtained with conventionalspectral Doppler (SD) and intravenous catheter thermodilution technique (TD). Peak systolic velocities were underestimated by 18% compared to SD and cardiac output was underestimated by 16% compared to TD. This is the first time TO measurements have been obtained of cardiac flow. TO can potentially reveal new information of cardiovascular physiology and blood flow dynamics, and become a valuable tool in cardiology.

  16. A note on transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in U(1) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [Phys. Lett. B 507 (2001) 351] is reexamined by means of perturbative method. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization gives the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current

  17. A Note on Transverse Axial Vector and Vector Anomalies in U(1) Gauge Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wei-min; Zong, Hong-shi; Chen, Xiang-song; Wang, Fan

    2003-01-01

    The transverse axial vector and vector anomalies in four-dimensional U(1) gauge theories studied in [10] is reexamined by means of perturbative methods. The absence of transverse anomalies for both axial vector and vector current is verified. We also show that the Pauli-Villars regularization and dimensional regularization give the same result on the transverse anomaly of both axial vector and vector current.

  18. Vector-meson dominance revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terschlüsen Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of mesons with electromagnetism is often well described by the concept of vector-meson dominance (VMD. However, there are also examples where VMD fails. A simple chiral Lagrangian for pions, rho and omega mesons is presented which can account for the respective agreement and disagreement between VMD and phenomenology in the sector of light mesons.

  19. Vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Ismat Beg

    2001-01-01

    Some of the properties of vector-valued fuzzy multifunctions are studied. The notion of sum fuzzy multifunction, convex hull fuzzy multifunction, close convex hull fuzzy multifunction, and upper demicontinuous are given, and some of the properties of these fuzzy multifunctions are investigated.

  20. Vector Fields Resembling Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretón, Nora

    We review how vector fields have been introduced to produce inflationary scenarios in early universes and recently they have been invoked to mimick dark energy. These last approaches have been mostly qualitatives, requiring then to be tested with cosmological probes, in order to seriously be considered as one of the possible causes of the present accelerated expansion of the universe.

  1. Science of NHL Hockey: Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBC Learn

    2010-10-07

    NHL players are celebrated for their ability to pass the puck quickly and accurately as play moves from one end of the ice to the other. These pinpoint passes, requiring both magnitude and direction, are perfect examples of velocity vectors. "Science of NHL Hockey" is a 10-part video series produced in partnership with the National Science Foundation and the National Hockey League.

  2. Portfolio Analysis for Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    Classic stock portfolio analysis provides an applied context for Lagrange multipliers that undergraduate students appreciate. Although modern methods of portfolio analysis are beyond the scope of vector calculus, classic methods reinforce the utility of this material. This paper discusses how to introduce classic stock portfolio analysis in a…

  3. Some properties of vector gluinonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong radiation transitions between the levels of the gluonic bound states are considered. The decay probability for vector gluinonium into Z-bozon and has calculated, and the possibility to observe this state in the Z-bozon and gluon jet

  4. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet conventional methods can estimate only the axial component. Several approaches for 3D vector velocity estimation have been suggested, but none of these methods have so far produced convincing in vivo results nor have they been adopted by commercial manufacturers. The basis for this project is the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method, which estimates both the axial and the lateral velocity components. The first part of the scientific contribution demonstrates that a commercial implementation of the TO method is feasible. Afterwards, the method is expanded to a phased array geometry, and performance metrics based on the TO fields are suggested. They can be used to optimize the TO method. In the third part, a TO method for 3D vector velocity estimation is proposed. It employs a 2D phased array transducer and decouples the velocity estimation into three velocity components, which are estimated simultaneously based on 5:1 parallel receive beamforming. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method. In the final part, an experimental investigation of the 3D TO method is presented. Velocity measurements of steady flow were conducted in a flow-rig system, and the data were acquired using an experimental ultrasound scanner and a 2D transducer. The three velocity components along the center line are measured with relative (to the expected values) biases and standard deviations lower than 5 % and 12 %, respectively. At the center of the vessel, the mean and standard deviation of 100 estimated velocity vectors are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging.

  5. Structural Learning of Attack Vectors for Generating Mutated XSS Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Hsun; Lee, Hahn-Ming; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.2

    2010-01-01

    Web applications suffer from cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks that resulting from incomplete or incorrect input sanitization. Learning the structure of attack vectors could enrich the variety of manifestations in generated XSS attacks. In this study, we focus on generating more threatening XSS attacks for the state-of-the-art detection approaches that can find potential XSS vulnerabilities in Web applications, and propose a mechanism for structural learning of attack vectors with the aim of generating mutated XSS attacks in a fully automatic way. Mutated XSS attack generation depends on the analysis of attack vectors and the structural learning mechanism. For the kernel of the learning mechanism, we use a Hidden Markov model (HMM) as the structure of the attack vector model to capture the implicit manner of the attack vector, and this manner is benefited from the syntax meanings that are labeled by the proposed tokenizing mechanism. Bayes theorem is used to determine the number of hidden states in the model...

  6. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author)

  7. Supernova Recognition using Support Vector Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Raquel A.; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Ding, Chris

    2006-10-01

    We introduce a novel application of Support Vector Machines(SVMs) to the problem of identifying potential supernovae usingphotometric and geometric features computed from astronomical imagery.The challenges of this supervised learning application are significant:1) noisy and corrupt imagery resulting in high levels of featureuncertainty,2) features with heavy-tailed, peaked distributions,3)extremely imbalanced and overlapping positiveand negative data sets, and4) the need to reach high positive classification rates, i.e. to find allpotential supernovae, while reducing the burdensome workload of manuallyexamining false positives. High accuracy is achieved viaasign-preserving, shifted log transform applied to features with peaked,heavy-tailed distributions. The imbalanced data problem is handled byoversampling positive examples,selectively sampling misclassifiednegative examples,and iteratively training multiple SVMs for improvedsupernovarecognition on unseen test data. We present crossvalidationresults and demonstrate the impact on a largescale supernova survey thatcurrently uses the SVM decision value to rank-order 600,000 potentialsupernovae each night.

  8. Vector variational inequalities and their relations with vector optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Kaur Suneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, K- quasiconvex, K- pseudoconvex and other related functions have been introduced in terms of their Clarke subdifferentials, where is an arbitrary closed convex, pointed cone with nonempty interior. The (strict, weakly -pseudomonotonicity, (strict K- naturally quasimonotonicity and K- quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential maps have also been defined. Further, we introduce Minty weak (MVVIP and Stampacchia weak (SVVIP vector variational inequalities over arbitrary cones. Under regularity assumption, we have proved that a weak minimum solution of vector optimization problem (VOP is a solution of (SVVIP and under the condition of K- pseudoconvexity we have obtained the converse for MVVIP (SVVIP. In the end we study the interrelations between these with the help of strict K-naturally quasimonotonicity of Clarke subdifferential map.

  9. Vector boson and vector boson plus jet production at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cummings, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Neutral and charged current Drell-Yan processes at the LHC provide unique tool to study various QCD and EW effects. Measurements differential in invariant mass of the lepton pair and lepton or pair rapidity are sensitive to the parton density functions. Measurements of the transverse momentum of the Z boson study QCD radiation effects. Lepton forward-backward asymmetry in the NC process provides a measure of the weak mixing angle. The production of jets in association with a W or Z boson in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV study multi-leg QCD diagrams and probe electroweak production via vector-boson fusion mechanism. Measurements of vectors bosons in association with heavy flavor, such as W+c and W+b production, have unique sensitivity to the heavy quark density of the proton. Differential cross sections are presented and compared to QCD predictions at NLO and NNLO.

  10. Lentiviral Vectors for Cancer Immunotherapy and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Escors

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of immunotherapy against infectious diseases has shown us the powerful potential that such a treatment offers, and substantial work has been done to apply this strategy in the fight against cancer. Cancer is however a fiercer opponent than pathogen-caused diseases due to natural tolerance towards tumour associated antigens and tumour-induced immunosuppression. Recent gene therapy clinical trials with viral vectors have shown clinical efficacy in the correction of genetic diseases, HIV and cancer. The first successful gene therapy clinical trials were carried out with onco(g-retroviral vectors but oncogenesis by insertional mutagenesis appeared as a serious complication. Lentiviral vectors have emerged as a potentially safer strategy, and recently the first clinical trial of patients with advanced leukemia using lentiviral vectors has proven successful. Additionally, therapeutic lentivectors have shown clinical efficacy for the treatment of HIV, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and b-thalassaemia. This review aims at describing lentivectors and how they can be utilized to boost anti-tumour immune responses by manipulating the effector immune cells.

  11. Vectors and vector-borne diseases of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onmaz, A C; Beutel, R G; Schneeberg, K; Pavaloiu, A N; Komarek, A; van den Hoven, R

    2013-03-01

    Most diseases of horses with zoonotic importance are transmitted by arthropods. The vectors belong to two very distantly related groups, the chelicerate Ixodidae (Acari = ticks) and the hexapod Diptera (true flies). Almost all relevant species are predestined for transmitting pathogens by their blood-sucking habits. Especially species of Diptera, one of the megadiverse orders of holometabolan insects (ca. 150.000 spp.), affect the health status and performance of horses during the grazing period in summer. The severity of pathological effect depends on the pathogen, but also on the group of vectors and the intensity of the infection or infestation. Dipteran species but also blood-sucking representatives of Acari (Ixodidae) can damage their hosts by sucking blood, causing myiasis, allergy, paralysis and intoxication, and also transmit various bacterial, viral, parasitic, spirochetal and rickettsial diseases to animals and also humans. The aim of this review was to provide extensive information on the infectious diseases transmitted by members of the two arthropod lineages (Ixodidae, Diptera) and a systematic overview of the vectors. For each taxon, usually on the ordinal, family, and genus level a short characterisation is given, allowing non-entomologists easy identification. Additionally, the biology of the relevant species (or genera) is outlined briefly. PMID:23054414

  12. Using Dip Vectors to Analyze Structural Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisonant, Robert Clyde; Watts, Chester Frederick

    1989-01-01

    A method of plotting planes on stereonets is described including great circles, poles, and dip vectors. Teaching applications of dip vectors in engineering geology and structural geology are discussed. (CW)

  13. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly significant in resource-poor countries in the tropics and semi-tropics. Some measures to meet this threat are outlined.

  14. The jerk vector in projectile motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tan and M. E. Edwards

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the jerk vector is investigated in projectile motion under gravity. The jerk vector is zero in the absence of air resistance, but comes into life when velocity-dependent air drag is present. The jerk vector is calculated when the air resistance is proportional to the velocity. It is found that the jerk vector maintains a constant sense in the upward andforward direction, with its magnitude attenuated exponentially as a function of time

  15. The jerk vector in projectile motion

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, A. Tan And M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of the jerk vector is investigated in projectile motion under gravity. The jerk vector is zero in the absence of air resistance, but comes into life when velocity-dependent air drag is present. The jerk vector is calculated when the air resistance is proportional to the velocity. It is found that the jerk vector maintains a constant sense in the upward andforward direction, with its magnitude attenuated exponentially as a function of time

  16. Benchmarking the IBM 3090 with Vector Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickner, R.G.; Wasserman, H.J.; Hayes, A.H.; Moore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The IBM 3090 with Vector Facility is an extremely interesting machine because it combines very good scaler performance with enhanced vector and multitasking performance. For many IBM installations with a large scientific workload, the 3090/vector/MTF combination may be an ideal means of increasing throughput at minimum cost. However, neither the vector nor multitasking capabilities are sufficiently developed to make the 3090 competitive with our current worker machines for our large-scale scientific codes.

  17. VEST: abstract vector calculus simplification in Mathematica

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jonathan; Burby, Joshua; Qin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We present a new package, VEST (Vector Einstein Summation Tools), that performs abstract vector calculus computations in Mathematica. Through the use of index notation, VEST is able to reduce three-dimensional scalar and vector expressions of a very general type to a well defined standard form. In addition, utilizing properties of the Levi-Civita symbol, the program can derive types of multi-term vector identities that are not recognized by reduction, subsequently applying t...

  18. Construction and Characterization of an in-vivo Linear Covalently Closed DNA Vector Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafissi Nafiseh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While safer than their viral counterparts, conventional non-viral gene delivery DNA vectors offer a limited safety profile. They often result in the delivery of unwanted prokaryotic sequences, antibiotic resistance genes, and the bacterial origins of replication to the target, which may lead to the stimulation of unwanted immunological responses due to their chimeric DNA composition. Such vectors may also impart the potential for chromosomal integration, thus potentiating oncogenesis. We sought to engineer an in vivo system for the quick and simple production of safer DNA vector alternatives that were devoid of non-transgene bacterial sequences and would lethally disrupt the host chromosome in the event of an unwanted vector integration event. Results We constructed a parent eukaryotic expression vector possessing a specialized manufactured multi-target site called “Super Sequence”, and engineered E. coli cells (R-cell that conditionally produce phage-derived recombinase Tel (PY54, TelN (N15, or Cre (P1. Passage of the parent plasmid vector through R-cells under optimized conditions, resulted in rapid, efficient, and one step in vivo generation of mini lcc—linear covalently closed (Tel/TelN-cell, or mini ccc—circular covalently closed (Cre-cell, DNA constructs, separated from the backbone plasmid DNA. Site-specific integration of lcc plasmids into the host chromosome resulted in chromosomal disruption and 105 fold lower viability than that seen with the ccc counterpart. Conclusion We offer a high efficiency mini DNA vector production system that confers simple, rapid and scalable in vivo production of mini lcc DNA vectors that possess all the benefits of “minicircle” DNA vectors and virtually eliminate the potential for undesirable vector integration events.

  19. Vector and tensor analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, A I; Silverman, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Concise and readable, this text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. It also includes a systematic study of the differential and integral calculus of vector and tensor functions of space and time. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

  20. Vector Knowledge of Beginning Physics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Randall D.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Vector Knowledge Test that was designed to see if beginning physics students possess the minimal basic knowledge of vectors that will allow them to proceed with a study of Newtonian mechanics. Concludes that only one-third of the students in a calculus-based introductory course at California Polytechnic had sufficient vector