WorldWideScience
1

Thermal analysis on Charpy V-notch test specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained from finite element thermal transient analyses performed in Charpy V-notch test specimens are presented in order to verify the validity of two recommendations included in ASTM A370 and E23 standards: the minimum immersion time of the specimen in a liquid bath to reach a isothermal state at test temperature; and the maximum time interval between the removal of the specimen from the bath and the execution of the test. (author). 7 refs, 16 figs, 3 tabs

2

Ductile crack initiation in the Charpy V-notch test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Initiation and growth of a crack in the Charpy V-notch test was investigated by performing both static and impact controlled deflection tests. Test specimens were deformed to various deflections, heat-tinted to mark crack extension and broken apart at low temperature to allow extension measurements. Measurement of the crack extension provided an estimate of crack initiation as defined by different criteria. Crack initiation starts well before maximum load, and is dependent on the definition of ''initiation''. Using a definition of first micro-initiation away from the ductile blunting, computer model predictions agreed favorably with the experimental results

3

Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at {approximately}30{degrees}C to 1 x 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} in a commercial reactor cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at {approximately} 30{degrees}C ({approximately} 85{degrees}F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was {approximately} 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of {approximately} 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications.

Iskander, S.K.; Stoller, R.E.

1997-04-01

4

Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at ?30 degrees C to 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 in a commercial reactor cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at ? 30 degrees C (? 85 degrees F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was ? 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of ? 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications

5

Ductile crack initiation in the Charpy V-notch test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crack initiation and growth in the Charpy V-notch test are investigated for controlled deflections of the specimen applied both by slow bending and by impact. Charpy test specimens were deformed to various deflections, heat-tinted to mark the crack extensions, and broken apart at low temperature to allow measurement of the crack extensions. These measurements provide estimates of crack initiation as defined by various criteria. The loading point at which crack initiation occurs depends on the particular definition being used for ''initiation,'' but in all cases it is well before the maximum load is reached. When initiation is defined as the first observable micro-initiation away from the ductile blunting of the notch root, the experimental results are in good agreement with computer modeling predictions

6

The fracture toughness evaluation by instrumented charpy V-notch test for irradiated narrow-gap mig weldment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a proposal to make some empirical correlation between the fracture toughness and the charpy V-notch impact test results for the irradiated Narrow Gap MIG weld deposit metal and their irradiated embrittlement is also examined by the method presently used in practice, determining the transition temperature shift at 30ft-lb absorbed energy. This study predicts a good correlation between the actual measurement of fracture toughness and the fracture toughness derived from the charpy V-notch impact test results. (orig./HP)

7

Charpy V-Notch Impact Testing and Brittle Fracture in an A508 CL.3 Bainitic Steel  

OpenAIRE

Charpy V-notch impact testing is widely used in the toughness diagnostic of large forged components, e.g. the vessel of pressurized water reactors (PWR). In an A508 Cl.3 bainitic steel tested at low temperature, cleavage occurs at the initiation of unstable failure. The results reported here are part of both an experimental program and numerical investigations in order to establish a non-empirical relationship between Charpy V-notch energy CVN and fracture toughness KIC. The Beremin model whi...

Tahar, M.; Brillaud, C.; Forget, P.; Piques, R.

1997-01-01

8

Computer simulation of the Charpy V-notch toughness test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamic Charpy V-notch test was simulated on a computer. The calculational models (for A-533 Grade B class 1 steel) used both a rounded and a flat-tipped striker. The notch stress/strain state was found to be independent of the three-point loading type and was most strongly correlated with notch-opening displacement. The dynamic stress/strain state at the time of fracture initiation was obtained by comparing the calculated deformed shape with that obtained in interrupted Charpy V-notch tests where cracking had started. The calculation was also compared with stress/strain states calculated in other geometries at failure. The distribution and partition of specimen energy was calculated and adiabatic heating and strain rate are discussed.

Norris, D.M. Jr.

1977-08-15

9

Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference and by use Numerical method (FEA.The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of (50Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1, on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Different instruments have been used in this investigation like Chemical composition analyzer type (Spectromax ,Tensile universal testing machine type (WDW-100E ,Hardness tester type (HSV- 1000 , Fatigue testing machine model Gunt WP 140, Optical Light Microscope (OLM and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM were employed to examine the fracture features . The results show that there is acceptable error between experimental and numerical works .

Qasim Bader

2014-06-01

10

Use of forces from instrumented Charpy V-notch testing to determine crack-arrest toughness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this investigation is an estimation of the crack-arrest toughness, particularly of irradiated materials, from voltage versus time output of an instrumented setup during a test on a Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen. This voltage versus time trace (which can be converted to force versus displacement) displays events during fracture of the specimen. Various stages of the fracture process can be identified on the trace, including an arrest point indicating arrest of brittle fracture. The force at arrest, Fa, versus test temperature, T, relationship is examined to explore possible relationships to other experimental measures of crack-arrest toughness such as the drop-weight nil-ductility temperature (NDT), or crack-arrest toughness, Ka. For a wide range of weld and plate materials, the temperature at which Fa = 2.45 kN correlates with NDT with a standard deviation, sigma, of about 11 K. Excluding the so-called low upper-shelf energy (USE) welds from the analysis resulted in Fa = 4.12 kN and ? = 6.6 K. The estimates of the correlation of the temperature for Fa = 7.4 kN with the temperature at 100-MPa?m level for a mean American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) type KIa curve through crack-arrest toughness values show that prediction of conservative values of Ka are possible

11

Influence of phase transformations on the asymptotic residual stress distribution arising near a sharp V-notch tip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the residual stress distribution induced by the solidification and cooling of a fusion zone in the vicinity of a sharp V-notch tip is investigated. The intensity of the residual asymptotic stress fields, quantified by the notch stress intensity factors, was studied for two different V-notch specimen geometries under generalized plane-strain conditions. In order to analyze the influence of phase transformations on the obtained results, simulations with and without the effects of phase transformation were carried out on ASTM SA 516 steel plates. Thanks to the possibilities of numerical modelling, additional analyses were performed without taking into account the transformation plasticity phenomenon. It was found that phase transformation effects (both volume change and transformation plasticity) have a great influence on the intensity and sign of the asymptotic stress fields at the sharp V-notch tips. This result is believed to be very important for the correct numerical determination (and future applications) of notch stress intensity factors resulting from asymptotic residual stress distributions induced by transient thermal loads. The analyses were performed with the finite element code SYSWELD. (paper)

12

Effect of notch dimension on the fatigue life of V-notched structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? A novel method is proposed to calculate the SIFs of crack at notch tip. ? Effect of notch opening angle on the crack extension and propagation is studied. ? Influence of notch depth on the crack extension and propagation is analyzed. ? The fatigue life of a welded joint is analyzed by the present method. - Abstract: The stress singularity degree associated to a V-notch has a great influence on the fatigue life of V-notched structure. The growth rate of the crack initiated at the tip of a V-notch depends on the stress singularity of the V-notch. The fatigue life accompanying with this small crack will represent a large amount of the total fatigue life. In this work, boundary element method (BEM) is used to study the propagation of the crack emanating from a V-notch tip under fatigue loading. A comparison of the fatigue life between the crack initiated from V-notch tip and a lateral crack is done by a crack propagation law until these two cracks have the same stress intensity factors (SIFs). The effect of initial crack length, notch opening angle and notch depth on the crack extension and propagation is analyzed. As an example of engineering application, the fatigue life of a welded joint is investigated by the present method. The influence of weld toe angle and initial crack length on the fatigue life of the welded structure is studied. Some suggestions are given as an attempt to improve the fatigue life of welded structures at the end. structures at the end.

13

Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so that a quasi-static analysis would predict a size independent response. Sizes ranging from 1/4 to 16 times the ASTM standard size are analyzed and two sets of material properties are considered. No size effect is seen below a critical specimen size. Above this limit, a monotonic increase with specimen size is found for the normalized lower shelf energy (LSE) and the normalized upper shelf energy (USE) for both sets of material properties. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is found to increase monotonically with specimen size for one set of material properties, but a non-monotonic variation is found for the other set of material properties. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.

2004-01-01

14

Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, accounting for adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipationfiand the resulting thermal softening. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when the average of the maximum principal stress over a speci¯ed volume attains a critical value. Typically, the material parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative to the surface of the test piece, have so complex geometry that only a full 3D analysis is able to account for theinteraction of failure in the three different material regions, whereas ther specimens can be approximated in terms of a planar analysis.

Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

2005-01-01

15

CALIBRATION OF A 90 DEGREE V-NOTCH WEIR USING PARAMETERS OTHER THAN UPSTREAM HEAD  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional calibration of 90 degrees V-Notch Weirs has involved the establishment of a head-discharge relationship where the head is measured upstream of weir drawdown effects. This parameter is often difficult to mesure in field weir installations. Two other parameters are prop...

16

Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ductile-brittle transition for a weld is investigated by numerical analyses of Charpy impact specimens. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow strength variations in a weldment in a HY100 steel. The predicted work to fracture shows a strong sensitivity to the location of the notch relative to the weld, with the most brittle behavior for a notch close to the narrow heat affected zone. The analyses illustrate the strong dependence of the transition temperature on stress triaxiality. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

2000-01-01

17

Dynamic analysis of the Charpy V-notch test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A computer simulation of a standard Charpy test from impact to the start of ductile tearing is reported. Both striker and specimens are modelled. The specimen is made of SA533 Grade B Class 1 nuclear-pressure-vessel steel and tested at 100 C. The results describe the wave interaction causing momentary separation of striker and specimen. The notch tip stress and strain at time of crack initiation are described, both for a plane-strain model and for the 1 cm thickness. The implications for correlation of total Charpy energy and initiation energy with fracture toughness are discussed

18

Experiment HFIR-MFE-T3 for low-temperature irradiation of miniaturized Charpy V-notch specimens of nickel-doped ferritic steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HFIR-MFE-T3 experimental capsule is described. This experiment consists of miniature Charpy V-notch specimens of 12 Cr-1 MoVW and 12 Cr-1 MoVW-2 Ni alloys. The different levels of nickel will result in different helium levels generated during irradiation, and thus will allow for an evaluation of the effect of helium on impact properties. Irradiation of the capsule has started with projected fluence at midplane that will produce 10 dpa expected by January 1982

19

Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

2009-07-01

20

First approach for the determination of J-integral R-curves on charpy V-notch specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the pressure vessel surveillance programmes of Swiss nuclear power stations, prefatigued, charpy V-notch specimens are currently under irradiation exposure. However, as there is still no consensus as to the correct evaluation procedure for such tests, the conclusions which can be drawn from the results are somewhat limited. This work deals with the alternative possibility of performing the experiments in the same manner as for large, three-point bend-type specimens. The procedure is based upon the proposal of J.R. Rice, which claims that the J-integral is a characteristic value of the material and independent of specimen geometry. If this is the case, then it can be concluded that the specimen size does not play a role in the physical initiation of the propagation of an existing flaw. Exceptions to this rule are only expected in the case of a moving crack. It is shown that the results of the application of this procedure are promising. (author) 4 figs., 14 refs

21

Relationships between Charpy V-notch impact energy and fracture toughness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the investigation of correlations between Charpy V-notch impact energy and fracture toughness. Three distinct types of correlations were examined: (1) the Rolfe-Novak-Barsom upper-shelf correlation, (2) the hyperbolic tangent (tanh) correlation, and (3) the J-?a correlation. The Rolfe-Novak-Barsom correlation is a straight line relationship between functions of the Charpy energy and the static initiation toughness, while the tanh correlation relates functions of the Charpy energy and either the static or the dynamic toughness through the use of statistically determined curve fits based on the tanh curve. The J-?a correlation represents power law estimates of resistance curves in the upper-shelf temperature range

22

Subsized bend and Charpy V-notch specimens for irradiated testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Characterization of the fracture resistance of structural materials from specimens small in volume is an essential element of fission and fusion reactor design and alloy development. In this study 1/3-sized Charpy V-notch specimens and small bend bars ranging in thickness down to 2.5 mm have been investigated. Techniques have been developed for fabricating these specimens and testing them over a temperature range of 170 to 590 K under static and dynamic conditions. Tests have been performed to extract fracture mechanics parameters (K/sub Ic/,J/sub Ic/) and fundamental material parameters (e.g., microcleavage fracture stress ?/sub f//sup */) and to examine behavior anticipated in thin wall ferritic structures at temperatures corresponding to the lower shelf

23

New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's  

Science.gov (United States)

New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer’s... Text Size: Email This Post Print This Post New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer’s A new drug designed to treat Alzheimer’s ...

24

Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

2011-01-01

25

The assets and limitations of the Charpy V-notch approach to pressure vessel safety in the surveillance programmes - A proposal for modifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Charpy V-notch impact test data forms the primary basis in the present surveillance programmes of analysing the effects of radiation on the reactor pressure vessel. The weaknesses of this approach are discussed with regard to the requirement of minimum initial upper-shelf energy. The enforcement of this requirement could lead to regulatory action with a risk for outage of some of the existing commercial reactors. To prevent such consequences resulting from the ill-defined property of upper-shelf energy, a proposal is made for the introduction of fracture mechanics specimens in to the surveillance programmes in addition to the Charpy V specimens. Using the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics approach the material degradation due to such effects as strain ageing and radiation could then be evaluated in a much more quantitative manner. (author)

26

Analysis method of Charpy V-notch impact data before and after electron beam welding reconstitution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? The EBW can be successful applied for reconstitution of the CVN specimens. ? The equality of DBTT was checked by t/t'-test with its uncertainty. ? The CVN data before and after reconstitution is in good agreement. - Abstract: The specimen reconstitution technique is one of the most promising techniques to improve the surveillance program of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In this study, unirradiated 30Mn2V low-alloy steels were chosen as the test materials, and the broken halves of Charpy V-notch impact (CVN) specimens were reconstituted to be new CVN specimens by the electron beam welding (EBW) as a pilot study in China. Taking the 20 insert reconstituted specimens as an example, Boltzmann function was used to fit the CVN data, the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and its uncertainty were evaluated, and the equality of DBTT between the reconstituted specimens and original specimens was checked by t/t'-test. There is a great consistency between CVN data of EBW reconstituted specimens and that of original specimens.

27

On impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch type specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for using subsize specimens to determine the actual properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for improved vessel condition monitoring that could be beneficial for light-water reactor plant-life extension. This potential is made conditional upon, on the one hand, by the possibility of cutting samples of small volume from the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. The plant-life extension will require supplemental surveillance data that cannot be provided by the existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize CVN type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens. This requires the development of a correlation of transition temperature and upper-shelf toughness between subsize and full-size specimens. The present study was conducted under the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Different published approaches to the use of subsize specimens were analyzed and five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and upper-shelf energies (USEs). Effects of specimen dimensions, including depth, angle, and radius of notch have been studied. The correlation of transition temperature determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimen is presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens was developed and is presented

28

Showing similarity of results given by two methods: A commentary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a frequent need in the environmental sciences to show the similarity of the results given by two analytical methods. This cannot, however, be done within the conventional 'there is a difference' statistical hypothesis setting of, among others, Student's t-test. We demonstrate here a more appropriate approach that originates from drug testing and that can be applied with standard statistical software. It is a challenging approach, as it requires quantification of the similarity limit. If no pre-determined value is given for similarity, a potential data-supported similarity limit can be explored from the data. The approach has numerous other potential application areas, e.g. parallelism of regression slopes, homogeneity of variances and lack of interaction. - Showing similarity of two methods calls for specific, yet simple, statistical techniques

29

The use of slow-bend pre-cracked Charpy V-notch specimens to characterize half-bead repair welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the use of the half-bead repair welding procedure, as the pre-cracked Charpy V-notch specimen permits an assessment of the various regions of the repair weldment with a minimal use of materials, Charpy V-notch specimen blanks were removed from the repair weldment in such a manner that the fracture toughness of the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) between the base material and repair weld could be determined. Then, pre-cracked Charpy V-notch specimens were used to characterize the various zones of a repair weldment in an intermediate test vessel for which a pressurization test was specifically designed to assess the effect of repair welding on its integrity. These specimens were also used to assess the repair weld metal and original fabrication weldment toughness properties

30

Effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behavior of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I investigated using subsize V-notch specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behaviour of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I was investigated using DIN 50115-KLST, subsize, V-notch impact bend specimens (3 × 4 × 27 mm3). The microstructure of the steel was varied by employing different quenching and austenizing conditions. The specimens were irradiated in the HFR Petten at 300, 400, and 475°C to displacement damage levels as high as 5 dpaNRT. Experimental results are reported from an ongoing program aimed at determining the influence of irradiation-induced microstructural changes on the impact properties of MANET-I: the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), the relative fracture toughness, and the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness. Following irradiation a large increase in the DBTT and a remarkable decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE) were observed. The changes in the properties depend strongly on the irradiation temperature. The DBTT and USE of the irradiated specimens also depend clearly on the initial microstructure of the material. The increase in DBTT and the decrease in USE are in general greater at 300 than at 400 and 475°C. Under proper conditions the instrumented impact test can be used to determine the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness K1d and the J-integral of unirradiated and irradiated materials.

Wassilew, Christo; Ehrlich, Karl

1992-09-01

31

Effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behaviour of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I investigated using subsize V-notch specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behaviour of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I was investigated using DIN 50115-KLST, subsize, V-notch impact bend specimens (3x4x27 mm3). The microstructure of the steel was varied by employing different quenching and austenizing conditions. The specimens were irradiated in the HFR Petten at 300, 400, and 475deg C to displacement damage levels as high as 5 dpaNRT. Experimental results are reported from an ongoing program aimed at determining the influcene of irradiation-induced microstructural changes on the impact properties of MANET-I: The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), the relative fracture toughness, and the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness. Following irradiation a large increase in the DBTT and a remarkable decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE) were observed. The changes in the properties depend strongly on the irradiation temperature. The DBTT and USE of the irradiated specimens also depend clearly on the initial microstructure of the material. The increase in DBTT and the decrease in USE are in general greater at 300 than at 400 and 475deg C. Under proper conditions the instrumented impact test can be used to determine the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness K1d and the J-integral of unirradiated and irradiated materials. (orig.)

32

Assessment of temper embrittlement in an ex-service 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V power generating rotor by Charpy V-Notch testing, KIc fracture toughness and small punch test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of the research aimed at developing fracture toughness correlations for the purposes of the remaining life assessment of an ex-service 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V power-generating rotor. Results from three methods of measuring the fracture toughness are presented and discussed: Charpy V-Notch testing, small punch testing and full size KIc testing. Samples were taken at three locations from a retired HP-IP rotor. De-embrittling and re-embrittling heat treatments were performed to generate three sets of samples: service-exposed, de-embrittled and re-embrittled. These samples were used to study the effect of temper embrittlement, a damage mechanism that reduces toughness of components in service. The correlations applied to the experimental data indicated advantages of using the small punch test as a miniature specimen technique for the remaining life assessment of low alloy steel rotors

33

Effects of annealing time on the recovery of Charpy V-notch properties of irradiated high-copper weld metal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. An important issue to be resolved is the effect on the toughness properties of reirradiating a vessel that has been annealed. This paper describes the annealing response of irradiated high-copper submerged-arc weld HSSI 73W. For this study, the weld has been annealed at 454 C (850 F) for lengths of time varying between 1 and 14 days. The Charpy V-notch 41-J (30-ft-lb) transition temperature (TT41J) almost fully recovered for the longest period studied, but recovered to a lesser degree for the shorter periods. No significant recovery of the TT41J was observed for a 7-day anneal at 343 C (650 F). At 454 C for the durations studied, the values of the upper-shelf impact energy of irradiated and annealed weld metal exceeded the values in the unirradiated condition. Similar behavior was observed after aging the unirradiated weld metal at 460 and 490 C for 1 week

34

Confocal microscopy?fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests  

Science.gov (United States)

The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, ? ?, and critical stressed area, A ?. Since ? ?-A ? is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.; Matsui, H.

2000-12-01

35

Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, ?*, and critical stressed area, A*. Since ?*-A* is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness

36

Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

37

Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment - A literature review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations.

Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise

2014-01-01

38

Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:  

Science.gov (United States)

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

39

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

40

International gene therapy trial for 'bubble boy' disease shows promising early results  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers reported promising outcomes data for the first group of boys with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID-X1), a fatal genetic immunodeficiency also known as "bubble boy" disease, who were treated as part of an international clinical study of a new form of gene therapy. The mechanism used to deliver the gene therapy is designed to prevent the serious complication of leukemia that arose a decade ago in a similar trial in Europe, when one-quarter of boys treated developed the blood cancer. Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute presented the study results annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, on behalf of the Transatlantic Gene Therapy Consortium.

41

Regional Trial Results Show Wheat Yield Declining in the Eastern Gangetic Plains Of South Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was undertaken at 9 to 11 sites in seven years (2000-2006 in the Eastern Gangetic Plains (EGP to examine yield trend through optimum managed wheat crop in the region using 21 experimental lines and four checks (Bhrikuti, PBW343, Kanchan and Sonalika. Data on grain yield, 1000-kernel weight (TKW, spot blotch severity, maturity and plant height were analyzed. Trend analysis revealed decreasing trend in grain yield and TKW. Spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus severity has increased over this period. Results indicate an effect of spot blotch severity on the reductions in grain yield and TKW. These findings have direct implications for developing strategies to improve wheat yields in the EGP region.

R.C. Sharma

2007-01-01

42

Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover  

Science.gov (United States)

Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

1998-01-01

43

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

44

Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 6000 to 8000C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 90SrF2 heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The 90SrF2 heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the 90SrF2 and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 8000C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 8000C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 6000 to 8000C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 6000 to 8000C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 6000 to 8000C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 6000 to 8000C and control specimens heated in vacuum

45

Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title. However, we also take into account that the national perspective needs to be considered critically. First, there are other factors but national culture that determine a local adaptation such as subnational target groups, channel identity, financing or chance incidents. Secondly, it has rightly been argued that within any national television market, especially in the post-broadcast era, a multiplicity of publics co-exists. The aim of the focus groups is therefore to shed light on the complexity of the communal viewing experience, real and imagined, national, sub-national and transnational; of identification, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre.

Jensen, Pia Majbritt

46

Medicaid incentive programs to encourage healthy behavior show mixed results to date and should be studied and improved.  

Science.gov (United States)

In September 2011 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services awarded $85 million in grants to ten states to test financial incentive programs to encourage healthy behavior among Medicaid enrollees with chronic diseases. There is little published evidence about the effectiveness of such incentives within the Medicaid program. We evaluated the available research from three earlier Medicaid incentive programs and found mixed results. On the one hand, in Florida only about half of the $41.3 million in available credits was "claimed" by enrollees between 2006 and 2011. On the other, Idaho's incentive program was credited with improving the proportion of children who were up-to-date on well-child visits. Our findings suggest that Medicaid incentive programs should be designed so that enrollees can understand them and so that the incentives are attractive enough to motivate participation. Medicaid incentive programs also should be subject to rigorous evaluation to more clearly establish their effectiveness. PMID:23459728

Blumenthal, Karen J; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Norton, Laurie; Troxel, Andrea B; Anarella, Joseph P; Gesten, Foster C; Chernew, Michael E; Volpp, Kevin G

2013-03-01

47

Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

48

Genetic distance in the whole-genome perspective on Listeria monocytogenes strains F2-382 and NIHS-28 that show similar subtyping results.  

Science.gov (United States)

BackgroundGenome subtyping approaches could provide useful epidemiological information regarding food pathogens. However, the full genomic diversity of strains that show similar subtyping results has not yet been completely explored. Most subtyping methods are based on the differences of only a portion of the genome. We investigated two draft genome sequences of Listeria monocytogenes strain F2-382 and NIHS-28, which have been identified as closely related strains by subtyping (identical multi-virulence-locus sequence typing and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis sequence types and very similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns), despite their different sources.ResultsTwo closely related strains were compared by genome structure analysis, recombination analysis, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Both genome structure analysis and recombination analysis showed that these two strains are more closely related than other strains, from a whole-genome perspective. However, the analysis of SNPs indicated that the two strains differ at the single nucleotide level.ConclusionWe show the relationship between the results of genome subtyping and whole-genome sequencing. It appears that the relationships among strains indicated by genome subtyping methods are in accord with the relationships indicated by whole-genome analysis. However, our results also indicate that the genetic distance between the closely related strains is greater than that between clonal strains. Our results demonstrate that subtyping methods using a part of the genome are reliable in assessing the genetic distance of the strains. Furthermore, the genetic differences in the same subtype strains may provide useful information to distinguish the bacterial strains. PMID:25492229

Kyoui, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hajime; Miya, Satoko; Kuda, Takashi; Igimi, Shizunobu; Kimura, Bon

2014-12-10

49

Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME KIa curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs

50

Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-12-01

51

Molecular analysis of human glycophorin MiIX gene shows a silent segment transfer and untemplated mutation resulting from gene conversion via sequence repeats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human glycophorin (HGp) loci that define the red blood cell surface antigens of the MNSs blood group system exhibit considerable allelic variation. Previous studies have identified gene conversion events involving HGpA(alpha) and HGpB(delta) that produced delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes which differ in the location of breakpoints. This report presents the molecular analysis of HGpMilX, the first example of a reverse alpha-delta-alpha hybrid gene that specifies a newly described phenotype of the Miltenberger complex. A novel restriction fragment unique to the HGpMilX gene was detected by Southern blot hybridization. The structure of the genomic region encoding the entire extracellular domain of the MilX protein was determined. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified genomic DNA showed that a silent segment of the HGpB(delta) gene had been transposed to replace the internal part of exon III in the HGpA(alpha) gene, thereby resulting in the formation of the MilX allele with an alpha-delta-alpha configuration. The proximal alpha-delta breakpoint was found to be flanked by a direct repeat of the acceptor splice site, whereas the distal delta-alpha breakpoint was localized to a palindromic region. This DNA rearrangement, with a minimal transfer of 16 templated nucleotides and a single mutation of untemplated adenyl nucleotide, not only created two intraexon hybrid junctions but transactivated the expression of a new stretch of amino acid residues in the MilX protein. Such a segment replacement may have occurred through the directional transfer from one duplex to the other via the mechanism of gene conversion. The occurrence of HGpMilX as another hybrid derived from parts of parent genes underlines the role of the recombinational "hotspot" in the generation of allelic diversity in the glycophorin family. PMID:1421409

Huang, C H; Skov, F; Daniels, G; Tippett, P; Blumenfeld, O O

1992-11-01

52

Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 ?M, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 ?M) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. PMID:25462275

Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M

2015-01-01

53

Thermal aging capsule results from Oconee Nuclear Station - Unit 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Oconee Nuclear Station - Unit 1 a thermal aging capsule was removed and tested at the same time a second reactor vessel surveillance capsule was removed for testing. The thermal aging capsule had received a thermal exposure of 15,000 at 580 0F (3050C) and the irradiated capsule had received an exposure of 1.5 x 1018n/cm2. The capsule contained Charpy V-notch and tension specimens of SA-302 B modified base and weld metal and SA-533 B1 correlation monitor material. The SA-302 B base metal exhibited no significant changes in Charpy V-notch impact properties as a result of thermal aging. The heat-affected-zone data indicated a drop in upper shelf properties. This drop was attributed to limited thermal aged data points and large scatter in the base data, since the notch lateral expansion and shear fracture data did not indicate the same trend. The SA-302 B weld metal exhibited a slight increase in upper shelf energy, and the SA-533 B1 correlation material exhibited a slight decrease in upper shelf energy. No tension data are reported. The conclusions of this study agree with the results reported from the Big Rock Point reactor

54

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

55

The Great Cometary Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

56

Homemade Laser Show  

Science.gov (United States)

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

2012-07-09

57

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

58

Education Statistics Slide Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Grace York, coordinator of the University of Michigan's Documents Center, the Education Statistics Slide Show is an online presentation demonstrating how to locate, obtain, and manipulate educational data on the Web. The presentation consists of 72 slides and offers instruction on the use of several Websites including the US Census Bureau's American Factfinder site (see the April 2, 1999 Scout Report), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Census Mapping site, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) site, the FEDSTATS site (see the May 30, 1997 Scout Report), and many more. The tutorial presentation also provides ten practice questions and a detailed Webliography.

59

Not a "reality" show.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

2013-01-01

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Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

Sugawara Kazuo

2001-10-01

61

Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, Kla of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10 degrees C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280 degrees C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284 degrees C to a fluence of 3.2 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Kla curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

62

Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace

63

In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion There are no significant differences in the final results of AIS and JIS, treated with total respect of the SRS and SOSORT criteria, in adolescence. Brace efficacy can neutralize the risk of progression. PMID:25031608

2014-01-01

64

Fludarabine-Based Conditioning for Marrow Transplantation from Unrelated Donors in Severe Aplastic Anemia: Early Results of a Cyclophosphamide Dose Deescalation Study Show Life-Threatening Adverse Events at Predefined Cyclophosphamide Dose Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive adverse events were encountered in a Phase I/II study of cyclophosphamide (CY) dose deescalation in a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors in patients with severe aplastic anemia. All patients received fixed doses of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, and low-dose total body irradiation. The starting CY dose was 150 mg/kg, with deescalation to 100 mg/ kg, 50 mg/kg, or 0 mg/kg. CY dose level 0 mg/kg was closed due to graft failure in 3 of 3 patients. CY dose level 150 mg/kg was closed due to excessive organ toxicity (n = 6) or viral pneumonia (n = 1), resulting in the death of 7 of 14 patients. CY dose levels 50 and 100 mg/kg remain open. Thus, CYat doses of 150 mg/kg in combination with total body irradiation (2 Gy), fludarabine (120 mg/m2), and antithymocyte globulin was associated with excessive organ toxicity. PMID:22546497

Tolar, Jakub; Deeg, H. Joachim; Arai, Sally; Horwitz, Mitchell; Antin, Joseph H.; McCarty, John M.; Adams, Roberta H.; Ewell, Marian; Leifer, Eric S.; Gersten, Iris D.; Carter, Shelly L.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Pulsipher, Michael A.; DiFronzo, Nancy L.; Confer, Dennis L.; Eapen, Mary; Anderlini, Paolo

2013-01-01

65

Fludarabine-based conditioning for marrow transplantation from unrelated donors in severe aplastic anemia: early results of a cyclophosphamide dose deescalation study show life-threatening adverse events at predefined cyclophosphamide dose levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive adverse events were encountered in a Phase I/II study of cyclophosphamide (CY) dose deescalation in a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors in patients with severe aplastic anemia. All patients received fixed doses of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, and low-dose total body irradiation. The starting CY dose was 150 mg/kg, with deescalation to 100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 0 mg/kg. CY dose level 0 mg/kg was closed due to graft failure in 3 of 3 patients. CY dose level 150 mg/kg was closed due to excessive organ toxicity (n = 6) or viral pneumonia (n = 1), resulting in the death of 7 of 14 patients. CY dose levels 50 and 100 mg/kg remain open. Thus, CY at doses of 150 mg/kg in combination with total body irradiation (2 Gy), fludarabine (120 mg/m(2)), and antithymocyte globulin was associated with excessive organ toxicity. PMID:22546497

Tolar, Jakub; Deeg, H Joachim; Arai, Sally; Horwitz, Mitchell; Antin, Joseph H; McCarty, John M; Adams, Roberta H; Ewell, Marian; Leifer, Eric S; Gersten, Iris D; Carter, Shelly L; Horowitz, Mary M; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Pulsipher, Michael A; Difronzo, Nancy L; Confer, Dennis L; Eapen, Mary; Anderlini, Paolo

2012-07-01

66

Applications of surveillance programme results to reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment. Results of a coordinated research project 2000-2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This TECDOC has been developed under an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Surveillance Programme Results Application to Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity Assessment. This CRP is the fifth in a series that have led to the defining of the most appropriate fracture toughness parameters (using relatively small test specimens) for ensuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials. The CRP group consisted of 20 testing laboratories representing 15 Member States. The CRP had three main objectives: (1) to develop a large database of fracture toughness data using the Master Curve methodology for both precracked Charpy-sized specimens and one-inch thick (25.4 mm) compact tension (1T-CT) specimens, (2) to assess possible specimen bias effects and any effects of the range of temperatures used to determine T0, either using the single temperature or multi-temperature assessment methods, and (3) to develop international guidelines for measuring and applying Master Curve fracture toughness results for RPV integrity assessment. Fracture toughness test results showed clear evidence that lower values of unirradiated T0 were obtained using precracked Charpy specimens compared with results obtained from 1T-CT specimens. This bias in test results is very important when considering the use of precracked Charpy specimens for evaluating RPV integrity. In fact, this is a technical area where the results from this CRP were influential in changing the ASTM test method to include consideration of this effect. The direct measurement approach using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment has distinct advantages over the indirect methods used in the past for assessing radiation embrittlement effects. The Master Curve methodology already has been or is being assimilated into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASTM Standards, USNRC Regulations, German Regulations (KTA 3203), IAEA pressurized thermal shock guidelines for WWER reactors as well as the unified procedure for WWER component lifetime assessment and other industry guidance documents governing RPV integrity analysis. This report was written to allow nuclear utility engineers and industry scientists to directly measure fracture toughness using small surveillance size specimens of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and directly apply the results using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment. This report provides a summary of Master Curve fracture toughness test results on small surveillance type specimens of the IAEA Reference Material JRQ and other national steels from numerous laboratories throughout the world. In addition to transition temperature testing using Charpy V-notch test specimens, some emphasis was placed on using tensile and early-design fracture toughness test specimens applying elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods. Further progress in the application of fracture mechanics analysis methods for radiation damage assessment was achieved in this phase. Improvement and unification of neutron dosimetry methods provided better data with less inherent scatter. All results together with their analyses and raw data were summarized in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 265

67

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-06-01

68

Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

2004-01-01

69

Evaluation technique of neutron-irradiation embrittlement in welded light water reactor pressure vessel steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ductile-brittle transition behavior of neutron-irradiated welded A533B Cl.1 pressure vessel steel has been investigated by means of small specimen test technique. Current surveillance test method is discussed on the basis of the obtained results. The submerged arc welded thick plate for plant-use was fabricated. Standard size, one-third size and 1.5 mm size Charpy V-notch specimens were prepared by changing the distance from the fusion boundary, so that a V-notch was located in the position to be evaluated. Neutron irradiations were performed in JMTR with fluence of 0.75 and 1.3 x 1024 n/m2(E >1 MeV). In both the cases before and after the irradiations, ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is lower and the upper-shelf energy(USE) is higher for so-called HAZ(M1) specimen, which has a V-notch 1 mm away from the fusion boundary, than base metal and weld metal. However, it is revealed that DBTT of the HAZ(M4) specimen with a V-notch 4 mm away from the boundary is higher than that of base metal. Hence the HAZ(M4) specimen shows rather higher DBTT, that is, lower toughness. Surveillance of HAZ specimen is potentially important and should not be omitted in case that impact property of HAZ cannot be represented by base metal. (author)

70

Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

Tanguy, B

2001-07-15

71

46 CFR 54.05-20 - Impact test properties for service of 0 °F and below.  

Science.gov (United States)

...no-break performance. Where data are available indicating suitable correlation of Charpy V-notch results with drop-weight NDT or no-break performance, Charpy V-notch tests may be specially considered by the Commandant in lieu of dropweight...

2010-10-01

72

Clathrin triskelia show evidence of molecular flexibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clathrin triskelion, which is a three-legged pinwheel-shaped heteropolymer, is a major component in the protein coats of certain post-Golgi and endocytic vesicles. At low pH, or at physiological pH in the presence of assembly proteins, triskelia will self-assemble to form a closed clathrin cage, or "basket". Recent static light scattering and dynamic light scattering studies of triskelia in solution showed that an individual triskelion has an intrinsic pucker similar to, but differing from, that inferred from a high resolution cryoEM structure of a triskelion in a clathrin basket. We extend the earlier solution studies by performing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on isolated triskelia, allowing us to examine a higher q range than that probed by static light scattering. Results of the SANS measurements are consistent with the light scattering measurements, but show a shoulder in the scattering function at intermediate q values (0.016 A(-1)), just beyond the Guinier regime. This feature can be accounted for by Brownian dynamics simulations based on flexible bead-spring models of a triskelion, which generate time-averaged scattering functions. Calculated scattering profiles are in good agreement with the experimental SANS profiles when the persistence length of the assumed semiflexible triskelion is close to that previously estimated from the analysis of electron micrographs. PMID:18502808

Ferguson, Matthew L; Prasad, Kondury; Boukari, Hacene; Sackett, Dan L; Krueger, Susan; Lafer, Eileen M; Nossal, Ralph

2008-08-01

73

Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia. PMID:25393884

Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

2014-12-01

74

Reevaluation of irradiation embrittlement of surveillance specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of surveillance specimen programmes for VVER-440/V-213C type reactors are summarized. A comparison is given of the transition temperature shifts induced by irradiation and derived from impact Charpy V-notch toughness as well as from static fracture toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy size specimens (COD). Two methods were used to determine the static fracture toughness shifts: standard COD type specimens from the standard surveillance programmes, and reconstituted COD type specimens from broken halves of Charpy V-notch specimens, whereby identical irradiation conditions were assured. The results show that the transition temperature shifts from static tests are generally larger than those from dynamic tests. (P.A.)

75

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-11-01

76

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

2004-07-01

77

Income Inequality Affects Kids' Health, Research Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Income Inequality Affects Kids' Health, Research Shows Study of 34 ... that poorer kids living in countries with greater income inequality were more likely to be in worse health, ...

78

Alcoholism Damages Brain's White Matter, Scans Show  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcoholism Damages Brain's White Matter, Scans Show Areas tied ... Preidt Tuesday, November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse TUESDAY, Nov. 18, 2014 (HealthDay ...

79

Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

1964-01-01

80

Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial Experimental medicine ... Mozes Tuesday, February 10, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Ebola TUESDAY, Feb. 10, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An investigational ...

81

2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show  

CERN Multimedia

A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

2008-01-01

82

Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

2003-01-01

83

Small punch test evaluation of intergranular embrittlement of an alloy steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ductile-brittle transition temperature in steel is commonly determined using Charpy V-notch impact specimens as specified by ASTM E23-81. In some specific cases, however, the use of this standardized test specimen may be impractical, if not impossible. For instance, it is well known that ferritic steels show a substantial degradation of the mechanical properties after long time exposure to an irradiation environment. Because of the increase in strength and the reduction in ductility due to neutron irradiation, the Charpy V-notch transition temperature is raised causing concern from a safety point of view. To study these radiation effects, a test specimen much smaller than the standard Charpy V-notch specimen would be extremely desirable for two reasons. First, to study neutron damage small specimens take less space within a reactor. Secondly, the damage achieved in simulation experiments, such as proton or electron accelerators, is limited to small penetration depths. Several efforts on the development of such a small test specimen, similar to that used to determine the ductility of sheet metal, as recommended by ASTM E643-78, have been described in the literature. The paper reports on correlations between small punch (SP) and Charpy V-notch (CVN) test results obtained on temper-embrittled NiCr steel. The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) with intergranular embrittlement being induced by grain boundary segregation of specific impurities was determined.ion of specific impurities was determined. The relation between test results discussed in terms of the micromechanisms of intergranular cracking. It is suggested that in radiation embrittlement investigations similar correlations may be obtained

84

Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR  

CERN Multimedia

Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

1964-01-01

85

Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

2007-01-01

86

Showing R-Rated Videos in School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1990, there have been at least six published court decisions concerning teachers' use of controversial videos in public schools. A relevant district policy led the Colorado Supreme Court to uphold a teacher's termination for showing 12th graders an R-rated 1900 Bertolucci film on fascism. Implications are discussed. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

1999-01-01

87

Idaho State University Physics Road Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

Shropshire, Steve

2009-05-01

88

Interaction Management in Nigerian Television Talk Shows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although there is a growing number of works on discourse analysis in Nigeria which covers classroom interactions, courtroom discourse, medical communication and media discourse, the language of television (TV talk shows has not been fully explored. This study therefore, examined turn management in this genre. It identified the turn distribution strategies in Nigerian television talk shows and the contributions of these strategies to the management of the talks. Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson’s Conversation Analysis served as our theoretical framework. Three Nigerian TV talk shows, namely, “Patito’s Gang”, “New Dawn with Funmi Iyanda” and “Inside Out” were selected for this study. Each selected talk show comprised four sampled episodes. “Patito’s Gang” from a private television station; “New Dawn with Funmi Iyanda” from a national television station and “Inside Out” from a private television station were purposively selected because they were handled by freelance presenters who were free from undue interference. Collection of data spanned four years: 2004-2008. And the analysis was both quantitative and qualitative. Generally, three turn distribution strategies were identified: Current-Speaker-Selects–Next-Speaker, Next-Speaker-Self-Selects-as-Next and Current-Speaker-Continues (where there is no pre-selection or self-selection. Current speaker selected next speaker by direct questioning, gaze and gestures. Next speaker self-selected as next through interruptions, overlaps, discourse markers, pauses and falling intonation. Where there was no pre-selection or self-selection at Transition Relevance Places, the current speaker continued after a pause of about half a second or more. These strategies enabled effective interaction management amongst the participants as turn allocation was not restricted but moderated by the hosts.

Albert Lekan Oyeleye

2012-01-01

89

Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.  

OpenAIRE

Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of ox...

Kiger, L.; Rashid, A. K.; Griffon, N.; Haque, M.; Moens, L.; Gibson, Q. H.; Poyart, C.; Marden, M. C.

1998-01-01

90

Eclipsing Binaries Showing Light Time Effect  

OpenAIRE

Four eclipsing binaries, which show apparent changes of period, have been studied with respect to a possible presence of the light time effect. With a least squares method we calculated new light elements of these systems, the mass function of the predicted third body, and its minimum mass. We discuss the probability of the presence of such bodies in terms of mass function, changes in radial velocity and third light in solution of light curves.

Zasche, Petr

2007-01-01

91

Software for portable laser light show system  

Science.gov (United States)

Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

1995-04-01

92

Clathrin Triskelia Show Evidence of Molecular Flexibility  

OpenAIRE

The clathrin triskelion, which is a three-legged pinwheel-shaped heteropolymer, is a major component in the protein coats of certain post-Golgi and endocytic vesicles. At low pH, or at physiological pH in the presence of assembly proteins, triskelia will self-assemble to form a closed clathrin cage, or “basket”. Recent static light scattering and dynamic light scattering studies of triskelia in solution showed that an individual triskelion has an intrinsic pucker similar to, but differing...

Ferguson, Matthew L.; Prasad, Kondury; Boukari, Hacene; Sackett, Dan L.; Krueger, Susan; Lafer, Eileen M.; Nossal, Ralph

2008-01-01

93

Suprascapular neuropathy: what does the literature show?  

Science.gov (United States)

Suprascapular neuropathy remains a rare, albeit increasingly recognized, diagnosis. Despite its relatively low prevalence, it must be kept in the shoulder surgeon's mind as a potential cause of shoulder pain, particularly in patients where the history, physical examination, and imaging studies do not adequately explain a patient's symptoms or disability. Although challenging to identify, suprascapular neuropathy can be successfully treated. The current literature shows that the location and mechanism of nerve injury are the most important factors guiding management. Different treatment strategies are required, depending on the specific location and type of nerve injury. Controversy regarding if and when to perform an isolated suprascapular nerve release continues. Furthermore, no recommendations regarding suprascapular nerve release in conjunction with rotator cuff repair can be made at this time, and further research is necessary to better delineate the indications in the future. PMID:22445163

Moen, Todd C; Babatunde, Oladapo M; Hsu, Stephanie H; Ahmad, Christopher S; Levine, William N

2012-06-01

94

The Source of Lake Wobegon (slide show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John J. Cannell's late 1980's "Lake Wobegon" reports suggested widespread deliberate educator manipulation of norm-referenced standardized test (NRT administrations and results, resulting in artificial test score gains. The Cannell studies have been referenced in education research since, but as evidence that high stakes (and not cheating or lax security cause test score inflation. This article examines that research and Cannell's data for evidence that high stakes cause test score inflation. No such evidence is found. Indeed, the evidence indicates that, if anything, the absence of high stakes is associated with artificial test score gains. The variable most highly correlated with test score inflation is general performance on achievement tests, with traditionally low-performing states exhibiting more test score inflation on low-stakes norm-referenced tests than traditionally high-performing states, regardless of whether or not a state also maintains a high-stakes testing program. The unsupported high-stakes-cause-test-score-inflation hypothesis seems to derive from the surreptitious substitution of an antiquated definition of the term "high stakes" and a few studies afflicted with left-out-variable bias. The source of test-score inflation is lax security, regardless the stakes of a test.

Richard P. Phelps

2007-05-01

95

Effective Marketing Strategies to Attract Business Visitors at Trade Shows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trade shows have been the focus of recent research as constituting one of the most effective marketing strategies.Related issues have been discussed extensively in the literature. How to achieve better performance is central tothese discussions. Studies on the key factors that influence trade show performance have focused mainly onsubjective opinions from the perspective of the staff at exhibitions. In this study, we explored the key criteria fora business visitor in selecting suppliers at a trade show; that is, what kind of trade show strategies can promoteexhibitors’ performance? Trade show strategies from previous studies were first summarized. They wereclassified into three categories: before, at, and after the show. To address the problem of complexity anduncertainty, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP was used to explore the importance of the variousstrategies. The results showed that "follow-up after the exhibition" was the most important factor from theperspective of business visitors. “Active invitation before the exhibition” was considered to be the next mostimportant issue in attracting business visitors at a trade show. Among at-show strategies, the most important wasthat of staff knowledge of the product and trade details. The results of this study could contribute to enhancingtrade show performance.

Mei-Chin Chu

2013-11-01

96

Transition temperature tests show fracture behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the research reported in this article was to examine the predictability of full-scale fracture behavior through the use of the fullthickness drop weight tear tests (DWTT) currently employed to specify high toughness, high-strength, lowalloy (HSLA) line pipe. The DWT tests studied are the standard pressed notch DWTT as specified by the American Petroleum Institute (DWTT-API), a recently developed precracked DWTT (DWTT-PC), and fatigue cracked DWTT (DWTTFC). The study was conducted at the brittle-ductile transition temperatures of the pipe steels to see which DWT test specimen most accurately defines the full-scale transition temperature. The main parameter of comparison between the full-scale tests and the DWT tests is the percent shear area appearance of the fractured surface. For normalized steels and smaller wall thickness, earlier investigations have shown that a good correlation exists between results of such fullscale tests and DWT-API tests. However, it must be verified that this correlation is also valid for modern HSLA steels and heavy wall thickness. From 17 pipes, 14 were produced from thermomechanically treated materials, and 3 were quenched and tempered

97

AD-1 multiple exposure showing wing sweep  

Science.gov (United States)

This photograph is a multiple exposure showing the AD-1 aircraft with its wing swept at different angles between zero and 60 degrees. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last flight on August 7, 1982, was NASA Research Pilot Thomas C. McMurtry. The AD-1 flew a total of 79 times during the research program. The aircraft was constructed by the Ames Industrial Co., Bohemia, NY, under a $240, 000 fixed-price contract. NASA specified the design based on a geometric configuration provided by the Boeing company. The Rutan Aircraft Factory, Mojave, CA, provided the detailed design and loads analysis for the vehicle. The aircraft was 38.8 feet long and 6.75 feet high with a wing span of 32.3 feet, unswept. It was constructed of plastic reinforced with fiberglass and weighed 1,450 pounds,empty. The vehicle was powered by two small turbojet engines, each producing 220 pounds of thrust at sea level. Due to safety concerns, the aircraft was limited to speeds of 170 mph.

1980-01-01

98

Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

Graham J. Alexander

2011-10-01

99

Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods  

Science.gov (United States)

Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

1996-09-01

100

Do Tantalum and Titanium Cups Show Similar Results in Revision Hip Arthroplasty?  

OpenAIRE

Porous surfaces are intended to enhance osteointegration of cementless implants. Tantalum has been introduced in an effort to enhance osseointegration potential of uncemented components. We therefore compared the clinical outcome of acetabular components with two different porous surfaces. We retrospectively reviewed 283 patients (295 hips) who underwent cementless revision hip arthroplasty with either an HA-coated titanium cup (207 patients, 214 hips) or porous tantalum cup (79 patients, 81 ...

Jafari, S. Mehdi; Bender, Benjamin; Coyle, Catelyn; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F.; Hozack, William J.

2009-01-01

101

Comportamento agressivo em shows musicais: analisando notícias de jornal impresso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports a content analysis of the newspaper articles dealing with aggressive behavior in music shows. This analysis permits an understanding of the characteristics of these situations, the aggressive behaviors in shows, and the way in which the print media treat the subject. Despite of the newspapers’ influence on public opinion formation, that is, the transmission of attitudes and behavior repertoires, this kind of analysis is rarely reported in Brazilian social psychological literature. Some 31 newspaper articles were content analyzed as to aggressive behavior during music shows. Results indicate that aggressive behaviors occur in shows of most varied musical styles. Results are discussed on the basis of social cognitive theory.

Carlos Eduardo Pimentel

2011-08-01

102

Managing Trade Show Campaigns:Why Managerial Responsibilities Matter?  

OpenAIRE

This article examined the relationship between managerial responsibilities for important trade show tasks and the marketing performance of exhibiting firms. Drawing theoretical insights from the functionalist perspective of managerial roles and organizational role theory, this article proposed and validated theory based, multiple, task-managerial responsibility linkages using a large international b2b trade show as a context. The empirical results indicated that the marketing performance of e...

Tafesse, Wondwesen; Korneliussen, Tor

2012-01-01

103

Two Types of Breast Cancer Treatments Show Similar Benefit  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from a clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of the drugs paclitaxel and docetaxel, delivered over two different dosing schedules, showed that both drugs -- regardless of the dosing schedule -- provided similar benefits for women with stage II or III, operable breast cancer. However, more women treated with docetaxel than with paclitaxel experienced serious side effects from their treatment.

104

UC Davis study shows how DNA finds its match  

Science.gov (United States)

It’s been more than 50 years since James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA is a double helix of two strands that complement each other. But how does a short piece of DNA find its match, out of the millions of "letters" in even a small genome? New work by researchers at the University of California, Davis, handling and observing single molecules of DNA, shows how it’s done. The results are published online Feb. 8 by the journal Nature.

105

Nuclear plant irradiated steel handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference handbook presents selected information extracted from the EPRI reactor surveillance program database, which contains the results from surveillance program reports on 57 plants and 116 capsules. Tabulated data includes radiation induced temperature shifts, capsule irradiation conditions and statistical features of the Charpy V-notch curves. General information on the surveillance materials is provided and the Charpy V-notch energy results are presented graphically

106

The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs  

OpenAIRE

The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of all seven arthropod species tested (28-d EC10 values of approximately 0.03?µg/L). The results indicated a high aquatic risk of chronic exposure of imidacloprid to mayflies.

Roessink, I.; Merga, L. B.; Zweers, A. J.; Brink, P. J.

2013-01-01

107

Courtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side  

OpenAIRE

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the small random deviations from perfect morphological symmetry that result during development, is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. In many species, FA seems to play a role in mate choice, perhaps because it signals an individual's genetic quality and health. However, the relationship between an individual's FA and behaviour is generally unknown: what do more asymmetric individuals do about their own asymmetry? We now show for the first time that individua...

Gross, Mart R.; Suk, Ho Young; Robertson, Cory T.

2007-01-01

108

The control of a fungal outbreak in a show cave  

OpenAIRE

Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) is a low energy cave with very high microenvironmental stability throughout the annual cycle and minimum rates of energy exchange wirh the atmosphere. This show cave was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. Lacer in 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. On 26 August 2008, the cave walls and soils appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of organic matter on the ...

Sa?iz-jime?nez, Cesa?reo; Jurado, Valme; Porca, Estefani?a; Ferna?ndez Corte?s, A.; Sa?nchez Moral, Sergio

2009-01-01

109

Intercan '99 - the Calgary oil and gas show: official show guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The official show guide features a list of exhibitor profiles and list of products and services. A leading technology seminar series, held during Intercan '99 presented 47 papers on such topics as economically viable benzene pollution solution, micro turbines for effective flare gas treatment, cost effective and technologically advanced silicated drilling fluids, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, predictive maintenance tools, advantages of the inclined free water knockout (IFWKO), isotherm systems, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, on-site bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated drill cuttings through composting technologies, a new environmentally acceptable drill mud oil and real-time well monitoring case studies. Papers were also presented on: Exacta's all in one series XI controller for air/fuel radio control, more efficient and cost effective coiled tubing technology, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, economically viable benzene pollution solution, new products to solve the soluble salt dilemma, real-time hydrocarbon reservoir management using PC based reservoir simulators,real-time bottom hole pressure monitoring system for fracturing operations and remote modular facilities and accommodation for maximized personnel productivity

110

Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missour-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. This paper will provide details of the program and present results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full, half, and third size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

111

The AIDS prevention magic show: avoiding the tragic with magic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teenagers are a crucial target group for interventions concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Experimenting with their burgeoning sexuality and increased ability to obtain drugs, they are prime candidates for AIDS prevention and education strategies. The intervention described in this paper is a 30-minute magic show, presented by Cyrus (or Iris) the Virus, a sinister but entertaining character portrayed by any health educator willing to spend a few hours learning the magic tricks. The tricks explain why sharing needles and choosing sexual partners based on appearance alone can result in AIDS. Cyrus also uses magic to communicate the ways that AIDS is not transmitted, how to refuse sex, and how to use condoms correctly. The show, as well as increasing the audience's knowledge about HIV, attempts to induce behavioral change by increasing participants' perceived self-efficacy--a predictor of healthful behavior. Still in its pilot phase, the show has been seen by 281 students ages 10-15 years. Viewers rate the show highly, and preliminary analysis suggests that perceived self-efficacy has been significantly improved. PMID:8153267

Lustig, S L

1994-01-01

112

Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Methods Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. Results We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Conclusion Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors.

Knuutila Sakari

2008-06-01

113

Podophyllotoxin derivatives show activity against Brontispa longissima larvae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to find biorational insecticides, eleven podophyllotoxin analogues were tested for their insecticidal activity against the fifth-instar larvae of Brontispa longissima in vivo for the first time. Among all of the tested compounds, deoxypodophyllotoxin (3) and beta-apopicropodophyllin (4) showed more promising and pronounced insecticidal activity than toosendanin, a commercial insecticide derived from Melia toosendan, and important SAR information has been revealed. Together, these preliminary results may be useful in guiding further modification of podophyllotoxins in the development of potential new insecticides. PMID:20839628

Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ying-Qian; Yang, Liu; Feng, Gang

2010-08-01

114

The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG)

115

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

Park, Sun-Mi [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Myounghee [Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju 561-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Kyoung [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Taegun [Department of Life Science, Dongguk Univ-Seoul, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon [Proteome Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chul [School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je-Ho [Molecular Therapy Research Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Junsoo, E-mail: junsoo@yonsei.ac.kr [Yonsei University, Division of Biological Science and Technology, Wonju 220-100 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-01

116

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

117

Attention and blood lactate levels in equestrians performing show jumping.  

Science.gov (United States)

In equestrian show jumping, attention is particularly important to ensure maximum accuracy. Due to the anaerobic nature of the jumping and its requirement for precision coordination between human and horse, there may be a relation between the onset of lactic threshold and decrease in attention. In 12 healthy and injury-free equestrians (6 men, 6 women), the effects (blood lactate and glucose) of a show jumping course (250 m long with eight vertical obstacles with a height of 1.15 m height) on capacity and selectivity of attention was assessed. A typical reaction time paradigm and test of divided attention were administered. At the end of the course a significant increase of blood lactate was observed, whereas blood glucose did not significantly change. A deterioration of attention (intensity and selectivity) and a worsening of performance with increasing of blood lactate were observed. The present results led to the conclusion that the increase in blood lactate that occurs in riders executing a show jumping course is associated with worsening of both attentive capabilities and performance. PMID:25068743

Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella; Scuto, Claudia; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Coco, Marinella

2014-06-01

118

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

Science.gov (United States)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

119

PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

2014-10-12

120

Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process. PMID:25499057

Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

2015-01-01

121

Influence of process parameters on the weld lines of a micro injection molded component  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The insufficient entanglement of the molecular chains and the stress amplification at the v-notch of a weld line compromise the mechanical strength of a plastic product, also in the micro scale. To investigate the influence of process parameters on the weld lines formation, a special micro cavity was designed and manufactured by µEDM (Electro Discharge Machining). Weld lines were quantitatively characterized both in the two-dimensional (direction and position) and three-dimensional range (surface topography characterization). Results showed that shape and position of weld lines are mainly influenced by mold temperature and injection speed.

Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto

2007-01-01

122

Toughness properties up to service temperature (2900C) for different thick pressure vessel components in SA 508 C1.3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A validation of fracture toughness characteristics, both in the transition zone and ductile regime was undertaken on specific PWR pressure vessel components: a nozzle and a steam generator tube plate. Dynamic fracture toughness results on specimens extracted from segregated zones were found conservatively predicted by the K (IR) reference curve of the ASME Code based on the RT (NDT) referencing procedure. The resistance against crack extension was characterized by the J-?a resistance curve method. Compilation of J (Ic values and slopes dJ/da) of the resistance curve originating from various forgings shows a close dependance with the CHARPY V notch upper shelf energy. (orig./HP)

123

Degradación de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado  

OpenAIRE

The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal of an API5L-X52 linepipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 °C for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractographs that showed a decrease in t...

Vargas-arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; A?ngeles-cha?vez, C.

2008-01-01

124

Effect of copper content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass MMA, low alloy steel weld metal deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of copper content in the range of 0.14-0.94 wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Ni-Cu low alloy steel weld metal deposits was investigated. All welds were prepared by manual metal arc welding technique in flat position. Microstructure of the welds was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes. The results showed increase in acicular ferrite and microphases formed at the expense of primary ferrite and ferrite with second phase with steady refinement of microstructure. According to these microstructural changes, hardness, yield and ultimate tensile stresses increased while Charpy V-notch impact toughness and percent elongation reduced.

125

Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association–dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes’s chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D.; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

2013-01-01

126

Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast cancer. However we found that there is no correlation between the metastasis showing restricted diffusion and primary pathology. Prospective studies with larger groups and more information are necessary regarding the correlation between the primary tumor histopathology and the ADC values of metastasis with restricted diffusion.

Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

2010-04-15

127

PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan kompresi dan dekompresi file video, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan proses editing terhadap file video digital. Selain itu program juga dilengkapi dengan fasilitas untuk mendukung proses editing. Aplikasi tersebut dibuat dengan Microsoft Visual C++ dengan menggunakan teknologi DirectX, khususnya DirectShow. Aplikasi tersebut meyediakan fasilitas - fasilitas dasar yang membantu proses editing pada video digital. Dengan aplikasi tersebut dihasilkan file video baru dalam format AVI yang terbentuk dari proses editing yang dilakukan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan kemampuan aplikasi melakukan proses pemotongan dan penyisipan file video dalam format AVI, MPEG, MPG dan DAT. Proses pemotongan dan penyisipan dilakukan dengan urutan yang statis. Selain itu aplikasi juga menyediakan efek antara masing - masing clip. Dan yang terakhir melakukan proses penyimpanan satu file dalam format AVI yang terbentuk dari proses editing dalam aplikasi. Kata kunci: Multimedia, Video Editor, Direct-X, Direct-Show, AVI, MPG.

Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

2004-01-01

128

Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

2012-07-01

129

Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

2009-01-01

130

Non-Asthmatic Patients Show Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide Concentrations  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group), 12 asthmatics (Asthma group) and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group). All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion), spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn’s test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05). The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45–6.83)] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0–1.26)] or the Control group [0.0 (0)] (p <0.05); exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6–86.85)], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0–62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0–24.7)] (p< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide. PMID:19142544

Saraiva-Romanholo, Beatriz M.; Machado, Fabio S.; Almeida, Francine M.; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio T.; Martins, Milton A.; Vieira, Joaquim E.

2009-01-01

131

Reducing Appointment No-Shows: Going from Theory to Practice  

OpenAIRE

Addiction appointment no-shows adversely impact clinical outcomes and healthcare productivity. During 2007–2010, 67 treatment organizations in the Strengthening Treatment Access and Retention program were asked to reduce their no-show rates by using practices taken from no-show research and theory. These treatment organizations reduced outpatient no-show rates from 37.4% to 19.9% (p = .000), demonstrated which practices they preferred to implement, and which practices were most effective in...

Molfenter, Todd

2013-01-01

132

Patients with schizophrenia show deficits on spatial frequency doubling.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are pieces of evidence indicating that visual deficits in patients with schizophrenia can be attributed to a deficiency in the magnocellular portion of the early visual system. The main objective of this study was to investigate the neurological dysfunction of the magnocellular pathway in patients with schizophrenia using the frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT). The FDT has been developed based on particular neural magnocellular characteristics and can examine the magnocellular dysfunction hypothesis in schizophrenia. Twenty patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 8 females) and 20 normal subjects (10 males and 10 females) participated in this study. The spatial frequency doubling task was presented via the Humphrey perimetry instrument in order to examine the magnocellular pathway of the participants. Patients with schizophrenia showed less visual field sensitivity than normal controls and their standardized age cohort in both eyes (p<0.001). The results indicated impaired visual field sensitivity deficits in patients with schizophrenia that can be attributed to a deficit in the magnocellular neural pathways. This Magnocellular pathway defect may provide a physiological base to explain some of the deficits caused by schizophrenia such as cognitive deficits. PMID:24140959

Khosravani, Neda; Goodarzi, Mohammad Ali

2013-12-18

133

Ca (II-EDTA shows antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt (Ca (II-EDTA was investigated for its antibacterial activity against the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of Ca (II-EDTA and its bactericidal activity. Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt inhibited the growth of all the periodontopathic bacteria tested in broth. An MIC of 60 mM was the most effective against P. gingivalis. An adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay revealed that Ca (II-EDTA showed bactericidal activity against the bacteria tested in a time-dependent manner. To determine its safety in mammalian cells, we investigated the viability of murine L929 cells subjected to Ca (II-EDTA treatment. At 75 mM, 93% ± 0.13% of the cells survived. These results indicate that Ca (II-EDTA is a candidate chelating agent for prevention of infection by periodontopathic bacteria.

Masao Yoshinari

2012-01-01

134

Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum.

Tomasz Kulik

2011-08-01

135

Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and Archaea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play an essential role in genome rearrangement and evolution, and are widely used as an important genetic tool. Results In this article, we present genetic maps of recently active Insertion Sequence (IS elements, the simplest form of MGEs, for all sequenced cyanobacteria and archaea, predicted based on the previously identified ~1,500 IS elements. Our predicted IS maps are consistent with the NCBI annotations of the IS elements. By linking the predicted IS elements to various characteristics of the organisms under study and the organism's living conditions, we found that (a the activities of IS elements heavily depend on the environments where the host organisms live; (b the number of recently active IS elements in a genome tends to increase with the genome size; (c the flanking regions of the recently active IS elements are significantly enriched with genes encoding DNA binding factors, transporters and enzymes; and (d IS movements show no tendency to disrupt operonic structures. Conclusion This is the first genome-scale maps of IS elements with detailed structural information on the sequence level. These genetic maps of recently active IS elements and the several interesting observations would help to improve our understanding of how IS elements proliferate and how they are involved in the evolution of the host genomes.

Xu Ying

2008-01-01

136

Miniature charpy specimen test device development and impact test results for the ferritic alloy HT9  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A miniature charpy v-notch (CVN) type impact specimen geometry has been selected and two instrumented drop towers have been purchased from Effects Technology, Incorporated (ETI) and received at HEDL. Impact testing of unirradiated HT9 miniature CVN specimens has been performed at temperatures of -100 to +1000C. The ductile to brittle transition temperature obtained is in excellent agreement with data obtained using full size HT9 CVN specimens. Dynamic fracture toughness data can also be obtained. However, improved instrumentation will be required to obtain dynamic fracture toughness data outside the lower shelf region

137

An induced sterile mutant in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) showing failure of chromosome pairing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a M2 progeny row of black gram var. T9, resulting from irradiation treatment, a plant was recorded which showed considerable univalent formation. The M2 progeny confirmed its generic nature, showing its possible monogenetic control. (auth.)

138

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. ? It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. ? 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. ? Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. ? A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 ?M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

139

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

2010-09-03

140

"The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

Trier, James

2008-01-01

141

The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

Watermeyer, Richard

2013-01-01

142

ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

Tauxe, J.D.

1990-12-01

143

QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations  

CERN Document Server

Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

Hopgood, Jeromy

2013-01-01

144

Survey Shows Britons Have Trouble Identifying Art Masterpieces  

Science.gov (United States)

While Americans seem lacking in geographical knowledge at times (such as the fact that some high school graduates do not think that New Mexico is part of the United States), a recent survey by the Encyclopedia Britannica indicates that Britons are unfamiliar with the masterpieces of art. The survey asked 500 adults aged 18 and over to identify the artists responsible for well-known paintings, and in the process, elicited some rather unusual responses. For example, one in 10 of those surveyed stated that Vincent van Gogh painted the Mona Lisa, and only 49 percent overall were able to correctly state that Leonardo da Vinci was in fact the creator of that work. Stranger still was the statistic that 7 per cent of those surveyed identified the creator of Water Lilies (painted many different times by Claude Monet) was in fact Rolf Harris, an Australian entertainer who plays the wobble board, and who recently recreated the famous Monet painting on a television show in Britain.The first link is to an online news article from the Guardian about the results of this intriguing poll on art literacy around Britain. The second link will take visitors to a news story from the Sydney Morning Herald that talks about the survey, along with a section about perceptions of how Australians view art. The third link leads to an online exhibit of Monet's works (including some renditions of Water Lilies), provided by the Museum of Fine Art in Boston. The fourth link leads to a nice site dedicated to Edvard Munch (another misidentified painter in the recent survey), which includes a fine online gallery of his works, some background material, and links to other online resources. The fifth link leads to a site provided by the Museum of Science in Boston on Leonardo Da Vinci that features some virtual tours of the exhibit, learning activities for young people, and suggestions for incorporating da Vinci into the classroom. The final link leads to the Web site of the multitalented Rolf Harris (also known as The Wizard of Aussi), who is a musician, painter, and live performer.

Grinnell, Max

145

Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to capacity projections developed in this edition, by the year 2035, world nuclear capacity is projected to grow to between 500 and 785 GWe net. Accordingly, world reactor- related uranium requirements are also projected to rise. As observed in the past, increased investment in exploration has resulted in important discoveries and the identification of new resources. It is foreseen that, if market conditions improve further, additional exploration will be stimulated leading to the identification of additional resources of economic interest. Even in the high-growth scenario to 2035, less than half of the identified resources described in this edition would be consumed. The challenge remains to develop mines in a timely and environmentally sustainable fashion as uranium demand increases. A strong market will be required for these resources to be developed within the time frame required to meet future uranium demand. In addition, current projections of uranium mine production capacities could satisfy projected high-case world uranium requirements until the late 2020s. However, given the challenges and length of time associated with increasing production at existing mines and opening new mines, it is unlikely that all production increases will proceed as planned. As a result, secondary sources of previously mined uranium will continue to be required, complemented to the extent possible by uranium savings achieved by specifying lower tails assays at enrichment facilities and technical developments in fuel cycle technology. While the status of supply and demand is considered from today's technologies perspective, it should be recognised that the deployment of advanced reactor and fuel cycle technologies can positively affect the long-term availability of uranium and could conceivably extend it to thousands of years. These are some of the findings from Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand , a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their member countries and states and commonly referred to as the ''Red Book''. This is the 23r

146

Obesity Tied to Half a Million Cancers Worldwide, Report Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Tied to Half a Million Cancers Worldwide, Report Shows Largest number of obesity-related cancers diagnosed in North America and Europe, ...

147

Broccoli Compound Shows Promise for Autism Symptoms in Small Study  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Broccoli Compound Shows Promise for Autism Symptoms in Small ... 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A compound extracted from broccoli sprouts may improve some social and behavioral problems ...

148

Screening Test Finds Drugs That Show Promise Against Ebola  

Science.gov (United States)

... Screening Test Finds Drugs That Show Promise Against Ebola Researchers uncover 53 potential treatments; all are already ... 2015) Wednesday, December 17, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Ebola Medicines WEDNESDAY, Dec. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A ...

149

Research Shows No Link Between Vaccinations, Risk for Multiple Sclerosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research Shows No Link Between Vaccinations, Risk for Multiple Sclerosis Large study finds no association, although certain shots ... Tuesday, October 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Immunization Multiple Sclerosis TUESDAY, Oct. 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new ...

150

When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

Kozak, Marcin

2011-01-01

151

??????????????---?????? Computer Simulation, a Nice Case —Now We Can Show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????[1]????????????????????????????????????????????????“????”???This paper shows a case of computer simulation in China’s aerospace industry, which combines mathematics, physics, astronomy, electricity and manufacture[1]. This is a nice case and gives us some nice experiences for future.

???

2013-04-01

152

Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? PDF's materials provide ... Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that ...

153

Some Stroke Survivors May Face Heightened Cancer Risk, Study Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some Stroke Survivors May Face Heightened Cancer Risk, Study Shows ... Thursday, February 12, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults ...

154

Simple pneumonediastinum showing the findings of pleural effusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We experienced a case of simple pneumonediastinum showing the findings of pleural effusion. Frontal chest radiography showed not only pneumonediastinum but also diffuse haziness with sharp medical margin on left lower lung field, blunting of costophrenic angle, and indistinct contour of diaphragm simulating pleural effusion. CT scan confirmed that these findings arose from the displaced pleura and the associated compression atelectasis by loculated air on the anterior mediastinum.

Kim, Sung Jin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Dae Young [Chung Buk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

1992-09-15

155

Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May  

CERN Multimedia

On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

2013-01-01

156

Vegetation Images Show Drought in Western US (WMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite data can gauge the health of plants, which is a good indicator of drought. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) measures how dense and green plant leaves are. NDVI images are useful as a measure of drought when compared to "normal" plant health. Scientists calculate average NDVI values for an area to find out what is normal at a particular time of year. This animation uses satellite imagery to show changes in vegetation between 1999 and 2003. In 2002, drought had settled across the Midwest. Large dark brown sections of eastern Colorado show where vegetation was less lush and healthy than normal. This version of the visualization is a wide view showing the western United States. The data were measured by the vegetation instrument on Europes SPOT-4 satellite, and were provided by DigitalGlobe-SPOT under agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA-FAS).

Jeff DeLaBeaujardiere

2005-02-16

157

El reality show a la hora de la merienda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

2000-01-01

158

CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show  

CERN Multimedia

One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

CERN Bulletin

2011-01-01

159

An Analysis of Conversation Structure In Ellen Show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conversation analysis theory is applied to analyze the structure and organization of human oral conversation. This paper attempts to apply conversation analysis theory to analyze conversation structure features of Ellen Show from two aspects: global structure and local structure. The features of global structure are analyzed from opening, body and closing process. As to local structure, features in turn-taking strategies, adjacency pairs and feedback are analyzed. The study can help appreciate Ellen Show and contribute to developing people’s communication skills and enhancing their discourse competence.

Rui KONG

2014-10-01

160

Material properties characterization of low carbon steel using TBW and PWHT techniques in smooth-contoured and U-shaped geometries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the effects of the temper bead welding (TBW) technique and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties of multi-layer welding on low carbon steel specimens using Charpy V-notch impact testing and tensile testing. Several samples of two different weld geometries, viz. (i) smooth-contoured, and (ii) U-shaped were made with multiple bead layers using both TBW and PWHT techniques. Impact testing showed that at room temperature and below, TBW gave an impact toughness in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) better than both PWHT and the parent material. At temperatures higher than the room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness in the HAZ. Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of the parent material. In tensile testing, both TBW and PWHT weld metal specimens produced acceptable results; however, TBW gave yield and tensile strengths closer to that of the actual material than PWHT. -- Highlights: • Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and temper bead welding (TBW) on properties are tested. • Charpy V-notch impact and tensile testing was performed on multi-layer welding of low carbon steel. • At room temperature and below, TBW gave better impact toughness than both PWHT and parent material. • Above room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness than TBW. • Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of parent material

161

Official showguide of the Lloydminster heavy oil show  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An alphabetical listing of all exhibitors at the Lloydminster heavy oil show was presented. More than 200 companies with direct involvement in heavy oil production are included in the Guide. The listing provides the company name, address, phone number, fax number, and booth location. A brief description of the product or service offered is also included, along with the name of a contact person

162

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Shows Promise in Small Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Shows Promise in Small Trial Nivolumab harnesses ... Preidt Monday, December 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Hodgkin Disease SATURDAY, Dec. 6, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- In a ...

163

Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

Bloch, Janel

2011-01-01

164

Breast Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Early Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast Cancer Vaccine Shows Promise in Early Trial Injection boosted ... 2015) Tuesday, December 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Breast Cancer Immunization TUESDAY, Dec. 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

165

Going through the 33rd Tokyo Motor Show. Passenger cars and motorcycles show in the last 20th century; Dai 33 kai Tokyo Motor Show kenbunki. 20 seiki saigono joyosha nirinsha show ga miseta mono  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes what has been seen and heard at the 33rd Motor Show held in the city of Chiba in October 1999. The Show has become a show dedicated to passenger cars and motorcycles. Exhibitors included six governments, one organization and 287 companies from 15 countries. Designs were better in European and American cars than in Japanese cars. Attitudes of tackling with direct gasoline injection systems were seen in the Japanese makers, as well as in European car makers who are indicated of the same movement. Further low fuel consumption is in progress by combining the direct gasoline injection with controls and power trains. Another one that has been highlighted was the bybrids. Development of high-performance batteries has also been advanced, where a conception was born that a car is an energy reservoir. Every maker has announced power units using fuel cells. These cars have undecided issues such as how to prepare hydrogen, making when a car runs on road unpredictable. Having announced many light-weight cars made of aluminum was another feature of this year's show. Exhibition was made on technologies to make small motorcycles less polluting and less fuel consuming. A small bike mounted with a home use gas bomb was a unique appearance. (NEDO)

Mihori, N.

2000-01-01

166

More Stroke Patients Getting Clot-Buster Quickly, Study Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. More Stroke Patients Getting Clot-Buster Quickly, Study Shows Many ... February 11, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Facilities Stroke WEDNESDAY, Feb. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More community ...

167

Research Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

2011-12-01

168

New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

2009-03-01

169

Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants  

Science.gov (United States)

This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

Ma, Lili

2015-01-01

170

The AIDS prevention magic show: avoiding the tragic with magic.  

OpenAIRE

Teenagers are a crucial target group for interventions concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Experimenting with their burgeoning sexuality and increased ability to obtain drugs, they are prime candidates for AIDS prevention and education strategies. The intervention described in this paper is a 30-minute magic show, presented by Cyrus (or Iris) the Virus, a sinister but entertaining character portrayed by any health educator willing to sp...

Lustig, S. L.

1994-01-01

171

Oil price shows Janus face of the Western world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large fluctuations in the oil price have made Europe and the United States think. If nothing changes, there will be much turbulence in the international oil market in the coming decades. International conflicts are lurking. The US is seeking solutions in a larger degree of independence from the Middle East and Venezuela. Europe is seeking more cooperation with the OPEC, aiming at more mutual certainties. The westerns world is thus showing two faces. [mk

172

Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too  

OpenAIRE

Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). Expectant fathers might be preparing for the ener...

Ziegler, Toni E.; Prudom, Shelley L.; Schultz-darken, Nancy J.; Kurian, Aimee V.; Snowdon, Charles T.

2006-01-01

173

A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral po...

Tallapaneni S; Vemavarapu M

2011-01-01

174

Reality shows: how to exploit a TV genre  

OpenAIRE

Sin duda, uno de los géneros televisivos más habituales en las pantallas de todo el planeta es el llamado reality show, que se ha colado hasta el rincón último de todas las estructuras mediáticas a todos los niveles y en todas las modalidades que se consideren (televisiones privadas, públicas, nacionales, regionales y locales, plataformas digitales y recientemente a través de la «televisión móvil»). Lo que en un principio podíamos presumir que sería una moda (por definic...

Maestre Delgado, Daniel

2005-01-01

175

"Skinless wonders": Body Worlds and the Victorian freak show.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, Gunther von Hagens's display of plastinated corpses opened in London. Although the public was fascinated by Body Worlds, the media largely castigated the exhibition by dismissing it as a resuscitated Victorian freak show. By using the freak show analogy, the British press expressed their moral objection to this type of bodily display. But Body Worlds and nineteenth-century displays of human anomalies were linked in more complex and telling ways as both attempted to be simultaneously entertaining and educational. This essay argues that these forms of corporeal exhibitionism are both examples of the dynamic relationship between the popular and professional cultures of the body that we often erroneously think of as separate and discrete. By reading Body Worlds against the Victorian freak show, I seek to generate a fuller understanding of the historical and enduring relationship between exhibitionary culture and the discourses of science, and thus to argue that the scientific and the spectacular have been, and clearly continue to be, symbiotic modes of generating bodily knowledge. PMID:22661573

Durbach, Nadja

2014-01-01

176

AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

2005-01-01

177

A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

Tallapaneni S

2011-02-01

178

Strange Culinary Encounters: Stranger Fetishism in Cooking Shows  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Strange Culinary Encounters: Stranger Fetishism in Cooking Shows In this paper, we will examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape, arguing that despite their ‘noble’ intentions and ‘enlightened’ cosmopolitan approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, Jamie and Gordon's respective culinary adventures work to create a social hierarchy in their own favor. Inspired by Sara Ahmed’s work on stranger fetishism, we will investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. To unpack the programs and the experiences within them, we use critical discourse analysis and the readings strategies of cultural studies and postcolonialtheory and a focus on how classic, colonial power structures are reproduced in contemporary, globalized food culture. We will consider what potential this methodological framework holds for unpacking cultural encounters, and show how we have used it to deconstruct how ‘authentic’ food is done and met in Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. In doing so, we will argue that this way of reading cultural encounters ultimately opens for an alternative understanding of the central concepts of the ‘strange’, the ‘encounter’ and ideas of authenticity and, importantly, how the three intersect.

Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

179

Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities—two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.

2010-01-01

180

Assessment of the effects of neutron fluence on Swedish nuclear pressure vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear pressure vessels are subject to neutron irradiation during service causing embrittlement. At present the irradiation effects are mainly assessed by the Charpy V-notch test. Two measures of embrittlement are defined: the increase of the ductile/brittle transition temperature and the decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The object of the present work is to assess these changes for the Swedish nuclear pressure vessels. On the basis of data from irradiations carried out in other countries and Swedish surveillance programmes, the expected end of life embrittlement is estimated for Swedish vessels. The results show that the embrittlement of most reactor vessels is expected to be quite small. Oskarshamn 1 and PWR-vessels, however, will probably show moderate changes, the former due to the higher copper content, and the latter due to the high end of life fluences. Some of the vessel materials which exhibit marginal properties in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by the Charpy V-notch impact test, are identified. It is recommended that fracture mechanics analyses be applied in these cases. (author)

181

Assessment of the effects of neutron fluence on Swedish nuclear pressure vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear pressure vessels are subject to neutron irradiation during service causing embrittlement. This is one important factor in the overall problem of reactor vessel integrity. At present the irradiation effects are mainly assessed by the Charpy V-notch test. Two measures of embrittlement are defined: the increase of the ductile/brittle transition temperature and the decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The object of the present work is to assess these changes for the Swedish nuclear pressure vessels. On the basis of data from irradiations carried out in other countries and Swedish surveillance programmes, the expected end of life embrittlement is estimated for Swedish vessels. The results show that the embrittlement of most reactor vessels is expected to be quite small. Oskarshamn 1 and PWR-vessels, however, will probably show moderate changes, the former due to the higher copper content, and the latter due to the high end of life fluences. Some of the vessel materials which exhibit marginal properties in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by the Charpy V-notch impact test, are identified. It is recommended that fracture mechanics analyses be applied in these cases. (author)

182

Heat showing frequency, in 10 days after weaning the piglets  

OpenAIRE

Swine breeding activity is particularly importantin increasing herds. In the first two gestation, sow produces not at itsmaximum capacity. The proportion of sows that showed estrus within 10 days, inindividual boxes was 84.55 ± 1.18, and in group boxes was 87.30 ± 1.09. Thedifference was significant statistically point of view (?2 test p <0.05). Itfollows that maintenance of sows in individual boxes after weaning is superiorthat maintenance in group boxes through the fact that the femal...

Diana Marin

2014-01-01

183

Twin boundaries showing very large deviations from the twinning plane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In deformation twinning, twin boundaries (TBs) should coincide with the twinning plane. Here we show that the TBs of the most common twinning mode in hexagonal close-packed metals, {101¯2}?101¯1¯?, may not lie on the {101¯2} twinning plane. Examinations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the TBs in Co and Mg deviate significantly from the {101¯2} plane. High-resolution TEM confirms that the incoherent TBs entirely depart from the twinning plane with a magnitude greater than 45°.

184

Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

NONE

1997-03-19

185

DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

186

Map showing bathymetry and aquatic plants of Lake Waramaug, Connecticut  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bathymetry of Lake Waramaug is shown at 5-foot intervals, and the location and identification of significant concentrations of aquatic plants is indicated. The bathymetry shows the lake to be relatively steep-sided and flat-bottomed, with a maximum depth of between 40 and 45 feet. Aquatic plants were confined to the edges of the lake in depths of less than 15 feet. Nine species of aquatic plants occcur in significant numbers in the lake. Lake bathymetric data were collected using a recording fathometer and sounding rod; aquatic plant data were collected by visual survey; and the collection of samples using a weed rake. (USGS)

Kulp, Kenneth P.

1981-01-01

187

Heat showing frequency, in 10 days after weaning the piglets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Swine breeding activity is particularly importantin increasing herds. In the first two gestation, sow produces not at itsmaximum capacity. The proportion of sows that showed estrus within 10 days, inindividual boxes was 84.55 ± 1.18, and in group boxes was 87.30 ± 1.09. Thedifference was significant statistically point of view (?2 test p <0.05. Itfollows that maintenance of sows in individual boxes after weaning is superiorthat maintenance in group boxes through the fact that the females in oestrusstimulates the other, the movement in the box having a positive effect on theoccurrence of oestrus after weaning piglets.

Diana Marin

2014-11-01

188

Evaluation of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift due to temper embrittlement and neutron irradiation by means of a small-punch test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By means of a small-punch testing technique, the effects of heterogeneous intergranular impurity segregation and neutron irradiation on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of impurity-doped and undoped alloy steels were investigated. It was found that antimony-doped steels and, in particular, non-homogenized steels with extremely heterogeneous intergranular dopant segregation frequently show initiation of microcracks as indicated by the appearance of serrations in the load-deflection curves. In this case the ductile to brittle transition is spread out over a wider temperature range than for tin- or phosphorus-doped steels as well as for undoped steel. The upper and lower bounds of the DBTT are uniquely correlated with the maximum and average values of the impurity segregation concentration distributed along grain boundaries. These relationships demonstrate the embrittling potency of the segregants, in agreement with results obtained from Charpy V-notch tests. Neutron irradiation of tin-doped steels caused the DBTT to shift to higher temperatures than that of undoped steels. The experimental results suggest a linear correlation between the DBTTs obtained from small-punch tests and those obtained from Charpy V-notch tests, as predicted by a recently developed kinetic model. (orig.)

189

Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures. PMID:24752938

Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

2014-07-01

190

Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change. PMID:25002486

Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

2014-07-22

191

Structured learning of human interactions in TV shows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work is recognition and spatiotemporal localization of two-person interactions in video. Our approach is person-centric. As a first stage we track all upper bodies and heads in a video using a tracking-by-detection approach that combines detections with KLT tracking and clique partitioning, together with occlusion detection, to yield robust person tracks. We develop local descriptors of activity based on the head orientation (estimated using a set of pose-specific classifiers) and the local spatiotemporal region around them, together with global descriptors that encode the relative positions of people as a function of interaction type. Learning and inference on the model uses a structured output SVM which combines the local and global descriptors in a principled manner. Inference using the model yields information about which pairs of people are interacting, their interaction class, and their head orientation (which is also treated as a variable, enabling mistakes in the classifier to be corrected using global context). We show that inference can be carried out with polynomial complexity in the number of people, and describe an efficient algorithm for this. The method is evaluated on a new dataset comprising 300 video clips acquired from 23 different TV shows and on the benchmark UT--Interaction dataset. PMID:23079467

Patron-Perez, Alonso; Marszalek, Marcin; Reid, Ian; Zisserman, Andrew

2012-12-01

192

La Realidad Simulada. Una Crítica del reality show The simmulation of Reality. A critic of the reality show.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El reality show es el formato televisivo más exitoso de los últimos años. Este artículo efectúa una exploración en torno a dicho formato articulada en tres partes. Primero, se estudiará la tensión que los realities generan entre la representación como esquema estético tradicional y la simulación como esquema estético emergente; luego, se detallará la manera en que los realities participan en la producción del mundo como imagen; finalmente, se explicará el papel que los realities cumplen en el marco de la economía estética contemporánea y se ofrecerá una explicación sociopsicológica de su poder de seducción. El artículo en su conjunto aborda el estudio del reality a través del lente amplio de una crítica de la industria del entretenimiento.Reality shows are one of the most successful television genres in the last few years. The exploration that this article will make around this genre consists of three parts. First, the tension that realities cause between representation as a traditional aesthetic style and simulation as an emergent aesthetic style will be examined. Second, the way realities participate in the construction of the world as image will be described. Finally, the article will explain the role that realities play in the contemporary aesthetic economy, and offer a socio-psychological explanation of its seductive power. The article approaches the study of reality shows by taking a critical perspective to the entertainment industry.

Leonardo Ordóñez Díaz

193

La Realidad Simulada. Una Crítica del reality show / The simmulation of Reality. A critic of the reality show.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reality show es el formato televisivo más exitoso de los últimos años. Este artículo efectúa una exploración en torno a dicho formato articulada en tres partes. Primero, se estudiará la tensión que los realities generan entre la representación como esquema estético tradicional y la simulación com [...] o esquema estético emergente; luego, se detallará la manera en que los realities participan en la producción del mundo como imagen; finalmente, se explicará el papel que los realities cumplen en el marco de la economía estética contemporánea y se ofrecerá una explicación sociopsicológica de su poder de seducción. El artículo en su conjunto aborda el estudio del reality a través del lente amplio de una crítica de la industria del entretenimiento. Abstract in english Reality shows are one of the most successful television genres in the last few years. The exploration that this article will make around this genre consists of three parts. First, the tension that realities cause between representation as a traditional aesthetic style and simulation as an emergent a [...] esthetic style will be examined. Second, the way realities participate in the construction of the world as image will be described. Finally, the article will explain the role that realities play in the contemporary aesthetic economy, and offer a socio-psychological explanation of its seductive power. The article approaches the study of reality shows by taking a critical perspective to the entertainment industry.

Leonardo, Ordóñez Díaz.

2005-05-30

194

Simple Blunt Trauma and Diaphragmatic Rupture Showing Delayed Clinical Signs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diaphragm provides the progression between certain structures and the chest cavity by means of an anatomic hiatus. The diaphragm is the second most functional muscle structure of the body after the heart. Diaphragm injuries may result from serious blunt or penetrating injuries. While most of the blunt diaphragm infuries are caused by traffic accidents and falls from heights, some may occur as a result of other blunt traumas to the lower chest or epigastrium. Diaphragm injuries may be seen in t 0.8-1.6% of the patients hospitalized due to blunt abdominal trauma. In this study, we will report that a diaphagm injury of a patient who has a history of blunt abdominal trauma was diagnosed six months after the trauma when he was admitted to hospital because of stomach ache and pain in his left chest.

Tar?k Ocak

2012-01-01

195

Synthetic analogs of anoplin show improved antimicrobial activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the decapeptide anoplin and 19 analogs thereof tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) (VRE), and Candida albicans (ATCC 200955). The anoplin analogs contain substitutions in amino acid positions 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10. We use these peptides to study the effect of altering the charge and hydrophobicity of anoplin on activity against red blood cells and microorganisms. We find that increasing the charge and/or hydrophobicity improves antimicrobial activity and increases hemolytic activity. For each strain tested, we identify at least six anoplin analogs with an improved therapeutic index compared with anoplin, the only exception being Enterococcus faecium, against which only few compounds are more specific than anoplin. Both 2Nal(6) and Cha(6) show improved therapeutic index against all strains tested. PMID:24019229

Munk, Jens K; Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja J; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nyberg, Nils T; Hansen, Paul R

2013-11-01

196

The staff show their profound attachment to SLS  

CERN Multimedia

The results of the poll on the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) have now been analyzed and are published in this edition and on our web site. You were 1194 to reply to the questionnaire (approximately 50% of all staff members). The distribution of the replies according to certain variables (sex, age, career path, etc.) in the sample corresponds to the one observed for the overall staff population. This indicates that the sample is representative.

Association du personnel

2007-01-01

197

Three small systems showing probable room-temperature superconductivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I shall discuss three small systems in which I think room-temperature superconductivity has been observed, in the hope that experimentalists will be persuaded to try to reproduce and extend results on some or all of the three systems mentioned. These are: (1) narrow channels through films of oxidised atactic polypropylene (OAPP) and other polymers. (2) Some multiwalled carbon nanotubes or mats of nanotubes. (3) Sandwich structures based on CdF{sub 2}. The main emphasis will be on polymer films.

Eagles, D.M., E-mail: d.eagles@ic.ac.uk [19 Holt Road, Harold Hill, Romford, Essex RM3 8PN (United Kingdom)

2012-12-14

198

Aggressive Management of Tibial Osteomyelitis Shows Good Functional Outcomes  

OpenAIRE

Background: Severe open tibial fractures can be successfully treated acutely with a combined orthopedic and plastic surgery approach, but a proportion will go on to develop chronic osteomyelitis. For the past 6 years, an aggressive approach of bone and soft tissue debridement followed by skeletal reconstruction and vascularized tissue transfer has been pursued by the orthopedic and plastic surgery teams at Liverpool Hospital. We present the results of our patient series. Methods: All patients...

Campbell, Raewyn; Berry, M. G.; Deva, Anand; Harris, Ian A.

2011-01-01

199

Does ELF chorus show evidence of power line stimulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has previously been reported that electromagnetic chorus exhibits a longitudinal dependence, with enhanced occurrence over population centers (Alaska-New Zealand, Eastern U.S.-Canada, Western Europe and Western Siberia). This result has been cited as possible evidence of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) control of magnetospheric chorus. In this paper the authors report an analogous study using chorus data from OGO-5 to test this result. Chorus is found to exhibit maxima over the Eastern USSR, Greenland and Central Siberia and minima over central and Eastern Canada, a distribution significantly different than the OGO-3 result. This gross discrepancy is explained as an effect of data oversampling (presistence) in the method of analysis used in the previous study. The OGO-5 data are reanalysed with the oversampling removed. It is found that none of the longitudinal maxima or minima are then statistically significant (<2sigma). Thus, they find no statistically significant correlation between longitude and chorus occurrence which implies that there is little or no evidence of PLR effects on chorus triggering. (Auth.)

200

Imprinted genes show unique patterns of sequence conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an evolutionary conserved mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation in placental mammals that results in silencing of one of the parental alleles. In order to decipher interactions between allele-specific DNA methylation of imprinted genes and evolutionary conservation, we performed a genome-wide comparative investigation of genomic sequences and highly conserved elements of imprinted genes in human and mouse. Results Evolutionarily conserved elements in imprinted regions differ from those associated with autosomal genes in various ways. Whereas for maternally expressed genes strong divergence of protein-encoding sequences is most prominent, paternally expressed genes exhibit substantial conservation of coding and noncoding sequences. Conserved elements in imprinted regions are marked by enrichment of CpG dinucleotides and low (TpG+CpA/(2·CpG ratios indicate reduced CpG deamination. Interestingly, paternally and maternally expressed genes can be distinguished by differences in G+C and CpG contents that might be associated with unusual epigenetic features. Especially noncoding conserved elements of paternally expressed genes are exceptionally G+C and CpG rich. In addition, we confirmed a frequent occurrence of intronic CpG islands and observed a decelerated degeneration of ancient LINE-1 repeats. We also found a moderate enrichment of YY1 and CTCF binding sites in imprinted regions and identified several short sequence motifs in highly conserved elements that might act as additional regulatory elements. Conclusions We discovered several novel conserved DNA features that might be related to allele-specific DNA methylation. Our results hint at reduced CpG deamination rates in imprinted regions, which affects mostly noncoding conserved elements of paternally expressed genes. Pronounced differences between maternally and paternally expressed genes imply specific modes of evolution as a result of differences in epigenetic features and a special response to selective pressure. In addition, our data support the potential role of intronic CpG islands as epigenetic key regulatory elements and suggest that evolutionary conserved LINE-1 elements fulfill regulatory functions in imprinted regions.

Helms Volkhard

2010-11-01

201

New Systems Showing the Light-Time Effect  

OpenAIRE

Two Algol-type eclipsing binary systems (EW Lyr and IV Cas) have been investigated for period changes. Our study was primarily focused on the light-time effect with an alternative explanation by magnetic activity cycles. In the case of EW Lyr we have found a third body in the orbit with a period of about 78 years, an amplitude A=0.052 days and orbital eccentricity e=0.57. For IV Cas the long period is 58 years, amplitude A=0.034 days and zero eccentricity. With these results...

Zasche, P.

2007-01-01

202

Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure [...] of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group), 12 asthmatics (Asthma group) and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group). All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion), spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p

Beatriz M., Saraiva-Romanholo; Fabio S., Machado; Francine M., Almeida; Maria do Patrocínio T., Nunes; Milton A., Martins; Joaquim E., Vieira.

2009-01-01

203

Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. PMID:23872198

Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

2013-10-01

204

Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination  

CERN Multimedia

On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

205

Glioma-associated endothelial cells show evidence of replicative senescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The innately programmed process of replicative senescence has been studied extensively with respect to cancer, but primarily from the perspective of tumor cells overcoming this stringent innate barrier and acquiring the capacity for unlimited proliferation. In this study, we focus on the potential role of replicative senescence affecting the non-transformed endothelial cells of the blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. Based on the well-documented aberrant structural and functional features of blood vessels within solid tumors, we hypothesized that tumor-derived factors may lead to premature replicative senescence in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC). We show here that glioma tissue, but not normal brain tissue, contains cells that express the signature of replicative senescence, senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-gal), on CD31-positive endothelial cells. Primary cultures of human TuBEC stain for SA-?-gal and exhibit characteristics of replicative senescence, including increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs, increased growth factor production, and inability to proliferate. These data provide the first demonstration that tumor-derived brain endothelial cells may have reached an end-stage of differentiation known as replicative senescence and underscore the need for anti-angiogenic therapies to target this unique tumor-associated endothelial cell populationhelial cell population

206

Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma. PMID:19476529

Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

2009-05-01

207

Earthquake data visualization shows ground motion in real time  

Science.gov (United States)

On 11 March 2011 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake shattered the seabed off the eastern coast of Japan's Honshu Island. Visualizations of scientific data showing the peaks of a seismograph or maps overlain with the locations and magnitudes of the earthquake and its numerous aftershocks were brought out to help explain the devastation to the public. While dramatic, such displays can be difficult for the public to interpret clearly because people have trouble trying to picture what the recordings of a seismograph might look like on the ground or because they have trouble understanding the logarithmic relationship between earthquake magnitude and energy. Drawing on the three-dimensional position records of a dense web of high-frequency GPS ground receiver stations, Grapenthin and Freymueller developed an animation of the abrupt horizontal and vertical motions that pulled parts of the country more than 4 meters to the east and sank large portions of its eastern shore more than half a meter into the sea.

Schultz, Colin

2011-12-01

208

Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes  

CERN Multimedia

Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

2012-01-01

209

Two cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome showing interesting CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT. (Chiba, N.)

210

Two cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome showing interesting CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT.

Abe, M.; Hara, Y.; Ito, N.; Nishimura, M.; Onishi, Y.; Hasuo, K. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

1982-02-01

211

Static and impact crack properties of a high-strength steel welded joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to gain the benefits of weldable high-strength steels in pressurized equipment applications, satisfactory toughness and crack properties of the welded joint, both in the weld metal and the heat-affected -zone (HAZ), are required. Experimental investigations of toughness and crack resistance parameters through static and impact tests of a high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA) with a nominal yield strength of 700 MPa and its welded joint, were performed on Charpy-sized specimens, V-notched and pre-cracked, of the parent metal, weld metal and HAZ. The selected electrode produced slight undermatching and enabled the welded joints to be manufactured without cold cracks. The impact energy and its parts responsible for crack initiation and propagation were determined by toughness evaluation. Crack sensitivity, defined as the ratio of the impact energy for V-notched and for pre-cracked specimens, enabled a comparison of the homogeneous microstructure of the parent metal and the weld metal, and of the heterogeneous microstructure of the heat-affected-zone (HAZ), which indicated a better crack toughness behaviour of the HAZ. The results obtained showed that the toughness and crack resistance of the weld metal were significantly lower than those of the parent metal and the HAZ. The fracture mechanics parameters, J Ic integral, and plane strain fracture toughness, K Ic, as well as J resistance curves expressed the degradation lessed the degradation less

212

Analysis and tests of TF magnet insulation samples for the JET upgrade to 4 tesla  

CERN Document Server

The JET Toroidal Field (TF) coils were originally designed for operation at 3.4 tesla. In order to upgrade the field to 4 tesla and thus improve the performance of the JET machine, new mechanical tests and analysis were carried out on the insulation of TF coil samples. They are aimed at investigating the mechanical properties and the status of the insulation in order to set allowable stresses and force limits. In particular since the shear stress in the insulation is strongly affected by the shear modulus of elasticity G, it is important to measure this parameter. A method for the measurement of G in glass-resin fibres, the V-notched beam method (Iosipescu method) , was applied. The particular shape of the rectangular Iosipescu V- notched sample and the particular modality of force application produce pure shear stress for a reliable measurement of the G value and of the shear strength of the insulation. The effect of temperature on these mechanical properties was also investigated. Results show higher averag...

Miele, P; Bettinali, L; Kaye, A; Last, J; Papastergiou, S; Riccardo, V; Visca, E

2000-01-01

213

Analysis of audiometric database shows evidence of employee fraud  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a lengthy strike, several hundred delivery drivers filed workers compensation claims for occupational hearing loss. We were asked to evaluate the noise exposure of the drivers during their in-plant tasks. In-plant exposures were not predictive of any hearing loss. A comparison of audiometric data for the claimants revealed consistent hearing loss independent of duration of employment or age. These discrepancies between observations and common understanding of dose-response relationships between noise exposure and hearing loss led to further investigation, ultimately resulting in the dismissal of all claims against the employer who then filed an action against the claimant's attorneys and physician under the Racketeering in Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). The details of the legal complaint, which reads like a detective novel, can be found at the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York [93 Civ. 7222 (LAP)].

Erdreich, John

2003-10-01

214

Neutrino Radiation Showing a Christodoulou Memory Effect in General Relativity  

CERN Document Server

We describe neutrino radiation in general relativity by introducing the energy-momentum tensor of a null fluid into the Einstein equations. Investigating the geometry and analysis at null infinity, we prove that a component of the null fluid enlarges the Christodoulou memory effect of gravitational waves. The description of neutrinos in general relativity as a null fluid can be regarded as a limiting case of a more general description using the massless limit of the Einstein-Vlasov system. The present authors with co-authors have work in progress to generalize the results of this paper using this more general description. Gigantic neutrino bursts occur in our universe in core-collapse supernovae and in the mergers of neutron star binaries.

Bieri, Lydia

2013-01-01

215

Study to treat deadly form of thyroid cancer shows promise  

Science.gov (United States)

A combination of therapies may prove to be a promising advance for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer based on results of a phase I clinical trial. The collaborative study, published in the April 16 online issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, reports that combining paclitaxel chemotherapy with an experimental agent known as efatutazone was safe and well tolerated by patients. Organizations participating in the study were: the Mayo Clinic, the University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, Eastern Virginia University, the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Ohio State University (home to the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center), the University of Oregon Medical Center (home to the Knight Cancer Institute), the University of Colorado School of Medicine (home to the University of Colorado Cancer Center), Emory University Hospital (home of the Winship Cancer Institute), Weill Cornell Medical College, and Japanese pharmaceutical company, Daiichi Sankyo.

216

Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken NASA's Opportunity rover is literally seeing some of its darkest days. Both Mars Exploration Rovers have been riding out a regional dust storm for several weeks. Conditions became particularly dreary in the Meridiani Planum region where Opportunity sits, perched on the edge of 'Victoria Crater.' This image is a time-lapse composite where each horizon-survey image has been compressed horizontally (but not vertically) to emphasize the sky. The relative brightness and darkness of the sky from sol to sol (over a 30-sol period beginning June 14, 2007) is depicted accurately in these images, which view roughly the same part of the plains southwest of the rover. The images are approximately true color composites, generated from calibrated radiance data files using the panoramic camera's 601-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 482-nanometer filters. The rovers' atmospheric science team is concerned that smaller, regional dust storms could expand into a larger, globe-encircling storm. That could extend the time the sun stays obscured, challenging the capability of Opportunity's solar panels to produce enough electricity for the rover to function. Fortunately, as of July 19, 2007, the Opportunity site is clearing slightly. When the storm ends, atmospheric scientists hope to review data from the rovers that will help them determine what sort of dust was being lifted and distributed. The numbers across the top of the image report a measurement of atmospheric opacity, called by the Greek letter tau. The lower the number, the clearer the sky. Both Opportunity and Spirit have been recording higher tau measurements in July 2007 than they had seen any time previously in their three and a half years on Mars. The five sol numbers across the bottom correspond (left to right) to June 14, June 30, July 5, July 13 and July 15, 2007.

2007-01-01

217

A paradox of syntactic priming: why response tendencies show priming for passives, and response latencies show priming for actives  

OpenAIRE

Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in re...

Corley, M.; Segaert, K.; Menenti, L.; Weber, K.; Hagoort, P.

2011-01-01

218

Dizer-mostrar o estranho / Saying-showing strangeness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho explora a vitalidade contemporânea de duas enfáticas vozes do século XX: Ludwig Wittgenstein e Samuel Beckett. Consideram-se em especial as seguintes divisas: de Wittgenstein, nada está oculto (Investigações, § 435); de Beckett, nada a expressar (Três diálogos com George Duthuit, I). O [...] dito de Wittgenstein é muitas vezes tomado como marca de renúncia à distinção, por ele antes sustentada, entre aquilo que se pode dizer e aquilo que apenas se mostra (Tractatus, Prefácio, 6.522). O dito de Beckett é, por sua vez, frequentemente visto como indício de uma visão cética da linguagem, que a condena a uma espécie de maldição da autorreferência. Tais formas de ler tendem a se ligar às percepções, bastante disseminadas, de que Wittgenstein escreve o comum (o "ordinário"); e Beckett, o absurdo. Questiono aspectos dessas duas produtivas leituras, sustentando que, de forma a meu ver um pouco debilitante, elas tendem a ignorar, ou talvez a apaziguar, um estranho que insiste em se dizer-mostrar na prosa poética dos dois autores. Abstract in english This paper explores the contemporary strength of two of last century's most emphatic voices: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Samuel Beckett. The following mottos are brought together with special attention: nothing is hidden, by Wittgenstein (Philosophical Investigations, §435); and nothing to express, by B [...] eckett (Three dialogues with Georges Duthuit, I). Wittgenstein's saying is frequently taken as indication that he renounces his earlier distinction between what can be said and what can only be shown (Tractatus, Preface, 6.522). Beckett's saying is, in turn, often seen as evidence of a skeptical take on language, whereas it is, so to speak, doomed to self-reference. These interpretations tend to be linked to the widespread perceptions that Wittgenstein writes the ordinary, whereas Beckett writes the absurd. I question some aspects of these two productive readings, arguing that, in a somewhat debilitating manner, they tend to ignore, or perhaps pacify, a strangeness that insists in saying-showing itself in the poetic prose of both authors.

Helena, Martins.

2012-06-01

219

"The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded that the legislation is not clear on the specific matters where a student undergoes practical training while they are still studying. The suggestion is that a sectoral determination must be put in place to regulate the relationship, the remuneration, the working hours and the working conditions and risks involved.The article is in Afrikaans.

J Deacon

2009-03-01

220

Genetic Data Showing Evolutionary Links between Leishmania and Endotrypanum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Striking similarities at the morphological, molecular and biological levels exist between many trypanosomatids isolated from sylvatic insects and/or vertebrate reservoir hosts that make the identification of medically important parasites demanding. Some molecular data have pointed to the relationshi [...] p between some Leishmania species and Endotrypanum, which has an important epidemiological significance and can be helpful to understand the evolution of those parasites. In this study, we have demonstrated a close genetic relationship between Endotrypanum and two new leishmanial species, L. (V.) colombiensis and L. (V.) equatorensis. We have used (a) numerical zymotaxonomy and (b) the variability of the internal transcribed spacers of the rRNA genes to examine relationships in this group. The evolutionary trees obtained revealed high genetic similarity between L. (V.) colombiensis, L. (V.) equatorensis and Endotrypanum, forming a tight cluster of parasites. Based on further results of (c) minicircle kDNA heterogeneity analysis and (d) measurement of the sialidase activity these parasites were also grouped together.

Elisa, Cupolillo; Luiza OR, Pereira; Octávio, Fernandes; Marcos P, Catanho; Júlio C, Pereira; Enrique, Medina-Acosta; Gabriel, Grimaldi Jr.

1998-09-01

221

Genetic Data Showing Evolutionary Links between Leishmania and Endotrypanum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Striking similarities at the morphological, molecular and biological levels exist between many trypanosomatids isolated from sylvatic insects and/or vertebrate reservoir hosts that make the identification of medically important parasites demanding. Some molecular data have pointed to the relationship between some Leishmania species and Endotrypanum, which has an important epidemiological significance and can be helpful to understand the evolution of those parasites. In this study, we have demonstrated a close genetic relationship between Endotrypanum and two new leishmanial species, L. (V. colombiensis and L. (V. equatorensis. We have used (a numerical zymotaxonomy and (b the variability of the internal transcribed spacers of the rRNA genes to examine relationships in this group. The evolutionary trees obtained revealed high genetic similarity between L. (V. colombiensis, L. (V. equatorensis and Endotrypanum, forming a tight cluster of parasites. Based on further results of (c minicircle kDNA heterogeneity analysis and (d measurement of the sialidase activity these parasites were also grouped together.

Elisa Cupolillo

1998-09-01

222

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100muM was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A. PMID:20691660

Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi; Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yasuo; Tokuda, Masaaki; Ashino, Hiromi; Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Konishi, Ryoji

2010-09-01

223

Chromatin decondensed by acetylation shows an elevated radiation response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed to 5 mM n-sodium butyrate were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and cell survival was determined by the cell colony assay. In a separate set of experiments the acetylated chromatin obtained from these cells was irradiated and the change of molecular weight of the DNA was evaluated by alkaline sucrose density centrifugation. At a survival level of 10(-2) to 10(-4) cells exposed to butyrate were found to be 1.3-1.4 times more radiosensitive than control cells. Exposure of isolated chromatin to 100 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation generated 0.9 +/- 0.03 single-strand breaks (ssb) per 10 Gy per 10(8) Da and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ssb/10 Gy/10(8) Da for control and acetylated chromatin, respectively. The elevated radiation sensitivity of chromatin relaxed by acetylation is in good agreement with previous results on chromatin expanded by histone H1 depletion. Packing and accessibility of DNA in chromatin appear to be major factors which influence the radiation sensitivity. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity of chromatin in various packing states is discussed in light of the variation of radiation sensitivity of whole cells in the cell cycle which incorporates repair

224

Chromatin decondensed by acetylation shows an elevated radiation response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed to 5 mM n-sodium butyrate were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and cell survival was determined by the cell colony assay. In a separate set of experiments the acetylated chromatin obtained from these cells was irradiated and the change of molecular weight of the DNA was evaluated by alkaline sucrose density centrifugation. At a survival level of 10(-2) to 10(-4) cells exposed to butyrate were found to be 1.3-1.4 times more radiosensitive than control cells. Exposure of isolated chromatin to 100 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation generated 0.9 +/- 0.03 single-strand breaks (ssb) per 10 Gy per 10(8) Da and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ssb/10 Gy/10(8) Da for control and acetylated chromatin, respectively. The elevated radiation sensitivity of chromatin relaxed by acetylation is in good agreement with previous results on chromatin expanded by histone H1 depletion. Packing and accessibility of DNA in chromatin appear to be major factors which influence the radiation sensitivity. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity of chromatin in various packing states is discussed in light of the variation of radiation sensitivity of whole cells in the cell cycle which incorporates repair.

Nackerdien, Z.; Michie, J.; Boehm, L.

1989-02-01

225

Comparison of transition temperature shifts from static and dynamic tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper summarizes results of surveillance specimens programmes of WWER-440/V-213C type reactors. Comparison of transition temperature shifts, induced by irradiation, and determined from impact Charpy V-notch toughness as well as from static fracture toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy size specimens (COD) is given. Two methods have been used for determination of static fracture toughness shifts - standard COD type specimens from a standard surveillance programmes and reconstituted COD type specimens from broken halves of Charpy V-notch specimens. Results obtained are discussed from the point of view of irradiation conditions as well as of different type of testing. (author)

226

Who will be idol? The importance of social networks for winning on reality shows  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines, both theoretically and empirically, the effect of social networks and belonging to minority groups (or race) on the probability of winning in reality television shows. We develop a theoretical model that studies viewer behavior by presenting a framework of competition between two contestants from two different groups. The results are examined empirically using unique contestant data from the highly popular reality show A Star Is Born, the Israeli counterpart of American I...

Heizler, Odelia; Kimhi, Ayal

2010-01-01

227

CT and US findings of abdominal tuberculosis: Showing mainly extrainterestinal lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pathologically proven 15 cases of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area during recent 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Of total 15 cases were males and 10 cases females. And 7 cases of 15 were among third decades. 2. Total 15 cases of chest x-ray; 4 cases showed pulmonary tuberculous, 2 cases, pleural effusions, and 9 cases, normal, 10 cases of G-I barium study or colonospecic examination showed 2 intestinal tuberculous and 8 normal states. 3. Pattern of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area according to CT and US findings: 1) 6 cases showed multiple lymphadenopathy on mesentery, paraaortic area, peripancreatic area, gastrohepatic ligament or esophagogastric junction. 2) 6 cases showed abscess formation pattern on inguinal area, retropublic area of abdominal wall, iliopsoas muscle area, abdominal wall and adjacent to IVC at umbilical level. 3) 3 cases showed mesenteric thickening and ascites.

Cha, Sang Hoon; Han, Chun Hee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woun Kyun [Sungnam Hanmi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-02-15

228

CT and US findings of abdominal tuberculosis: Showing mainly extrainterestinal lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathologically proven 15 cases of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area during recent 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Of total 15 cases were males and 10 cases females. And 7 cases of 15 were among third decades. 2. Total 15 cases of chest x-ray; 4 cases showed pulmonary tuberculous, 2 cases, pleural effusions, and 9 cases, normal, 10 cases of G-I barium study or colonospecic examination showed 2 intestinal tuberculous and 8 normal states. 3. Pattern of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area according to CT and US findings: 1) 6 cases showed multiple lymphadenopathy on mesentery, paraaortic area, peripancreatic area, gastrohepatic ligament or esophagogastric junction. 2) 6 cases showed abscess formation pattern on inguinal area, retropublic area of abdominal wall, iliopsoas muscle area, abdominal wall and adjacent to IVC at umbilical level. 3) 3 cases showed mesenteric thickening and ascites.

229

[Stapedectomy: long term results].  

Science.gov (United States)

Stapedectomy, with its most innovatory variations, constitutes the treatment of choice for otoesclerosis. Short term results are spectacular, getting GAP closures of less than 5 dB approximatelly in 94% patients, variations depending on the authors. Long term follow up check results show a gradual auditory deterioration. The aim of this study is to audiometric evolution of patients operated of stapedectomy 7 to 10 years ago in our department and to correlate the results with those obtained by other authors, in an attempt to unify conclusions. PMID:12185900

Hernández Montero, E; Fraile Rodrigo, J; Marín Garrido, C; Sampériz, L Carmen; Llorente Arenas, E; Naya Gálvez, M J; Ortiz García, A

2002-04-01

230

Low temperature impact toughness of the main gas pipeline steel after long-term degradation  

Science.gov (United States)

The correlation of microstructure, temperature and Charpy V-notch impact properties of a steel 17G1S pipeline steel was investigated in this study. Within the concept of physical mesomechanics, the dynamic failure of specimens is represented as a successive process of the loss of shear stability, which takes place at different structural/scale levels of the material. Characteristic stages are analyzed for various modes of failure, moreover, typical levels of loading and oscillation periods, etc. are determined. Relations between low temperature derived through this test, microstructures and Charpy (V-notch) toughness test results are also discussed in this paper.

Maruschak, Pavlo O.; Danyliuk, Iryna M.; Bishchak, Roman T.; Vuherer, Tomaž

2014-12-01

231

Consumer behavior towards show-room services of two wheelers with reference to Cuddalore district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to find out the consumer behavior towards showroom service of two wheelers. A samples of 200 users selected randomly were studied. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results reveal that users differ in consumer behaviour towards showroom services of two wheelers on the basis of satisfied random sampling. This study is made to describe the consumer satisfaction of two wheelers with respect to socio-economic characteristics as age, gender, occupation, family income, educational level and so on which is called descriptive study. The data were treated statistically using t-test, F-test and correlation. The result shows that students and employees are more satisfied about show room services. Demographic variables such as marital status, size of the family give significant effect related to show room services.

S.Pragadeeswaran

2009-12-01

232

University of Colorado study shows how an enzyme kills cancer cells and also speeds regrowth:  

Science.gov (United States)

When your body is injured, it signals your cells to increase their growth rate. That makes sense: damage requires speedy repair. Results from a University of Colorado study...show how cancer cells use this mechanism to repopulate after a tumor is damaged by radiotherapy; and the study offers hope for a future in which the regrowth of cancer cells is slowed.

233

Musical slide show MAF with protection and governance using MPEG-21 IPMP Components and REL  

Science.gov (United States)

The Musical Slide Show Multimedia Application Format (MAF) which is currently being standardized by the Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG) conveys the concept of combining several established standard technologies in a single file format. It defines the format of packing up MP3 audio data, along with JPEG images, MPEG-7 Simple Profile metadata, timed text, and MPEG-4 LASeR script. The presentation of Musical Slide Show MAF contents is made in a synchronized manner with JPEG images, timed text to MP3 audio track. Also, the rendering effect on JPEG images can be supported by the MPEG-4 LASeR script. This Musical Slide Show MAF will enrich the consumption of MP3 contents assisted with synchronized and rendered JPEG images, text as well as MPEG-7 metadata about the MP3 audio contents. However, there is no protection and governance mechanism for Musical Slide Show MAF which is the essential elements to deploy the sorts of contents. In this paper, to manage the Musical Slide Show MAF contents in a controlled manner, we present a protection and governance mechanism by using MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) Components and MPEG-21 Rights Expression Language (REL) technologies We implement an authoring tool and a player tool for Musical Slide Show MAF contents and show the experimental results as well.

Sabirin, Muhammad Syah Houari; Tan, Hendry; Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munchurl

2007-02-01

234

Achiral-to-chiral transition in benzil solidification: analogies with racemic conglomerates systems showing deracemization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimental results show that benzil (1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethanedione), an achiral compound that crystallizes as a racemic conglomerate, yields by solidification polycrystalline scalemic mixtures of high enantiomeric excesses. These results are related to those previously reported in this type of compounds on deracemizations of racemic mixtures of crystal enantiomorphs obtained by wet grinding. However, the present results strongly suggest that these experiments cannot be explained without taking into account chiral recognition interactions at the level of precritical clusters. The conditions that would define a general thermodynamic scenario for such deracemizations are discussed. PMID:23733532

El-Hachemi, Zoubir; Arteaga, Oriol; Canillas, Adolf; Crusats, Joaquim; Sorrenti, Alessandro; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Ribo, Josep M

2013-07-01

235

Results from instrumented impact tests on type BH43W pressure vessel steel precracked specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precracked Charpy V-notch specimens of BH43W pressure vessel steel have been impact tested in the as-received condition. The specific impact energies were correlated to the test temperature 213 <= T <= 573 K. The specific impact energies were determined by dial readings, integration of the load vs. time and load versus load point displacement diagrams. In all cases the agreement was excellent. The dynamic fracture toughness values were determined following the 95% secant method and the equivalent energy approach. The data obtained in these ways were correlated with the test temperatures. The transition between the upper and lower shelves is much narrower when dynamic fracture toughness is used compared to impact energies. The specific impact energies as a function of test temperature obtained from standard Charpy and precracked Charpy specimens exhibit no numerical similarity. (Auth.)

236

Results of value  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its third year since inception, Coaltech 2020, the collaborative research programme, is already showing results - results that are aimed at ensuring the life span of South Africa's coal mines well into the 21st century. The article gives brief detail on a wide range of projects under way on topics including: identifying old pillars and previously mined areas; use of 2-D seismics at shallow depth; evaluating stripping methods to remove old pillars; prevention of spontaneous combustion; developing binderless briquetts; treatment of mine water; planting of crops in rehabilitation land with the use of mine water for irrigation; and looking at effects of mine closure. 2 photos.

Stone, A.

2001-10-01

237

Beth Israel/Harvard study finds new immune therapy shows promise in kidney cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

An antibody that helps a person’s own immune system battle cancer cells shows increasing promise in reducing tumors in patients with advanced kidney cancer, according to researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The results of an expanded Phase 1 trial presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual conference in Chicago, showed that some patients treated with a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Bristol Myers Squibb had a positive response to the effort by the agent, BMS-936558, to prolong the immune system’s efforts to fight off renal cell carcinoma without some of the debilitating side effects common to earlier immunotherapies.

238

BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

M. PIESZKA

2013-12-01

239

Impact and Fracture Toughness Properties of austempered Ductile Iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fracture characteristics of bainitic ductile iron transformed at various austempering temperatures and austempering times are evaluated by plane strain fracture toughness test and impact test. Impact tests were carried out on standard V-notch Charpy specimens at temperature range -100 to 350 degree C. Fracture toughness was measured using the short rod (SR) test procedure. Standard compact tension (CT) specimens of 25 mm thickness were also tested for reasons of comparison with SR results. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the examination of microstructure and fracture surface morphology, respectively. Austempering at 350 degree C resulted in the optimum impact energy and fracture toughness properties, whereas that at 270 degree C showed the inferior properties. Fractographic examination showed that different fracture mechanisms are associated with the different impact and fracture toughness levels obtained. 9 figs., 2 tabs

240

Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

HannaGärtner

2013-09-01

241

Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive evolution offers many opportunities in metabolic engineering; however, several constraints still exist as evolutionary trade-offs may impose collateral cost to obtain new traits. The application of adaptive evolution for strains development could be further improved by elucidating the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants exhibited significant correlation with attenuation of glucose utilization. These results indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy is the dominant mechanism in the observed trade-off, and it is likely realized by changes in glucose signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

242

Bacteriocin-like substance from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens shows remarkable inhibition of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga strains, and its cytotoxic potential on Vero cells was investigated. Amebicidal activity of the purified BLS was tested by plate bioassays with concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 6,400 AU mL(-1). Damage to A. pholyphaga cells was monitored using an inverted microscope and counted in a Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber after 24, 48, and 72 h. According to the results obtained, the BLS showed remarkable amebicidal and amebostatic effect on A. polyphaga and showed no cytotoxicity on the Vero cells. These results may have great relevance in the development of new acanthamoebicidal compounds. PMID:20967460

Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Caumo, Karin; Brandelli, Adriano; Rott, Marilise Brittes

2011-03-01

243

Sequencing analysis of OMI/HTRA2 shows previously reported pathogenic mutations in neurologically normal controls  

OpenAIRE

A novel heterozygous non-synonymous mutation and a novel polymorphism in OMI/HTRA2 locus have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a German population. In an attempt to replicate these results in an independent population, we analyzed the entire coding region of OMI/HTRA2 in a series of 644 North American PD cases with both young- and late-onset disease and in 828 North American neurologically normal controls. Our results show that neither of the variants previously related to PD ...

Simo?n-sa?nchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.

2008-01-01

244

Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores  

OpenAIRE

Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml?1 reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactiva...

Roubos-van Den Hil, P. J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M. J. R.; Abee, T.

2010-01-01

245

University of Pittsburgh study of peptide vaccine shows evidence of immunological response in children with gliomas  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers from Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Brain Tumor Program have demonstrated that peptide vaccines in children with gliomas, the most common type of brain tumor, not only were well-tolerated but also showed evidence of immunological responses. The results of the study were presented during a press conference at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 in Chicago.

246

Entropy Calculation of Reversible Mixing of Ideal Gases Shows Absence of Gibbs Paradox  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: We consider the work of reversible mixing of ideal gases using a real process. Now assumptions were made concerning infinite shifts, infinite number of cycles and infinite work to provide an accurate calculation of entropy resulting from reversible mixing of ideal gases. We derived an equation showing the dependence of this entropy on the difference in potential of mixed gases, which is evidence for the absence of Gibbs' paradox.

Oleg Borodiouk

1999-05-01

247

Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement  

OpenAIRE

The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Koma?romy, Andra?s M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2013-01-01

248

Especialistas psi em ação: sobre a distribuição de expertises num reality show.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a articulação entre as práticas dos especialistas psis e as modulações da intimidade a partir da sua exposição na mídia através do blog de um programa de televisão no formato de reality show. Foram analisados comentários dos seguidores do blog e cinco entrevistas semi-estruturadas com participantes do programa. Inspiradas em autores como Latour (2008 e Despret (2011, as pesquisadoras problematizam a distribuição da expertise a partir da análise do programa exibido no blog. Os resultados indicam que a distribuição da expertise ativa a todos que se articulam no dispositivo produzindo modos de subjetivar psicologizados. // Psi experts in action: on the distribution of expertise in a reality show. This paper aims to discuss the relationship between practices of psi experts and modulations of intimacy based on its exposure on a reality show microblog. Inspired by authors like Latour (2008 and Despret (2011, the researchers put in question the distribution of expertise in the reality show microblog. The results indicate that the distribution of expertise enables people who are articulated in the reality show enacting psychologized subjectivities.

Marcia Moraes

2014-05-01

249

Correlation between radiation damage and magnetic properties in reactor vessel steels  

Science.gov (United States)

Since reactor pressure vessel steels are ferromagnetic, provide a convenient means to monitor changes in the mechanical properties of the material upon irradiation with high energy particles, by measuring their magnetic properties. Here, we discuss the correlation between mechanical and magnetic properties and microstructure, by studying the flux effect on the nuclear pressure vessel steel used in reactors currently under construction in Argentina. Charpy-V notched specimens of this steel were irradiated in the RA1 experimental reactor at 275 °C with two lead factors (LFs), 93 and 183. The magnetic properties were studied by means of DC magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance. The results show that the coercive field and magnetic anisotropy spatial distribution are sensitive to the LF and can be explained by taking into account the evolution of the microstructure with this parameter. The saturation magnetization shows a dominant dependence on the accumulated damage.

Kempf, R. A.; Sacanell, J.; Milano, J.; Guerra Méndez, N.; Winkler, E.; Butera, A.; Troiani, H.; Saleta, M. E.; Fortis, A. M.

2014-02-01

250

Impact Toughness of an Isothermally Treated Zeron®100 SDSS  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact toughness of a UNS 32760 SDSS, in relation to the quantity of secondary phases precipitated after isothermal aging in the range of 850-950 °C and for different exposure times. The impact toughness has been investigated by means of instrumented impact testing, using Charpy V-notched specimens at room temperature. The impact testing results show that, for an amount of about 0.5% volume fraction of intermetallic phase, the impact toughness is reduced by over 50%. For volume fractions higher than 1.5-2%, the impact toughness is definitively compromised, and small entities of plastic deformations are enough to cause a prevailing brittle fracture mechanism. By increasing the precipitates' amounts, the fracture mechanism shows an ever more prominent brittle behavior until 6% volume fraction, exceeding which the ductile component is totally absent.

Calliari, Irene; Breda, Marco; Ramous, Emilio; Brunelli, Katya; Pizzo, Marco; Menapace, Cinzia

2012-10-01

251

Uma aproximação analí­tica do formato televisual do reality show Big Brother  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta alguns resultados de uma pesquisa comparada sobre o funcionamento semiótico de um formato televisivo global em duas de suas produções locais, Rio de la Plata e Brasil, nos anos 2001 e 2002. Através da perspectiva sociossemiótica baseada no modelo de Peirce, procura-se analisar os elementos próprios da significação do formato e de sua contextualização local. Descreve-se o reality show Big Brother como uma melocrônica dos bastidores da interação humana, em atenção aos componentes sí­gnicos centrais do formato, isto é, í­ndices e í­cones, que emergem na encenação televisual do face a face cotidiano. A contemplação turí­stica da ordem de interação ou do âmbito da sociabilidade permite compreender mudanças nas formas sociais que vão muito além do reduzido espaço do reality show glocal da Endemol, p.ex. no discurso eleitoral televisivo brasileiro. Palavras chave reality show, semiótica triádica, gênero hí­brido, sociabilidade. Abstract The article presents some results of a comparative research on the semiotic functioning of a global television genre in two of its local productions, that of the River Plate and that of Brazil, in the years 2001 and 2002. Through a sociosemiotic perspective based on the model of C. S. Peirce, the text accounts for the specific elements of signification of the format and of its local contextualization. The Big Brother reality show is deemed to be a hybrid genre, namely, a melochronicle of the backstage of human interaction, on account of the basic sign components of this TV format, i.e., indexes and icons, which emerge in the televisual staging of everyday face to face encounters. A tourist-like contemplation of the order of interaction or sociability realm allows us to understand changes in the social forms that reach far beyond the limited realm of the glocal Endemol reality show, for instance, in the Brazilian television political campaign. Key words reality show; triadic semiotic; hybrid genre; social interaction.

Fernando Andacht

2008-11-01

252

Weld metal toughness - sources of variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of weld toughness is largely studied using Charpy V-notch (CVN), but the CVN toughness values can vary widely in the same weld. This study investigated the causes of such variations in CVN measurements. Several CVN tests, a microstructure analysis and nanohardness measurements were performed to identify the microstructural properties affecting the CNV toughness values. The results showed that the CVN toughness values are controlled by local microstructure conditions. The size of austenite grain and ferritic microstructures are conditioned by cooling conditions. It is shown that the highly localized regions of coarse-grained ferrite are associated with the lowest CVN toughness measurements. It is also shown that the transformation of austenite into martensite under the load and reduced temperature associated with coarse ferrite microstructure explain the magnitude in CVN results.

Quintana, Marie; Major, Jeff; Dallam, Craig; James, Matt [Lincoln Electric, Cleveland, OH, (United States); Babu, S. S. [Ohia State University, Columbus, OH, (United States)

2010-07-01

253

HF-modified piping in hydroprocessing industry: A user`s perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HF-modified austenitic stainless steel cast piping has been in use in hydroprocessing reactor effluent high pressure loop for 35 years. Recent process modifications resulted in replacement of piping in a hydrocracking unit which was in service for 25 years. This paper reports on mechanical and metallurgical investigations of the replaced piping as well as samples removed from newer vintage HF-modified piping. The investigations show susceptibility to sensitization of HF-modified materials when exposed to the hydroprocessing operating temperature range. Loss of room temperature impact properties was also observed. Realistic flow tolerance of the HF-modified material was established by CTOD tests and a relationship is proposed between the CTOD values and Charpy V-notch values. The paper also describes three case histories where the failures resulted from the polythionic acid attack.

Bagdasarian, A.J.; Singh, A.K. [Unocal Corp., Brea, CA (United States); Gaugler, R.J. [Unocal Corp., Wilmington, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

254

New Ceres Results  

OpenAIRE

During 1999 the CERES experiment upgraded by the new TPC was taking data from semicentral Pb+Au collisions at 40 AGeV. The analysis of the di-electron spectra shows an enhancement in the low mass region of at least the same magnitude as previously observed at full SPS energy. The results are compared to model calculations with and without medium modifications of the vector mesons. The addition of the radial TPC gives more possibilities to study hadronic observables. The resu...

Marin, A.; Collaboration, For The Ceres

2002-01-01

255

Results from NA49  

OpenAIRE

An overview of results from the CERN experiment NA49 is presented with emphasis on most recent measurements. NA49 has systematically studied the dependence of hadron production on energy and system size or centrality. At top-SPS energy the detailed investigation of hadron production, now also extending to elliptic flow of Lambda-baryons and to identified particle yields at high p_t, shows that the created matter behaves in a similar manner as at RHIC energies. In the lower S...

Hoehne, C.

2005-01-01

256

School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

Kisno

2014-03-01

257

Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ageing theories predict that evolution should inevitably lead to an increase of mortality and decrease of fertility with age. However, a recent study across different species shows that this prediction only applies to really few species. In fact there is a great diversity of mortality trajectories in nature. Additionally, empirical studies have previously concluded that age matters: the probabilities of species to die as a function of age are highly diverse. Some species even show that mortality decreases with age (negative senescence). Albeit these findings, most studies still assume that mortality is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different models are needed to explore the diversity of mortality trajectories in animals. However, our state of demographic knowledge even for vertebrates is by far deficient to incorporate the effects on age. Exploring 13 available datasets on vertebrate life histories traits, our results show surprising figures that highlight the urgency to fill up knowledge gaps to manage populations of threatened species.

Conde, Dalia Amor

258

Retroviral DNA Integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV Show Distinct Target Site Preferences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV. Effects of gene activity on integration targeting were assessed by transcriptional profiling of infected cells. Integration by HIV vectors, analyzed in two primary cell types and several cell lines, strongly favored active genes. An analysis of the effects of tissue-specific transcription showed that it resulted in tissue-specific integration targeting by HIV, though the effect was quantitatively modest. Chromosomal regions rich in expressed genes were favored for HIV integration, but these regions were found to be interleaved with unfavorable regions at CpG islands. MLV vectors showed a strong bias in favor of integration near transcription start sites, as reported previously. ASLV vectors showed only a weak preference for active genes and no preference for transcription start regions. Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection.

Mitchell Rick S

2004-01-01

259

Recent results from ARGUS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some recent results are reported from the ARGUS experiment, operated at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY. In an updated analysis of semileptonic b ? u decays direct evidence for such transitions was obtained through reconstruction of a complete event. A study of the lepton energy spectra in ?- ? e- ? bar ? and ?- ? ? ? bar ? decays yielded a value for the Michel parameter which is in good agreement with a standard V - A coupling at the ?-??-W vertex. A parity violating asymmetry was measured in ? decays into three charged pions which shows that the ? neutrino has negative helicity. The Micro Vertex Drift Chamber was installed as a new hardware component of the ARGUS detector. Initial results concerning backgrounds and chamber performance are presented

260

Different types of Budd-Chiari syndrome showed different circulation directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To improve the knowledge for flow direction of renal-spleen circulation in Budd-Chiari syndrome and effects in treatment. Methods: Two Budd-Chiari syndrome patients with reno-splenic venous shunt were treated by PTA, and the circulation directions were investigated. Results: One case with hepatic vein occlusion showed the circulation from left renal-spleen vein to IVC; another case with IVC stenosis proximal to heart showed the flow direction from spleen left renal vein to varices and finally to SVC. The circulation disappeared after treatment with PTA. Conclusions: The direction of circulation in different types of Budd-Chiari with portal hypertension may be different and should be identified clearly for a suitable management

261

A Case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome Which Shows Space Occupying Lesion on Liver Scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A twenty-one-year old man visited our hospital due to abdominal distension for a month. On the physical examination, there was severe abdominal distension with fluctuation and shifting dullness. The routine laboratory results were within normal range. On the Magnetic Resonance angiography, there wasn't any blood flow within the right and middle hepatic vein. So we concluded that the etiologic disease was Budd Chiari syndrome. On the liver scan, there was cold area (absence of radiouptake) on entire right lobe of the liver, increased uptake on the bone marrow and showed splenomegaly. This finding was similar to the liver mass occupying right lobe with underlying chronic liver disease. On the previous reports, it is quite uncommon finding that Budd-Chirari syndrome shows lesion like space occupying one on the liver scan. So we report this case with a review of the literature.

262

Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea. PMID:23361127

Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

2013-11-01

263

Emotional contagion: dogs and humans show a similar physiological response to human infant crying.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans respond to an infant crying with an increase in cortisol level and heightened alertness, a response interpreted as emotional contagion, a primitive form of empathy. Previous results are mixed when examining whether dogs might respond similarly to human distress. We examined whether domestic dogs, which have a long history of affiliation with humans, show signs of emotional contagion, testing canine (n=75) and human (n=74) responses to one of three auditory stimuli: a human infant crying, a human infant babbling, and computer-generated "white noise", with the latter two stimuli acting as controls. Cortisol levels in both humans and dogs increased significantly from baseline only after listening to crying. In addition, dogs showed a unique behavioral response to crying, combining submissiveness with alertness. These findings suggest that dogs experience emotional contagion in response to human infant crying and provide the first clear evidence of a primitive form of cross-species empathy. PMID:25452080

Yong, Min Hooi; Ruffman, Ted

2014-10-01

264

A lipase isolated from the silkworm Bombyx mori shows antiviral activity against nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A protein showing strong antiviral activity against Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) was purified from the digestive juice of B. mori larvae. A homology search of the deduced amino acid sequence of the protein cDNA revealed 56% homology with Drosophila melanogaster lipase and 21% homology with human lipase. As lipase activity of the protein was confirmed in vitro, this protein was designated Bmlipase-1. Northern blot analysis showed that the Bmlipase-1 gene is expressed in the midgut but not in other tissues, nor is it activated by BmNPV infection. In addition, the Bmlipase-1 gene was shown not to be expressed in the molting and wandering stages, indicating that the gene is hormonally regulated. Our results suggest that an insect digestive enzyme has potential as a physiological barrier against BmNPV at the initial site of viral infection. PMID:12970462

Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Seiichi; Asaoka, Ai; Ishibashi, Jun; Tanaka, Hiromitsu; Yamakawa, Minoru

2003-10-01

265

Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

Yan Jiyong

2011-10-01

266

Shetland ponies (Equus caballus) show quantity discrimination in a matching-to-sample design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerical competence is one of the aspects of animal cognition with a long history of research interest, but few results are available for the horse. In the present study, we investigated the ability of three Shetland ponies to discriminate between different quantities of geometric symbols presented on a computer screen in a matching-to-sample arrangement. In Experiment 1, the ponies had to relate two similar quantities to another, paired in contrasts (1 vs. 2, 3 vs. 4 and 4 vs. 5) of the same stimulus (dot). Specific pairs of quantities (all differing by one) of up to five different geometrical symbols were displayed in Experiment 2. In each session, both quantities (more and less) were used as sample in such a way that each of the two quantities presented in one test served as positive and as negative stimulus, respectively. The three Shetland ponies were able to discriminate between the given quantities of dots by showing more than 80% correct responses in two consecutive sessions. Only one of the ponies distinguished different shapes of geometric symbols at a level of 4 versus 5 items. The results show that all ponies were capable of visual quantity discrimination in the present matching-to-sample design, but task solving seemed more difficult when quantities were composed of heterogeneous stimuli. The present results confirm our hypothesis that the ponies based their decision on the matching concept of sameness and were not biased by a spontaneous preference for higher quantities. PMID:24831887

Gabor, Vivian; Gerken, Martina

2014-11-01

267

Sterols from Mytilidae Show Anti-Aging and Neuroprotective Effects via Anti-Oxidative Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function. PMID:25429428

Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

2014-01-01

268

2-(Phenylazo)pyridineplatinum(II) Catecholates Showing Photocytotoxicity, Nuclear Uptake, and Glutathione-Triggered Ligand Release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Platinum(II) complexes [Pt(pap)(an-cat)] (1) and [Pt(pap)(py-cat)] (2) with 2-(phenylazo)pyridine (pap), 4-[2-[(anthracen-9-ylmethylene)amino]ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol (H2an-cat), and 4-[2-[(pyren-1-ylmethylene)amino]ethyl]benzene-1,2-diol (H2py-cat) were prepared, and their photoinduced cytotoxicity was studied. The complexes were found to release catecholate ligand in the presence of excess glutathione (GSH), resulting in cellular toxicity in the cancer cells. The catecholate complex [Pt(pap)(cat)] (3) was prepared and used as a control. Complex 3, which is structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography, has platinum(II) in a distorted square-planar geometry. The complexes are redox-active, showing responses near 0.6 and 1.0 V versus SCE in N,N-dimethylformamide/0.1 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate corresponding to a two-step catechol oxidation process and at -0.3 and -1.3 V for reduction of the pap ligand. Complex 1 showed remarkable light-induced cytotoxicity in HaCaT (human skin keratinocytes) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cells, giving IC50 value of ?5 ?M in visible light of 400-700 nm and >40 ?M in the dark. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay showed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which seems to trigger apoptosis, as is evident from the annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) assay. The fluorescence microscopic images showed significant nuclear localization of the complexes and free ligands. A mechanistic study revealed possible reduction of the coordinated azo bond of pap by cellular GSH, releasing the catecholate ligand and resulting in remarkable photochemotherapeutic action of the complexes. PMID:25496358

Mitra, Koushambi; Patil, Shilpa; Kondaiah, Paturu; Chakravarty, Akhil R

2015-01-01

269

LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient heterogeneity in primary and synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1 hypomethylation is suggested to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. To assess intra-patient heterogeneity of LINE-1 methylation in CRC and to understand its biological relevance in invasion and metastasis, we evaluated the LINE-1 methylation at multiple tumor sites. In addition, the influence of stromal cell content on the measurement of LINE-1 methylation in tumor tissue was analyzed. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue was obtained from 48 CRC patients. Matched adjacent normal colon tissue, lymph node metastases and distant metastases were obtained from 12, 18 and 7 of these patients, respectively. Three different areas were microdissected from each primary tumor and included the tumor center and invasive front. Normal mucosal and stromal cells were also microdissected for comparison with the tumor cells. The microdissected samples were compared in LINE-1 methylation level measured by multicolor MethyLight assay. The assay results were also compared between microdissected and macrodissected tissue samples. Results LINE-1 methylation within primary tumors showed no significant intra-tumoral heterogeneity, with the tumor center and invasive front showing identical methylation levels. Moreover, no difference in LINE-1 methylation was observed between the primary tumor and lymph node and distant metastases from the same patient. Tumor cells showed significantly less LINE-1 methylation compared to adjacent stromal and normal mucosal epithelial cells. Consequently, LINE-1 methylation was significantly lower in microdissected samples compared to macrodissected samples. A trend for less LINE-1 methylation was also observed in more advanced stages of CRC. Conclusions LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient tumor heterogeneity, indicating the suitability of its use for molecular diagnosis in CRC. The methylation is relatively stable during CRC progression, leading us to propose a new concept for the association between LINE-1 methylation and disease stage.

Matsunoki Aika

2012-12-01

270

Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthaLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

271

Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Shows Long-Term Survival after Conversion from Locally Advanced to Resectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose For locally unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has been applied as a loco-regional treatment. After shrinkage of tumors in selected patients, surgical resection is performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors and long-term survivors in such patients. Materials and Methods From January 2000 to January 2009, 264 patients with HCC were treated with CCRT (45 Gy with fractional dose of 1.8 Gy), and intra-arterial chemotherapy was administered during radiotherapy. Eighteen of these patients (6.8%) underwent hepatic resection after showing a response to CCRT. Cases were considered resectable when tumor-free margins and sufficient remnant volumes were obtained without extrahepatic metastasis. Prior to operation, there were six patients with complete remission, 11 with partial remission, and six with stable disease according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Results In pathologic review, four patients (22.2%) showed total necrosis and seven patients (38.9%) showed 70-99% necrosis. A high level of necrosis (?80%) was correlated with low risk for extrahepatic metastasis and long-term survival. In univariate analyses, vessel invasion and capsular infiltration were significantly correlated with disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.017 and 0.013, respectively), and vessel invasion was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) (p=0.013). In multivariate analyses, capsule infiltration was a significant factor for DFS (p=0.016) and vessel invasion was significant for OS (p=0.015). Conclusion CCRT showed favorable responses and locally advanced HCC converted into resectable tumor after CCRT in selected patients. Long-term survivors showed the pathological features of near total necrosis, as well as negative capsule and vessel invasion. PMID:25323884

Lee, Ik Jae; Kim, Jun Won; Han, Kwang Hyub; Kim, Ja Kyung; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Park, Young Nyun

2014-01-01

272

Does the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response show the binaural masking level difference?  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to the transient (N1-P2) and steady-state (binaural masking level difference (BMLD). This study determined behavioral and 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) BMLDs for both signal and noise interaural inversions. Results showed clear behavioral BMLD but no 40-Hz ASSR BMLD. However, ASSR amplitudes were significantly smaller in dichotic compared with diotic conditions. Thus, although 40-Hz ASSR thresholds do not reflect the BMLD, the amplitude suppression under dichotic conditions may be a precursor to the subsequent <20-Hz ASSR and behavioral BMLDs. PMID:19701090

Ishida, Ieda Maria; Stapells, David R

2009-12-01

273

Dielectric relaxation of a ferroelectric liquid crystal showing anomalous behaviour due to polarization inversion  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports the dielectric study of a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) material Felix 016/030 showing anomalous dielectric behaviour. This anomalous behaviour is explained on the basis of a model of dynamically fluctuating mixture of two interconvertible conformers, whose relative density changes with temperature. We have observed Goldstone mode of dielectric relaxation in the frequency range covered. The experimental results have been corrected for low and high frequency range and used to determine dielectric permittivity. The anomalous behaviour of dielectric permittivity has also been verified by discussing the temperature dependence behaviour of PS/Sin ? term where Ps is spontaneous polarization of the sample.

Misra, Abhishek Kumar; Pandey, Kamal Kr; Tripathi, Pankaj Kr; Manohar, Rajiv

2013-06-01

274

TSP1-producing B cells show immune regulatory property and suppress allergy-related mucosal inflammation  

OpenAIRE

Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only specific remedy for the treatment of allergic diseases currently. B cells are important immune cells in the immunity. The role of B cells in immune regulatory activities has not been fully understood yet. This study aims to elucidate the role of the thrombospondin (TSP)1-producing B cells in the immune regulatory role of SIT. The results showed that after SIT, the frequency of CD35+ B cells was increased in the intestine of mice with food allergy. The ...

Zhang, Huan-ping; Wu, Yingying; Liu, Jiangqi; Jiang, Jing; Geng, Xiao-rui; Yang, Gui; Mo, Lihua; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Ping-chang

2013-01-01

275

Thymidine Kinase 1 Deficient Cells Show Increased Survival Rate After UV-Induced DNA Damage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than TK1 positive cells although they have thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels of only half the size of control cells. Our results suggest that higher thymidine levels in the TK- cells caused by defect thymidine salvage to dTTP protects against UV irradiation.

Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

2010-01-01

276

Audit result and its users  

OpenAIRE

The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit) with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediat...

Shalimova Nataliya S.

2014-01-01

277

PRP training shows Task1 response selection is the locus of the backward response compatibility effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the effect of practice in a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm on the backward compatibility effect (BCE), in order to determine the locus of this response priming effect on Task1 performance. In two experiments, we show that the size of the BCE is closely associated with the duration of the response selection stage in Task1. When this stage is shortened through PRP practice, the magnitude of the BCE decreases. Subsequently increasing the duration of Task1 response selection results in a larger BCE, but manipulating the same stage in Task2 does not. Our results suggest that the BCE reflects crosstalk of unattended response information for Task2 acting on the response selection stage in Task1, and that response information for two tasks may be activated simultaneously. PMID:24845877

Thomson, Sandra J; Danis, Lila K; Watter, Scott

2015-02-01

278

Why does a Large Shadow Economy not show up in Administrative Inspections?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the apparent gap that exists between very high estimates of the size of the shadow economy and the results of various tax and policy authorities’ inspections. The analyses are based on Finnish data, with the benchmark values for the size of the shadow economy taken from a recent parliamentary investigation which arrived at very high values for all types of shadow economy activities. These estimates are compared with the Finnish Tax Administration’s own data on tax audits. The data are also used in assessing the fiscal results from tax inspections and other administrative actions. These values suggest that it is pointless to spend enormous amounts of resources to curtail the shadow economy unless one can show that there are important economies of scale in tax audits and law enforcement. Our estimates do not support the idea of increasing returns in tax audits.

Kari Takala

2012-09-01

279

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in {Li [In(1,3 - BDC)2]}n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

2014-12-01

280

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC)2])n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs

281

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in {Li [In(1,3 ? BDC2]}n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Mathieu Bosch

2014-12-01

282

Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 ? BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80?000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Chen, Ying-Pin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Zhou, Hong-Cai, E-mail: zhou@mail.chem.tamu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77842 (United States)

2014-12-01

283

Pressure locking test results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-12-01

284

Pressure locking test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

285

Pressure locking test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

286

The effect of aging at 343/degree/C on type 308 stainless steel welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three nominally 25-mm (1-in) thick shielded metal-arc welds were prepared from 304L base plate with 308 filler material, to obtain three different ferrite levels (4, 8, and 12 %). Portions of these welds were then aged at 343/degree/C for 3000, 10000, and 20000 hours. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were taken from the welds. The tensile results were similar for all the specimens and showed little effect of aging on either the yield or ultimate tensile strengths. The Charpy impact properties of the higher ferrite content materials were significantly degraded by these agings, with larger decreases in the impact energy with increased aging time. The microstructures of the welds were examined by metallography and transmission electron microscopy, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the mechanical properties and the fractography are discussed in light of the observed changes in the microstructure. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

287

Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel  

Science.gov (United States)

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

Zhao, Yanyun; Li, Chunjing; Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

2014-12-01

288

Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

2010-07-01

289

Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs

290

Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (calcite-apatite fraction. PMID:24652060

Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

2014-06-01

291

Do dolphins rehearse show-stimuli when at rest? Delayed matching of auditory memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their nighttime resting periods, non-dolphin sounds that they heard during performance shows. Generally, in the middle of the night, these animals produced vocal copies of whale sounds that had been broadcast during daily public shows. As their life history was fully known, we know that these captive dolphins had never had the opportunity to hear whale sounds before then. Moreover, recordings made before the whale sounds started being broadcast revealed that they had never emitted such sounds before. This is to our knowledge the first evidence for a separation between formation of auditory memories and the process of learning to produce calls that match these memories in a marine mammal. One hypothesis is that dolphins may rehearse some special events heard during the daytime and that they then express vocally what could be conceived as a more global memory. These results open the way for broader views on how animals might rehearse life events while resting or maybe dreaming.

DorotheeKremers

2011-12-01

292

Perception of alcohol intoxication shows acute tolerance while executive functions remain impaired.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several psychological constructs (e.g., subjective perception of intoxication, visuomotor speed) display acute tolerance to alcohol, that is, show improvement at declining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) relative to equivalent rising BACs. However, methodological challenges emerge when attempting to make such comparisons across limbs of the BAC curve, which have proven a barrier to advancing research on acute tolerance. To date, no studies have made multiple comparisons across the entire BAC trajectory. This study employs experimental procedures that overcome some of these difficulties, offering a clearer picture of recovery of impairment for subjective perception of intoxication and cognitive performance and the relationship between them. Twenty participants were assessed at multiple time points over 2 days. Continuous subjective perception of intoxication ratings and cognitive data derived from a computerized measure were paired with a novel analytic paradigm, which allowed comparisons at identified BACs. Results showed acute tolerance for individuals' subjective perception of intoxication and for performance on cognitive tasks measuring visuomotor speed and learning efficiency (recovery from impairment). In contrast, performance on measures of executive function and short-term memory showed no significant difference between limbs at exact concentrations (no recovery from impairment). Therefore, despite participants feeling less intoxicated over time, many cognitive functions remained impaired. The implication for these findings in terms of drunken driving behavior are substantial, suggesting that people may be likely to drive once they subjectively perceive that they have recovered from the acute intoxicating effects of alcohol, despite the persistence of "higher order" cognitive impairments. PMID:20695689

Cromer, Jennifer R; Cromer, Jason A; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J

2010-08-01

293

Inner retinal damage after exposure to green diode laser during a laser show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sohee Jeon, Won Ki Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Here we report two cases of retinal damage after exposure to a 510 nm laser diode during a laser show. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who presented with decreased visual acuity in her right eye after visiting a dance party with a diode laser show (wavelength 510 nm, power 2 mW, although she did not directly see the light. Retinal examination revealed a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage and a small laser burn. The second patient was a 20-year-old female who visited for decreased vision in her left eye. She described similar events as the first patient. An exposure to green diode laser can result in retinal damage. It is strongly recommended that certified personnel operate laser devices used in indoor laser shows under strict regulation. Keywords: green diode laser, sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage, inner retinal damage

Jeon S

2014-12-01

294

Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

Tena Perišin

2010-12-01

295

Interacção conversacional do Talk Show televisivo : institucionalidade e género nas entrevistas de Late Night with Conan O'Brien e The Tonight Show with Jay Leno  

OpenAIRE

O presente trabalho, que se inscreve nas áreas de investigação da Análise Conversacional e da Sociolinguística, pretende investigar as estratégias discursivas e linguísticas que regem a organização da interacção conversacional das entrevistas dos talk shows televisivos. Partindo de um corpus de análise constituído por transcrições de vinte e quatro entrevistas dos talk shows nocturnos Late Night with Conan O’Brien e The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, transmitidos ...

Rato, Anabela Alves Dos Santos

2009-01-01

296

Adenoma and carcinoma components in colonic tumors show discordance for KRAS mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activating mutations in KRAS are common events in the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma and predict response to treatment with anti-EGFR antibodies. Molecular pathology testing for KRAS mutations has become the standard of practice for patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Despite the known histologic and molecular differences between adenomas and carcinomas, the concordance of KRAS mutation between adenomas and carcinomas has not been established leaving some open questions regarding the appropriate choice of tissue for KRAS mutation analysis and correct interpretation of the test results. To address these questions, we analyzed the concordance of KRAS mutation in 70 tumors that contained both adenoma and carcinoma components (2 cases of intramucosal carcinoma, 66 cases with invasion of the submucosa, and 2 invading the muscularis propria). For each case, DNA was separately isolated from the adenoma and the carcinoma component and analyzed for KRAS mutation using direct sequencing. Overall, 30 (43%) of the adenoma cases and 36 (51%) of the carcinoma cases were positive for KRAS mutation. Of the 70 cases, 16 (23%) showed discordant results. Interestingly, the fraction of discordant cases went down as the depth of carcinoma invasion increased. In summary, we identified significant KRAS mutation discordance between the adenoma and carcinoma component of the lesion. Our results suggest that effort should be made to analyze only the invasive component of the lesion and that caution should be taken when interpreting a result based on DNA extracted from noninvasive elements. PMID:24998492

Hershkovitz, Dov; Simon, Einav; Bick, Tova; Prinz, Elad; Noy, Shawna; Sabo, Edmond; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Vieth, Michael

2014-09-01

297

A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123.

Giattina Emily

2011-09-01

298

A novel lectin from Agrocybe aegerita shows high binding selectivity for terminal N-acetylglucosamine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel lectin was isolated from the mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (designated AAL-2) by affinity chromatography with GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-coupled Sepharose 6B after ammonium sulfate precipitation. The AAL-2 coding sequence (1224 bp) was identified by performing a homologous search of the five tryptic peptides identified by MS against the translated transcriptome of A. aegerita. The molecular mass of AAL-2 was calculated to be 43.175 kDa from MS, which was consistent with the data calculated from the amino acid sequence. To analyse the carbohydrate-binding properties of AAL-2, a glycan array composed of 465 glycan candidates was employed, and the result showed that AAL-2 bound with high selectivity to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues, and further analysis revealed that AAL-2 bound to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues with higher affinity than previously well-known GlcNAc-binding lectins such as WGA (wheatgerm agglutinin) and GSL-II (Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-II). ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) showed further that GlcNAc bound to AAL-2 in a sequential manner with moderate affinity. In the present study, we also evaluated the anti-tumour activity of AAL-2. The results showed that AAL-2 could bind to the surface of hepatoma cells, leading to induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, AAL-2 exerted an anti-hepatoma effect via inhibition of tumour growth and prolongation of survival time of tumour-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:22268569

Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yijie; Wang, Man; Yin, Yalin; Pan, Yongfu; Gu, Bianli; Yu, Guojun; Li, Yamu; Wong, Barry Hon Cheung; Liang, Yi; Sun, Hui

2012-04-15

299

Diabetes patients show different time-course of myocardial perfusion improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is known to cause microangiopathy. The microangiopathy is hardly detectable on the coronary angiography. Myocardial perfusion imaging shows the resultant perfusion status which reflects the microangiopathy. For patients who underwent revascularization, the microangiopathy could affect the myocardial perfusion improvement. Diabetes patients probably experience the different myocardial perfusion improvement as compared to the non-diabetes patients although they have similar angiographic findings. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is a time-course difference of perfusion improvement between the diabetes and non diabetes patients who showed patent angiographic findings after coronary artery grafting surgery (CABG). A total of 129 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in this study. Myocardial SPECTs performed at previous, short-term (3 month), and mid-term (1 year) to CABG. One-year follow up angiography was done 411{+-}121 days after surgery. Graft patency was determined according to the FitzGibbon et al. Segments were assigned to vascular territories using a 20 segment model. The segments of excellent patency were included in this study. Time course differences of concerned segments were analyzed using RMANOVA. The number of segments enrolled was 764 of diabetes and 1083 of non-diabetes. At short-term follow up, reversibility score was 2.8{+-}8.1% in diabetes and 0.3{+-}7.5% in non-diabetes. At long-term follow up, reversibility score was 1.8{+-}8.0% in diabetes and 0.1{+-}7.3% in non-diabetes. The time-course of reversibility score was significantly different between the diabetes and non diabetes (p<0.001) Diabetic segments showed high residual reversibility score than non-diabetic segments after CABG although the angiographic finding was patent in both groups. This result is maybe attributable to microangiopathy induced by diabetes.

Lee, J. J.; Seok, J. W.; Eo, J. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

2005-07-01

300

Diabetes patients show different time-course of myocardial perfusion improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is known to cause microangiopathy. The microangiopathy is hardly detectable on the coronary angiography. Myocardial perfusion imaging shows the resultant perfusion status which reflects the microangiopathy. For patients who underwent revascularization, the microangiopathy could affect the myocardial perfusion improvement. Diabetes patients probably experience the different myocardial perfusion improvement as compared to the non-diabetes patients although they have similar angiographic findings. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is a time-course difference of perfusion improvement between the diabetes and non diabetes patients who showed patent angiographic findings after coronary artery grafting surgery (CABG). A total of 129 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in this study. Myocardial SPECTs performed at previous, short-term (3 month), and mid-term (1 year) to CABG. One-year follow up angiography was done 411±121 days after surgery. Graft patency was determined according to the FitzGibbon et al. Segments were assigned to vascular territories using a 20 segment model. The segments of excellent patency were included in this study. Time course differences of concerned segments were analyzed using RMANOVA. The number of segments enrolled was 764 of diabetes and 1083 of non-diabetes. At short-term follow up, reversibility score wart-term follow up, reversibility score was 2.8±8.1% in diabetes and 0.3±7.5% in non-diabetes. At long-term follow up, reversibility score was 1.8±8.0% in diabetes and 0.1±7.3% in non-diabetes. The time-course of reversibility score was significantly different between the diabetes and non diabetes (p<0.001) Diabetic segments showed high residual reversibility score than non-diabetic segments after CABG although the angiographic finding was patent in both groups. This result is maybe attributable to microangiopathy induced by diabetes

301

Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity  

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Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS.

FrancisM Miezin

2009-11-01

302

Neutron spectra at different High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel surveillance locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project addresses the potential problem of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports. Surveillance specimens irradiated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron flux levels (about 1.5E + 8 cm-2.s-1) and low temperatures (about 50 degrees C) showed embrittlement more rapidly than expected. Commercial power reactors have similar flux levels and temperatures at the level vessel support structures. The purposes of this work are to provide the neutron fluence spectra data that are needed to evaluate previously measured mechanical property changes in the HFIR, to explain the discrepancies in neutron flux levels between the nickel dosimeters and two other dosimeters, neptunium and beryllium, and to address any questions or peculiarities of the HFIR reactor environment. The current work consists of neutron and gamma transport calculations, dosimetry measurements, and least-squares logarithmic adjustment to obtain the best estimates for the neutron spectra and the related neutron exposure parameters. The results indicate that the fission rates in neptunium-237 (Np-237) and uranium-238 (U-238) and the helium production rates in beryllium-9 (Be-9) are dominated by photo-induced reactions. The displacements per atom rate for iron (dpa/s) from gamma rays is five times higher than the dpa/s from neutrons. The neutron fluxes in key 7, position 5 do not show any significant gradient in the surveillance capsule, but key 4 and key 2 showed differences in magnitude as well as in the shape of the spectrum. The stainless steel monitor in the V-notch of the Charpy specimens of the surveillance capsules is adequate to determine the neutron flux above 1.0 MeV at the desired V-notch location. Simultaneous adjustment of neutron and gamma fluxes with the measurements has been demonstrated and should avoid future problems with photo-induced reactions

303

VRAC: Simulation Results #1  

CERN Document Server

In order to make full use of geographic routing techniques developed for large scale networks, nodes must be localized. However, localization and virtual localization techniques in sensor networks are dependent either on expensive and sometimes unavailable hardware (e.g. GPS) or on sophisticated localization calculus (e.g. triangulation) which are both error-prone and with a costly overhead. Instead of localizing nodes in a traditional 2-dimensional space, we use directly the raw distance to a set of anchors to route messages in a multi-dimensional space. This should enable us to use any geographic routing protocol in a robust and efficient manner in a very large range of scenarios. We test this technique for two different geographic routing algorithms, namely GRIC and ROAM. The simulation results show that using the raw coordinates does not decrease their efficiency.

Huc, Florian

2009-01-01

304

New results from VES  

OpenAIRE

The results of the patial wave analysis(PWA) of the pi+pi-pi- and omegapi-pi0 systems are presented. The a3 and a4(2040) signals are observed in the rho(770)pi and f2(1270)pi channels. Indications of the a1' meson existence was found in the 1+0+ rhopi S-wave. The decay branching ratio of the a2(1320)- to omegapi-pi0 was measured. The 2+1+ wave shows a broad bump at M~1.7GeV. The decays of the pi2(1670), a4(2040) and pi(1740) into omegarho- were found. The resonance in the b1...

Dorofeev, V.; Collaboration, Ves

1999-01-01

305

Results from LHCf Experiment  

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Full Text Available The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at ?s = 0.9 TeV and ?s = 7 TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

Tricomi Alessia

2012-06-01

306

Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells. The data further show that the mitochondria remain functional in Krebs' cycle activity and respiratory electron transfer that enables continued accelerated glycolysis. This may be a common adaptive strategy in cancer cells.

Higashi Richard M

2008-10-01

307

Testbeam Results of Endcap RPC's  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, results are presented from the beamtest in 2002 of the full-scale RE-2/2 prototype RPC chamber assembled in Pakistan. The results are mainly related with the efficiency, time resolution, and rate capability of this non-oiled RPC. The CMS collaboration has imposed strict criteria on the performance parameters for RPC's. These results show that prototype RPC's meet with all the CMS criteria and are suitable for installation in CMS detector.

Ahmed, Ijaz; Hoorani, Hafeez; Aftab, Zia; Jan, J. A; Shariq Khan, M; Solaija, Tariq

2006-01-01

308

El SHOW DE JORGE BARÓN como paradigma de neopopulismo cultural en la televisión Colombiana / JORGE BARON'S show as paradigm of cultural neo-populism in the colombian television  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo parte de la investigación de campo sobre El Show de las Estrellas, el programa musical más antiguo y popular de la televisión colombiana. El análisis de caso es un pretexto para replantear la discusión sobre políticas culturales en el contexto -aparentemente paradójico- de violencia es [...] tructural, privatización y auge del populismo de derecha que caracteriza la política en Colombia en los últimos años. Abstract in english This article comes from the investigation field of the Stars Show (El Show de las Estrellas), the oldest and most popular musical TV show in Colombian television. The case analysis is an excuse to reframe the discussion on cultural policies in the context, apparently paradoxical, of structural viole [...] nce, privatization and peak of the right populism that characterizes the Colombian politics in the last years.

Isabel Noemí, Rodríguez; Adolfo, Chaparro Amaya.

2010-12-01

309

Delay in Cleavage of Porcine Embryos after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Shows Poorer Embryonic Development  

Science.gov (United States)

In pigs, the embryonic developmental ability after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is inferior to that resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF). We evaluated the timing of cell division up to blastocyst formation on embryonic development after ICSI using either whole sperm (w-ICSI) or the sperm head alone (h-ICSI) and IVF as a control. At 10 h after ICSI or IVF, we selected only zygotes, and each of the zygotes/embryos was evaluated for cleavage every 24 h until 168 h. We then observed a delay in the 1st and 2nd cleavages of h-ICSI embryos and also in blastocoele formation by w-ICSI embryos in comparison with IVF embryos. The rate of blastocyst formation and the quality of blastocysts in both ICSI groups were inferior to those in the IVF group. In conclusion, the delay in cleavage of porcine ICSI embryos shows poorer embryonic development. PMID:24694523

NAKAI, Michiko; OZAWA, Manabu; MAEDOMARI, Naoki; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; ITO, Junya; ONISHI, Akira; KASHIWAZAKI, Naomi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

2014-01-01

310

Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

Laubert Tilman

2012-03-01

311

Organic molecules showing the characteristics of localised corrosion aggravation and inhibition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Novel experiment for the discovery of localised corrosion inhibitors. ? New method of identifying inhibitors promoting random distribution of anodic currents. ? Discovery of resorcinarene acid as an effective localised corrosion inhibitor. - Abstract: The behaviour of imidazoline and an acid functionalised resorcinarene as steel corrosion inhibitors in carbon dioxide (CO2)-saturated brine solutions has been studied using an electrochemically integrated multi-electrode array namely the wire beam electrode (WBE). Both imidazoline and resorcinarene acid provided excellent inhibition to general CO2 corrosion; however imidazoline was found to aggravate localised corrosion by creating a small number of major anodes that focused on a small area of the WBE surface, leading to highly concentrated anodic dissolution. The resorcinarene acid showed distinctively different behaviour by generating a large number of minor anodes randomly distributing over the WBE surface, leading to insignificant general anodic dissolution. These results indicate that resorcinarene acid provided effective localised corrosion inhibition by promoting a random distribution of insignificant anodic currents.

312

Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

2000-01-01

313

Transgenic Pm3b wheat lines show resistance to powdery mildew in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant resistance (R) genes are highly effective in protecting plants against diseases, but pathogens can overcome such genes relatively easily by adaptation. Consequently, in many cases R genes do not confer durable resistance in agricultural environments. One possible strategy to make the use of R genes more sustainable depends on the modification of R genes followed by transformation. To test a possible transgenic use of R genes, we overexpressed in wheat the Pm3b resistance gene against powdery mildew under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. Four independent transgenic lines were tested in the greenhouse and the field during 3?years. The four lines showed a five- to 600-fold transgene overexpression compared with the expression of the endogenous Pm3b gene in the landrace 'Chul'. Powdery mildew resistance was significantly improved in all lines in the greenhouse and the field, both with naturally occurring infection or after artificial inoculation. Under controlled environmental conditions, the line with the strongest overexpression of the Pm3b gene showed a dramatic increase in resistance to powdery mildew isolates that are virulent on the endogenous Pm3b. Under a variety of field conditions, but never in the greenhouse, three of the four transgenic lines showed pleiotropic effects on spike and leaf morphology. The highest overexpressing line had the strongest side effects, suggesting a correlation between expression level and phenotypic changes. These results demonstrate that the successful transgenic use of R genes critically depends on achieving an optimal level of their expression, possibly in a tissue-specific way. PMID:21438988

Brunner, Susanne; Hurni, Severine; Herren, Gerhard; Kalinina, Olena; von Burg, Simone; Zeller, Simon L; Schmid, Bernhard; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

2011-10-01

314

Vitamin E Derivative Alpha-Tocotrienol Failed to Show Neuroprotective Effects after Embolic Stroke in Rats  

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Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have demonstrated that pretreatment with alpha-tocotrienol (?-TCT can reduce ischemic damage in mice following middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion. It is also reported to decrease stroke-dependent brain tissue damage in 12-Lox-deficient mice and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of ?-TCT and rosiglitazone (RGZ at 3 hr after cerebral ischemia were investigated. Materials and MethodsStroke was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the MCA. Rats were assigned to vehicle, ?-TCT (1 or 10 mg/kg, RGZ and sham-operation. ResultsCompared to the control group, only RGZ decreased infarct volume (P<0.05, neurological deficits (P<0.05 and sensory impairments (P<0.01 but low and high doses of ?-TCT did not show any significant neuroprotective effect. ConclusionOur data showed that ?-TCT was not neuroprotective at 3 hr after the embolic model of stroke. Further studies should be undertaken to clarify the neuroprotective effects of ?-TCT after stroke.

Behnam Heshmatian

2009-03-01

315

Children with dyslexia show cortical hyperactivation in response to increasing literacy processing demands.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fMRI study aimed to examine how differences in literacy processing demands may affect cortical activation patterns in 11- to 12-year-old children with dyslexia as compared to children with typical reading skills. Eleven children with and 18 without dyslexia were assessed using a reading paradigm based on different stages of literacy development. In the analyses, six regions showed an interaction effect between group and condition in a factorial ANOVA. These regions were selected as regions of interest (ROI) for further analyses. Overall, the dyslexia group showed cortical hyperactivation compared to the typical group. The difference between the groups tended to increase with increasing processing demands. Differences in cortical activation were not reflected in in-scanner reading performance. The six regions further grouped into three patterns, which are discussed in terms of processing demands, compensatory mechanisms, orthography and contextual facilitation. We conclude that the observed hyperactivation is chiefly a result of compensatory activity, modulated by other factors. PMID:25566160

Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

2014-01-01

316

Cotton plants expressing CYP6AE14 double-stranded RNA show enhanced resistance to bollworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

RNA interference (RNAi) plays an important role in regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Previously, we generated Arabidopsis and tobacco plants expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting a cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) P450 gene, CYP6AE14. Bollworms fed on transgenic dsCYP6AE14 plants showed suppressed CYP6AE14 expression and reduced growth on gossypol-containing diet (Mao et al., in Nat Biotechnol 25: 1307-1313, 2007). Here we report generation and analysis of dsRNA-expressing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants. Bollworm larvae reared on T2 plants of the ds6-3 line exhibited drastically retarded growth, and the transgenic plants were less damaged by bollworms than the control. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the CYP6AE14 expression level was reduced in the larvae as early as 4 h after feeding on the transgenic plants; accordingly, the CYP6AE14 protein level dropped. These results demonstrated that transgenic cotton plants expressing dsCYP6AE14 acquired enhanced resistance to cotton bollworms, and that RNAi technology can be used for engineering insect-proof cotton cultivar. PMID:20953975

Mao, Ying-Bo; Tao, Xiao-Yuan; Xue, Xue-Yi; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

2011-06-01

317

The two Tribolium E(spl) genes show evolutionarily conserved expression and function during embryonic neurogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tribolium castaneum is a well-characterised model insect, whose short germ-band mode of embryonic development is characteristic of many insect species and differs from the exhaustively studied Drosophila. Mechanisms of early neurogenesis, however, show significant conservation with Drosophila, as a characteristic pattern of neuroblasts arises from neuroectoderm proneural clusters in response to the bHLH activator Ash, a homologue of Achaete-Scute. Here we study the expression and function of two other bHLH proteins, the bHLH-O repressors E(spl)1 and E(spl)3. Their Drosophila homologues are expressed in response to Notch signalling and antagonize the activity of Achaete-Scute proteins, thus restricting the number of nascent neuroblasts. E(spl)1 and 3 are the only E(spl) homologues in Tribolium and both show expression in the cephalic and ventral neuroectoderm during embryonic neurogenesis, as well as a dynamic pattern of expression in other tissues. Their expression starts early, soon after Ash expression and is dependent on both Ash and Notch activities. They act redundantly, since a double E(spl) knockdown (but not single knockdowns) results in neurogenesis defects similar to those caused by Notch loss-of-function. A number of other activities have been evolutionarily conserved, most notably their ability to interact with proneural proteins Scute and Daughterless. PMID:23485410

Kux, Kristina; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Delidakis, Christos

2013-01-01

318

Bacterial biofilm shows persistent resistance to liquid wetting and gas penetration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the world's bacteria exist in robust, sessile communities known as biofilms, ubiquitously adherent to environmental surfaces from ocean floors to human teeth and notoriously resistant to antimicrobial agents. We report the surprising observation that Bacillus subtilis biofilm colonies and pellicles are extremely nonwetting, greatly surpassing the repellency of Teflon toward water and lower surface tension liquids. The biofilm surface remains nonwetting against up to 80% ethanol as well as other organic solvents and commercial biocides across a large and clinically important concentration range. We show that this property limits the penetration of antimicrobial liquids into the biofilm, severely compromising their efficacy. To highlight the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we performed experiments with mutant biofilms lacking ECM components and with functionalized polymeric replicas of biofilm microstructure. We show that the nonwetting properties are a synergistic result of ECM composition, multiscale roughness, reentrant topography, and possibly yet other factors related to the dynamic nature of the biofilm surface. Finally, we report the impenetrability of the biofilm surface by gases, implying defense capability against vapor-phase antimicrobials as well. These remarkable properties of B. subtilis biofilm, which may have evolved as a protection mechanism against native environmental threats, provide a new direction in both antimicrobial research and bioinspired liquid-repellent surface paradigms.

Epstein, Alexander K.; Pokroy, Boaz; Seminara, Agnese; Aizenberg, Joanna (Harvard)

2011-09-28

319

Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls  

Science.gov (United States)

The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

2008-01-01

320

Regenerated soleus muscle shows reduced creatine kinase efflux after contractile activity in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regenerated skeletal muscles show less muscle damage after strenuous muscle exercise. The aim of the studies was to investigate if the regeneration is associated with reduced muscle creatine kinase (CK) efflux immediately after the exercise. Cryolesion was applied to the soleus muscle of 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice. Then total CK efflux was assessed in vitro in the regenerated muscles without exercise or after 100 eccentric contractions. The same measurements were performed in the control muscles, which were not exposed to cryolesion. Regenerated muscles generated weaker (P < 0.05) twitches, but stronger (P < 0.05) 150-Hz and 300-Hz tetani with prolonged (P < 0.01) contraction times compared with the control muscles. There was no difference between regenerated and control muscles in the total CK efflux without exercise, but only control muscles showed an increase (P < 0.001) in the CK efflux after the exercise. Our results suggest that muscle regeneration is associated with modulation of contractile properties and improvement in muscle resistance to damage after eccentric exercise. PMID:25565131

Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

2015-02-01

321

Polyethylene Glycol Formulations Show Different Soft Tissue Remodeling and Angiogenesis Features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Soft tissue regeneration and remodeling is fundamental in periodontal surgery, thus we investigated the angiogenic response elicited in the subcutaneous tissue of rats by a proprietary, polyethylene glycol hydrogel formulation (PEG) alone or conjugated with specific amelogenins (EMD) or nanobioglass particles (NBG). Methods: Discs with three different formulations (PEG, PEG-EMD, and PEG-NBG) were inserted into four unconnected subcutaneous pouches, produced on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=56, divided into three groups), and used for blood flow evaluation by Laser Doppler analysis at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks or for histological and immunohistochemical analysis at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Results: All formulations showed tissue integration, absence of inflammatory reaction (as revealed by myeloperoxidase staining), and increased vascularization (by counting microvascular density following CD31 staining). Laser Doppler analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in blood flow after 1 week for PEG-EMD and after 2 weeks for PEG-NBG. The angiogenic response was significantly increased at 1, 2, and 8 weeks for PEG-EMD, but only at 4 weeks for PEG-NBG. Conclusions: The studied biomaterials revealed equal biocompatibility and tissue integration properties. PEG-EMD showed the most pronounced and consistent angiogenic response in the early phases of wound healing, while the PEG-NBG formulation provided a slower and delayed, but relevant, response. PMID:25275669

Oteri, Giacomo; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pisano, Michele; Peditto, Matteo; Squadrito, Francesco; Bitto, Alessandra

2014-11-12

322

A Phantom study showing the importance of compression in conventional diagnostic X-ray examinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compression was earlier an important and well-managed part of the clinical routine, but during the past 15-20 y the use has diminished, except for mammography, where it is a prerequisite for having images of high quality and low radiation dose. According to national and European regulations and recommendations, it is important to apply the compression technique to obtain the optimal image quality and radiation dose in common conventional diagnostic examinations. Current experience of compression technique is, however, based on studies carried out a long time ago and with analogue imaging techniques. An anthropomorphic phantom was used to show the importance of compression in conventional X-ray examinations. The patient thicknesses on volunteers with and without compression was measured. This measurement was done to investigate compression potential on patients and to select suitable phantom thicknesses. The X-ray examinations that were included in the study were abdomen overview, lumbar spine and the pelvis. The results from the phantom study showed a large dependency of the kerma-area product value on the phantom thickness. The phantom study suggests that there is a potential for significant reduction of radiation dose to the patient by using compression also with modern X-ray techniques. A dose reduction of up to 50% or even more may be obtained. (authors)

323

Hoarding disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder show different patterns of neural activity during response inhibition.  

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Although hoarding disorder (HD) has been historically conceptualized as a subtype or dimension of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), preliminary evidence suggests that these two disorders have distinct neural underpinnings. The aim of the present study was to compare the hemodynamic responses of HD patients, OCD patients, and healthy controls (HC) during response inhibition on a high-conflict Go/NoGo task that has previously proved sensitive to OCD. Participants comprised 24 HD patients, 24 OCD patients, and 24 HCs who completed a Go/NoGo task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although behavioral data showed no difference among the groups in Go/NoGo task performance, significant differences in hemodynamic activity were noted. During correct rejects (successful response inhibition), HD patients showed greater right precentral gyrus activation, whereas OCD patients exhibited greater right orbitofrontal activation, as assessed using a region of interest approach. During errors of commission (response inhibition failures), OCD patients, but not HD patients, were characterized by excessive activity in left and right orbitofrontal gyrus. The present results lend further support to the biological distinction between HD and OCD, and they are consistent with previous research suggesting frontal hypoactivity in HD patients during hoarding-unrelated tasks. PMID:24389161

Tolin, David F; Witt, Suzanne T; Stevens, Michael C

2014-02-28

324

Alectinib shows potent antitumor activity against RET-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer.  

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Alectinib/CH5424802 is a known inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and is being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of ALK fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, some RET and ROS1 fusion genes have been implicated as driver oncogenes in NSCLC and have become molecular targets for antitumor agents. This study aims to explore additional target indications of alectinib by testing its ability to inhibit the activity of kinases other than ALK. We newly verified that alectinib inhibited RET kinase activity and the growth of RET fusion-positive cells by suppressing RET phosphorylation. In contrast, alectinib hardly inhibited ROS1 kinase activity unlike other ALK/ROS1 inhibitors such as crizotinib and LDK378. It also showed antitumor activity in mouse models of tumors driven by the RET fusion. In addition, alectinib showed kinase inhibitory activity against RET gatekeeper mutations (RET V804L and V804M) and blocked cell growth driven by the KIF5B-RET V804L and V804M. Our results suggest that alectinib is effective against RET fusion-positive tumors. Thus, alectinib might be a therapeutic option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25349307

Kodama, Tatsushi; Tsukaguchi, Toshiyuki; Satoh, Yasuko; Yoshida, Miyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Kondoh, Osamu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

325

Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Organic charge transfer salt of ?-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br shows superconductivity. ? We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. ? Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. ? The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of ?-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a 3He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

326

Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic charge transfer salt of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br shows superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a {sup 3}He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

Muraoka, Yuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamashita, Satoshi [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nakazawa@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

2012-03-20

327

Montmorillonite enhanced ciprofloxacin transport in saturated porous media with sorbed ciprofloxacin showing antibiotic activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) is immobile in the subsurface but it has been frequently detected in the aquatic system. Therefore it is important to investigate the factors impacting CIP's mobilization in aquifer. Laboratory columns packed with sand were used to test colloid-facilitated CIP transport by 1) using kaolinite or montmorillonite to mobilize presorbed-CIP in a column or 2) co-transporting with CIP by pre-mixing them before transport. The Langmuir model showed that CIP sorption by montmorillonite (23 g kg- 1) was 100 times more effective than sand or kaolinite. Even with strong CIP complexation ability to Fe/Al coating on sand surface, montmorillonite promoted CIP transport, but not kaolinite. All presorbed-CIP by sand was mobilized by montmorillonite after 3 pore volumes through co-transporting of CIP with montmorillonite. The majority of CIP was fixed onto the montmorillonite interlayer but still showed inhibition of bacteria growth. Our results suggested that montmorillonite with high CIP sorption ability can act as a carrier to enhance CIP's mobility in aquifer.

Chen, Hao; Gao, Bin; Yang, Liu-Yan; Ma, Lena Q.

2015-02-01

328

BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress

329

BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress. PMID:16298336

Lee, Suk-Bae; Ham, Byung-Kook; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

2006-01-01

330

Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp

2013-08-30

331

[Twelve-month-old infants show social preferences for native-dialect speakers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research demonstrates that social preferences for native language speakers emerge early in development, indicating that infants prefer speakers from their own society. Dialect may also be a reliable cue to group membership because it provides information about an individual's social and ethnic identity. We investigated whether infants showed social preferences toward native-dialect speakers over those with unfamiliar dialects. Infants at 9 and 12 months of age were shown videos in which two adults (a native-dialect speaker and an unfamiliar-dialect speaker) each spoke to and then offered an identical toy to the participating infants. Next, two real versions of the toys were presented to the infants in person. The 12-month-old infants preferentially reached for the toy offered by the native-dialect speaker. The 9-month-old infants also showed a preference for native-dialect speakers but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that dialects may be a reliable cue to group membership, and that infants' orientation toward members of their native community may guide their social and cultural learning. PMID:25272442

Okumura, Yuko; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Sachie; Itakura, Shoji

2014-08-01

332

Attitude toward obesity showed by the teacher-training pupils of the University of Huelva  

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Full Text Available The present study analyses the attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that show the pupils of first and third course of the University of Huelva (N= 299 comparing the students of physical education (N= 123 with the students of kindergarten and primary education (N= 176. This design supposes a replication of the investigation made by O’Brien, Hunter and Banks (2006, who compared the attitude toward the obesity between one group of students of physical education and another group that studies psychology. In order to measure the attitude toward the obesity, explicit and implicit instruments, together with a questionnaire of physical-sport habits were used. The results confirm that all the pupils present a negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight, being higher in the students of physical education, and among these higher in the pupils of third course. On the other hand, the pupils that show more interest toward the sport, and those students that practice more sports, possess a higher negative attitude toward the obesity and the overweight that those students that are not interested in or don’t practice sport

Carmona Márquez, José

2012-07-01

333

Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

Cotter Finbarr E

2009-08-01

334

Decision making by humans in a behavioral task: do humans, like pigeons, show suboptimal choice?  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent with human gambling behavior but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons show a strong preference for an alternative with low probability and high payoff (a gambling-like alternative) over an alternative with a greater net payoff (Zentall & Stagner, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1203-1208, 2011). In the present research, we asked whether humans would show suboptimal choice on a task involving choices with probabilities similar to those for pigeons. In Experiment 1, when we selected participants on the basis of their self-reported gambling activities, we found a significantly greater choice of the alternative involving low probability and high payoff (gambling-like alternative) than for a group that reported an absence of gambling activity. In Experiment 2, we found that when the inhibiting abilities of typical humans were impaired by a self-regulatory depletion manipulation, they were more likely to choose the gambling-like alternative. Taken together, the results suggest that this task is suitable for the comparative study of suboptimal decision-making behavior and the mechanisms that underlie it. PMID:22328280

Molet, Mikael; Miller, Holly C; Laude, Jennifer R; Kirk, Chelsea; Manning, Brandon; Zentall, Thomas R

2012-12-01

335

Children with dyslexia show cortical hyperactivation in response to increasing literacy processing demands  

Science.gov (United States)

This fMRI study aimed to examine how differences in literacy processing demands may affect cortical activation patterns in 11- to 12-year-old children with dyslexia as compared to children with typical reading skills. Eleven children with and 18 without dyslexia were assessed using a reading paradigm based on different stages of literacy development. In the analyses, six regions showed an interaction effect between group and condition in a factorial ANOVA. These regions were selected as regions of interest (ROI) for further analyses. Overall, the dyslexia group showed cortical hyperactivation compared to the typical group. The difference between the groups tended to increase with increasing processing demands. Differences in cortical activation were not reflected in in-scanner reading performance. The six regions further grouped into three patterns, which are discussed in terms of processing demands, compensatory mechanisms, orthography and contextual facilitation. We conclude that the observed hyperactivation is chiefly a result of compensatory activity, modulated by other factors. PMID:25566160

Morken, Frøydis; Helland, Turid; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Specht, Karsten

2014-01-01

336

Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

Mulder Chris JJ

2011-01-01

337

Modified equation to predict leak/rupture criteria for axially through-wall notched X80 and X100 linepipes having higher Charpy energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-strength pipelines are now used for gas pipelines in low population density areas in Japan. The required fracture toughness of the line pipe materials must be assessed to prevent fractures caused by third-party mechanical damage. This paper presented a method of predicting leak and rupture criteria for API X80 and X100 grade line pipes. The method was based on an examination of hydrostatic full-scale tests for pipes of various strengths with an axially through-wall (TW). The TW notch tests results were used to establish the relationship between the initial notch lengths and the maximum hoop stresses during the TW notch tests. The obtained leak/rupture criteria were then compared to predictions obtained using a Charpy V-notch (CVN) absorbed energy-based equation. The comparison showed that the CVN-based equation was not applicable for pipes with CVN energies greater than 130 J and flow stresses higher than those available with X65 grade pipes. The static absorbed energy for ductile cracking was then used to represent the fracture toughness of the pipe material. The static absorbed energy was determined by investigating cut and buffed Charpy V-notch specimens after static 3-point bending tests. The instrumented Charpy tests showed that the deformation behavior of the Charpy specimens changed with increased absorbed energy. The limitation of the linepipe grade was caused by the fact that the leak/rupture criteria became dependent on a bulging correction factor and flow stress irrespective of CVN energy. A modified equation was proposed for the prediction of leak/rupture criteria for linepipes with a higher CVN energy, and a higher flow stress. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs.

Kawaguchi, S.; Hagiwara, N. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Pipeline Technology Center; Ohata, M.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Manufacturing Science

2004-07-01

338

Combination of Pitavastatin and melatonin shows partial antineoplastic effects in a rat breast carcinoma model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous results indicated significant tumor-suppressive effects of different statins in rat mammary carcinogenesis. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the chemopreventive effects of Pitavastatin alone and in combination with the pineal hormone melatonin in the model of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pitavastatin was administered dietary (10mg/kg) and melatonin in an aqueous solution (20?g/ml). Chemoprevention began 7 days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks until autopsy. At autopsy, mammary tumors were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Compared to controls, Pitavastatin alone reduced average tumor volume by 58% and lengthened latency by 8 days; on the other hand, the drug increased tumor frequency by 23%. Combined administration of Pitavastatin with melatonin decreased tumor frequency by 23%, tumor volume by 44% and lengthened tumor latency by 5.5 days compared to control animals. The analysis of carcinoma cells showed significant increase in caspase-3 expression in both treated groups and a tendency of increased caspase-7 expression after Pitavastatin treatment alone. Significant expression decrease of Ki67 was found in carcinoma cells from both treated groups. Compared to control carcinoma cells, Pitavastatin alone increased VEGF expression by 41%, however melatonin totally reversed its undesirable effect. Pitavastatin combined with melatonin significantly increased femur compact bone thickness in animals. Pitavastatin alone decreased plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels, however it significantly increased levels of glucose. In summary, our results show a partial antineoplastic effect of Pitavastatin combined with melatonin in the rat mammary gland carcinoma model. PMID:25450902

Kubatka, Peter; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Orendáš, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Kružliak, Peter; Adamicová, Katarína; Pé?, Martin; Stollárová, Nadežda; Adamkov, Marián

2014-10-01

339

Patients with persistent pain after breast cancer surgery show both delayed and enhanced cortical stimulus processing  

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Full Text Available Emanuel N van den Broeke,1 Marjan de Vries,1 Harry van Goor,3 Kris CP Vissers,1 Clementina M van Rijn,2 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith11Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, 2Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, 3Department of Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, HB Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: Women who undergo breast cancer surgery have a high risk of developing persistent pain. We investigated brain processing of painful stimuli using electroencephalograms (EEG to identify event-related potentials (ERPs in patients with persistent pain after breast cancer treatment.Methods: Nineteen patients (eight women with persistent pain, eleven without persistent pain, who were surgically treated more than 1 year previously for breast cancer (mastectomy, lumpectomy, and axillary lymph node dissection and/or had chemoradiotherapy, were recruited and compared with eleven healthy female volunteers. A block of 20 painful electrical stimuli was applied to the calf, somatopically remote from the initially injured or painful area. Simultaneously an EEG was recorded, and a visual analog scale (VAS pain rating obtained.Results: In comparison with healthy volunteers, breast cancer treatment without persistent pain is associated with accelerated stimulus processing (reduced P260 latency and shows a tendency to be less intense (lower P260 amplitude. In comparison to patients without persistent pain, persistent pain after breast cancer treatment is associated with stimulus processing that is both delayed (ie, increased latency of the ERP positivity between 250–310 ms [P260], and enhanced (ie, enhanced P260 amplitude.Conclusion: These results show that treatment and persistent pain have opposite effects on cortical responsiveness.Keywords: breast cancer surgery, persistent pain, nerve injury, event-related potentials, pain processing

Van den Broeke EN

2012-06-01

340

Gefitinib (IRESSA sensitive lung cancer cell lines show phosphorylation of Akt without ligand stimulation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of gefitinib (IRESSA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC lend support to the need for improved patient selection in terms of gefitinib use. Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene is reported to be associated with clinical responsiveness to gefitinib. However, gefitinib-sensitive and prolonged stable-disease-defined tumors without EGFR gene mutation have also been reported. Methods To identify other key factors involved in gefitinib sensitivity, we analyzed the protein expression of molecules within the EGFR family, PI3K-Akt and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways and examined the sensitivity to gefitinib using the MTT cell proliferation assay in 23 lung cancer cell lines. Results We identified one highly sensitive cell line (PC9, eight cell lines displaying intermediate-sensitivity, and 14 resistant cell lines. Only PC9 and PC14 (intermediate-sensitivity displayed an EGFR gene mutation including amplification. Eight out of the nine cell lines showing sensitivity had Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation, while only three out of the 14 resistant lines displayed this characteristic (P = 0.0059. Furthermore, the ratio of phosphor-Akt/total Akt in sensitive cells was higher than that observed in resistant cells (P = 0.0016. Akt phosphorylation was partially inhibited by gefitinib in all sensitive cell lines. Conclusion These results suggest that Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation may play a key signaling role in gefitinib sensitivity, especially intermediate-sensitivity. In addition, expression analyses of the EGFR family, EGFR gene mutation, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that the phosphorylated state of EGFR and Akt might be a useful clinical marker of Akt activation without ligand stimulation, in addition to EGFR gene mutation and amplification, particularly in adenocarcinomas.

Minegishi Yuji

2006-12-01

341

Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity  

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Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

A. Hamid A. Hadi

2012-05-01

342

Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

Wood John N

2006-02-01

343

HFE H63D mutation frequency shows an increase in Turkish women with breast cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. The association between cancer and HFE hetero- or homozygosity has previously been shown including hepatocellular and nonhepatocellular malignancies. This study was performed to compare frequencies of HFE C282Y and H63D variants in Turkish women with breast cancer and healthy controls. Methods Archived DNA samples of Hacettepe University Oncology Institute were used in this study. The HFE gene was investigated by PCR-RFLP. Results All subjects studied were free from C282Y mutation. Thirty-nine patients had H63D mutation and were all heterozygous. H63D allele frequency was 22.2% (39/176 in the breast cancer patients, and 14% (28/200 in the healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of cases with HFE H63D phenotype showed significant difference between breast cancer and healthy volunteers (P = 0.02. Conclusion Our results suggest that HFE H63D mutation frequencies were increased in the breast cancer patients in comparison to those in the general population. Also, odds ratios (odds ratio = 2.05 computed in this study suggest that H63D has a positive association with breast cancer.

Guler Emine

2006-02-01

344

Adolescents with Mild Stunting Show Alterations in Glucose and Insulin Metabolism  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. To evaluate glucose and insulin profiles in adolescents with mild stunting and overweight in order to assess the possibility of increased predisposition to diabetes. Subjects and Methods. The study population consisted of 66 pubertal adolescents classified as mildly stunted (height-for-age z scores ??2 and Results. In the group with mild stunting, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in overweight adolescents compared with those of normal weight, whereas HOMA-B levels were significantly lower. Adolescents with mild stunting showed significantly higher accumulations of body and abdominal fat than their normal stature counterparts. Conclusions. The presence of mild stunting was associated with higher levels of glucose and insulin, diminished function of beta cells, and increased insulin resistance. These results reinforce the need for intervention in adolescents with mild stunting. PMID:21318152

da Luz Santos, Carla Danusa; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Martins, Vinicius José Baccin; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

2010-01-01

345

Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ?3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host. PMID:24991740

Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

2014-05-13

346

Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

347

Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

Mountcastle, A M [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Concord Field Station, Bedford, MA 01730 (United States); Daniel, T L, E-mail: mtcastle@u.washington.ed [Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2010-12-15

348

Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

Jahnke Vanessa E

2012-08-01

349

ISSR markers show differentiation among Italian populations of Asparagus acutifolius L  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Asparagus acutifolius L. is a dioecious and native plant species, widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. It is known for its fine flavour and could represent an important resource for cultivation programs in desert areas. Few molecular studies have been performed on this species. In the present paper, the ISSR technique was employed to study genetic diversity in Italian A. acutifolius. Results Twenty-three primers produced a total of 228 polymorphic fragments used to evaluate genetic variation. FST (0.4561 and Theta B (0.4776 values indicate a wide genetic variation among the samples examined. The distance UPGMA tree grouped together the genotypes strictly according to their geographical origin, showing that each sample is genetically structured and can be considered a distinct population. AMOVA analysis further confirmed genetic structuring of the populations. Population-specific fragments were also detected. Conclusion The results suggest that ISSR markers are useful in distinguishing the populations of A. acutifolius according to geographical origin, and confirm the importance of genetic studies for designing germplasm conservation strategies.

Gaudio Luciano

2005-03-01

350

Symptom correlates among adolescents showing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder versus Conduct Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

21 adolescents with a primary diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 24 Conduct Disordered, and 23 control adolescents were compared on measures of depression, anxiety, behavior problems, and fears. Analyses showed that posttraumatic adolescents showed associated symptoms of depression and state-anxiety, Conduct Disordered adolescents showed depressive trends, and both groups were evaluated by their teachers as showing significant behavior problems. PMID:1784685

Atlas, J A; Di Scipio, W J; Schwartz, R; Sessoms, L

1991-12-01

351

Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.  

OpenAIRE

Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathwaysDietary item or component studied: black raspberries. Outcome studied: 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2); 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)Study type: humansStudy design: cohort study. Study size: 10 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases. Tissue/biological material/sample size: urine. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Mean concentrations of 8-Iso-PGF...

Kresty, Laura A.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Hammond, Cynthia D.; Baird, Maureen E.; Mele, Jennifer M.; Stoner, Gary D.; Fromkes, John J.

2006-01-01

352

A small charge for a big result: The case of M&S shows that choice can encourage positive environmental behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Encouraging individuals to change their behaviour towards the environment is an increasingly important area of policy-making. Julian Le Grand and Kate Disney find that the introduction of a charge for plastic bags in Marks and Spencer shops successfully encouraged pro-environmental behaviour and explore the implications for environmental policy.

Le Grand, Julian; Disney, Kate

2011-01-01

353

2?-Fluoroarabino- and Arabinonucleic Acid Show Different Conformations, Resulting in Deviating RNA Affinities and Processing of Their Heteroduplexes with RNA by RNase H†‡  

OpenAIRE

2?-Deoxy-2?-fluoro-arabinonucleic acid (FANA) and ANA paired to RNA are substrates of RNase H. The conformation of the natural DNA:RNA hybrid substrates appears to be neither A-form nor B-form. Consistent with this the conformations of FANA and ANA were found to be intermediate between the A- and B-forms. However, FANA opposite RNA is preferred by RNase H over ANA, and the RNA affinity of FANA considerably exceeds that of ANA. By investigating the conformational boundaries of FANA and ANA...

Li, Feng; Sarkhel, Sanjay; Wilds, Christopher J.; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Prakash, Thazha P.; Manoharan, Muthiah; Egli, Martin

2006-01-01

354

Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Angola show the StctVMNT haplotype in the pfcrt gene  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment remains a mainstay of malaria control, but it is unfortunately strongly compromised by drug resistance, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite. Although P. falciparum chemoresistance is well recognized all over the world, limited data are available on the distribution and prevalence of pfcrt and pfmdr1 haplotypes that mediate resistance to commonly used drugs and that show distinct geographic differences. Methods Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples collected in 2007 at four municipalities of Luanda, Angola, were genotyped using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes were assessed and haplotype prevalences were determined. Results and Discussion The most prevalent pfcrt haplotype was StctVMNT (representing amino acids at codons 72-76. This result was unexpected, since the StctVMNT haplotype has previously been seen mainly in parasites from South America and India. The CVIET, CVMNT and CVINT drug-resistance haplotypes were also found, and one previously undescribed haplotype (CVMDT was detected. Regarding pfmdr1, the most prevalent haplotype was YEYSNVD (representing amino acids at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246. Wild haplotypes for pfcrt and pfmdr1 were uncommon; 3% of field isolates harbored wild type pfcrt (CVMNK, whereas 21% had wild type pfmdr1 (NEYSNVD. The observed predominance of the StctVMNT haplotype in Angola could be a result of frequent travel between Brazil and Angola citizens in the context of selective pressure of heavy CQ use. Conclusions The high prevalence of the pfcrt SVMNT haplotype and the pfmdr1 86Y mutation confirm high-level chloroquine resistance and might suggest reduced efficacy of amodiaquine in Angola. Further studies must be encouraged to examine the in vitro sensitivity of pfcrt SVMNT parasites to artesunate and amodiaquine for better conclusive data.

Lutucuta Kosi Florbela JI

2010-06-01

355

Areva - 2011 Annual results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Areva's backlog established at 45.6 billion euros at the end of 2011, significantly increasing at the end of a year marked by the Fukushima accident, confirms the commercial dynamism of the group alongside its customers and reinforces the visibility on its future business level. In a difficult context, the slight decline in revenue in 2011 demonstrates the robustness of Areva's integrated model, resting mainly on recurring business generated in relation to Areva's customers' nuclear installed base, and benefiting from the development of Areva's renewable energies operations. Free operating cash flow before tax, although down over the whole year in 2011, improved in the second half, showing the first effects of Areva's stronger focus on cash generation and debt management. After the success of Areva's bond issue in September 2011, the Group's liquidity remains high at the end of 2011. The Areva teams are now dedicating all of their efforts to the deployment of the 'Action 2016' strategic action plan, which had already yielded its first positive results at the end of 2011, with an improvement in the cost structure of Areva's operations, an increase in order intake, and the launch of several disposals of minority interests. Summary of the 2011 financial results: - Backlog: euro 45.6 bn, +3.1% vs. 2010, i.e +6.7% over 3 months; - Revenue: euro 8.872 bn, i.e -2.6% vs. 2010; - Operating income: - euro 1.923 bn; - Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent: - euro 2.424 bn; - EBITDA: euro 1.068 bn ( euro 420 m excluding Siemens impact); - Free operating cash flow before tax: - euro 2.397 bn (- euro 1.366 bn excluding Siemens impacts), improvement over the second half; - Decrease in net debt of euro 124 m for the year; - Significant drop in general and administrative expenses, with a noticeable reduction between the first and the second half; - Launch of several disposals of minority interests

356

New results from VES  

CERN Document Server

The results of the patial wave analysis(PWA) of the pi+pi-pi- and omegapi-pi0 systems are presented. The a3 and a4(2040) signals are observed in the rho(770)pi and f2(1270)pi channels. Indications of the a1' meson existence was found in the 1+0+ rhopi S-wave. The decay branching ratio of the a2(1320)- to omegapi-pi0 was measured. The 2+1+ wave shows a broad bump at M~1.7GeV. The decays of the pi2(1670), a4(2040) and pi(1740) into omegarho- were found. The resonance in the b1(1235)pi wave with exotic quantum numbers jpc=1-+ at M~1.6 is observed and the simultaneous analysis of the 1-+ wave in the b1(1235)pi, etha'pi and rhopi final states is presented.

Dorofeev, V A

1999-01-01

357

Perception And Preferences Of People Regarding Reality Shows – A Study In Navsari City Of Gujarat  

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Full Text Available The rising popularity of the reality shows on Indian television has added a new dimension to the production of TV programs. Most of the television shows which are being telecast nowadays are reality shows specializing in dancing, singing, and acting. Today's reality shows are rewriting our cultural scripts, altering our perception, our social relationships and our relationships to the natural world. In this descriptive study, the researcher has found that people are really fond of watching reality shows which range from cookery to talent hunt and comedy show types. Majority of the respondents, however, felt that these types of shows are often scripted for increasing TRPs and increasing financial and commercial success. Major drivers for watching reality shows are break from routine, controversies, glamour and entertainment. However, most of the people were not still holding any views whether such types of reality shows make any sort of impact on the society.

Zakirhusen Patel

2013-12-01

358

Men and women with bisexual identities show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction to male and female "swimsuit models".  

Science.gov (United States)

Do self-identified bisexual men and women actually show bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest? To answer this question, I studied bisexual men's and women's sexual attraction to photographed male and female "swimsuit models" that varied in attractiveness. Participants (663 college students and gay pride attendees, including 14 self-identified bisexual men and 17 self-identified bisexual women) rated their degree of sexual attraction to 34 male and 34 female swimsuit models. Participants' viewing times to models were unobtrusively assessed. Results showed that bisexual men and women showed bisexual patterns of attraction and viewing times to photo models, which strongly distinguished them from same-sex heterosexual and homosexual participants. In contrast to other groups, which showed evidence of greater male than female category specificity, bisexual men and women did not differ in category specificity. Results suggest that there are subsets of men and women who display truly bisexual patterns of sexual attraction and interest. PMID:22875715

Lippa, Richard A

2013-02-01

359

Monocytes of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia show alterations in cholesterol metabolism  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma cholesterol promotes the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in which monocyte-derived lipid-laden macrophages are frequently found. To analyze, if circulating monocytes already show increased lipid content and differences in lipoprotein metabolism, we compared monocytes from patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH with those from healthy individuals. Methods Cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol metabolite serum levels of FH and of healthy, gender/age matched control subjects were measured by combined gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Monocytes from patients with FH and from healthy subjects were isolated by antibody-assisted density centrifugation. Gene expression profiles of isolated monocytes were measured using Affymetrix HG-U 133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. We compared monocyte gene expression profiles from FH patients with healthy controls using a Welch T-test with correction for multiple testing (p Results Using microarray analysis we found in FH patients a significant up-regulation of 1,617 genes and a down-regulation of 701 genes compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. These include genes of proteins that are involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, disposition, and cellular efflux of cholesterol. In addition, plasma from FH patients contains elevated amounts of sterols and oxysterols. An increased uptake of oxidized as well as of native LDL by FH monocytes combined with a down-regulation of NPC1 and ABCA1 explains the lipid accumulation observed in these cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that circulating FH monocytes show differences in cell physiology that may contribute to the early onset of atherosclerosis in this disease.

Soufi Muhidien

2008-11-01

360

Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.. We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole tissue samples. We demonstrate the method on selected invertebrate and vertebrate specimens, and propose that reinvestigation of historical serial section material may be regarded as a special benefit.

Metscher Brian D

2010-04-01

361

Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG. Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1 for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid.

Ikegami Toru

2001-09-01

362

De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature. The transcriptome information of this species is limited with the availability of few hundreds of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the public databases. In order to gain insight into temperature mediated molecular changes, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and analyses were carried out at 15°C and 25°C, the temperatures known to modulate picrosides content. Results Using paired-end (PE Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 20,593,412 and 44,229,272 PE reads were obtained after quality filtering for 15°C and 25°C, respectively. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 74,336 assembled transcript sequences were obtained, with an average coverage of 76.6 and average length of 439.5. Guanine-cytosine (GC content was observed to be 44.6%, while the transcriptome exhibited abundance of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 45.63% markers. Large scale expression profiling through "read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM", showed changes in several biological processes and metabolic pathways including cytochrome P450s (CYPs, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs and those associated with picrosides biosynthesis. RPKM data were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of 19 genes, wherein 11 genes behaved in accordance with the two expression methods. Conclusions Study generated transcriptome of P. kurrooa at two different temperatures. Large scale expression profiling through RPKM showed major transcriptome changes in response to temperature reflecting alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways, and provided insight of GC content and SSR markers. Analysis also identified putative CYPs and UGTs that could help in discovering the hitherto unknown genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis.

Gahlan Parul

2012-03-01

363

Both right- and left-handers show a bias to attend others' right arm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The common-coding hypothesis suggests that the more similar an observed action is to the way the observer would perform it, the stronger is the ensuing activation of motor representations. Therefore, producing actions could prime perception so that observers would be particularly responsive to (i.e. biased to perceive) actions that are related to, and share features with, their own actions. If this similarity principle also applies to handedness, right- and left-handers should be more likely to perceive actions as performed with their dominant rather than non-dominant hand. In two experiments, participants were required to indicate the perceived orientation (front or back view) of pictures of ambiguous human silhouettes performing one-handed manual actions. Experiment 1, in which 300 right-handers and 60 left-handers reported the orientation of a single silhouette seen for as much as they wished, showed that participants perceived the figures more frequently in an orientation congruent with a movement performed with the right rather than the left hand. Experiment 2, in which 12 right-handers and 12 left-handers reported the orientation of 52 silhouettes seen for 300 ms, showed similar results when multiple responses per participant were collected rather than only one. Contrary to our expectations, no difference was observed between right- and left-handers, which might suggest an attentional bias towards the right arm of human bodies in both groups. Moreover, participants were more likely to perceive the figure as front-facing than as back-facing, possibly due to the greater adaptive relevance of approaching compared to receding individuals. PMID:25318614

Marzoli, Daniele; Lucafò, Chiara; Pagliara, Alessandra; Cappuccio, Romina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Tommasi, Luca

2015-02-01

364

Airway wall thickening and emphysema show independent familial aggregation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

RATIONALE: It is unclear whether airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and whether these phenotypes cluster within families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether airway wall thickening and emphysema (1) make independent contributions to the severity of COPD and (2) show independent aggregation in families of individuals with COPD. METHODS: Index cases with COPD and their smoking siblings underwent spirometry and were offered high-resolution computed tomography scans of the thorax to assess the severity of airway wall thickening and emphysema. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 3,096 individuals were recruited to the study, of whom 1,159 (519 probands and 640 siblings) had technically adequate high-resolution computed tomography scans without significant non-COPD-related thoracic disease. Airway wall thickness correlated with pack-years smoked (P < or = 0.001) and symptoms of chronic bronchitis (P < 0.001). FEV(1) (expressed as % predicted) was independently associated with airway wall thickness at a lumen perimeter of 10 mm (P = 0.0001) and 20 mm (P = 0.0013) and emphysema at -950 Hounsfield units (P < 0.0001). There was independent familial aggregation of both the emphysema (adjusted odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0; P < or = 0.02) and airway disease phenotypes (P < 0.0001) of COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Airway wall thickening and emphysema make independent contributions to airflow obstruction in COPD. These phenotypes show independent aggregation within families of individuals with COPD, suggesting that different genetic factors influence these disease processes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/1

Patel, Bipen D; Coxson, Harvey O

2008-01-01

365

Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils. PMID:19840995

Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

2009-12-01

366

Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth  

Science.gov (United States)

It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is given.

Hamlin, Teri L.

2011-01-01

367

Analysis and tests of TF magnet insulation samples for the JET upgrade to 4 tesla  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JET Toroidal Field (TF) coils were originally designed for operation at 3.4 tesla. In order to upgrade the field to 4 tesla and thus improve the performance of the JET machine, new mechanical tests and analysis were carried out on the insulation of TF coil samples. They were aimed at investigating the mechanical properties and the status of the insulation in order to set allowable stresses and force limits. In particular since the shear stress in the insulation is strongly affected by the shear modulus of elasticity G, it is important to measure this parameter. A method for the measurement of G in glass-resin composites, the V-notched beam method (Iosipescu method), was applied. The particular shape of the rectangular Iosipescu V-notched sample and the particular modality of force application produce pure shear stress for a reliable measurement of the G value and of the shear strength of the insulation. The effect of temperature on these mechanical properties was also investigated. Results show higher average shear strength with lower scatter compared with previous tests on conventional rectangular samples, thus confirming the reliability of the method. Micrographic analysis of the insulation and comparison between the straight and curved regions of the magnet, where the highest stress occurs, confirm the good quality of the impregnation of the coil. Glass-resin content, void content, micros and TG measurements have been performed on different samples and correlaterformed on different samples and correlation between the different properties of the insulation investigated. Moreover fatigue tests at different temperatures were performed and data analyzed with the cumulative damage technique, which allows for an extrapolation of the fatigue curve with less samples than the standard method. (author)

368

78 FR 48315 - Safety Zone; North Hero Air Show; North Hero, VT  

Science.gov (United States)

...show of low- flying, high-speed, and high-performance acrobatic...show over the water and drop grapefruits at a water...enforcement period. 2. Impact on Small Entities The...consider the potential impact of regulations on...

2013-08-08

369

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1512 - Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512 Commercial...1512, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1512—Typical Handbrake Actuator Showing Grip Dimension...

2010-01-01

370

Depression Shows Divergent Effects on Evoked and Spontaneous Pain Behaviors in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it has been accepted that depression and pain are common comorbidities, their interaction is not fully understood. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of depression on both evoked pain behavior (thermal induced nociception and hyperalgesia) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin pain) in rats. An unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm was employed to develop a classical depression. The emotional behaviors were assessed by sucrose preference test, open field test, and elevated plus-maze test. The results showed that the depressed rats always exhibited stronger tolerance to noxious thermal stimulation under both normal and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic pain conditions, when compared to non-depressed animals. Interestingly, the spontaneous nociceptive behaviors induced by formalin injection were significantly enhanced in rats exposed to UCMS in comparison to those without UCMS. Systemic administration of antidepressant fluoxetine significantly restored the nociceptive behaviors to normal level in depressed animals. An additional finding was that the inflammatory rats tended to display depressive-like behaviors without being exposed to UCMS. These results demonstrated that depression can have different effects on stimulus-evoked pain and spontaneous pain, with alleviation in the former while aggravation in the latter. Perspective: The present study provides evidence that depression can have divergent effects on stimulus-evoked and spontaneous pain by confirming that rats exposed to chronic mild stress tend to exhibit decreased pain sensitivity to experimental stimuli but increased intensity of ongoing pain. This may contribute to further understanding of the perplexing relationship between clinical depression and chronic pain. PMID:20096641

Shi, Miao; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

2009-01-01

371

Male carriers of the FMR1 premutation show altered hippocampal-prefrontal function during memory encoding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous functional MRI (fMRI studies have shown that fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 premutation allele carriers (FXPCs exhibit decreased hippocampal activation during a recall task and lower inferior frontal activation during a working memory task compared to matched controls. The molecular characteristics of FXPCs includes 55 to 200 CGG trinucleoutide expansions, increased FMR1 mRNA levels, and decreased FMRP levels especially at higher repeat sizes. In the current study, we utilized MRI to examine differences in hippocampal volume and function during an encoding task in young male FXPCs. While no decreases in either hippocampal volume or hippocampal activity were observed during the encoding task in FXPCs, FMRP level (measured in blood correlated with decreases in parahippocampal activation. In addition, activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during correctly encoded trials correlated negatively with mRNA levels. These results, as well as the established biological effects associated with elevated mRNA levels and decreased FMRP levels on dendritic maturation and axonal growth, prompted us to explore functional connectivity between the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. In FXPCs, the right hippocampus evinced significantly lower connectivity with right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and right parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, the weaker connectivity between the right hippocampus and VLPFC was associated with reduced FMRP in the FXPC group. These results suggest that while FXPCs show relatively typical brain response during encoding, faulty connectivity between frontal and hippocampal regions may have subsequent effects on recall and working memory.

JohnMWang

2012-10-01

372

Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system.

Zhang Kang-Jian

2012-02-01

373

Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE) is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs. PMID:25380390

El-Merahbi, Rabih; Liu, Yen-Nien; Eid, Assaad; Daoud, Georges; Hosry, Leina; Monzer, Alissar; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Hamade, Aline; Najjar, Fadia; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

2014-01-01

374

Look, no hands: a perceptual task shows that number magnitude induces shifts of attention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mental representation of numbers along a line oriented left to right affects spatial cognition, facilitating responses in the ipsilateral hemispace (the spatial-numerical association of response codes [SNARC] effect). We investigated whether the number/space association is the result of an attentional shift or response selection. Previous research has often introduced covert left/right response cues by presenting targets to the left or the right. The present study avoided left/right cues by requiring forced choice upper/lower luminance discriminations to two mirror-reversed luminance gradients (the grayscale task). The grayscale stimuli were overlaid with strings of (1) low numbers, (2) high numbers, and (3) nonnumerical characters. In Experiment 1, 20 dextrals judged the number's magnitude and then indicated whether the upper/lower grayscale was darker. Results showed leftward and rightward attentional biases for low and high numbers, respectively. Demands to process numbers along a left/right line were made less explicit in Experiment 2 (N = 18 dextrals), using (1) a parity judgment and (2) arbitrary linguistic labels for top/bottom. Once again, a spatial congruency effect was observed. Because the response (up/down) was orthogonal to the dimension of interest (left/right), the effect of number cannot be attributed to late-stage response congruencies. This study required unspeeded responses to stimuli presented in free vision, whereas other experiments have used speeded responses. Understanding the time course of number-space effects may, therefore, be important to the debate associated with response selection. PMID:18488661

Nicholls, Michael E R; Loftus, Andrea M; Gevers, Wim

2008-04-01

375

Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance...

Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Ka?re; Korneliussen, Tor

2010-01-01

376

Perception And Preferences Of People Regarding Reality Shows – A Study In Navsari City Of Gujarat  

OpenAIRE

The rising popularity of the reality shows on Indian television has added a new dimension to the production of TV programs. Most of the television shows which are being telecast nowadays are reality shows specializing in dancing, singing, and acting. Today's reality shows are rewriting our cultural scripts, altering our perception, our social relationships and our relationships to the natural world. In this descriptive study, the researcher has found that people are really fond of watching re...

Zakirhusen Patel; Mihir Soni

2013-01-01

377

23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart D of... - Sample Show Cause Rescission  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample Show Cause Rescission C Appendix... Appendix C to Subpart D of Part 230—Sample Show Cause Rescission Certified Mail...corrective action plan shows that you are now taking the required affirmative action...

2010-04-01

378

Allometric comparison of Georgia dairy heifers on farms and at youth shows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between allometric measures of growth of Holstein dairy heifers and placing in the show ring, and to compare differences in growth between Holstein heifers that are shown and not shown. In the first study, 494 Holstein show heifers were evaluated at the 2012 and 2013 Georgia Junior National Livestock Shows. Measurements were obtained for weight, head length, withers height, hip height, thurl width, and tail length. Heifer mass index (HMI), average daily gain (ADG), and age were calculated. In total, 72.5% of Holstein show heifers were underweight. Average ADG was 0.63 kg/d, which is below the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Variables were ranked and converted to percentages to account for differences in class size. Withers height, head length, and HMI were most indicative of show placing. In the second study, we compared differences between growth patterns of show heifers and non-show heifers. An additional 293 non-show Holstein heifers were evaluated on 3 Georgia dairy farms during the same period as the show. In total, 43.3% of non-show heifers were underweight. Average ADG for non-show heifers was 0.71 kg/d, which is within the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Show heifers weighed less for their age than non-show heifers and tended to be taller at the withers than non-show heifers. The HMI scores were similar for younger show and non-show heifers, but older show heifers had lower HMI scores than non-show heifers of the same age. Show heifers had HMI scores that were lower than values calculated from standard growth data. As show heifers matured, ADG decreased, whereas as non-show heifers matured, ADG increased. Youth, leaders, and parents need to be aware of the importance of growing replacement heifers correctly so that heifers calve at 22 to 24 mo of age at an acceptable size and scale and become profitable members of the milking herd. PMID:25434340

White, D S; Duberstein, K J; Fain Bohlen, J L; Bertrand, J K; Nelson, A H; Froetschel, M A; Davidson, B E; Graves, W M

2015-02-01

379

Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride shows bactericidal advantages over chlorhexidine digluconate against ESKAPE bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

More information regarding the bactericidal properties of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) against clinically important antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens needs to be provided for its uses in infection control. The bactericidal properties of PHMG and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) were compared based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations, and time-course-killing curves against clinically important antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE pathogens. Results showed that PHMG exhibited significantly higher bactericidal activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter spp. than CHG. A slight bactericidal advantage over CHG was obtained against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, ciprofloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In previous reports, PHMG had higher antimicrobial activity against almost all tested Gram-negative bacteria and several Gram-positive bacteria than CHG using MIC test. These studies support the further development of covalently bound PHMG in sterile-surface materials and the incorporation of PHMG in novel disinfectant formulas. PMID:24888899

Zhou, Zhongxin; Wei, Dafu; Lu, Yanhua

2014-05-31

380

Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics  

Science.gov (United States)

Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10?4 M?1·s?1 and 6.29 × 10?3 s?1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M?1 (kon/koff), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. PMID:25530617

Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myung Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan; Woo, Eui-Jeon

2014-01-01

381

Arsenolipids show different profiles in muscle tissues of four commercial fish species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identification of arsenolipids in biological samples is today a challenge and in particular the need for speciation data for toxicological assessment. Fish is one of the major contributors of arsenic in diet. However, the majority of work in this area has only focused on the water soluble compounds. The aim of this study is to provide some data on total arsenic and in particular to gain insights into the types of arsenolipids in the muscle tissues of four commercial and commonly consumed fish species. Determination of total arsenic was carried out by ICP-MS following microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples and the concentrations found for total arsenic in the muscles ranged from 4.8 to 6.0?g/gd.w. Sequential extraction was carried out using hexane and MeOH/DCM followed by reversed phase HPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-MS analysis of the MeOH/DCM fraction. Eight arsenolipids including three arsenic fatty acids (AsFAs) and five arsenic hydrocarbons (AsHCs) were identified. The result showed that fish with higher arsenolipid (AsLp) content (brill and sardine) are dominated by AsHC, while those with the smaller proportion of AsLp (mackerel and red mullet) have predominately arsenic in the form of AsFA. PMID:24332310

Amayo, Kenneth O; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Marschall, Talke; Horsfall, Michael; Feldmann, Jörg

2014-04-01

382

Hydrophobic/superhydrophobic oxidized metal surfaces showing negligible contact angle hysteresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic wettability of oxidized metal (aluminum and titanium) surfaces could be tuned by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)). This facile CVD method produces not only monomeric layers but also particulate films by changing the CVD temperature, resulting in a marked difference in the final wetting properties. In the samples prepared at 80°C for ~3 days, D(4)(H) layers with thicknesses of ~0.5 nm were formed on the surfaces without discernible change in surface morphology, as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. After this D(4)(H) monomeric layer formation, the hydrophilic oxidized aluminum and titanium surfaces became hydrophobic (advancing/receding water contact angles (?(A)/?(R))=102-104°/99-102°) showing essentially negligible contact angle hysteresis. Performing CVD of D(4)(H) at 180°C for ~1 day produced opaque film with particulate morphologies with diameters in the range of 500 nm to 4 ?m observed on the surfaces. This geometric morphology enhanced the surface hydrophobicity (?(A)/?(R)=163°/160-161°). Droplets on these negligible-hysteresis surfaces moved very easily without "pinning". PMID:20970808

Hozumi, Atsushi; Cheng, Dalton F; Yagihashi, Makoto

2011-01-15

383

The galaxy stellar mass function and its evolution with time show no dependence on global environment  

CERN Document Server

We present the analysis of the galaxy stellar mass function in different environments at intermediate redshift (0.3 10^{10.5} M_sun, to study cluster, group, and field galaxies at z=0.3-0.45, and the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS), at masses M_ast > 10^{10.2} M_sun, to investigate cluster and group galaxies at z=0.4-0.8. Therefore, in our analysis we include galaxies that are slightly less massive than the Milky Way. Having excluded the brightest cluster galaxies, we show that the mass distribution does not seem to depend on global environment. Our two main results are: (1) Galaxies in the virialized regions of clusters and in the field follow a similar mass distribution. (2) Comparing both ICBS and EDisCS mass functions to mass functions in the local Universe, we find evolution from z~0.4-0.6 to z~0.07. The population of low-mass galaxies has proportionally grown with time with respect to that of massive galaxies. This evolution is independent of environment -- the same for clusters and the field. Furth...

Vulcani, Benedetta; Oemler, August; Dressler, Alan; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; De Lucia, Gabriella; Gladders, Mike; Abramson, Louis; Halliday, Claire

2011-01-01

384

Titanate nanowire scaffolds decorated with anatase nanocrystals show good protein adsorption and low cell adhesion capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and methods: In this report, layered microporous titanate nanowire scaffolds (TiNWs) were constructed via a hydrothermal route and then decorated with anatase nanocrystals (ANs@TiNWs) by immersion in TiCl4 solution. The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs was measured. The TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs were then compared for their ability to adsorb protein and adhere to MG63 cells. Results: The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs were significantly larger than for TiNWs, and the ANs@TiNWs had an enhanced protein-adsorbing effect. It was found that the MG63 cells were less able to adhere to the flat titanium substrate than the TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs, and that this cell-repellant ability was greater with ANs@TiNWs. Other MG63 cell functions, proliferation in particular, were also inhibited by ANs@TiNWs. Conclusion: ANs@TiNWs show a high protein adsorption and cell-repellant capacity which would be useful in drug delivery. PMID:23430236

Ding, Xianglong; Yang, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Lei; Lu, Haibin; Li, Shaobing; Gao, Yan; Lai, Chunhua; Jiang, Ying

2013-01-01

385

Titanate nanowire scaffolds decorated with anatase nanocrystals show good protein adsorption and low cell adhesion capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xianglong Ding,1 Xiaoqin Yang,2 Lei Zhou,1 Haibin Lu,1 Shaobing Li,1 Yan Gao,1 Chunhua Lai,1 Ying Jiang11Center of Oral Implantology, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaBackground and methods: In this report, layered microporous titanate nanowire scaffolds (TiNWs were constructed via a hydrothermal route and then decorated with anatase nanocrystals (ANs@TiNWs by immersion in TiCl4 solution. The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs was measured. The TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs were then compared for their ability to adsorb protein and adhere to MG63 cells.Results: The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs were significantly larger than for TiNWs, and the ANs@TiNWs had an enhanced protein-adsorbing effect. It was found that the MG63 cells were less able to adhere to the flat titanium substrate than the TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs, and that this cell-repellant ability was greater with ANs@TiNWs. Other MG63 cell functions, proliferation in particular, were also inhibited by ANs@TiNWs.Conclusion: ANs@TiNWs show a high protein adsorption and cell-repellant capacity which would be useful in drug delivery.Keywords: protein adsorption, antiadhesion, nanotopography, drug delivery

Ding XL

2013-02-01

386

Novel Vitamin D Hydroxyderivatives Inhibit Melanoma Growth and Show Differential Effects on Normal Melanocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/aims To test the activity of novel hydroxyvitamin D3 analogs (20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D and 1,20(OH)2D3) on normal and malignant melanocytes in comparison to 1,25(OH)2D3. Materials/Methods Human epidermal melanocytes and human and hamster melanoma cells were used to measure effects on proliferation and colony formation in monolayer and soft agar. Cell morphology and melanogenesis were also analyzed. QPCR was used to measure gene expression. Results Novel secosteroids inhibited proliferation and colony formation by melanoma cells in a similar fashion to 1,25(OH)2D3, having no effect on melanogenesis. These effects were accompanied by ligand-induced translocation of VDR to the nucleus. In normal melanocytes 1?-hydroxyderivatives (1,25(OH)2D3 and 1,20(OH)2D3) had stronger anti-proliferative effects than 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3, and inhibited dendrite formation. The cells tested expressed genes encoding VDR and enzymes that activate or inactivate vitamin D3. Conclusion Novel secosteroids show potent anti-melanoma activity in vitro with 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 being excellent candidates for preclinical testing. PMID:22993313

SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.; JANJETOVIC, ZORICA; KIM, TAE-KANG; WRIGHT, ADAM C.; GRESE, LAURA N.; RINEY, SAMUEL J.; NGUYEN, MINH N.; TUCKEY, ROBERT C.

2012-01-01

387

Patients with multiple sclerosis show increased oxidative stress markers and somatic telomere length shortening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipid peroxidation due to oxidative stress (OS) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic systemic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Telomeres, repeated sequences that cap chromosome ends, undergo shortening with each cycle of cell division, resulting in cellular senescence. Research regarding telomere shortening has provided novel insight into the pathogenesis of various diseases. We hypothesized that OS damage leads to inflammatory reactions, which subsequently shortens the telomere length in MS. We enrolled 59 patients with MS, and age- and gender-matched 60 healthy controls. We divided MS subjects into three groups matched for age and gender according to the severity of disability: relatively benign course (BMS), secondary progressive MS, and primary progressive MS (PPMS). We analyzed the telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the 8-iso-PGF2? concentration in urine, a reliable and stable marker of lipid peroxidation in vivo. The data showed significant higher levels of urinary 8-iso-PGF2? in MS subjects than in the controls. The lag-time, which represents the direct measurement of the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation, was shorter in the PPMS subjects than in the groups. Compared to that observed in the controls, the mean telomere length was significantly shorter in the PPMS group, whereas no significant telomere shortening was found between the controls and other subjects. Our data suggest that a decreased telomere length and enhanced lipid peroxidation reflects the severest stage of MS. PMID:25424527

Guan, Jing-Zhi; Guan, Wei-Ping; Maeda, Toyoki; Guoqing, Xie; GuangZhi, Wan; Makino, Naoki

2015-02-01

388

[Comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have established a comparative chromosome map between red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) and dog by chromosome painting with biotin-labelled chromosome-specific probes of the dog. Dog probes specific for the 38 automates delineated 71 homologous segments in the metaphase chromosomes of red panda. Of the 38 autosomal paints, 18 probes each delineated one homologous segment in red panda genome, while the other 20 ones each detected two to five homologous segments. The dog X chromosome-specific paint delineated the whole X chromosome of the red panda. The results indicate that at least 28 fissions (breaks), 49 fusions and 4 inversions were needed to "convert" the dog karyotype to that of the red panda, suggesting that extensive chromosome rearrangements differentiate the karyotypes of red panda and dog. Based on the established comparative chromosome homologies of dog and domestic cat, we could infer that there were 26 segments of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved segments defined by dog paints in red panda and domestic cat genomes revealed at least 2 cryptic inversions in two large chromosomal regions of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. The karyotype of red panda shows high degree of homology with that of domestic cat. PMID:11901994

Tian, Ying; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Yang, Feng-Tang

2002-02-01

389

Dendritic Glutamate Receptor mRNAs Show Contingent Local Hotspot-Dependent Translational Dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites underlies long-term memory formation in the brain. Local translation of reporter mRNAs has demonstrated translation in dendrites at focal points called translational hotspots. Various reports have shown that hundreds to thousands of mRNAs are localized to dendrites, yet the dynamics of translation of multiple dendritic mRNAs has remained elusive. Here, we show that the protein translational activities of two dendritically localized mRNAs are spatiotemporally complex but constrained by the translational hotspots in which they are colocalized. Cotransfection of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2 and GluR4 mRNAs (engineered to encode different fluorescent proteins into rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of translational hotspots for the two mRNAs along dendrites. Stimulation with s-3,5-dihydroxy-phenylglycine modifies the translational dynamics of both of these RNAs in a complex saturable manner. These results suggest that the translational hotspot is a primary structural regulator of the simultaneous yet differential translation of multiple mRNAs in the neuronal dendrite.

Tae Kyung Kim

2013-10-01

390

Dendritic Glutamate Receptor mRNAs Show Contingent Local Hotspot-Dependent Translational Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites underlies long-term memory formation in the brain. Local translation of reporter mRNAs has demonstrated translation in dendrites at focal points called translational hotspots. Various reports have shown that hundreds to thousands of mRNAs are localized to dendrites, yet the dynamics of translation of multiple dendritic mRNAs has remained elusive. Here, we show that the protein translational activities of two dendritically localized mRNAs are spatiotemporally complex but constrained by the translational hotspots in which they are colocalized. Cotransfection of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) and GluR4 mRNAs (engineered to encode different fluorescent proteins) into rat hippocampal neurons demonstrates a heterogeneous distribution of translational hotspots for the two mRNAs along dendrites. Stimulation with s-3,5-dihydroxy-phenylglycine modifies the translational dynamics of both of these RNAs in a complex saturable manner. These results suggest that the translational hotspot is a primary structural regulator of the simultaneous yet differential translation of multiple mRNAs in the neuronal dendrite. PMID:24075992

Kim, Tae Kyung; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Helmfors, Henrik; Langel, Ulo; Kim, Junhyong; Eberwine, James

2014-01-01

391

JAIF survey shows expansion of nuclear market but sees levelling-off  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum released the results of the fiscal 1984 survey of the nuclear industry in Japan, on December 18, 1985. The report showed that the nuclear industry maintained a strong expansionary trend as the nuclear related sales of mining and manufacturing industries were up by 26 % over the previous year to the total of 1,722.9 billion yen. However, there was a decrease in the expenditure of the electrical utility industry, which is the principal user, on nuclear power plant construction, as well as in the number of technical section workers in mining and manufacturing industries, which has reached the peak in the last couple of years. The report pointed out that the nuclear industry faces a period of adjustment after the end of the expansionary period, and that this basic pattern is likely to continue for several years, and the new order of nuclear power plants is likely to decline. This survey is the 26th of its kind by sending questionnaires to 1222 companies in 25 business sectors. 902 companies responded. The nuclear sales of mining and manufacturing industries, the investment for research facilities, nuclear-related workers, and the future market prospect are reported. (Kako, I.)

392

Analysis of experimental evidence that shows adverse effects of salt and its relation to hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study by Taylor et al published in June 2010 in the American Journal of Hypertension questions the effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the diet in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. The publication of this article has lead to great controversy and medical associations and learned societies responded promptly. The response criticized the results of the meta-analysis and pointed out its methodological shortcomings. In this review we critically appraise the experimental evidence that shows the importance of diet salt intake and its role as a determinant of blood pressure. We briefly describe the paradigm that explains the role of salt intake in contributing in the regulation of blood pressure (Guyton hypothesis and model and we mention the experimental evidence that supports this. We briefly comment on the classical studies that indicate that salt intake (NaCl contributes directly to the development of high blood pressure and target tissues. Finally, we briefly mention the experimental data that is related with the controversy on the role of salt (NaCl or sodium as prohypertensive agents.

Ignacio Bravo A.

2012-02-01

393

N-doped rutile TiO2 nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •N doped rutile TiO2 nano-rods were obtained by a hydrothermal route. •N doped rutile TiO2 nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity. •Doped nitrogen replaces surface saturated O3c is considered to be the cause. -- Abstract: Different from many works which focus on doping to improve the visible light absorption and the photocatalytic activity of TiO2, this work finds that the N-doped rutile TiO2 nano-rods have tunable photocatalytic selectivity. This finding was confirmed by the photo-degradation of azo dyes. Results reveal that pure rutile TiO2 mainly exhibit no selectivity in the photocatalytic degradation of a methylene blue and methyl orange (MO) mixed solution, whereas N-doped rutile TiO2 exhibits photocatalytic selectivity for MO. N doping has been shown to greatly change the surface state than the energy band structure of TiO2. In a deeper analysis, some doped N atoms replace surface saturated O3c on the {1 1 0} facets of rutile TiO2 and act as unsaturated N3c, which enhances adsorbent selectivity and relevant photocatalytic activity of MO. This research hopes that by providing a deeper understanding of non-metal doping in TiO2, a new strategy for photocatalytic selectivity can be developed

394

Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration  

Science.gov (United States)

The respiratory activities of plant roots, of their mycorrhizal fungi and of the free-living microbial heterotrophs (decomposers) in soils are significant components of the global carbon balance, but their relative contributions remain uncertain. To separate mycorrhizal root respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a boreal pine forest, we conducted a large-scale tree-girdling experiment, comprising 9 plots each containing about 120 trees. Tree-girdling involves stripping the stem bark to the depth of the current xylem at breast height terminating the supply of current photosynthates to roots and their mycorrhizal fungi without physically disturbing the delicate root-microbe-soil system. Here we report that girdling reduced soil respiration within 1-2 months by about 54% relative to respiration on ungirdled control plots, and that decreases of up to 37% were detected within 5 days. These values clearly show that the flux of current assimilates to roots is a key driver of soil respiration; they are conservative estimates of root respiration, however, because girdling increased the use of starch reserves in the roots. Our results indicate that models of soil respiration should incorporate measures of photosynthesis and of seasonal patterns of photosynthate allocation to roots.

Högberg, Peter; Nordgren, Anders; Buchmann, Nina; Taylor, Andrew F. S.; Ekblad, Alf; Högberg, Mona N.; Nyberg, Gert; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Read, David J.

2001-06-01

395

Crack/cocaine users show more family problems than other substance users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To evaluate family problems among crack/cocaine users compared with alcohol and other substance users. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study selected 741 current adult substance users from outpatient and inpatient Brazilian specialized clinics. Subjects were evaluated with the [...] sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and 293 crack users were compared with 126 cocaine snorters and 322 alcohol and other drug users. RESULTS: Cocaine users showed more family problems when compared with other drug users, with no significant difference between routes of administration. These problems included arguing (crack 66.5%, powder cocaine 63.3%, other drugs 50.3%, p?=?0.004), having trouble getting along with partners (61.5%×64.6%×48.7%, p?=?0.013), and the need for additional childcare services in order to attend treatment (13.3%×10.3%×5.1%, p?=?0.002). Additionally, the majority of crack/cocaine users had spent time with relatives in the last month (84.6%×86.5%×76.6%, p?=?0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian treatment programs should enhance family treatment strategies, and childcare services need to be included.

Helena Ferreira, Moura; Daniela, Benzano; Flavio, Pechansky; Felix Henrique Paim, Kessler.

2014-07-01

396

Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

2010-01-01

397

Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p 2 CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

398

Natural compound cudraflavone B shows promising anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cudraflavone B (1) is a prenylated flavonoid found in large amounts in the roots of Morus alba, a plant used as a herbal remedy for its reputed anti-inflammatory properties. The present study shows that this compound causes a significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators in selected in vitro models. Thus, 1 was identified as a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) gene expression and secretion by blocking the translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in macrophages derived from a THP-1 human monocyte cell line. The NF-?B activity reduction resulted in the inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression. Compound 1 acts as a COX-2 and COX-1 inhibitor with higher selectivity toward COX-2 than indomethacin. Pretreatment of cells by 1 shifted the peak in an regulatory gene zinc-finger protein 36 (ZFP36) expression assay. This natural product has noticeable anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that 1 potentially could be used for development as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug lead. PMID:21319773

Hošek, Jan; Bartos, Milan; Chudík, Stanislav; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Kartal, Murat; Kokoška, Ladislav; Kollár, Peter; Kutil, Zsófia; Landa, P?emysl; Marek, Radek; Závalová, Veronika; Žemli?ka, Milan; Šmejkal, Karel

2011-04-25

399

Organic molecules showing the characteristics of localised corrosion aggravation and inhibition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} Novel experiment for the discovery of localised corrosion inhibitors. {yields} New method of identifying inhibitors promoting random distribution of anodic currents. {yields} Discovery of resorcinarene acid as an effective localised corrosion inhibitor. - Abstract: The behaviour of imidazoline and an acid functionalised resorcinarene as steel corrosion inhibitors in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-saturated brine solutions has been studied using an electrochemically integrated multi-electrode array namely the wire beam electrode (WBE). Both imidazoline and resorcinarene acid provided excellent inhibition to general CO{sub 2} corrosion; however imidazoline was found to aggravate localised corrosion by creating a small number of major anodes that focused on a small area of the WBE surface, leading to highly concentrated anodic dissolution. The resorcinarene acid showed distinctively different behaviour by generating a large number of minor anodes randomly distributing over the WBE surface, leading to insignificant general anodic dissolution. These results indicate that resorcinarene acid provided effective localised corrosion inhibition by promoting a random distribution of insignificant anodic currents.

Tan Yongjun, E-mail: yj.tan@curtin.edu.a [Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia); Mocerino, Mauro; Paterson, Tristan [Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

2011-05-15

400

Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10?4 M?1·s?1 and 6.29 × 10?3 s?1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M?1 (kon/koff, maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor.

Hyung-Nam Song

2014-12-01

401

Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5?mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

2014-01-01

402

Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO712. The growth of both C2 and NCDO712 was unaffected by exogenous aspartate. Also, the growth rate of the pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of L. lactis was affected by exogenous aspartate. The maximum observed reduction in the growth rate was similar to 35% when compared with the wild-type strain, and this varied with the concentration of aspartic acid. The observed effect of aspartate could be explained by the accumulation of the toxic pyrimidine de novo pathway intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate. Assays of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes of L. lactis LM0230 showed that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid.

Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

2009-01-01

403

Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found in forests under different climatic control. Here, adult leaf and metamer traits were measured for 39 tree species from a tropical moist semi-evergreen forest (1580 mm rain yr(-1)) and 41 species from a dry deciduous forest (1160 mm yr(-1)) in Bolivia. Twenty-six functional traits were measured and related to species regeneration light requirements.Adult leaf traits were clearly associated with shade tolerance. Different, rather than stronger, shade adaptations were found for moist compared with dry forest species. Shade adaptations exclusively found in the evergreen moist forest were related to tough and persistent leaves, and shade adaptations in the dry deciduous forest were related to high light interception and water use.These results suggest that, for forests differing in rainfall seasonality, there is a shift in the relative importance of functional leaf traits and performance trade-offs that control light partitioning. In the moist evergreen forest leaf traits underlying the growth-survival trade-off are important, whereas in the seasonally deciduous forest leaf traits underlying the growth trade-off between low and high light might become important. PMID:19140935

Poorter, Lourens

2009-03-01

404

Educação escolar hospitalar: o que mostram as pesquisas? / Education during hospital care: what the research shows?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer a evolução e as principais abordagens sobre a educação escolar hospitalar, retratadas em artigos científicos postados on-line, nos últimos quinze anos (1996 a 2010). A metodologia, do tipo estado da arte, encontrou 82 artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicos (Scielo e [...] Google Acadêmico), interpretados pela Análise de Conteúdo. Os resultados foram organizados em cinco categorias: Concepções e significados (25,61%); Relação educação e saúde (15,85%); Práticas pedagógicas e configuração didático-curricular (23,17%); Aspectos históricos, organizacionais e legais (13,42%) e Formação de professores (21,95%), mostrando a necessidade de maior número de investigações sobre a formação de professores, as vivências dos alunos em tratamento de saúde na escola regular, o processo de reinserção escolar e as práticas pedagógicas com enfoque na didática e no currículo. Apontaram ainda a urgente ampliação de políticas públicas que concorram para uma melhor legitimidade da escolarização de crianças em tratamento de saúde. Os achados contribuíram para a compreensão de como esse tipo de educação vem sendo desenvolvido nas diversas regiões do país, por meio das vozes de professores, alunos, pais e pesquisadores de hospitais e universidades. Abstract in english The goal of the study was to analyze the evolution and the main approaches regarding education offered to children during hospitalization reported in scientific articles posted online in the last fifteen years (1996 to 2010). The methodology used was state of the art, and 82 articles were found on t [...] he internet (Scielo and Google Scholar) and interpreted through content analysis. The results were organized according to 5 categories: Conceptions and Meaning (25,61%); Education and Health Interaction (15,85%); Pedagogical Practices and Didactic Curricular Configurations (23,17%); Historical, organizational and legal aspects (13,42%) and Teacher Preparation (21,95%), showing the need for increasing the focus on teacher preparation, student experience undergoing medical treatment, the reintegration process in school and pedagogical practices with emphasis on didactics and curriculum. The results further indicated the urgent increase of public policies needed to consolidate schooling for children undergoing medical treatment. The results helped to understand how this type of education has been carried out in different regions of the country, by presenting students', teachers', parents' and university and hospital researchers' points of view.

Gilda Maria Maia Martins, Saldanha; Regina Rovigati, Simões.

2013-09-01

405

NCR1(+) cells in dogs show phenotypic characteristics of natural killer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

No specific markers for natural killer (NK) cells in dogs have currently been described. NCR1 (NKp46, CD355) has been considered a pan species NK cell marker and is expressed on most or all NK cells in all species investigated except for the pig which has both a NCR1(+) and a NCR1(-) population. In this study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 healthy dogs, 37 dogs with a clinical diagnosis, including a dog diagnosed with LGL leukemia, and tissue samples from 8 dogs were evaluated for NCR1(+) expression by a cross reacting anti bovine NCR1 antibody. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were found in the blood of 93 % of healthy dogs and comprised up to 2.5 % of lymphocytes in PBMC. In a selection of healthy dogs, sampling and immunophenotyping were repeated throughout a period of 1 year revealing a substantial variation in the percentage of CD3(-)NCR1(+) over time. Dogs allocated to 8 disease groups had comparable amounts of CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells in PBMC to the healthy individuals. All organs examined including liver, spleen and lymph nodes contained CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells. Circulating CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were further characterized as CD56(-)GranzymeB(+)CD8(-). A CD3(+)NCR1(+) population was observed in PBMC in 79 % of the healthy dogs examined representing at the most 4.8 % of the lymphocyte population. In canine samples examined for CD56 expression, CD56(+) cells were all CD3(+) and NCR1(-). To our knowledge, this is the first examination of NCR1 expression in the dog. The study shows that this NK cell associated receptor is expressed both on populations of CD3(+) and CD3(-) blood lymphocytes in dogs and the receptor is found on a CD3(+) GranzymeB(+) CD8(+) leukemia. Our results support that CD56 is expressed only on CD3(+) cells in dogs and shows that NCR1 defines a different CD3(+) lymphocyte population than CD56(+)CD3(+) cells in this species. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells may represent canine NK cells. PMID:25434421

Grøndahl-Rosado, Christine; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Brun-Hansen, Hege C; Storset, Anne K

2014-12-01

406

Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century. Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to expected increases in global temperature is therefore fundamental to predicting whether the carbon cycle will mitigate or accelerate climate change. Methanogenesis is the terminal step in the remineralization of organic matter and is carried out by strictly anaerobic Archaea. Like most other forms of metabolism, methanogenesis is temperature-dependent. However, it is not yet known how this physiological response combines with other biotic processes (for example, methanotrophy, substrate supply, microbial community composition) and abiotic processes (for example, water-table depth) to determine the temperature dependence of ecosystem-level CH4 emissions. It is also not known whether CH4 emissions at the ecosystem level have a fundamentally different temperature dependence than other key fluxes in the carbon cycle, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Here we use meta-analyses to show that seasonal variations in CH4 emissions from a wide range of ecosystems exhibit an average temperature dependence similar to that of CH4 production derived from pure cultures of methanogens and anaerobic microbial communities. This average temperature dependence (0.96 electron volts (eV)), which corresponds to a 57-fold increase between 0 and 30°C, is considerably higher than previously observed for respiration (approximately 0.65 eV) and photosynthesis (approximately 0.3 eV). As a result, we show that both the emission of CH4 and the ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions increase markedly with seasonal increases in temperature. Our findings suggest that global warming may have a large impact on the relative contributions of CO2 and CH4 to total greenhouse gas emissions from aquatic ecosystems, terrestrial wetlands and rice paddies. PMID:24670769

Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Bastviken, David; Conrad, Ralf; Gudasz, Cristian; St-Pierre, Annick; Thanh-Duc, Nguyen; del Giorgio, Paul A

2014-03-27

407

Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: 3-Year Follow-Up Shows Cognitive Development Lagging behind Healthy Youths  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparison of the neurocognitive functioning of people with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) with a control group shows that the developmental progress in executive functions and verbal memory of those with PBD was significantly less than those in the control group. The results were seen after comparing data from baseline cognitive tests and a…

Pavuluri, Mani N.; West, Amy; Hill, Kristian; Jindal, Kittu; Sweeney, John A.

2009-01-01

408

A Talk Show in Hungary and the Question of "proper distance"  

OpenAIRE

In his article "A Talk Show in Hungary and the Question of 'proper distance'" Lajos Császi discusses the phenomenon of the talk show in its specific post-communist Hungarian context. During the past few years, Hungarian commercial television programs have been the target of frequent ideological attacks. At the same time, they have become increasingly popular among audiences. In my study I focus on the "Mónika" talk show, one of the most popular programs. Analyzing this new media phenomenon,...

Csa?szi, Lajos

2009-01-01

409

International fashion trade shows as knowledge creation platforms for Finnish microenterprises  

OpenAIRE

Objective of the Study: The prevailing view in the literature is that trade shows act as a platform for promotional and selling activities. However, there is increased recognition that trade shows are more sources of information and contacts than places where purchases are made and thus act as an organizational context for learning and interaction. In this study, the organizational knowledge creation process of microenterprises exhibiting in fashion trade shows are explored. Specifically,...

Cheng, Heidi

2014-01-01

410

An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles showed minimal stenotic changes.

Yamadori,Ichiro

1985-12-01

411

A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential  

KAUST Repository

Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher\\'s exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular, phenotypical, and mechanical signatures between the two cell types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the molecular mechanism of E-R transition, which may greatly increase our understanding of the mechanisms of cancer mechanical microenvironment and initiation of cancer metastasis. 2014 Tang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tang, Xin

2014-05-29

412

IgA response in preterm neonates shows little evidence of antigen-driven selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

After birth, contact to environmental Ags induces the production of IgA, which represents a first line of defense for the neonate. We sought to characterize the maturation of the repertoire of IgA H chain transcripts in circulating blood B cells during human ontogeny. We found that IgA H chain transcripts were present in cord blood as early as 27 wk of gestation and that the restrictions of the primary Ab repertoire (IgM) persisted in the IgA repertoire. Thus, B cells harboring more "mature" V(H) regions were not preferred for class switch to IgA. Preterm and term neonates expressed a unique IgA repertoire, which was characterized by short CDR-H3 regions, preference of the J(H) proximal D(H)7-27 gene segment, and very few somatic mutations. During the first postnatal months, these restrictions were slowly released. Preterm birth did not measurably accelerate the maturation of the IgA repertoire. At a postconceptional age of 60 wk, somatic mutation frequency of IgA H chain transcripts reached 25% of the adult values but still showed little evidence of Ag-driven selection. These results indicate that similar to IgG, the IgA repertoire expands in a controlled manner after birth. Thus, the IgA repertoire of the newborn has distinctive characteristics that differ from the adult IgA repertoire. These observations might explain the lower affinity and specificity of neonatal IgA Abs, which could contribute to a higher susceptibility to infections and altered responses to vaccinations, but might also prevent the development of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:23105134

Rogosch, Tobias; Kerzel, Sebastian; Hoss, Katharina; Hoersch, Gabriele; Zemlin, Cosima; Heckmann, Matthias; Berek, Claudia; Schroeder, Harry W; Maier, Rolf F; Zemlin, Michael

2012-12-01

413

Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. PMID:23428971

Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

2013-05-01

414

Plasma and Serum Lipidomics of Healthy White Adults Shows Characteristic Profiles by Subjects’ Gender and Age  

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Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25–34 and 55–64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual’s blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important for ensuring the quality of biomarkers identified and its qualification process. PMID:24632803

Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

2014-01-01

415

The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC{sub 50} values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC{sub 50} values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 ?M, XPC: 0.18 ?M, and normal cells: > 180 ?M). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ? Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ? Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ? Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy options in NER-deficient tumors.

Abbasi, Rashda [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Efferth, Thomas [Institute of Pharmacy und Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Kuhmann, Christine [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Opatz, Till [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hao, Xiaojiang [Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204 (China); Popanda, Odilia, E-mail: o.popanda@dkfz.de [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2012-03-15

416

VO2+ complexation by bioligands showing keto-enol tautomerism: a potentiometric, spectroscopic, and computational study.  

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The interaction of VO(2+) ion with ligands of biological interest that are present in important metabolic pathways--2-oxopropanoic acid (pyruvic acid, pyrH), 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropanoic acid (3-hydroxypyruvic acid, hydpyrH), oxobutanedioic acid (oxalacetic acid, oxalH(2)), (S)-hydroxybutanedioic acid (l-malic acid, malH(2)), and 2,3-dihydroxy-(E)-butanedioic acid (dihydroxyfumaric acid, dhfH(2))--was described. Their complexing capability was compared with that of similar ligands: 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (hydbut) and 3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione (squaric acid, squarH(2)). All of these ligands (except l-malic acid) exhibit keto-enol tautomerism, and the presence of a metal ion can influence such an equilibrium. The different systems were studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopies and with pH potentiometry. Density functional theory (DFT) methods provide valuable information on the relative energy of the enol and keto forms of the ligands both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, on the geometry of the complexes, and on EPR and electronic absorption parameters. The results show that most of the ligands behave like ?-hydroxycarboxylates, forming mono- and bis-chelated species with (COO(-), O(-)) coordination, demonstrating that the metal ion is able to stabilize the enolate form of some ligands. With dihydroxyfumaric acid, the formation of a non-oxidovanadium(IV) complex, because of rearrangement of dihydroxyfumaric to dihy