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Sample records for v-notch results show

  1. Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at ?30 degrees C to 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 in a commercial reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at ? 30 degrees C (? 85 degrees F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was ? 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of ? 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications

  2. Three-dimensional vibrations of cylindrical elastic solids with V-notches and sharp radial cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, O. G.; Kim, J. W.

    2010-02-01

    This paper provides free vibration data for cylindrical elastic solids, specifically thick circular plates and cylinders with V-notches and sharp radial cracks, for which no extensive previously published database is known to exist. Bending moment and shear force singularities are known to exist at the sharp reentrant corner of a thick V-notched plate under transverse vibratory motion, and three-dimensional (3-D) normal and transverse shear stresses are known to exist at the sharp reentrant terminus edge of a V-notched cylindrical elastic solid under 3-D free vibration. A theoretical analysis is done in this work utilizing a variational Ritz procedure including these essential singularity effects. The procedure incorporates a complete set of admissible algebraic-trigonometric polynomials in conjunction with an admissible set of " edge functions" that explicitly model the 3-D stress singularities which exist along a reentrant terminus edge (i.e., ?>180°) of the V-notch. The first set of polynomials guarantees convergence to exact frequencies, as sufficient terms are retained. The second set of edge functions—in addition to representing the corner stress singularities—substantially accelerates the convergence of frequency solutions. This is demonstrated through extensive convergence studies that have been carried out by the investigators. Numerical analysis has been carried out and the results have been given for cylindrical elastic solids with various V-notch angles and depths. The relative depth of the V-notch is defined as (1- c/ a), and the notch angle is defined as (360°- ?). For a very small notch angle (1° or less), the notch may be regarded as a "sharp radial crack." Accurate (four significant figure) frequencies are presented for a wide spectrum of notch angles (360°- ?), depths (1- c/ a), and thickness ratios ( a/ h for plates and h/ a for cylinders). An extended database of frequencies for completely free thick sectorial, semi-circular, and segmented plates and cylinders are also reported herein as interesting special cases. A generalization of the elasticity-based Ritz analysis and findings applicable here is an arbitrarily shaped V-notched cylindrical solid, being a surface traced out by a family of generatrix, which pass through the circumference of an arbitrarily shaped V-notched directrix curve, r( ?), several of which are described for future investigations and close extensions of this work.

  3. Ductile crack initiation in the Charpy V-notch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Server, W.L.; Norris, D.M.; Jr.; Prado, M.E.

    1978-05-25

    Crack initiation and growth in the Charpy V-notch test are investigated for controlled deflections of the specimen applied both by slow bending and by impact. Charpy test specimens were deformed to various deflections, heat-tinted to mark the crack extensions, and broken apart at low temperature to allow measurement of the crack extensions. These measurements provide estimates of crack initiation as defined by various criteria. The loading point at which crack initiation occurs depends on the particular definition being used for ''initiation,'' but in all cases it is well before the maximum load is reached. When initiation is defined as the first observable micro-initiation away from the ductile blunting of the notch root, the experimental results are in good agreement with computer modeling predictions.

  4. Ductile crack initiation in the Charpy V-notch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crack initiation and growth in the Charpy V-notch test are investigated for controlled deflections of the specimen applied both by slow bending and by impact. Charpy test specimens were deformed to various deflections, heat-tinted to mark the crack extensions, and broken apart at low temperature to allow measurement of the crack extensions. These measurements provide estimates of crack initiation as defined by various criteria. The loading point at which crack initiation occurs depends on the particular definition being used for ''initiation,'' but in all cases it is well before the maximum load is reached. When initiation is defined as the first observable micro-initiation away from the ductile blunting of the notch root, the experimental results are in good agreement with computer modeling predictions

  5. Stress fields for the V-notched crack and fracture parameters by boundary collocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arbitrary V-notched crack problem is considered. The general expressions for the stress components on this problem are obtained as explicit series forms composed of independent unknown coefficients which are denoted by coefficients of eigenvector. For this results eigenvalue equation is performed first through introducing complex stress functions and applying the traction free boundary conditions. Next solving this equation, eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors are obtained respectively, and finally inserting these results into stress components, the general equations are obtained. These results are also shown to be applicable to the symmetric V-notched crack or straight crack. It can be shown that this solutions are composed of the linear combination of mode I and mode II solutions which are obtained from different characteristic equations, respectively. Through performing asymptotic analysis for stresses, the stress intensity factor is given as a closed form equipped with the unknown coefficients of eigenvector. In order to calculate the unknown coefficients, based on these general explicit equations, numerical programming using the overdetermined boundary collocation method which is algorithmed originally by Carpenter is also worked out. As this programming requires the input data, the commercial FE analysis for stresses is performed. From this study, for some V-notched problems, unknown coefficients can be calculated numerically and also fracture parametated numerically and also fracture parameters are determined

  6. Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Bader

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference and by use Numerical method (FEA.The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of (50Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1, on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Different instruments have been used in this investigation like Chemical composition analyzer type (Spectromax ,Tensile universal testing machine type (WDW-100E ,Hardness tester type (HSV- 1000 , Fatigue testing machine model Gunt WP 140, Optical Light Microscope (OLM and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM were employed to examine the fracture features . The results show that there is acceptable error between experimental and numerical works .

  7. The Evolution of the Maine Lobster V-Notch Practice: Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Gardner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maine lobster industry is experiencing record high catches because, in all probability, of an effective management program. One of the most important conservation measures is the V-notch program that allows fishermen to conserve proven breeding females by notching the tails of egg-bearing lobsters. Such marked lobsters may never be taken. Although thousands of lobster fishermen participate, it is a voluntary practice. The genesis of this practice is not easily explained, because V-notching poses a prisoner's dilemma problem that gives fishermen an incentive to avoid the practice. The most common explanations for ways to overcome prisoner's dilemma problems will not work in the case of the V-notch. An unusual combination of factors explains the V-notch program: (1 a strong belief among those in the industry that the V-notch is effective in conserving the lobster stock; (2 a low discount rate because the long-term gains from V-notching are higher than the one-time gain from defection; (3 a gain in reputation for those who V-notch. At the start of the 20th century, fishermen did not V-notch; by the end of the century, V-notching was common. We explain the change in strategies using a three-parameter evolutionary model that emphasizes the importance of culture change.

  8. Computer model for ductile fracture: applications to the Charpy V-notch test. Phase one report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model for predicting ductile-fracture initiation and propagation in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel is described. The model predicts fracture toughness from Charpy and tension tests using standard surveillance specimens. The fracture model is based on plastic strain. Fracture starts or a crack extends when the integrated product of the equivalent plastic-strain increment and a function of the mean stress exceeds a critical value over a critical length. This critical length is characteristic of the microstructure of the material. The computer fracture model is calibrated by computer simulation of simple and notched round-bar tension tests and a precracked compact tension test of A533 Grade B Class 1 steel and two different heat treatments of this steel. The model is then used to predict fracture initiation and flat propagation in the standard Charpy V-notch specimen. The computed results are compared with experiments. A correlation is presented between the energy in the Charpy V-notch specimen at fracture initiation on the upper shelf and fracture toughness as measured by J/sub Ic/

  9. Experimental study on load-carrying capacity of carbon fiber-sheet-reinforced concrete three-point bending specimen with a V notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiyan; Long, Zhiqin; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Guisen; Hu, Shengmin

    2002-05-01

    Reinforcing or repairing concrete structures with carbon fiber- sheet (CFS) is a new advanced method to increase load-carrying capacity and extend the life in service. In this paper, a kind of concrete 3-point bending specimens and that reinforced by CFS are used to experimentally study the fracture mechanism and the extreme load-carrying capacity of the specimens, with several different depths of V-notch, a0, and different lengths of the carbon fiber sheet, Lx. The experimental and analytical results of the beams adhered with CFS are: 1) the stiffness and strength of the beams are increased; 2) the failure mode is different from that of plain concrete specimen; 3) the load- carrying capacity is increased greatly; 4) the relationships between the extreme load P and the depth of V-notch a0, and P vs Lx were established.

  10. Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so that a quasi-static analysis would predict a size independent response. Sizes ranging from 1/4 to 16 times the ASTM standard size are analyzed and two sets of material properties are considered. No size effect is seen below a critical specimen size. Above this limit, a monotonic increase with specimen size is found for the normalized lower shelf energy (LSE) and the normalized upper shelf energy (USE) for both sets of material properties. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is found to increase monotonically with specimen size for one set of material properties, but a non-monotonic variation is found for the other set of material properties. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al2O3 and ZrO2 were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al2O3, ZrO2(3%Y2O3) micro-particled and ZrO2(3%Y2O3) nanometric, ZrO2-Al2O3 and Al2O3-ZrO2 composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  12. Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    The ductile-brittle transition for a weld is investigated by numerical analyses of Charpy impact specimens. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow strength variations in a weldment in a HY100 steel. The predicted work to fracture shows a strong sensitivity to the location of the notch relative to the weld, with the most brittle behavior for a notch close to the narrow heat affected zone. The analyses illustrate the strong dependence of the transition temperature on stress triaxiality. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim Bader; Emad Kadum

    2014-01-01

    The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference) and by use Numerical method (FEA).The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load wi...

  14. Estimation of critical values for crack initiation from sharp V-notches.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Štegnerová, Kate?ina; Huta?, Pavel

    Brno : Brno University of Technology. Institute of Solid Mechanics, Mechatronics and Biomechanics, 2014 - (Fuis, V.), s. 412-415 ISBN 978-80-214-4871-1. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering Mechanics 2014 /20./. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2014-15.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Failure initiation * stress singularity * V-notch * generalized stress intensity factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue , Friction Mechanics

  15. The Evolution of the Maine Lobster V-Notch Practice: Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Gardner; James Acheson

    2011-01-01

    The Maine lobster industry is experiencing record high catches because, in all probability, of an effective management program. One of the most important conservation measures is the V-notch program that allows fishermen to conserve proven breeding females by notching the tails of egg-bearing lobsters. Such marked lobsters may never be taken. Although thousands of lobster fishermen participate, it is a voluntary practice. The genesis of this practice is not easily explained, because V-notchin...

  16. Analysis of Charpy V-notch impact toughness of irradiated A533-B class 1 plate and four submerged-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the effects of neutron irradiation on Charpy V-notch impact properties of steels have, in general, included a minimum number of tests for each combination of material and irradiation parameters. The present study attempts to apply statistical analyses with multiple testing at selected temperatures to assess the accuracy and reliability of results. Charpy V-notch impact test specimens were irradiated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2880C to target neutron fluences of 2 X 1023 neutrons (n)/m2 (>1 MeV). The materials were ASTM A533-B Class 1 plate (HeavySection Steel Technology Plate 02) and four submerged-arc welds representing current nuclear pressure vessel fabrication practice. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were tested by two separate groups and multiple tests were conducted at several selected temperatures. Statistical analyses permitted determination of material and test variability and an interlaboratory comparison. Several Charpy curve-fitting methods were used and results are compared with predictions from several ''trend curve'' expressions

  17. Subsized bend and Charpy V-notch specimens for irradiated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the fracture resistance of structural materials from specimens small in volume is an essential element of fission and fusion reactor design and alloy development. In this study 1/3-sized Charpy V-notch specimens and small bend bars ranging in thickness down to 2.5 mm have been investigated. Techniques have been developed for fabricating these specimens and testing them over a temperature range of 170 to 590 K under static and dynamic conditions. Tests have been performed to extract fracture mechanics parameters (K/sub Ic/,J/sub Ic/) and fundamental material parameters (e.g., microcleavage fracture stress ?/sub f//sup */) and to examine behavior anticipated in thin wall ferritic structures at temperatures corresponding to the lower shelf

  18. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  19. Charpy impact and slow-bend tests for substandard V-notched and side-grooved specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy correlations between standard and substandard specimens on USE and energy correlations in different stress states due to the effects of side grooving were performed with substandard Charpy specimens. In addition to impact tests slow-bend tests were conducted to study the side grooving effects on stable crack growth at the front notch tip and on triaxiality at the side notch tip by fractographs. To extract some useful engineering parameters nonlinear V-notch fracture toughness tests were also carried out for the substandard notched and side grooved specimens. Both area and volume normalizations provided good agreements on USE correlation and the geometrical correction factor (B/BN) reduced the stress state effects due to the side grooving on energy correlations. Side grooves reduced the stable crack growth region and enhanced the triaxiality near the side notch tip to a brittle fracture. The values of nonlinear V-notch fracture toughness (Gcv) with 30% side grooving had uniform values through specimen thickness from 10 mm to 5 mm for 10 mm width

  20. Showing similarity of results given by two methods: A commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a frequent need in the environmental sciences to show the similarity of the results given by two analytical methods. This cannot, however, be done within the conventional 'there is a difference' statistical hypothesis setting of, among others, Student's t-test. We demonstrate here a more appropriate approach that originates from drug testing and that can be applied with standard statistical software. It is a challenging approach, as it requires quantification of the similarity limit. If no pre-determined value is given for similarity, a potential data-supported similarity limit can be explored from the data. The approach has numerous other potential application areas, e.g. parallelism of regression slopes, homogeneity of variances and lack of interaction. - Showing similarity of two methods calls for specific, yet simple, statistical techniques

  1. Confocal microscopy?fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Odette, G. R.; Lucas, G. E.; Matsui, H.

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, ? ?, and critical stressed area, A ?. Since ? ?-A ? is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  2. Degradation of mechanical properties of cast Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V steam turbine casings after long-term service at elevated temperatures: Pt. 2:; Fracture toughness, correlation of fracture toughness with Charpy V-notch toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, M.; Man, J.; Vlach, B. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno (Czech Republic). Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie); Krumpos, J. (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Plzen (Czech Republic). Inst. of Technology and Reliability of Machine Structures)

    1994-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure at elevated temperatures on the transition behaviour of the fracture toughness temperature curve of cast Cr-Mo-V and Cr-W-V steels has been studied. The fracture toughness versus temperature behaviour after any operational period seems to be controlled by the initial fracture properties. Relationships linking the fracture toughness to Charpy V-notch impact properties are reported. The validity of these relationships for cast steels was confirmed. (Author)

  3. Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Ga?llego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Ferna?ndez-busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-ramon

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under struct...

  4. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed

  5. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E

    1999-04-01

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed.

  6. Nanotribology results show that DNA forms a mechanically resistant 2D network in metaphase chromatin plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2010-12-15

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (??0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (??0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (??0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (??0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

  7. Show What You Know: Musings on the Reporting of Negative Results in Speech Recognition Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansky, Hynek; Morgan, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    {What is a Negative Result?} In a sense, well-designed experiments never have a completely negative result, since there is always the opportunity to learn something. In fact, unexpected results by definition provide the most information. Conventionally, negative results refer to those that do not support the hypothesis that an experiment has been designed to test; that is, results that are unable to disprove the null hypothesis (e.g., that the distinction between results from novel and baseli...

  8. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment - A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations. PMID:25272309

  9. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment - A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations.

  10. Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

  11. Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

  12. International gene therapy trial for 'bubble boy' disease shows promising early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers reported promising outcomes data for the first group of boys with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID-X1), a fatal genetic immunodeficiency also known as "bubble boy" disease, who were treated as part of an international clinical study of a new form of gene therapy. The mechanism used to deliver the gene therapy is designed to prevent the serious complication of leukemia that arose a decade ago in a similar trial in Europe, when one-quarter of boys treated developed the blood cancer. Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute presented the study results annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, on behalf of the Transatlantic Gene Therapy Consortium.

  13. Multi-channel cochlear implant patients with different open speech understanding show some similar basic psychophysical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazals, Y; Pelizzone, M; Kasper, A; Montandon, P

    1990-01-01

    A series of tests was recently undertaken on three multi-channel cochlear implant patients showing different degrees of open speech understanding in order to try to determine underlying differences in inner ear excitation. First we wanted to determine whether these patients showed notable differences in basic psychophysical tasks. This article reports a series of measures including absolute and differential thresholds, simultaneous and forward masking, and some polarity and phase perception. Absolute and differential sensitivities were found to be similar. In forward or simultaneous masking, the patients often showed no masking at all and in cases of masking, no frequency selectivity. In forward masking, their time constants were found to be longer than those in normal hearing. Multi-harmonic signals differing only in phase relations to produce large differences in peak amplitude did not seem to elicit different perceptions. In stimulating with very low-frequency square waves, only negative going fronts were perceived. The similarity of results for the 3 patients in this study suggest that individual differences lie in more complex stimulus processing and perhaps in qualitative aspects of perception. PMID:2356721

  14. Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

  15. Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    Several recent papers have highlighted the strong statistical correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and total dissolved mercury (THgd) and/or dissolved methyl Hg (MeHgd). These relations of organic carbon with Hg species are often even stronger when a measurement that reflects some fraction of the DOC is used such as UV absorbance at 254 nm or the hydrophobic acid fraction. These strong relations are not surprising given the pivotal role DOC plays in binding and transporting Hg, which is otherwise relatively insoluble in dilute waters. In this study, we show data collected monthly and during some storms and snowmelt over 2.5 years from the 65 km2 Fishing Brook watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. This dataset is noteworthy because of a weak and statistically non-significant (p > 0.05) relationship between DOC and either of THgd or MeHgd over the entire study period. We believe that the lack of a strong DOC-Hg relation in Fishing Brook reflects the combined effects of the heterogeneous land cover and the presence of three ponds within the watershed. The watershed is dominantly (89.3%) hardwood and coniferous forest with 8% wetland area, and 2.7% open water. Despite the lack of a strong relation between DOC and Hg species across the annual hydrograph, the dataset shows strong within-season correlations that have different y-intercepts and slopes between the growing season (May 1 - Sept. 30) and dormant season (Oct. 1 - April 30), as well as strong, but seasonally varying DOC-Hg correlations at smaller spatial scales in data collected on several occasions in 10 sub-watersheds of Fishing Brook. We hypothesize that a combination of several factors can account for these annually weak, but seasonally and spatially strong DOC-Hg correlations: (1) seasonal variations in runoff generation processes from upland and wetland areas that may yield DOC with varying Hg-binding characteristics, (2) photo-induced losses of Hg species and DOC in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

  16. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

  17. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title. However, we also take into account that the national perspective needs to be considered critically. First, there are other factors but national culture that determine a local adaptation such as subnational target groups, channel identity, financing or chance incidents. Secondly, it has rightly been argued that within any national television market, especially in the post-broadcast era, a multiplicity of publics co-exists. The aim of the focus groups is therefore to shed light on the complexity of the communal viewing experience, real and imagined, national, sub-national and transnational; of identification, and of the meaning that viewers take from the musical talent show genre.

  18. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  19. Statistical analyses of fracture toughness results for two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Fifth Irradiation Series were to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the transition temperature shift and the shape of the KIc curve described in Sect. 6 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31% were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plates. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact, tensile, drop-weight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick [1T, 2T, 4T, 6T, and 8T C(T)] were tested to provide a large data base for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 4T were irradiated at about 288 degrees C to a mean fluence of about 1.5 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods were used to analyze all cleavage fracture results and local cleavage instabilities (pop-ins). Evaluation of the results showed that the cleavage fracture toughness values determined at initial pop-ins fall within the same scatter band as the values from failed specimens; thus, they were included in the data base for analysis (all data are designated KJc)

  20. Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME KIa curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Laboratory tests for measurement of von Willebrand factor show poor agreement among different centers: results from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Blood Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Steve; Jennings, Ion; Woods, Tim A L; Kitchen, Dianne P; Walker, Isobel D; Preston, Francis E

    2006-07-01

    In recognition of the importance of von Willebrand factor (vWF) testing in the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (vWD), the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Blood Coagulation regularly distributes samples for determination of vWF:antigen (vWF:Ag). Data from 10 separate surveys performed between 2001 and 2005 are reviewed. These include results from ~200 different centers, of which 55% are within the United Kingdom and the remainder are from other countries. During the period of the surveys, the use of immunoelectrophoresis for determination of vWF:Ag practically disappeared and was largely replaced by latex agglutination assays. The coefficient of variation (CV) of results in different centers was approximately 15 to 20% for most vWF:Ag techniques, with CVs of approximately 7% for a fluorescence-based assay. Several different techniques were used for determination of vWF ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo), all of which were associated with poor agreement among centers as indicated by CVs of 40 to 50%. Several centers calculated the ratio of vWF:Ag/vWF:RCo but with variable success. Ratios compatible with either type 1 or type 2 vWD were obtained on samples from subjects with type 1 vWD, as well as on samples from subjects with genetically confirmed type 2 vWD. Overall, our data show that laboratory testing for vWD remains problematic. It remains to be seen whether newer techniques will offer consistently improved precision. PMID:16862522

  3. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  4. High-dose cytarabine-based consolidation shows superior results for older AML patients with intermediate risk cytogenetics in first complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Mona; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Schuh, Andre C; Yee, Karen W L; Minden, Mark D; Schimmer, Aaron D; Gupta, Vikas; Brandwein, Joseph M

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated outcomes in two consecutive groups of AML patients age>60 years in CR after 7+3 induction therapy. Group 1 received consolidation with cytarabine 1.5g/m(2) q12h×6+daunorubicin for two cycles, while group 2 received consolidation with 7+3 followed by mitoxantrone+etoposide. For patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, group 1 had a significantly superior DFS (p=0.046), and a trend toward better OS (p=0.087). The treatment group remained a significant predictor of DFS on multivariate analysis. The results indicate that a high-dose cytarabine-containing consolidation regimen produces superior outcomes in AML patients age>60 years with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. PMID:23357460

  5. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  6. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  7. Homemade Laser Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

  8. The Diane Rehm Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

  9. Demonstration Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  10. Showing What They Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  11. Blue Ribbon Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Judy Domeny

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

  12. Show-Me Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

  13. Show-Me Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

  14. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  15. Egg: the Arts Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

  16. American History Picture Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Bennion

    2009-11-23

    In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

  17. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  18. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace

  20. Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  1. Applications of surveillance programme results to reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment. Results of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC has been developed under an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Surveillance Programme Results Application to Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity Assessment. This CRP is the fifth in a series that have led to the defining of the most appropriate fracture toughness parameters (using relatively small test specimens) for ensuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials. The CRP group consisted of 20 testing laboratories representing 15 Member States. The CRP had three main objectives: (1) to develop a large database of fracture toughness data using the Master Curve methodology for both precracked Charpy-sized specimens and one-inch thick (25.4 mm) compact tension (1T-CT) specimens, (2) to assess possible specimen bias effects and any effects of the range of temperatures used to determine T0, either using the single temperature or multi-temperature assessment methods, and (3) to develop international guidelines for measuring and applying Master Curve fracture toughness results for RPV integrity assessment. Fracture toughness test results showed clear evidence that lower values of unirradiated T0 were obtained using precracked Charpy specimens compared with results obtained from 1T-CT specimens. This bias in test results is very important when considering the use of precracked Charpy specimens for evaluating RPV integrity. In fact, this is a technical area where the results from this CRP were influential in changing the ASTM test method to include consideration of this effect. The direct measurement approach using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment has distinct advantages over the indirect methods used in the past for assessing radiation embrittlement effects. The Master Curve methodology already has been or is being assimilated into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASTM Standards, USNRC Regulations, German Regulations (KTA 3203), IAEA pressurized thermal shock guidelines for WWER reactors as well as the unified procedure for WWER component lifetime assessment and other industry guidance documents governing RPV integrity analysis. This report was written to allow nuclear utility engineers and industry scientists to directly measure fracture toughness using small surveillance size specimens of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and directly apply the results using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment. This report provides a summary of Master Curve fracture toughness test results on small surveillance type specimens of the IAEA Reference Material JRQ and other national steels from numerous laboratories throughout the world. In addition to transition temperature testing using Charpy V-notch test specimens, some emphasis was placed on using tensile and early-design fracture toughness test specimens applying elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods. Further progress in the application of fracture mechanics analysis methods for radiation damage assessment was achieved in this phase. Improvement and unification of neutron dosimetry methods provided better data with less inherent scatter. All results together with their analyses and raw data were summarized in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 265

  2. Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

  3. Results of the HepZero study comparing heparin-grafted membrane and standard care show that heparin-grafted dialyzer is safe and easy to use for heparin-free dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laville, Maurice; Dorval, Marc; Fort Ros, Joan; Fay, Renaud; Cridlig, Joëlle; Nortier, Joëlle L; Juillard, Laurent; D?bska-?lizie?, Alicja; Fernández Lorente, Loreto; Thibaudin, Damien; Franssen, Casper; Schulz, Michael; Moureau, Frédérique; Loughraieb, Nathalie; Rossignol, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Heparin is used to prevent clotting during hemodialysis, but heparin-free hemodialysis is sometimes needed to decrease the risk of bleeding. The HepZero study is a randomized, multicenter international controlled open-label trial comparing no-heparin hemodialysis strategies designed to assess non-inferiority of a heparin grafted dialyzer (NCT01318486). A total of 251 maintenance hemodialysis patients at increased risk of hemorrhage were randomly allocated for up to three heparin-free hemodialysis sessions using a heparin-grafted dialyzer or the center standard-of-care consisting of regular saline flushes or pre-dilution. The first heparin-free hemodialysis session was considered successful when there was neither complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer, nor additional saline flushes, changes of dialyzer or bloodlines, or premature termination. The current standard-of-care resulted in high failure rates (50%). The success rate in the heparin-grafted membrane arm was significantly higher than in the control group (68.5% versus 50.4%), which was consistent for both standard-of-care modalities. The absolute difference between the heparin-grafted membrane and the controls was 18.2%, with a lower bound of the 90% confidence interval equal to plus 7.9%. The hypothesis of the non-inferiority at the minus 15% level was accepted, although superiority at the plus 15% level was not reached. Thus, use of a heparin-grafted membrane is a safe, helpful, and easy-to-use method for heparin-free hemodialysis in patients at increased risk of hemorrhage. PMID:25007166

  4. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  5. New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Alzheimer’s People With Alzheimer’s Lose Lean Muscle Genetic Variations Are Linked to Alzheimer’s But Do Not Predict Risk The Changing Face ... One? Research Exciting Discoveries in Alzheimer’s Disease Our Alzheimer’s Research Genetic Risk Factors Non-Genetic Risk Factors What are ...

  6. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Pereira Bueno, Millan.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  7. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  8. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

  9. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  10. Results of examinations of pressure vessel samples and instrument nozzles from the TMI-2 lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen prism-shaped steel samples were removed from the lower head of the damaged TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel to assess the effects of approximately 19 metric tons of molten core debris that had relocated there during the 1979 loss-of-coolant accident. Metallographic examinations of the samples revealed that inside surface temperatures of 800 to 1,100 degree C were attained during the accident in an elliptical shaped ''hot spot'' ?1 x 0.7 m. Tensile, creep, and Charpy V-notch specimens were also cut from the samples to assess the mechanical properties of the lower head material at temperatures up to the peak accident temperature. These properties were used in a margin to failure analysis of the lower head. Examinations of instrument nozzles removed from the lower head region assisted in defining the relocation scenario of the molten core debris and showed that the lower head was largely protected from catastrophic failure by a solidified layer around the molten core debris that acted as a partial thermal insulator

  11. Pectin shows antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula M. Abdel-Massih

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pectins are the collective name for a group of heterogeneous, high molecular weight, branched polysaccharides that are found in the cell walls of higher plants. In this study, we intend to determine the antibacterial activity of pectin against reference strains and clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. The results show that pectin produced antibacterial effects on all the 16 clinical isolates and 2 reference strains of H. pylori with the greatest antibacterial effect at a low pH (5.0 versus higher pHs. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration recorded was of 0.016 ?g/?l. Antibiotic resistance, therapy costs, and undesirable side effects stress the need for new antimicrobials or alternative therapies. The results from our study can further our goal of future eradication of H. pylori infection using new molecules.

  12. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  13. Trematode hemoglobins show exceptionally high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, L; Rashid, A K; Griffon, N; Haque, M; Moens, L; Gibson, Q H; Poyart, C; Marden, M C

    1998-01-01

    Ligand binding studies were made with hemoglobin (Hb) isolated from trematode species Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc), Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), Explanatum explanatum (Ee), parasitic worms of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis, and Isoparorchis hypselobagri (Ih) parasitic in the catfish Wallago attu. The kinetics of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding show very fast association rates. Whereas oxygen can be displaced on a millisecond time scale from human Hb at 25 degrees C, the dissociation of oxygen from trematode Hb may require a few seconds to over 20 s (for Hb Pe). Carbon monoxide dissociation is faster, however, than for other monomeric hemoglobins or myoglobins. Trematode hemoglobins also show a reduced rate of autoxidation; the oxy form is not readily oxidized by potassium ferricyanide, indicating that only the deoxy form reacts rapidly with this oxidizing agent. Unlike most vertebrate Hbs, the trematodes have a tyrosine residue at position E7 instead of the usual distal histidine. As for Hb Ascaris, which also displays a high oxygen affinity, the trematodes have a tyrosine in position B10; two H-bonds to the oxygen molecule are thought to be responsible for the very high oxygen affinity. The trematode hemoglobins display a combination of high association rates and very low dissociation rates, resulting in some of the highest oxygen affinities ever observed. PMID:9675199

  14. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P. PMID:18419768

  15. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-01

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

  16. Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

  17. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  18. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  19. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  20. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  1. Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows Two cases ... Missouri and Texas are giving insight into a freshwater algae that can infect wounds. Reporting in the ...

  2. Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica / Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis Ferreira, Santos; Sophie Françoise Mauricette, Derchain; Luis Otávio, Sarian; Elizabete Aparecida, Campos; Marcos Roberto dos, Santos; Gislaine Aparecida, Fonsechi-Carvasan.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO) e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII) para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3) em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS) ou lesão escamosa intra-epiteli [...] al de baixo grau (LSIL). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95%) e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%), superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%). CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII) to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3) in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). METHODS: a cross-se [...] ctional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively). These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%). CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

  3. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

  4. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  5. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  6. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  7. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  8. Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one given AVI-7537; one given the prior dual-target drug; one given a drug that targets only ... drug. The result: AVI-7537 and the older dual-target medication were comparably successful in lowering viral load ...

  9. Show and Tell : Performanceaften på Charlottenborg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredag d. 1 november blev Kunsthal Charlottenborg indtaget af performanceprogrammet Show & Tell med et bredspektret program af danske og internationale kunstnere indenfor performance-, lyd- og installationskunst. Programmet præsenterer værker, der undersøger kroppens stadig mere symbiotiske forhold til maskinen, en lecture-performance i grænselandet mellem historiefortælling, poesi og vidensformidling. En undersøgelse af indeksikalitet og iSociety, en arkitektonisk lytteoplevelse, et lydkunstværk genereret af publikum og et requiem ud over det sædvanlige. Værkerne bliver udført af Olof Olsson (S/DK), Pernille With Madsen, Emil Alenius, Andrés Galeano (E/DE), Kasper Vang & Mads Forsby, Nanna Lysholt Hansen og Molly & Me (Molly Haslund & Catherine Hoffmann (UK)) Kurateret af Judith Schwarzbart og Sanne Krogh Groth Produceret af studerende ved Performance-design Programmet var støttet af Statens Kunstråd og studienævnet på Performance-design. Show & Tell - Performance program: kl. 16.30-19 Adresse: Kunsthal Charlottenborg, Nyhavn 2, 1051 København K

  10. Malignant melanoma showing smooth muscle differentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S. S.; Bishop, P. W.; Nicholson, C. M.; Eyden, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    A unique case of a metastatic non-desmoplastic sarcomatoid malignant melanoma in an axillary lymph node showing smooth muscle differentiation in a 54 year old woman is described. The tumour cells exhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF-35 and desmin positivity but were negative for S100 protein and HMB-45. Ultrastructural examination revealed smooth muscle phenotype and there was no evidence of myofibroblastic differentiation, a feature described previously in desmoplastic melanomas.

  11. Aerial photo shows RLV complex at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This closeup photo shows the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Support Complex at Kennedy Space Center. At right is a multi- purpose hangar and to the left is a building for related ground support equipment and administrative/ technical support. The complex is situated at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The RLV complex will be available to accommodate the Space Shuttle; the X-34 RLV technology demonstrator; the L-1011 carrier aircraft for Pegasus and X-34; and other RLV and X-vehicle programs. The complex is jointly funded by the Spaceport Florida Authority, NASA's Space Shuttle Program and KSC.

  12. High temperature filter tests show exposure reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of reduction of exposure dose at BWR type reactors of the first and second NPP units in Oxcarshamen by means of high temperature filters of new construction are presented. In new filters instead of wire cuttings changeable cartridges are used. Each filtering cartridge is fixed in a stable vessel with flanges. Two or more cartridges connected in parallel constitute a new high temperature filter. The first test results have shown that the total 60Co absorption efficiency constitutes approximately 70%, 58Co is considerably higher, for 54Mn and 65Zn it is equal approximately 40%. For several years of NPP operation the application of new filters reduces the dose rate by approximately 35%

  13. Surveys show support for green 'activities'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Two independently conducted surveys on sustainability - one into the 'views and values' of NHS 'leaders', and the other questioning the public about the importance of the 'green agenda' in the NHS, and their opinions on how the service might most effectively reduce its carbon footprint, form the basis of Sustainability in the NHS: Health Check 2012, a new NHS Sustainable Development Unit (NHS SDU) publication. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, the new document also presents updated data on the 'size' of the carbon footprint of the NHS in England, showing that, although good work by a number of Trusts in the past two years has seen healthcare-generated carbon emissions start to 'level off', the biggest contributors have been the current health service spending review, and the increased national availability of renewable energy. PMID:22515017

  14. ArtBots: The Robot Talent Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsored by the Columbia University Computer Music Center and the Digital Media Center of Columbia University's School of the Arts, ArtBots is "an international art exhibition for robotic art and art-making robots." The annual event invites artists from around the world to enter their robots based on the broad guidelines: "if you think it's a robot and you think it's art, we encourage you to submit." The Participants section includes a photo, description (including some interpretive analysis) and website link for each of the ArtBot 2004 participants. Some sample entries include a robot that draws, one that picks up balls and a "robotic sculpture built around a section of tree trunk." The website even offers a sample of the Theme Song from the show.

  15. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  16. Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) show developmental plasticity?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Graham J.; Miller, Ashadee K.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity) causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates) and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum). The two species are ...

  17. ODSCC algorithm shows correlation with degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last few years we have attempted to develop an algorithm to evaluate the impact of secondary water chemistry on tube degradation in PWR steam generators. Effects of individual factors were assessed and then consolidated to form an algorithm for ODSCC propensity. The algorithm utilizes secondary water chemistry data to calculate ODSCC propensity as a variable named Mega PHI. Prior attempts to correlate algorithm calculations with actual degradation in operating steam generators have resulted in very disappointing results. Recent modifications to the algorithm have demonstrated improved correlation between Mega PHI (calculated result from the algorithm) and actual degradation history from operating plants. The recent modifications involve the inclusion of the synergistic effect of boric acid application of secondary water and of high silica concentration in steam generator toward inhibiting ODSCC. Data from several plants with mill annealed alloy 600 tubing in the steam generators and operating with the primary coolant inlet temperature in the range of 608 to 624 degrees F (320 to 329 degrees C) were evaluated and the results compared with actual degradation reported from in-service inspections. The population of plants includes those with very few tubes repaired and those with hundreds of tubes repaired due to ODSCC at tube support plates. The observation of substantial correlation between the algorithm calculation and actual degradation signifies the roles of boric acid and silica in inhibiting ODSCC. It is recommended that further evaluation of the role of these chemical species be performed using more extensive data. The goal is to modify secondary water chemistry guidelines with the ultimate aim of minimizing corrosion of steam generator tubes. (author)

  18. Rich Internet Publications: "Show What You Tell"

    OpenAIRE

    Breure, Leen Utrecht University; Voorbij, Hans Utrecht University; Hoogerwerf, Maarten Royal Netherlands Academy Of Arts And Sciences

    2011-01-01

    The journal article is still the basis of scholarly communication. This genre, however, largely adheres to the rules of the printed publication and does not meet the requirements of this age of digital Web publishing. Today we do not need to restrict ourselves any longer to communicating the results of the research process only. We can also allow readers to inspect the underlying data online, to publish their own comments and, using a variety of multimedia content, to be witness to i...

  19. The Source of Lake Wobegon (slide show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Phelps

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available John J. Cannell's late 1980's "Lake Wobegon" reports suggested widespread deliberate educator manipulation of norm-referenced standardized test (NRT administrations and results, resulting in artificial test score gains. The Cannell studies have been referenced in education research since, but as evidence that high stakes (and not cheating or lax security cause test score inflation. This article examines that research and Cannell's data for evidence that high stakes cause test score inflation. No such evidence is found. Indeed, the evidence indicates that, if anything, the absence of high stakes is associated with artificial test score gains. The variable most highly correlated with test score inflation is general performance on achievement tests, with traditionally low-performing states exhibiting more test score inflation on low-stakes norm-referenced tests than traditionally high-performing states, regardless of whether or not a state also maintains a high-stakes testing program. The unsupported high-stakes-cause-test-score-inflation hypothesis seems to derive from the surreptitious substitution of an antiquated definition of the term "high stakes" and a few studies afflicted with left-out-variable bias. The source of test-score inflation is lax security, regardless the stakes of a test.

  20. Women showing off: notes on female exhibitionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2008-03-01

    The limitations of the phallocentric cast of earlier psychoanalytic formulations of "female exhibitionism" linger into the present. In part this connects to certain historical expectations for women's social behavior, and to the vicissitudes of Freud's insufficient knowledge of women in his libidinal psychosexual phasing used as a basis for analytic understanding. The contemporary fade of libido theory contributes to the neglect of such topics as they relate to the biological body. Yet ease and conflict regarding conscious and unconscious female body image representations related to that stepchild of theory-pregnancy and childbirth in particular-play a major role in female body display. Recognition of such body fantasies and female body meanings from early childhood into maturity tends to be marginalized within all of the psychoanalytic theories current today. The focus here on female exhibitionism suggests a normative spectrum for pleasurably active sex seeking and pleasurable procreative desire and fantasy that is present in a female's use of her body and which (of course, but secondarily) can become caught up in conflict. Two cases accenting analyses of female "showing off" behavior are included. PMID:18430704

  1. Effective Marketing Strategies to Attract Business Visitors at Trade Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chin Chu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade shows have been the focus of recent research as constituting one of the most effective marketing strategies.Related issues have been discussed extensively in the literature. How to achieve better performance is central tothese discussions. Studies on the key factors that influence trade show performance have focused mainly onsubjective opinions from the perspective of the staff at exhibitions. In this study, we explored the key criteria fora business visitor in selecting suppliers at a trade show; that is, what kind of trade show strategies can promoteexhibitors’ performance? Trade show strategies from previous studies were first summarized. They wereclassified into three categories: before, at, and after the show. To address the problem of complexity anduncertainty, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP was used to explore the importance of the variousstrategies. The results showed that "follow-up after the exhibition" was the most important factor from theperspective of business visitors. “Active invitation before the exhibition” was considered to be the next mostimportant issue in attracting business visitors at a trade show. Among at-show strategies, the most important wasthat of staff knowledge of the product and trade details. The results of this study could contribute to enhancingtrade show performance.

  2. Lockheed Electra - animation showing air turbulence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    On Mar. 24, 1998, an L-188 Electra aircraft owned by the National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia, and operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, flew near Boulder with an Airborne Coherent LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) for Advanced In-flight Measurement. This aircraft was on its first flight to test its ability to detect previously invisible forms of clear air turbulence. Coherent Technologies Inc., Lafayette, Colorado, built the LiDAR device for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA Dryden participated in the effort as part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, for which the lead center was Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Results of the test indicated that the device did successfully detect the clear air turbulence. Computer animation of the clear air turbulence (CAT) detection system known as the 'Airborne Coherent LiDAR for Advanced In-flight Measurement' was tested aboard the National Science Foundation L-188 Lockheed Electra.

  3. Ge Crystals on Si Show Their Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, F.; Isa, F.; Isella, G.; Falub, C. V.; Kreiliger, T.; Salvalaglio, M.; Bergamaschini, R.; Grilli, E.; Guzzi, M.; von Känel, H.; Miglio, L.

    2014-05-01

    We report micron-sized Ge crystal arrays grown on deeply patterned Si substrates that yield a surge of the interband photoluminescence intensity by more than 2 orders of magnitude with respect to that typical for epitaxial layers directly grown on planar substrates. This finding is ascribed to the strongly modified internal quantum efficiency induced by controlling the nonradiative recombination at dislocations and to the improved light extraction offered by the array architecture. By spectrally resolving the interband and the dislocation-related luminescence, we address the parasitic activity of extended defects and its impact on the optical properties of the heterosystem. Such results are then exploited along with band gap engineering to design SiGe reflectors and Ge quantum wells that are effective in further amplifying the emission yield.

  4. Do Education Organizations Show Learning Organizations Charecterics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yumusak,

    Full Text Available Learning, an important element in terms of affecting the change of individual, organizational and social structures, will occur more effectively when the institutions in social structure turn into learning organizations. Senge (1993 concept of learning organization, constantly changing, evolving and renewing itself described as a dynamic structure. This concept has an important place in all institutions is also a separate meaning for educational institutions. In this context, schools training the human resources, appropriate for the aim of being information society, as individuals have taken continuous learning as their principles, teachers providing educational and supporting services and their perceptions of learning organization are of the great importance. In Bal?kesir, the study was conducted virtue of this importance has been serving the state and private institutions serving 848 elementary teachers, perceptions of the learning organization and organizational barriers that prevent it is to be determined through a comparative analysis. As a result of the survey, in the framework of the bases in literature, it has been found out that the state primary schools don’t have the features of learning organization, contrary to the private primary schools.

  5. Transition temperature tests show fracture behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the research reported in this article was to examine the predictability of full-scale fracture behavior through the use of the fullthickness drop weight tear tests (DWTT) currently employed to specify high toughness, high-strength, lowalloy (HSLA) line pipe. The DWT tests studied are the standard pressed notch DWTT as specified by the American Petroleum Institute (DWTT-API), a recently developed precracked DWTT (DWTT-PC), and fatigue cracked DWTT (DWTTFC). The study was conducted at the brittle-ductile transition temperatures of the pipe steels to see which DWT test specimen most accurately defines the full-scale transition temperature. The main parameter of comparison between the full-scale tests and the DWT tests is the percent shear area appearance of the fractured surface. For normalized steels and smaller wall thickness, earlier investigations have shown that a good correlation exists between results of such fullscale tests and DWT-API tests. However, it must be verified that this correlation is also valid for modern HSLA steels and heavy wall thickness. From 17 pipes, 14 were produced from thermomechanically treated materials, and 3 were quenched and tempered

  6. Turkish women show preference for small families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A brief summary is provided of results from the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey on women's family size preferences. Over 66% of married women 15-49 years old reported a desire to stop childbearing, and 14% desired a delay of at least 2 years in future childbearing. The ideal family size was reported as 2.4 children per woman, while the total fertility rate was 2.7 children per woman. 33% of births in the 5 years before the survey were unwanted or mistimed. 63% of married women used family planning. 33% used modern methods. 19% used the IUD, 7% used the condom, and 5% used the pill. The most widely used method was withdrawal (26%). The abortion rate was 18 per 100 pregnancies. 67% were performed by private physicians, and 27% were performed in government hospitals. 58% of women who had had an abortion reported their reason as a desire to stop childbearing. Post abortion, 27% were using withdrawal and 39% used no method at all. Only 32% were using modern contraception post abortion. Maternal health has improved to the point where 63% of mothers received prenatal care, and 76% were assisted at delivery by medical personnel. Infant mortality declined by 35% to 53 deaths per 1000 births. Under-5 mortality declined from 97 in 1983 to 61 in 1993. About 59% of children 12-23 months old were fully immunized. Almost 20% of children by age 5 years had chronic malnutrition, particularly in rural areas and among children with mothers with no education. PMID:12346433

  7. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  8. Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

  9. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F-104 chase plane. When the DAST's mission ended, it deployed a parachute and then a specially eq

  10. Comportamento agressivo em shows musicais: analisando notícias de jornal impresso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pimentel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a content analysis of the newspaper articles dealing with aggressive behavior in music shows. This analysis permits an understanding of the characteristics of these situations, the aggressive behaviors in shows, and the way in which the print media treat the subject. Despite of the newspapers’ influence on public opinion formation, that is, the transmission of attitudes and behavior repertoires, this kind of analysis is rarely reported in Brazilian social psychological literature. Some 31 newspaper articles were content analyzed as to aggressive behavior during music shows. Results indicate that aggressive behaviors occur in shows of most varied musical styles. Results are discussed on the basis of social cognitive theory.

  11. Quantifying show jumping horse rider expertise using IMUs

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Matthew; Doyle, J.; Cahill, Emma; Caulfield, Brian; Mccarthy Persson, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Horse rider ability has long been measured using horse performance, competition results and visual observation. Scientific methods of measuring rider ability on the flat are emerging such as measuring position angles and harmony of the horse-rider system. To date no research has quantified rider ability in show jumping. Kinematic analysis and motion sensors have been used in sports other than show jumping to measure the quality of motor control patterns in humans. The aim of this study was to...

  12. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Combination with a Twice-Daily Lopinavir-Ritonavir-Based Regimen in HIV-Infected Women Showed Effective Contraception and a Lack of Clinically Significant Interactions, with Good Safety and Tolerability: Results of the ACTG 5283 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Amneris E; Cohn, Susan E; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D Heather

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.). PMID:25624326

  13. Do Tantalum and Titanium Cups Show Similar Results in Revision Hip Arthroplasty?

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, S. Mehdi; Bender, Benjamin; Coyle, Catelyn; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F.; Hozack, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Porous surfaces are intended to enhance osteointegration of cementless implants. Tantalum has been introduced in an effort to enhance osseointegration potential of uncemented components. We therefore compared the clinical outcome of acetabular components with two different porous surfaces. We retrospectively reviewed 283 patients (295 hips) who underwent cementless revision hip arthroplasty with either an HA-coated titanium cup (207 patients, 214 hips) or porous tantalum cup (79 patients, 81 ...

  14. UC Davis study shows how DNA finds its match

    Science.gov (United States)

    It’s been more than 50 years since James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA is a double helix of two strands that complement each other. But how does a short piece of DNA find its match, out of the millions of "letters" in even a small genome? New work by researchers at the University of California, Davis, handling and observing single molecules of DNA, shows how it’s done. The results are published online Feb. 8 by the journal Nature.

  15. Irradiation embrittlement of ASTM A533 steel: The UKAEA contribution to an IAEA comparative test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensile, Charpy V notch impact and instrumented impact tests have been made on A533 Grade B Class 1 Steel as part of an IAEA co-ordinated testing programme. Tests were made to show the effect of irradiation at 290degC to a neutron dose of 1.75 x 1019n cm-2 (>1MeV). The results show an increase in strength and degree of embrittlement after irradiation which are lower than those determined in the ORNL facility and have demonstrated that it might be possible to use instrumented impact tests to give an estimate of dynamic fracture toughness data. (author)

  16. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    OpenAIRE

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L. B.; Zweers, A. J.; Brink, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of all seven arthropod species tested (28-d EC10 values of approximately 0.03?µg/L). The results indicated a high aquatic risk of chronic exposure of imidacloprid to mayflies.

  17. Early atherosclerotic plaques show evidence of infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Ana; Turu, Marta M; Rovira, Norma; Juan-Babot, Josep Oriol; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) could play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Cpn interferes with HIF-1alpha regulation in infected host cells during intracellular replication in hypoxia. We obtained carotid artery specimens with low (n=38), high (n=25) levels of stenosis and 10 middle cerebral arteries. Fifty eight percent of the carotids with low levels of stenosis showed evidence of the viable organism. Ninety one percent of the positive results were derived from pre-atheromatous lesions. Only 12 percent of plaques removed at endarterectomy showed the presence of Cpn DNA. All middle cerebral arteries failed to show evidence of live Chlamydia. Ninety one percent of sera from 22 endarterectomy patients failed to show the presence of Cpn antibodies. Immunohistology of carotid arteries with low levels of stenosis was used to confirm the presence of HIF-1alpha in infected specimens and showed a correlation between the over-expression of HIF-1alpha and Cpn in the plaque (p less than 0.05). Cpn might play an important role in activation and development of the initial stages of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22652649

  18. Intercan '99 - the Calgary oil and gas show: official show guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The official show guide features a list of exhibitor profiles and list of products and services. A leading technology seminar series, held during Intercan '99 presented 47 papers on such topics as economically viable benzene pollution solution, micro turbines for effective flare gas treatment, cost effective and technologically advanced silicated drilling fluids, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, predictive maintenance tools, advantages of the inclined free water knockout (IFWKO), isotherm systems, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, on-site bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated drill cuttings through composting technologies, a new environmentally acceptable drill mud oil and real-time well monitoring case studies. Papers were also presented on: Exacta's all in one series XI controller for air/fuel radio control, more efficient and cost effective coiled tubing technology, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, economically viable benzene pollution solution, new products to solve the soluble salt dilemma, real-time hydrocarbon reservoir management using PC based reservoir simulators,real-time bottom hole pressure monitoring system for fracturing operations and remote modular facilities and accommodation for maximized personnel productivity

  19. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A J; Borondo, J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network. PMID:25833436

  20. Influence of process parameters on the weld lines of a micro injection molded component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The insufficient entanglement of the molecular chains and the stress amplification at the v-notch of a weld line compromise the mechanical strength of a plastic product, also in the micro scale. To investigate the influence of process parameters on the weld lines formation, a special micro cavity was designed and manufactured by µEDM (Electro Discharge Machining). Weld lines were quantitatively characterized both in the two-dimensional (direction and position) and three-dimensional range (surface topography characterization). Results showed that shape and position of weld lines are mainly influenced by mold temperature and injection speed.

  1. Effect of copper content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass MMA, low alloy steel weld metal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of copper content in the range of 0.14-0.94 wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Ni-Cu low alloy steel weld metal deposits was investigated. All welds were prepared by manual metal arc welding technique in flat position. Microstructure of the welds was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes. The results showed increase in acicular ferrite and microphases formed at the expense of primary ferrite and ferrite with second phase with steady refinement of microstructure. According to these microstructural changes, hardness, yield and ultimate tensile stresses increased while Charpy V-notch impact toughness and percent elongation reduced.

  2. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG)

  3. Tests show how oil muds increase shale stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the problems and processes involved in preserving shale cores at a rig site and testing the shale on the downhole simulation cell (DSC) with an oil mud. Data on the composition of the shale as determined by x-ray diffraction, thin section analysis and atomic absorption are presented. Results of three DSC tests are given showing how the shale in the region around the wellbore can be affected by oil mud. This article discusses the development of procedures and presents part of the baseline data for the comparison of the performance of water based systems

  4. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2014-10-12

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  5. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  6. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process. PMID:25499057

  7. The Auckland Volcanic Field - a basaltic field showing random behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corvec, N.; Rowland, J. V.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Basaltic monogenetic volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon typically producing fields of volcanic centers that increase in number with time. The process of field growth is not constant but punctuated by single eruptions, flare-ups and hiatuses. The development of a volcanic field involves physical processes that occur in the mantle, where batches of basaltic magma originate, and within the intervening lithosphere through which magma is transferred to the surface. The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic centers within such volcanic fields results from, and thus may provide insights to, these physical processes (e.g., magma production, tectonic controls), thereby aiding in our understanding of a volcanic field's future development. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), which lies in the most populated area of New Zealand, comprises 50 volcanic centers and produced its last eruption ~600 years ago. A recent study has provided a relative chronology of the entire sequence of eruptions, which is here used together with the spatial distribution of volcanic centers to investigate the evolution of the field in time and space. Two methods were used: 1) the Poisson Nearest Neighbor (PNN) analysis which evaluates the spatial distribution of a natural population over the spatial distribution of a statistical random model, the Poisson model; and 2) the Voronoi analysis which evaluates the spatial characteristics of each volcanic center by dividing a region (i.e., the volcanic field) into a set of polygons. The results of the PNN analysis show that the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the volcanic centers within the AVF follows the Poisson model, therefore they cannot be used to extrapolate the future evolution of the volcanic field. The preliminary results of the Voronoi analysis show in combination with the geochemical signatures from some volcanic centers a possible zonation within the source region, and/or the magmas may be variably affected on their way to the surface, the chemistry of the erupted lavas is showing a higher SiO2 content inside the field rather than on its edges.

  8. Nuclear opinion poll shows increasing expectations and anxiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime Minister's Office conducted a public opinion poll from March 1 to 7, 1984, in three areas: public recognition of nuclear energy, public recognition of nuclear power generation, and recognition of the safety of nuclear power generation. Public acceptance of nuclear power is essential for the smooth development of nuclear power generation. The interviewers met 2,252 people of total 3,000 selected by random sampling throughout the country. The results showed that the majority of the people recognize the necessity of developing oil-alternative energy, and hold expectation on the role and promotion of nuclear power as a main power source of future, but at the same time, they have some anxiety about the safety of nuclear power plants. (Mori, K.)

  9. Aranciamycin analogs generated by combinatorial biosynthesis show improved antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Hoffmann, Jens; Pelzer, Stefan; Wohlert, Sven-Eric; Vente, Andreas; Bechthold, Andreas

    2008-08-01

    Expression of the aranciamycin biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces diastatochromogenes Tü6028 resulted in production of four novel compounds, aranciamycins E, F, G, and H with different decorations in the tetracyclic backbone. Two derivatives contain a D-amicetose moiety at C7 (aranciamycins F and G), two are hydroxylated at position C1 (aranciamycins E and G), and one is hydroxylated at C13 (aranciamycin F). Analysis of the biological activities of the aranciamycins against two human tumor cell lines--MCF-7 and MATU--shows surprising impact of the hydroxyl group at position C1 on activity. As aranciamycins E and G were the most active derivatives, hydroxylation of the C1 appears to coincide with increased antitumor activity of aranciamycins. PMID:18553079

  10. Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D.; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

    2013-01-01

    Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association–dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes’s chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

  11. Tropical aquatic Archaea show environment-specific community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Cardoso, Alexander M; Coutinho, Felipe H; Lima, Joyce L; Pinto, Leonardo H; Albano, Rodolpho M; Clementino, Maysa M; Martins, Orlando B; Vieira, Ricardo P

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  12. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast cancer. However we found that there is no correlation between the metastasis showing restricted diffusion and primary pathology. Prospective studies with larger groups and more information are necessary regarding the correlation between the primary tumor histopathology and the ADC values of metastasis with restricted diffusion.

  13. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  14. A case of cerebral infarction showing interesting SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of cerebral infarction showing interesting SPECT images was reported. One month after stroke, 81mKr and 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT were showed post ischemic high flow area as hot lesion, but 123I-IMP-SPECT was showed as cold lesion in early scan. Two months after stroke, all SPECT images showed infarction as cold area. (author)

  15. The Marketing functions of the trade show system

    OpenAIRE

    Tafesse, Wondwesen

    2014-01-01

    Trade shows have a long history that goes back to at least the early Middle Ages. In those times, trade shows played significant trading roles by facilitating bartered exchanges of textile goods, leather goods, spices and precious metals among long haul merchants. Trade shows have undergone significant changes since then and the contemporary trade show system supports far flung commercial activities. Today, trade shows facilitate purposeful interactions and collaborations among diverse market...

  16. Electron diffraction from polycrystalline materials showing stress induced preferred orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D. R.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    1999-07-01

    The Gibbs free energy as generalized by J. F. Nye [Physical Properties of Crystals (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1957), p. 179] is minimized in thermodynamic systems held at constant temperature and constant stress. This function is orientation dependent in all crystal systems in stress fields which are not purely hydrostatic. There are situations in which preferred orientation arises as a result of the synthesis of materials under impressed stress conditions such as thin film growth under ion bombardment and the pressing of powders into solids. Here, we derive the orientational constraints for cubic crystals which result from growth under a general biaxial stress field. The sign of the expression ?=s11-s12-1/2s44 determines the behavior of a cubic crystal. Electron diffraction patterns of face-centered-cubic specimens with both positive and negative values of ? are calculated using a program in MATLAB and displayed in a form suitable for direct comparison with experiment. The use of a biaxial stress with unequal principal components for producing highly oriented polycrystalline material is discussed. In the case of ? positive, as occurs in silicon, the preferred orientation is simply an alignment of the directions along the principal stresses. For ? negative, as occurs in titanium nitride, the preferred orientation depends on the ratio of the principal stresses and low index directions are aligned with the principal stresses only when the principal stresses are either equal or one of them is zero. In the general case, arc-like diffraction patterns are produced. The results of a calculation of a diffraction pattern from a cross-sectional TiN film are compared with diffraction patterns reported by L. Hultman et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5395 (1995)] and show good agreement.

  17. Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Nicole M; Carrillo, Carmen A; Needham, Lance; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2004-01-01

    Rats show signs of dependence on sugar when it is available intermittently, including bingeing, withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. In the current study, we sought to determine whether sugar-dependent rats would show increased intake of unsweetened ethanol and, conversely, whether intermittent access to ethanol would augment sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, with intermittent versus ad libitum access to ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were given escalating concentrations of ethanol (1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, and 9%) over the course of 20 days. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group, with 12-h daily access, consumed more 4%, 7%, and 9% ethanol during the first hour of access, and more 9% ethanol daily, than did rats in the ad libitum ethanol access group. In Experiment 2, with ethanol as a gateway to sugar intake, the rats from Experiment 1 were switched to 10% sucrose with 12-h daily access for 1 week. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group consumed significantly more sugar than was consumed by rats in a control group with no prior ethanol experience. In Experiment 3, with sugar as a gateway to ethanol to determine whether sugar dependence leads to increased ethanol intake, four groups were maintained for 21 days according to the following designations: intermittent access to sugar and chow, ad libitum access to sugar and chow, intermittent access to chow, or ad libitum access to chow. Four days later, all groups were switched to intermittent ethanol access, as described in Experiment 1. The group with intermittent access to sugar and chow consumed the most 9% ethanol, supporting the suggestion that sugar dependence alters a rat's proclivity to drink ethanol. These results may relate to the co-morbidity between binge-eating disorders and alcohol intake and the tendency of people abstaining from alcohol to consume excessive amounts of sugar. In conclusion, bingeing on either ethanol or sugar fosters intake of the other. PMID:15902914

  18. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication...SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required. (a) Authorizations...

  19. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship required. 14.24 Section 14...Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals...number of the certificate, if known. If citizenship is claimed by virtue of...

  20. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (?(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management. PMID:25609263

  1. Square One TV: Season One Content Analysis and Show Rundowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joel; And Others

    This report describes an analysis of the segments and shows of the first season's production of "Square One TV" in terms of its elaborated goals. It includes charts and graphs showing the treatment of objectives for the series' goals across the 75 shows of the series. The goals of the series are: (1) to promote positive attitudes toward, and…

  2. Minifish shows high genetic variation in mtDNA size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X-W; Li, Q-L; Hu, X-J; Yuan, Y-M; Wen, M; Peng, L-Y; Liu, S-J; Hong, Y-H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Paedocypris is a newly described taxon of minifish species that are characterized by extensive chromosome evolution and one of the smallest known vertebrate nuclear genomes. Paedocypris features a tiny adult size, a short generation time, low fecundity and fragmented tropical habitats, which are factors that favor rapid speciation. Most recently, we have revealed that P. progenetica (Pp), the type species of the genus Paedocypris, has an unusual mtDNA bearing - within its D-loop - a tandem array of a 34-bp repeat sequence called the minifish repeat, which shows compromised replication efficiency in vitro. Here we report that Pp exhibits high genetic variation in mtDNA size. The efficiency of D-loop amplification was found to depend upon primers. Interestingly, Pp individuals of one and the same population differed drastically in mtDNA size resulting from varying copy numbers of the minifish repeat. We conclude that minifish has a high mutation rate and perhaps represents a rapidly evolving taxon of vertebrates. PMID:25470287

  3. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kulik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum.

  4. Ca (II-EDTA shows antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yoshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt (Ca (II-EDTA was investigated for its antibacterial activity against the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of Ca (II-EDTA and its bactericidal activity. Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt inhibited the growth of all the periodontopathic bacteria tested in broth. An MIC of 60 mM was the most effective against P. gingivalis. An adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay revealed that Ca (II-EDTA showed bactericidal activity against the bacteria tested in a time-dependent manner. To determine its safety in mammalian cells, we investigated the viability of murine L929 cells subjected to Ca (II-EDTA treatment. At 75 mM, 93% ± 0.13% of the cells survived. These results indicate that Ca (II-EDTA is a candidate chelating agent for prevention of infection by periodontopathic bacteria.

  5. 47 CFR 74.131 - Licensing requirements, necessary showing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Licensing requirements, necessary showing. 74.131 Section 74.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental Broadcast Stations § 74.131 Licensing requirements, necessary...

  6. Material properties characterization of low carbon steel using TBW and PWHT techniques in smooth-contoured and U-shaped geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the effects of the temper bead welding (TBW) technique and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties of multi-layer welding on low carbon steel specimens using Charpy V-notch impact testing and tensile testing. Several samples of two different weld geometries, viz. (i) smooth-contoured, and (ii) U-shaped were made with multiple bead layers using both TBW and PWHT techniques. Impact testing showed that at room temperature and below, TBW gave an impact toughness in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) better than both PWHT and the parent material. At temperatures higher than the room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness in the HAZ. Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of the parent material. In tensile testing, both TBW and PWHT weld metal specimens produced acceptable results; however, TBW gave yield and tensile strengths closer to that of the actual material than PWHT. -- Highlights: • Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and temper bead welding (TBW) on properties are tested. • Charpy V-notch impact and tensile testing was performed on multi-layer welding of low carbon steel. • At room temperature and below, TBW gave better impact toughness than both PWHT and parent material. • Above room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness than TBW. • Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of parent material

  7. Optimizing the Natural Frequencies of Beams via Notch Stamping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel T. Alshabatat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural frequency optimization is important to avoid the coincidence of excitation frequency and natural frequency which causes resonance phenomenon. In this study, the natural frequencies of a beam, with different boundary conditions, are enhanced by stamping V-notches on its surface. These notches alter the local stiffness in the beam while keeping the mass the same. This method is cost-effective in comparison with other Structural Dynamics Modification methods (SDM because it is a one-step manufacturing method and because it enhances the dynamic behavior of beam structures without additional weight or additional joints. The natural frequencies of notched beam are calculated by finite element method. In particular, ANSYS package is used in building the notched beam models for modal analysis. The effect of notch location and size on the beam fundamental frequency is investigated. The simulation results indicated that creating notches on free-free beam decreases its fundamental frequency, while creating notches on clamped beam may increase its fundamental frequency. The optimal designs of notched beams are presented. The proposed method couples a finite element method for the modal analysis with an optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithm (GA. Three examples are presented to show the optimal design of free-free and clamped notched beams. The optimization results show that V-notch stamping technique is an effective technique to optimize the natural frequencies.

  8. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  9. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  10. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  11. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  12. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  13. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  14. Survey Shows Britons Have Trouble Identifying Art Masterpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Max

    While Americans seem lacking in geographical knowledge at times (such as the fact that some high school graduates do not think that New Mexico is part of the United States), a recent survey by the Encyclopedia Britannica indicates that Britons are unfamiliar with the masterpieces of art. The survey asked 500 adults aged 18 and over to identify the artists responsible for well-known paintings, and in the process, elicited some rather unusual responses. For example, one in 10 of those surveyed stated that Vincent van Gogh painted the Mona Lisa, and only 49 percent overall were able to correctly state that Leonardo da Vinci was in fact the creator of that work. Stranger still was the statistic that 7 per cent of those surveyed identified the creator of Water Lilies (painted many different times by Claude Monet) was in fact Rolf Harris, an Australian entertainer who plays the wobble board, and who recently recreated the famous Monet painting on a television show in Britain.The first link is to an online news article from the Guardian about the results of this intriguing poll on art literacy around Britain. The second link will take visitors to a news story from the Sydney Morning Herald that talks about the survey, along with a section about perceptions of how Australians view art. The third link leads to an online exhibit of Monet's works (including some renditions of Water Lilies), provided by the Museum of Fine Art in Boston. The fourth link leads to a nice site dedicated to Edvard Munch (another misidentified painter in the recent survey), which includes a fine online gallery of his works, some background material, and links to other online resources. The fifth link leads to a site provided by the Museum of Science in Boston on Leonardo Da Vinci that features some virtual tours of the exhibit, learning activities for young people, and suggestions for incorporating da Vinci into the classroom. The final link leads to the Web site of the multitalented Rolf Harris (also known as The Wizard of Aussi), who is a musician, painter, and live performer.

  15. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification. PMID:18536730

  16. Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to capacity projections developed in this edition, by the year 2035, world nuclear capacity is projected to grow to between 500 and 785 GWe net. Accordingly, world reactor- related uranium requirements are also projected to rise. As observed in the past, increased investment in exploration has resulted in important discoveries and the identification of new resources. It is foreseen that, if market conditions improve further, additional exploration will be stimulated leading to the identification of additional resources of economic interest. Even in the high-growth scenario to 2035, less than half of the identified resources described in this edition would be consumed. The challenge remains to develop mines in a timely and environmentally sustainable fashion as uranium demand increases. A strong market will be required for these resources to be developed within the time frame required to meet future uranium demand. In addition, current projections of uranium mine production capacities could satisfy projected high-case world uranium requirements until the late 2020s. However, given the challenges and length of time associated with increasing production at existing mines and opening new mines, it is unlikely that all production increases will proceed as planned. As a result, secondary sources of previously mined uranium will continue to be required, complemented to the extent possible by uranium savings achieved by specifying lower tails assays at enrichment facilities and technical developments in fuel cycle technology. While the status of supply and demand is considered from today's technologies perspective, it should be recognised that the deployment of advanced reactor and fuel cycle technologies can positively affect the long-term availability of uranium and could conceivably extend it to thousands of years. These are some of the findings from Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand , a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their member countries and states and commonly referred to as the ''Red Book''. This is the 23r

  17. Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Blood Fats Hold Vitamin E Captive, Study Shows Less than ... 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of blood fats such as cholesterol and triglycerides can hold vitamin ...

  18. Some Kids with Autism Show Improvement by Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... Kids With Autism Show Improvement by Age 6: Study 20 percent experienced gains in daily functioning, 11 percent had less severe ...

  19. Some Stroke Survivors May Face Heightened Cancer Risk, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some Stroke Survivors May Face Heightened Cancer Risk, Study Shows ... Thursday, February 12, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults ...

  20. Caucasian Boys Show Highest Prevalence of Color Blindness Among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caucasian Boys Show Highest Prevalence of Color Blindness Among Preschoolers 04/03/2014 08:30:00 AM African-Americans ... that color blindness, or color vision deficiency, in boys is lowest in African-Americans, and confirmed that ...

  1. New Drug for Crohn's Disease Shows Early Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. New Drug for Crohn's Disease Shows Early Promise But findings are preliminary, ... 2015) Wednesday, March 18, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Crohn's Disease Medicines WEDNESDAY, March 18, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

  2. Branding Goals and Strategies at International Auto Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwesen Tafesse

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the branding goals and strategies of four globally renowned car companies at the 2013edition of the Geneva Motor Show. The study collected and analyzed data on the branding activities of the fourcompanies from a variety of sources. The findings indicate that the four car companies utilized the GenevaMotor Show to pursue two types of strategic branding goals: brand image reinforcement and brand imagerenewal. The findings further reveal that the car companies applied a three stage brand building strategy basedon a temporal division of the Geneva Motor Show into pre-, at- and post-show stages, pursuing distinct brandbuilding strategies during each stage such as publicity, experiential branding, brand advertising and salespromotion. The findings contribute to the literature by shedding light on an important yet little researched brandbuilding platform in the automotive industry.

  3. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? PDF's materials provide ... Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that ...

  4. ??????????????---?????? Computer Simulation, a Nice Case —Now We Can Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????[1]????????????????????????????????????????????????“????”???This paper shows a case of computer simulation in China’s aerospace industry, which combines mathematics, physics, astronomy, electricity and manufacture[1]. This is a nice case and gives us some nice experiences for future.

  5. Branding Goals and Strategies at International Auto Shows

    OpenAIRE

    Wondwesen Tafesse; Jahan Narui; Tor Korneliussen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the branding goals and strategies of four globally renowned car companies at the 2013edition of the Geneva Motor Show. The study collected and analyzed data on the branding activities of the fourcompanies from a variety of sources. The findings indicate that the four car companies utilized the GenevaMotor Show to pursue two types of strategic branding goals: brand image reinforcement and brand imagerenewal. The findings further reveal that the car companies applied a t...

  6. Comportamento agressivo em shows musicais: analisando notícias de jornal impresso

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Pimentel; Hartmut Günther

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a content analysis of the newspaper articles dealing with aggressive behavior in music shows. This analysis permits an understanding of the characteristics of these situations, the aggressive behaviors in shows, and the way in which the print media treat the subject. Despite of the newspapers’ influence on public opinion formation, that is, the transmission of attitudes and behavior repertoires, this kind of analysis is rarely reported in Brazilian social psychological li...

  7. Evaluation of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature shift due to temper embrittlement and neutron irradiation by means of a small-punch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of a small-punch testing technique, the effects of heterogeneous intergranular impurity segregation and neutron irradiation on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of impurity-doped and undoped alloy steels were investigated. It was found that antimony-doped steels and, in particular, non-homogenized steels with extremely heterogeneous intergranular dopant segregation frequently show initiation of microcracks as indicated by the appearance of serrations in the load-deflection curves. In this case the ductile to brittle transition is spread out over a wider temperature range than for tin- or phosphorus-doped steels as well as for undoped steel. The upper and lower bounds of the DBTT are uniquely correlated with the maximum and average values of the impurity segregation concentration distributed along grain boundaries. These relationships demonstrate the embrittling potency of the segregants, in agreement with results obtained from Charpy V-notch tests. Neutron irradiation of tin-doped steels caused the DBTT to shift to higher temperatures than that of undoped steels. The experimental results suggest a linear correlation between the DBTTs obtained from small-punch tests and those obtained from Charpy V-notch tests, as predicted by a recently developed kinetic model. (orig.)

  8. The Effectiveness of Trade Shows in Global Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONIDA KELLEZI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade shows industry has experienced a rapid growth during the last years. They are considered as a vital communication technique especially for those companies that operate in international markets and that aim to reach specific audiences. Making them an integral part of the marketing communication strategy enables companies in: developing customer relationships; offering possibilities for sales and sales promotion; undertaking and maintaining good international business relations; monitoring international competition as well as minimizing entry barriers in new markets. During the last years, many Albanian companies that operate in foreign businesses have started to engage in trade shows. Face to face meetings with their potential customers and direct competitors are among the most important reasons for investing in this marketing tool. Even though the literature regarding trade shows effectiveness is increasing constantly, research on its effectiveness is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of trade shows as a marketing communication tool. More specifically, it is focused in studying the usage of trade shows by Albanian companies when competing on international markets.

  9. Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

  10. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Borucki, William J; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Haas, Michael J; Holman, Matthew J; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Moorhead, Althea V; Morehead, Robert C; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compos...

  11. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  12. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  13. Ohio State study shows how chronic inflammation can cause leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hormone-like substance produced by the body to promote inflammation can cause an aggressive form of leukemia when present at high levels, according to a new study by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute. The study shows that high levels of interleukin-15 (IL-15) alone can cause large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia, a rare and usually fatal form of cancer, in an animal model. The researchers also developed a treatment for the leukemia that showed no discernible side effects in the animal model.

  14. More Stroke Patients Getting Clot-Buster Quickly, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. More Stroke Patients Getting Clot-Buster Quickly, Study Shows Many ... February 11, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Facilities Stroke WEDNESDAY, Feb. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- More community ...

  15. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  16. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia showing characteristics of Kimura's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T S; Kim, D K; Yoon, M S; Yang, W I

    2000-01-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is a rare benign condition affecting principally the head and neck region of young females. We describe a 42-year-old female patient of ALHE showing the typical changes of endothelial cells and features similar to Kimura's disease in histologic and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:10692821

  17. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  18. Head Gear incline shaft, showing engine houses and skip tipping

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    207 x 153 mm. Showing the headgear machinery for lifting the trolleys to the surface, with the skips into which is poured the blue ground beyond, and the driving gear in the engine house in the background. A few figures sit in the foreground posed for the photographer.

  19. "Country Life"? Rurality, Folk Music and "Show of Hands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood, Richard; Charlton, Clive

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of folk music to understanding the dynamic, fluid and multi-experiential nature of the countryside. Drawing from literature on the geographies of music, it examines the work of "Show of Hands", a contemporary folk band from Devon in England. Three areas are studied. First, the paper examines the musical style…

  20. SSR fingerprinting of black raspberry cultivars shows discrepancies in identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding progress in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has been limited by a lack of genetic diversity in elite germplasm. Black raspberry cultivars are noted for showing very few differences, and seedlings for a lack of segregation for important traits. Genetic fingerprinting using microsatel...

  1. The role of prosody in a Czech talk-show.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Martin

    Amsterdam : Benjamins, 2012 - (Lorda, C.; Zabalbeascoa, P.), s. 143-160 ISBN 978-90-272-1032-6. - (Dialogue Studies. 15) R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB900610701; GA ?R GA405/09/2028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : prosody * TV talk-show * conversation analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  2. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

  3. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanová, So?a; Zarevúcká, Marie; Bouša, Daniel; Pumera, Martin; Sofer, Zden?k

    2015-03-01

    The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels.The thermal and solvent tolerance of enzymes is highly important for their industrial use. We show here that the enzyme lipase from Rhizopus oryzae exhibits exceptionally high thermal stability and high solvent tolerance and even increased activity in acetone when immobilized onto a graphene oxide (GO) nanosupport prepared by Staudenmaier and Brodie methods. We studied various forms of immobilization of the enzyme: by physical adsorption, covalent attachment, and additional crosslinking. The activity recovery was shown to be dependent on the support type, enzyme loading and immobilization procedure. Covalently immobilized lipase showed significantly better resistance to heat inactivation (the activity recovery was 65% at 70 °C) in comparison with the soluble counterpart (the activity recovery was 65% at 40 °C). Physically adsorbed lipase achieved over 100% of the initial activity in a series of organic solvents. These findings, showing enhanced thermal stability and solvent tolerance of graphene oxide immobilized enzyme, will have a profound impact on practical industrial scale uses of enzymes for the conversion of lipids into fuels. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00438a

  4. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili

    2015-01-01

    This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it. PMID:25610413

  5. Trade shows and the creation of market and industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aspers, Patrik; Darr, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the question of the constitution of markets in advanced societies.Specifically, the article studies the role of the traveling trade show in creatingthe real time computing market, which is part of the US electronics sector, duringthe mid-1990’s. Real time computing products assist the transfer, storage and processingof digital signals in real time and support many of the internet applicationswe use today.By applying ethnographic methods,we explore the general question o...

  6. A New Neurological Sign Shows Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Çelik; Suat Erol Çelik; Canan Bolcu Emir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was prospective comparative determination of both clinical and neurophysiological characteristics of a new pathological reflex in CTS. The authors investigated 300 patients with severe carpal tunnel syndrome undergoing surgery. The 134 patients who showed the sign were allocated as the reflex group. The remaining 166 cases with no sign were named the control group. Two blinded neurology specialists evaluated all patients prior to and after the surgery. Their clinic...

  7. G-CO Showing a triangle congruence: the general case

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Suppose $\\triangle ABC$ and $\\triangle PQR$ are distinct, congruent triangles. Using the steps below, show that a congruence can always be shown with o...

  8. G-CO Showing a triangle congruence: a particular case

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Triangles $ABC$ and $PQR$ pictured below are congruent: Show the congruence using rigid motions of the plane. Can the congruence be shown with a single...

  9. Strange Culinary Encounters: Stranger Fetishism in Cooking Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    Strange Culinary Encounters: Stranger Fetishism in Cooking Shows In this paper, we will examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape, arguing that despite their ‘noble’ intentions and ‘enlightened’ cosmopolitan approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, Jamie and Gordon's respective culinary adventures work to create a social hierarchy in their own favor. Inspired by Sara Ahmed’s work on stranger fetishism, we will investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. To unpack the programs and the experiences within them, we use critical discourse analysis and the readings strategies of cultural studies and postcolonialtheory and a focus on how classic, colonial power structures are reproduced in contemporary, globalized food culture. We will consider what potential this methodological framework holds for unpacking cultural encounters, and show how we have used it to deconstruct how ‘authentic’ food is done and met in Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. In doing so, we will argue that this way of reading cultural encounters ultimately opens for an alternative understanding of the central concepts of the ‘strange’, the ‘encounter’ and ideas of authenticity and, importantly, how the three intersect.

  10. FIVE KEPLER TARGET STARS THAT SHOW MULTIPLE TRANSITING EXOPLANET CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities-two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  11. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities—two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  12. Strobes: pyrotechnic compositions that show a curious oscillatory combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Justine M L; van Lingen, Joost N J; Zevenbergen, John F; Gijzeman, Onno L J; Meijerink, Andries

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature were discovered by trial and error methods and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Many oscillatory systems such as Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, cool flames, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis have been observed and theories developed to elucidate their unstable behavior based on chemical interactions or based on physical processes. These systems are compared to experimental observations made on strobe mixtures. PMID:23255499

  13. Map showing bathymetry and aquatic plants of Lake Waramaug, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Kenneth P.

    1981-01-01

    The Bathymetry of Lake Waramaug is shown at 5-foot intervals, and the location and identification of significant concentrations of aquatic plants is indicated. The bathymetry shows the lake to be relatively steep-sided and flat-bottomed, with a maximum depth of between 40 and 45 feet. Aquatic plants were confined to the edges of the lake in depths of less than 15 feet. Nine species of aquatic plants occcur in significant numbers in the lake. Lake bathymetric data were collected using a recording fathometer and sounding rod; aquatic plant data were collected by visual survey; and the collection of samples using a weed rake. (USGS)

  14. Twin boundaries showing very large deviations from the twinning plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deformation twinning, twin boundaries (TBs) should coincide with the twinning plane. Here we show that the TBs of the most common twinning mode in hexagonal close-packed metals, {101¯2}?101¯1¯?, may not lie on the {101¯2} twinning plane. Examinations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the TBs in Co and Mg deviate significantly from the {101¯2} plane. High-resolution TEM confirms that the incoherent TBs entirely depart from the twinning plane with a magnitude greater than 45°.

  15. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  16. CERN's gamble shows perils, rewards of playing the odds

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, C

    2000-01-01

    Data from LEP has a three to four sigma certainty that the Higgs Boson has been seen. To declare a discovery though, normally five sigma is required. This article examines other occasions where even with this degree of certainty, the results finally turned out to be spurious (3 pages).

  17. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access During Spoken Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2014-09-30

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German bilinguals, German-English bilinguals and English monolinguals listened for target words in spoken English sentences while their eye-movements were recorded. Bilinguals' eye-movements reflected weaker lexical access relative to monolinguals; furthermore, the effect of semantic constraint differed across first versus second language processing. Specifically, English-native bilinguals showed fewer overall looks to target items, regardless of sentence constraint; German-native bilinguals activated target items more slowly and maintained target activation over a longer period of time in the low-constraint condition compared with monolinguals. No eye movements to cross-linguistic competitors were observed, suggesting that these lexical access disadvantages were present during bilingual spoken sentence comprehension even in the absence of overt interlingual competition. PMID:25266052

  18. Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

    2014-07-01

    Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures. PMID:24752938

  19. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in H?, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  20. La Realidad Simulada. Una Crítica del reality show / The simmulation of Reality. A critic of the reality show.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Ordóñez Díaz.

    2005-05-30

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reality show es el formato televisivo más exitoso de los últimos años. Este artículo efectúa una exploración en torno a dicho formato articulada en tres partes. Primero, se estudiará la tensión que los realities generan entre la representación como esquema estético tradicional y la simulación com [...] o esquema estético emergente; luego, se detallará la manera en que los realities participan en la producción del mundo como imagen; finalmente, se explicará el papel que los realities cumplen en el marco de la economía estética contemporánea y se ofrecerá una explicación sociopsicológica de su poder de seducción. El artículo en su conjunto aborda el estudio del reality a través del lente amplio de una crítica de la industria del entretenimiento. Abstract in english Reality shows are one of the most successful television genres in the last few years. The exploration that this article will make around this genre consists of three parts. First, the tension that realities cause between representation as a traditional aesthetic style and simulation as an emergent a [...] esthetic style will be examined. Second, the way realities participate in the construction of the world as image will be described. Finally, the article will explain the role that realities play in the contemporary aesthetic economy, and offer a socio-psychological explanation of its seductive power. The article approaches the study of reality shows by taking a critical perspective to the entertainment industry.

  1. The staff show their profound attachment to SLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    The results of the poll on the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) have now been analyzed and are published in this edition and on our web site. You were 1194 to reply to the questionnaire (approximately 50% of all staff members). The distribution of the replies according to certain variables (sex, age, career path, etc.) in the sample corresponds to the one observed for the overall staff population. This indicates that the sample is representative.

  2. First prospective trial shows molecular profiling timely for tailoring therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A clinical trial has shown that patients were willing to undergo an additional cancer biopsy, to seek out the best treatment for their tumor type through analysis to find and target genetic mutations that drive the cancer. Results of the study, CUSTOM, begun at the National Cancer Institute and completed at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, are being presented at the 2013 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Researchers at Oregon Health & Science University also participated.

  3. Cell-based immune therapy shows promise in leukemia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorial Sloan-Kettering investigators report that genetically modified immune cells have shown great promise in killing the cancer cells of patients with relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In fact, all five of the patients who have received the new therapy – known as targeted immunotherapy – have gone into complete remission, with no detectable cancer cells. The results of this ongoing clinical trial are reported online on March 20 in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

  4. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  5. Does ELF chorus show evidence of power line stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been reported that electromagnetic chorus exhibits a longitudinal dependence, with enhanced occurrence over population centers (Alaska-New Zealand, Eastern U.S.-Canada, Western Europe and Western Siberia). This result has been cited as possible evidence of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) control of magnetospheric chorus. In this paper the authors report an analogous study using chorus data from OGO-5 to test this result. Chorus is found to exhibit maxima over the Eastern USSR, Greenland and Central Siberia and minima over central and Eastern Canada, a distribution significantly different than the OGO-3 result. This gross discrepancy is explained as an effect of data oversampling (presistence) in the method of analysis used in the previous study. The OGO-5 data are reanalysed with the oversampling removed. It is found that none of the longitudinal maxima or minima are then statistically significant (<2sigma). Thus, they find no statistically significant correlation between longitude and chorus occurrence which implies that there is little or no evidence of PLR effects on chorus triggering. (Auth.)

  6. Two cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT. (Chiba, N.)

  7. Lactotripeptides show no effect on human blood pressure: results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberink, Mariëlle F; Schouten, Evert G; Kok, Frans J; van Mierlo, Linda A J; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Geleijnse, Johanna M

    2008-02-01

    Milk-derived peptides with ACE-inhibiting properties may have antihypertensive effects in humans. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the blood pressure lowering potential of 2 ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptides, ie, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and Valine-Proline-Proline. We included 135 Dutch subjects with elevated systolic blood pressure who were otherwise healthy and who received no current antihypertensive treatment. After a 2-week run-in period on placebo, subjects randomly received a daily dose of 200 mL dairy drink with 14 mg lactotripeptides obtained by concentrating fermented milk, enzymatic hydrolysis, or chemical synthesis, or placebo for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week wash-out. The primary outcome was 8-week change in office systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes were change in diastolic blood pressure, home blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, plasma ACE-activity, and plasma angiotensin II. Blood pressure at baseline was on average 142/84 mm Hg. Lactotripeptides did not significantly change systolic blood pressure (P=0.46) or diastolic blood pressure (P=0.31) compared with placebo. The mean difference (95%-CI) in systolic blood pressure response between treatment and placebo was 2.8 mm Hg (-2.6;8.2) for concentrated fermented milk lactotripeptides, -0.5 mm Hg (-6.0;5.0) for enzymatic lactotripeptides, and 1.6 mm Hg (-3.9;6.9) for synthetic lactotripeptides. Treatment neither had a significant effect on secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, the present study does not support the hypothesis of a blood pressure lowering effect of the lactotripeptides Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and Valine-Proline-Proline. PMID:18086944

  8. Lactotripeptides Show No Effect on Human Blood Pressure: Results from a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Engberink, M. F.; Schouten, E. G.; Kok, F. J.; Mierlo, L. A. J.; Brouwer, I. A.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Milk-derived peptides with ACE-inhibiting properties may have antihypertensive effects in humans. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the blood pressure lowering potential of 2 ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptides, ie, Isoleucine-Proline-Proline and Valine-Proline-Proline. We included 135 Dutch subjects with elevated systolic blood pressure who were otherwise healthy and who received no current antihypertensive treatment. After a 2-week run-in period on place...

  9. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  10. Moored instruments show decadal drop in AMOC strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-02-01

    The Atlantic branch of the global thermohaline circulation, known as the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), carries warm surface waters to the north and cold water southward along the seafloor, redistributing energy throughout the ocean basin. Changes in AMOC behavior have been pegged as an important source of interannual variability for the climates of countries ringing the North Atlantic Ocean. Recent modeling results, along with geologic evidence, have some researchers concerned that the system may ultimately collapse. Though interannual and decadal variabilities in the flow rate of the AMOC are consistent features in numerical simulations, direct observations of the circulation's changing behavior have generally eluded detection.

  11. A solvable senescence model showing a mortality plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, J B; Cates, M E

    2002-01-01

    We present some analytic results for the steady states of the Penna model of sen escence, generalised to allow genetically identical individuals to die at differ ent ages via an arbitrary survival function. Modelling this with a Fermi functio n (of modest width) we obtain a clear mortality plateau late in life: something that has so far eluded explanation within such models. This suggests that factors causing variable mortality within genetically identical subpopulations, which include environmental effects, may be essential to understanding the mortality plateau seen in many real species.

  12. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz M., Saraiva-Romanholo; Fabio S., Machado; Francine M., Almeida; Maria do Patrocínio T., Nunes; Milton A., Martins; Joaquim E., Vieira.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure [...] of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group), 12 asthmatics (Asthma group) and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group). All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion), spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p

  13. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  14. South American tree rings show declining ?13C trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven W.; Lara, Antonio

    1994-04-01

    A composite, 290-year tree-ring ?13C chronology was developed from a site in Chile where 5 Fitroya cupressoides (alerce) trees were sampled, 2 increment cores per tree, and the holocellulose component was analyzed in 5-year ring groups. This chronology shows a decreasing ?13C trend of approximately 1.2‰, primarily since the turn of this century. This ?13C decline is similar to that of major tree-ring studies in the Northern Hemisphere, but it is the only major Southern Hemisphere study which clearly exhibits such a ?13C trend. This is the first evidence for any interhemispheric reproducibility of tree-ring ?13C chronologies, and furthermore, the Fitzroya ?13C trend conforms well to that of ?13C of atmospheric CO2 determined from ice cores and direct measurements. This correspondence suggests the alerce ?13C trend has not been substantially influenced by systematic changes in environmental factors such light, relative humidity and soil moisture or by changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, all of which are, in theory, capable of altering Ci/Ca ratios and obscuring the atmospheric ?13C record contained in the tree rings.

  15. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  16. High-resolution peatland photos show change with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-11-01

    As global average temperatures rise, vast tracks of peatland currently encased in permafrost will be affected. As the ground thaws, peatlands will evolve in either of two directions. Along one path, land that was previously propped up by supportive permafrost subsides, forming a shallow basin that fills with water—a thermokarst lake. In the new lake, peat undergoes anaerobic bacterial decay, releasing methane to the environment. Alternatively, permafrost thawing can result in lake drainage. In the drained lake beds, fen vegetation and mosses can grow, drawing down atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The prevalence of these two processes, and their relationship to changing temperatures, remains an important question in understanding the consequences of permafrost thaw on the global carbon cycle.

  17. Periostin shows increased evolutionary plasticity in its alternatively spliced region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoersch Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periostin (POSTN is a secreted extracellular matrix protein of poorly defined function that has been related to bone and heart development as well as to cancer. In human and mouse, it is known to undergo alternative splicing in its C-terminal region, which is devoid of known protein domains. Differential expression of periostin, sometimes of specific splicing isoforms, is observed in a broad range of human cancers, including breast, pancreatic, and colon cancer. Here, we combine genomic and transcriptomic sequence data from vertebrate organisms to study the evolution of periostin and particularly of its C-terminal region. Results We found that the C-terminal part of periostin is markedly more variable among vertebrates than the rest of periostin in terms of exon count, length, and splicing pattern, which we interpret as a consequence of neofunctionalization after the split between periostin and its paralog transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI. We also defined periostin's sequential 13-amino acid repeat units - well conserved in teleost fish, but more obscure in higher vertebrates - whose secondary structure is predicted to be consecutive beta strands. We suggest that these beta strands may mediate binding interactions with other proteins through an extended beta-zipper in a manner similar to the way repeat units in bacterial cell wall proteins have been reported to bind human fibronectin. Conclusions Our results, obtained with the help of the increasingly large collection of complete vertebrate genomes, document the evolutionary plasticity of periostin's C-terminal region, and for the first time suggest a basis for its functional role.

  18. Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken NASA's Opportunity rover is literally seeing some of its darkest days. Both Mars Exploration Rovers have been riding out a regional dust storm for several weeks. Conditions became particularly dreary in the Meridiani Planum region where Opportunity sits, perched on the edge of 'Victoria Crater.' This image is a time-lapse composite where each horizon-survey image has been compressed horizontally (but not vertically) to emphasize the sky. The relative brightness and darkness of the sky from sol to sol (over a 30-sol period beginning June 14, 2007) is depicted accurately in these images, which view roughly the same part of the plains southwest of the rover. The images are approximately true color composites, generated from calibrated radiance data files using the panoramic camera's 601-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 482-nanometer filters. The rovers' atmospheric science team is concerned that smaller, regional dust storms could expand into a larger, globe-encircling storm. That could extend the time the sun stays obscured, challenging the capability of Opportunity's solar panels to produce enough electricity for the rover to function. Fortunately, as of July 19, 2007, the Opportunity site is clearing slightly. When the storm ends, atmospheric scientists hope to review data from the rovers that will help them determine what sort of dust was being lifted and distributed. The numbers across the top of the image report a measurement of atmospheric opacity, called by the Greek letter tau. The lower the number, the clearer the sky. Both Opportunity and Spirit have been recording higher tau measurements in July 2007 than they had seen any time previously in their three and a half years on Mars. The five sol numbers across the bottom correspond (left to right) to June 14, June 30, July 5, July 13 and July 15, 2007.

  19. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part oraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  20. Comparison of transition temperature shifts from static and dynamic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper summarizes results of surveillance specimens programmes of WWER-440/V-213C type reactors. Comparison of transition temperature shifts, induced by irradiation, and determined from impact Charpy V-notch toughness as well as from static fracture toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy size specimens (COD) is given. Two methods have been used for determination of static fracture toughness shifts - standard COD type specimens from a standard surveillance programmes and reconstituted COD type specimens from broken halves of Charpy V-notch specimens. Results obtained are discussed from the point of view of irradiation conditions as well as of different type of testing. (author)

  1. Dizer-mostrar o estranho / Saying-showing strangeness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena, Martins.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora a vitalidade contemporânea de duas enfáticas vozes do século XX: Ludwig Wittgenstein e Samuel Beckett. Consideram-se em especial as seguintes divisas: de Wittgenstein, nada está oculto (Investigações, § 435); de Beckett, nada a expressar (Três diálogos com George Duthuit, I). O [...] dito de Wittgenstein é muitas vezes tomado como marca de renúncia à distinção, por ele antes sustentada, entre aquilo que se pode dizer e aquilo que apenas se mostra (Tractatus, Prefácio, 6.522). O dito de Beckett é, por sua vez, frequentemente visto como indício de uma visão cética da linguagem, que a condena a uma espécie de maldição da autorreferência. Tais formas de ler tendem a se ligar às percepções, bastante disseminadas, de que Wittgenstein escreve o comum (o "ordinário"); e Beckett, o absurdo. Questiono aspectos dessas duas produtivas leituras, sustentando que, de forma a meu ver um pouco debilitante, elas tendem a ignorar, ou talvez a apaziguar, um estranho que insiste em se dizer-mostrar na prosa poética dos dois autores. Abstract in english This paper explores the contemporary strength of two of last century's most emphatic voices: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Samuel Beckett. The following mottos are brought together with special attention: nothing is hidden, by Wittgenstein (Philosophical Investigations, §435); and nothing to express, by B [...] eckett (Three dialogues with Georges Duthuit, I). Wittgenstein's saying is frequently taken as indication that he renounces his earlier distinction between what can be said and what can only be shown (Tractatus, Preface, 6.522). Beckett's saying is, in turn, often seen as evidence of a skeptical take on language, whereas it is, so to speak, doomed to self-reference. These interpretations tend to be linked to the widespread perceptions that Wittgenstein writes the ordinary, whereas Beckett writes the absurd. I question some aspects of these two productive readings, arguing that, in a somewhat debilitating manner, they tend to ignore, or perhaps pacify, a strangeness that insists in saying-showing itself in the poetic prose of both authors.

  2. Young Asteroid 832 Karin shows no rotational spectral variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.; Enke, B.; Merline, W. J.; Tamblyn, P.; Nesvorný, D.; Young, E. F.; Olkin, C.

    2007-11-01

    We have made near-IR spectral observations of the very young (5.75 Myr) S-type asteroid 832 Karin, well sampled in rotational phase over its 18.35-h period. We find no significant variations in its reflectance spectrum. Karin, the brightest member of the Karin cluster (a sub-family of the larger, older Koronis dynamical family), was shown to be exceptionally young by Nesvorný et al. [Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., Dones, L., Levison, H., 2002. Nature 417, 720-722], using backward numerical integration of orbital elements of cluster members. Their precise dating of the collisional breakup gives us an opportunity, for the first time and without age-dating of physical samples, to monitor time-evolution of processes, like space weathering, that operate on timescales of ˜1-10 Myr. Sasaki et al. [Sasaki, T., Sasaki, S., Watanabe, J., Sekiguchi, T., Yoshida, F., Kawakita, H., Fuse, T., Takato, N., Dermawan, B., Ito, T., 2004. Astrophys. J. 615, L161-L164; Sasaki, T., Sasaki, S., Watanabe, J., Sekiguchi, T., Yoshida, F., Ito., T., Kawakita, H., Fuse, T., Takato, N., Dermawan, B., 2005. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVI. Abstract #1590] had made similar measurements of Karin, although more sparsely sampled than ours, and claimed dramatically different colors as a function of rotational phase. Sasaki et al. interpreted their data to be showing the reddish, space-weathered exterior surface of the precursor asteroid, as well as an interior face, which had not had time to become space-weathered. On five nights over 2006 January 7-14 UT, we observed Karin with the SpeX (0.8-2.5 ?m) spectrometer of the IRTF. We analyze data in 30° intervals of rotational longitude, some of which we sampled on two different nights. The spectra are consistent with little or no spectral variation as the asteroid rotates; certainly there are no changes as large as previously reported. The previous observations were probably spurious. Our average spectrum resembles the "blue" spectrum of Sasaki et al., which they interpreted to be the "fresh" surface. Karin is not quite as red as typical S-types, yet has rather shallow absorption bands. We surmise that the space-weathering process affecting Karin has had time to reduce spectral contrast, but has not operated long enough to redden its spectrum—an intermediate case of space weathering, which has gone to completion for most main-belt asteroids. This work sets an important constraint on the timescale for the ubiquitous space-weathering process affecting S-types, namely that its effects are evident, but not yet complete, at ˜6 Myr.

  3. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded that the legislation is not clear on the specific matters where a student undergoes practical training while they are still studying. The suggestion is that a sectoral determination must be put in place to regulate the relationship, the remuneration, the working hours and the working conditions and risks involved.The article is in Afrikaans.

  4. OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

  5. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Kageyama, Toshimi; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:24367382

  6. Timp3 deficient mice show resistance to developing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hartland W; Hojilla, Carlo V; Weiss, Ashley; Sanchez, Otto H; Wood, Geoffrey A; Khokha, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Timp3 is commonly silenced in breast cancer, but mechanistic studies have identified both tumor promotion and suppression effects of this gene. We have taken a genetic approach to determine the impact of Timp3 loss on two mouse models of breast cancer. Interestingly, MMTV-PyMT Timp3-?- mice have delayed tumor onset and 36% of MMTV-Neu Timp3-?- mice remain tumor free. TIMP3 is a regulator of TNF signaling and similar to Timp3, Tnf or Tnfr1 loss delays early tumorigenesis. The tumor suppression in Timp3 null mice requires Tnfr1, but does not result in alterations in the local immune compartment. In the mammary gland, Timps are highly expressed in the stroma and through the transplantation of tumor cells we observe that Timp3 deficiency in the host is sufficient to delay the growth of early, but not advanced tumor cells. Together our data is the first to identify a tumor promoting role of endogenous Timp3 in vivo, the spatial and temporal windows of this effect, and its dependence on Tnfr1. PMID:25807548

  7. Timp3 Deficient Mice Show Resistance to Developing Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hartland W.; Hojilla, Carlo V.; Weiss, Ashley; Sanchez, Otto H.; Wood, Geoffrey A.; Khokha, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Timp3 is commonly silenced in breast cancer, but mechanistic studies have identified both tumor promotion and suppression effects of this gene. We have taken a genetic approach to determine the impact of Timp3 loss on two mouse models of breast cancer. Interestingly, MMTV-PyMT Timp3??? mice have delayed tumor onset and 36% of MMTV-Neu Timp3??? mice remain tumor free. TIMP3 is a regulator of TNF signaling and similar to Timp3, Tnf or Tnfr1 loss delays early tumorigenesis. The tumor suppression in Timp3 null mice requires Tnfr1, but does not result in alterations in the local immune compartment. In the mammary gland, Timps are highly expressed in the stroma and through the transplantation of tumor cells we observe that Timp3 deficiency in the host is sufficient to delay the growth of early, but not advanced tumor cells. Together our data is the first to identify a tumor promoting role of endogenous Timp3 in vivo, the spatial and temporal windows of this effect, and its dependence on Tnfr1. PMID:25807548

  8. Show me the money: state contributions toward STD prevention, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth E; Gilbert, Lisa K

    2010-01-01

    The importance of state investment in sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention has been discussed since the mid-1990s; however, little has become known about state public health funding for STD prevention. To establish a baseline understanding of state STD prevention funding, financial data for fiscal year 2007 were gathered by survey of state STD, immunization, laboratory, and hepatitis program directors. Results revealed that on average states funded 25.8 percent of their total STD prevention budgets and invested $0.23 per capita in STD prevention. The percentage of state funding in the total state STD prevention budget ranged from 0 percent to 70.2 percent, and state investment in STD prevention ranged from $0.00 to $1.55 per capita. The direction and expenditure of state STD prevention resources was also examined. This study strengthens the national understanding of what states are doing to fund STD prevention, and it broadens state public health awareness of the overall STD prevention investment at the state level. The inclusion of Medicaid data and expenditure of federal resources by states would strengthen the study and assist longitudinal analyses focused on the impact of investment on epidemiologic indicators. PMID:20357609

  9. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., E(lab) ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C,16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, ?xn/2?xn channels have been measured to probe entirely different ?-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states. (authors)

  10. A synthetically modified hydrophobin showing enhanced fluorous affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Roberto; Pirrie, Lisa; Gazzera, Lara; Paananen, Arja; Baldrighi, Michele; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Cavallo, Gabriella; Linder, Markus; Resnati, Giuseppe; Metrangolo, Pierangelo

    2015-06-15

    Hydrophobins are natural surfactant proteins endowed with exceptional surface activity and film-forming capabilities and their use as effective "fluorine-free fluorosurfactants" has been recently reported. In order to increase their fluorophilicity further, here we report the preparation of a unique fluorous-modified hydrophobin, named F-HFBI. F-HFBI was found to be more effective than its wild-type parent protein HFBI at reducing interface tension of water at both air/water and oil/water interfaces, being particularly effective at the fluorous/water interface. F-HFBI was also found to largely retain the exceptionally good capability of forming strong and elastic films, typical of the hydrophobin family. Further studies by interface shear rheology and isothermal compression, alongside Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Atomic Force Microscopy, demonstrated the tendency of F-HFBI to form thicker films compared to the wild-type protein. These results suggest that F-HFBI may function as an effective compatibilizer for biphasic systems comprising a fluorous phase. PMID:25725398

  11. News Note: Screening for ovarian cancer shows no reduction in mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous screening with a blood test for the biomarker CA-125 along with a transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), compared with usual care, did not reduce ovarian cancer mortality in American women. These results, from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored trial, also show that diagnostic evaluation following a false-positive result was associated with potentially harmful complications.

  12. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Uranium resources and production are on the rise with the security of uranium supply ensured for the long term, according to a new report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, commonly referred to as the ''Red Book'', shows that total identified uranium resources have grown 12.5% since 2008. However, the costs of production have also increased, leading to reductions in lower cost category resources. These figures, which reflect the situation as of 1 January 2011, mean that total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements. Global uranium mine production increased by over 25% between 2008 and 2010 because of significantly increased production in Kazakhstan, currently the world's leading producer. The increased resource base has been achieved thanks to a 22% increase in uranium exploration and mine development expenditures between 2008 and 2010, which in 2010 totalled over $2 billion. Demand for uranium is expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Although the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has affected nuclear power projects and policies in some countries, nuclear power remains a key part of the global energy mix. Several governments have plans for new nuclear power plant construction, with the strongest expansion expected in China, India, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. The speed and magnitude of growth in generating capacity elsewhere is still to be determined. By the year 2035, according to the joint NEA-IAEA Secretariat, world nuclear electricity generating capacity is projected to grow from 375 GWe net (at the end of 2010) to between 540 GWe net in the low demand case and 746 GWe net in the high demand case, increases of 44% and 99% respectively. Accordingly, world annual reactor-related uranium requirements are projected to rise from 63 875 tonnes of uranium metal (tU) at the end of 2010 to between 98 000 tU and 136 000 tU by 2035. The currently defined uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet high-case requirements through 2035 and well into the foreseeable future. Although ample resources are available, meeting projected demand will require timely investments in uranium production facilities. This is because of the long lead times (typically in the order of ten years or more in most producing countries) required to develop production facilities that can turn resources into refined uranium ready for nuclear fuel production. With uranium production ready to expand to new countries, efforts are being made to develop transparent and well-regulated operations similar to those used elsewhere to minimise potential environmental and local health impacts. Although not the primary focus of the Red Book, activity updates on the environmental aspects of the uranium production cycle are included in the national reports in this edition. While the status of supply and demand is considered from the perspective of technologies in use today, the deployment of advanced reactors and fuel cycle technologies can also positively affect the long-term availability of uranium, conceivably extending the time horizon of the currently defined resource base to thousands of years. These are some of the findings in the just-published Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their member countries. This is the 24th edition of this periodic assessment (currently every two years) which has been published since the mid-1960s. (IAEA)

  13. Do birds and beetles show similar responses to urbanization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Sara A; Fahrig, Lenore

    2011-09-01

    To date, the vast majority of studies in urban areas have been carried out on birds, yet it is not known whether the responses of birds to urbanization are congruent with those of other taxa. In this paper, we compared the responses of breeding birds and carabid beetles to urbanization, specifically asking whether the emerging generalizations of the effects of extreme levels of urbanization on birds (declines in total species richness and the richness of specialist species, increases in total abundance and the abundances of native generalist and introduced species, and community simplification, including increasing similarity) could also be applied to ground beetles. We also directly tested for congruence between birds and ground beetles using correlations between variables describing bird and beetle community structure and correlations between bird and beetle distance matrices describing community dissimilarity between pairs of sampling locations. Breeding bird and carabid beetle community data were collected in Ottawa, Ontario, and Gatineau, Quebec, Canada, in two groups of sites: developed sites representing the predictor variable within-site housing density, and forested sites adjacent to development representing the predictor variable neighboring housing density (each site was 0.25 km2). Breeding birds and carabid beetles do not respond similarly to increasing within-site housing density but do exhibit some similar responses to increasing neighboring housing density. Birds displayed strong declines in diversity, compositional changes, and community simplification in response to increasing within-site housing density. Forest and introduced species of birds and beetles responded similarly to increasing housing density within a site, but responses of overall diversity and open-habitat species richness and patterns of community simplification differed between birds and beetles. Increasing neighboring housing density resulted in increases in the abundances of introduced birds and introduced beetles and similar patterns of community simplification in both taxa. To better understand and mitigate the effects of urbanization on biodiversity, we suggest that, in addition to the responses of birds, future research should focus on the responses of other taxa in the urban matrix. PMID:21939062

  14. Milky Way a Swifter Spinner, More Massive, New Measurements Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Fasten your seat belts -- we're faster, heavier, and more likely to collide than we thought. Astronomers making high-precision measurements of the Milky Way say our home Galaxy is rotating about 100,000 miles per hour faster than previously understood. That increase in speed, said Mark Reid, of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, increases the Milky Way's mass by 50 percent, bringing it even with the Andromeda Galaxy. "No longer will we think of the Milky Way as the little sister of the Andromeda Galaxy in our Local Group family." Milky Way Artist's Conception of our Milky Way Galaxy: Blue, green dots indicate distance measurements. CREDIT: Robert Hurt, IPAC; Mark Reid, CfA, NRAO/AUI/NSF JPEG graphic with scale marks on sides PostScript graphic with scale marks on sides The larger mass, in turn, means a greater gravitational pull that increases the likelihood of collisions with the Andromeda galaxy or smaller nearby galaxies. Our Solar System is about 28,000 light-years from the Milky Way's center. At that distance, the new observations indicate, we're moving at about 600,000 miles per hour in our Galactic orbit, up from the previous estimate of 500,000 miles per hour. The scientists are using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to remake the map of the Milky Way. Taking advantage of the VLBA's unparalleled ability to make extremely detailed images, the team is conducting a long-term program to measure distances and motions in our Galaxy. They reported their results at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. The scientists observed regions of prolific star formation across the Galaxy. In areas within these regions, gas molecules are strengthening naturally-occuring radio emission in the same way that lasers strengthen light beams. These areas, called cosmic masers, serve as bright landmarks for the sharp radio vision of the VLBA. By observing these regions repeatedly at times when the Earth is at opposite sides of its orbit around the Sun, the astronomers can measure the slight apparent shift of the object's position against the background of more-distant objects. "The new VLBA observations of the Milky Way are producing highly-accurate direct measurements of distances and motions," said Karl Menten of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Germany, a member of the team. "These measurements use the traditional surveyor's method of triangulation and do not depend on any assumptions based on other properties, such as brightness, unlike earlier studies." The astronomers found that their direct distance measurements differed from earlier, indirect measurements, sometimes by as much as a factor of two. The star-forming regions harboring the cosmic masers "define the spiral arms of the Galaxy," Reid explained. Measuring the distances to these regions thus provides a yardstick for mapping the Galaxy's spiral structure. "These direct measurements are revising our understanding of the structure and motions of our Galaxy," Menten said. "Because we're inside it, it's difficult for us to determine the Milky Way's structure. For other galaxies, we can simply look at them and see their structure, but we can't do this to get an overall image of the Milky Way. We have to deduce its structure by measuring and mapping," he added. The VLBA can fix positions in the sky so accurately that the actual motion of the objects can be detected as they orbit the Milky Way's center. Adding in measurements of motion along the line of sight, determined from shifts in the frequency of the masers' radio emission, the astronomers are able to determine the full 3-dimensional motions of the star-forming regions. Using this information, Reid reported that "most star-forming regions do not follow a circular path as they orbit the Galaxy; instead we find them moving more slowly than other regions and on elliptical, not circular, orbits." The researchers attribute this to what they call spiral d

  15. Low temperature impact toughness of the main gas pipeline steel after long-term degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruschak, Pavlo; Danyliuk, Iryna; Bishchak, Roman; Vuherer, Tomaž

    2014-12-01

    The correlation of microstructure, temperature and Charpy V-notch impact properties of a steel 17G1S pipeline steel was investigated in this study. Within the concept of physical mesomechanics, the dynamic failure of specimens is represented as a successive process of the loss of shear stability, which takes place at different structural/scale levels of the material. Characteristic stages are analyzed for various modes of failure, moreover, typical levels of loading and oscillation periods, etc. are determined. Relations between low temperature derived through this test, microstructures and Charpy (V-notch) toughness test results are also discussed in this paper.

  16. Who will be idol? The importance of social networks for winning on reality shows

    OpenAIRE

    Heizler, Odelia; Kimhi, Ayal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines, both theoretically and empirically, the effect of social networks and belonging to minority groups (or race) on the probability of winning in reality television shows. We develop a theoretical model that studies viewer behavior by presenting a framework of competition between two contestants from two different groups. The results are examined empirically using unique contestant data from the highly popular reality show A Star Is Born, the Israeli counterpart of American I...

  17. CT and US findings of abdominal tuberculosis: Showing mainly extrainterestinal lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sang Hoon; Han, Chun Hee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Woun Kyun [Sungnam Hanmi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-02-15

    Pathologically proven 15 cases of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area during recent 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Of total 15 cases were males and 10 cases females. And 7 cases of 15 were among third decades. 2. Total 15 cases of chest x-ray; 4 cases showed pulmonary tuberculous, 2 cases, pleural effusions, and 9 cases, normal, 10 cases of G-I barium study or colonospecic examination showed 2 intestinal tuberculous and 8 normal states. 3. Pattern of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area according to CT and US findings: 1) 6 cases showed multiple lymphadenopathy on mesentery, paraaortic area, peripancreatic area, gastrohepatic ligament or esophagogastric junction. 2) 6 cases showed abscess formation pattern on inguinal area, retropublic area of abdominal wall, iliopsoas muscle area, abdominal wall and adjacent to IVC at umbilical level. 3) 3 cases showed mesenteric thickening and ascites.

  18. CT and US findings of abdominal tuberculosis: Showing mainly extrainterestinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathologically proven 15 cases of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area during recent 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Of total 15 cases were males and 10 cases females. And 7 cases of 15 were among third decades. 2. Total 15 cases of chest x-ray; 4 cases showed pulmonary tuberculous, 2 cases, pleural effusions, and 9 cases, normal, 10 cases of G-I barium study or colonospecic examination showed 2 intestinal tuberculous and 8 normal states. 3. Pattern of abdominal tuberculous mainly located at extraintestinal area according to CT and US findings: 1) 6 cases showed multiple lymphadenopathy on mesentery, paraaortic area, peripancreatic area, gastrohepatic ligament or esophagogastric junction. 2) 6 cases showed abscess formation pattern on inguinal area, retropublic area of abdominal wall, iliopsoas muscle area, abdominal wall and adjacent to IVC at umbilical level. 3) 3 cases showed mesenteric thickening and ascites.

  19. Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  20. Consumer behavior towards show-room services of two wheelers with reference to Cuddalore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Pragadeeswaran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to find out the consumer behavior towards showroom service of two wheelers. A samples of 200 users selected randomly were studied. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results reveal that users differ in consumer behaviour towards showroom services of two wheelers on the basis of satisfied random sampling. This study is made to describe the consumer satisfaction of two wheelers with respect to socio-economic characteristics as age, gender, occupation, family income, educational level and so on which is called descriptive study. The data were treated statistically using t-test, F-test and correlation. The result shows that students and employees are more satisfied about show room services. Demographic variables such as marital status, size of the family give significant effect related to show room services.

  1. University of Colorado study shows how an enzyme kills cancer cells and also speeds regrowth:

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your body is injured, it signals your cells to increase their growth rate. That makes sense: damage requires speedy repair. Results from a University of Colorado study...show how cancer cells use this mechanism to repopulate after a tumor is damaged by radiotherapy; and the study offers hope for a future in which the regrowth of cancer cells is slowed.

  2. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. PMID:23769929

  3. Musical slide show MAF with protection and governance using MPEG-21 IPMP Components and REL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirin, Muhammad Syah Houari; Tan, Hendry; Lim, Jeongyeon; Kim, Munchurl

    2007-02-01

    The Musical Slide Show Multimedia Application Format (MAF) which is currently being standardized by the Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG) conveys the concept of combining several established standard technologies in a single file format. It defines the format of packing up MP3 audio data, along with JPEG images, MPEG-7 Simple Profile metadata, timed text, and MPEG-4 LASeR script. The presentation of Musical Slide Show MAF contents is made in a synchronized manner with JPEG images, timed text to MP3 audio track. Also, the rendering effect on JPEG images can be supported by the MPEG-4 LASeR script. This Musical Slide Show MAF will enrich the consumption of MP3 contents assisted with synchronized and rendered JPEG images, text as well as MPEG-7 metadata about the MP3 audio contents. However, there is no protection and governance mechanism for Musical Slide Show MAF which is the essential elements to deploy the sorts of contents. In this paper, to manage the Musical Slide Show MAF contents in a controlled manner, we present a protection and governance mechanism by using MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) Components and MPEG-21 Rights Expression Language (REL) technologies We implement an authoring tool and a player tool for Musical Slide Show MAF contents and show the experimental results as well.

  4. DONUT results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DONUT experiment succeeded in observing tau-neutrino CC interactions for the first time in 2000. The analysis using total sample is presented in this paper, based on 3.5x1017 protons on target. The number of identified ?? CC interactions is 9 from 581 neutrino interactions located in the emulsion. The result of the first measurement of ?? CC cross section is consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model

  5. Amanda results

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G C

    2001-01-01

    The AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) detector, located at the South Pole station, Antarctica, was recently expanded with the addition of six new strings, completing the phase referred to as AMANDA-II. This detector has been calibrated and in operation since January 2000. The first data analyses are currently underway. In this report we present an update on the results from the AMANDA-B10 detector, which operated during the austral winter 1997.

  6. SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

  7. Children showing labial palatine fissures and a low weight at birth in central hearing tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo, Letícia Maria Martins

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neurological or sensorial alterations, some of which are peripheral and/or central hearing alterations, are focused on both the people showing a low weight at birth (LW and the presence of craniofacial malformation, such as labial palatine fissure (LPF. Objective: Check and compare the results of hearing processing tests, Dichotic Listening Test (DLT and Auditory Fusion Test-Revised (AFT-R in LPF and LW children with those in children born with a normal weight and showing no LPF. Methods: Retrospective comparative study with 73 records, in which sex, weight at birth, LPF presence/absence and the DLT and AFT-R results were verified. Three groups were formed based on the analysis of weight at birth and FLP absence/presence. Results: For DLT, the Covariance Analysis did not present any difference between the groups and sexes; however the age covariant showed a statistically significant relation. Fort AFT-R, there was no difference between groups, sexes and ages. Conclusion: LPF AND LW children, however statistically insignificant, showed bigger modifications in the hearing processing tests in comparison with isolated LPF children and with children having neither this craniofacial malformation nor LW. It must as well be emphasized that an increase in age enhanced DDT performance.

  8. Tevatron results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, R.; /Barcelona, Autonoma U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent results obtained by the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II are presented. A first part is dedicated to QCD physics where inclusive jet production, dijet azimuthal decorrelations and jet shapes measurements are reported. Electroweak physics is then discussed relating measurements of the W and Z bosons productions, of the forward-backward charge asymmetry in W production, of the W width and of the top quarks mass. The extensive Run II exploration program is finally approached reporting about searches for neutral supersymmetric Higgs bosons in multijet events and for sbottom quark from gluino decays.

  9. Beth Israel/Harvard study finds new immune therapy shows promise in kidney cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An antibody that helps a person’s own immune system battle cancer cells shows increasing promise in reducing tumors in patients with advanced kidney cancer, according to researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The results of an expanded Phase 1 trial presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual conference in Chicago, showed that some patients treated with a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Bristol Myers Squibb had a positive response to the effort by the agent, BMS-936558, to prolong the immune system’s efforts to fight off renal cell carcinoma without some of the debilitating side effects common to earlier immunotherapies.

  10. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  11. Discourse Representations of Migrants in Political Talk-Shows in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BECIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse the way in which talk-shows in Romania build upon intra-EU migration as a public issue. According to one of the research hypotheses, the topic of new migration is strategically used in the public environment, determining the taking of positions, agendas and forms of institutionalisation. The semiotic and discourse analysis of a corpus of political talk-shows broadcast in the period 2010-2011 by Romanian TV stations specialising in news and socio-political debates highlights discourse strategies that are relevant for the media construction of public issues in talk-shows. The article shows that in talks-shows migrants are represented "globally", from the perspective of categories of persons that can contribute to a competitive national image. Migrants become visible through their performances in the host country and, as a result, the moral distance from them becomes apparent through a politics of visibility (hence the visibility of mythical migration, of high-performance migration, etc.. Talk-shows do not present the issue of the Diaspora experience, namely of the position of migrants with respect to forms of otherness, cooperation or solidarity.

  12. LEP results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP) at CERN has been working since the end of 1989 at a center-of-mass energy of about 91 GeV, at the top of the Z peak. This activity will continue until the end of 1994, when the energy will be doubled in order to be above the threshold for W+W- production. The high statistics and excellent quality of the reconstructed events have allowed a very careful study of the weak interactions, in particular in the neutral-current sector, and more generally a test of the Standard Model predictions to better than 1%. The status of the Standard Model and the implications of the LEP data on the allowed mass range of the top quark have been described previously, so the focus of this presentation is on the description of how these results have been obtained. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Paddy plants inoculated with PGPR show better growth physiology and nutrient content under saline condition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yachana, Jha; R.B, Subramanian.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to alleviate salt stress during plant growth has been studied on paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) 'GJ-17' under greenhouse conditions; the study included growth parameters, mineral concentration, and antioxidant enzyme level. Salinity redu [...] ced plant growth, but PGPR inoculation reduced its harmful effect up to 1% salinity. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions showed 16% higher germination, 8% higher survival, 27% higher dry weight, and 31% higher plant height. Similarly, PGPR inoculated plants showed increased concentrations of N(26%), P (16%), K (31%), and reduced concentrations of Na (71%) and Ca (36%) as compared to non-inoculated control plants under saline conditions. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions also showed significant variations in antioxidant levels and growth physiology. Results suggested that inoculation with PGPR Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in salt-stressed plants could help to alleviate salt stress in the paddy.

  14. Inner retinal damage after exposure to green diode laser during a laser show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sohee; Lee, Won Ki

    2014-01-01

    Here we report two cases of retinal damage after exposure to a 510 nm laser diode during a laser show. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who presented with decreased visual acuity in her right eye after visiting a dance party with a diode laser show (wavelength 510 nm, power 2 mW), although she did not directly see the light. Retinal examination revealed a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage and a small laser burn. The second patient was a 20-year-old female who visited for decreased vision in her left eye. She described similar events as the first patient. An exposure to green diode laser can result in retinal damage. It is strongly recommended that certified personnel operate laser devices used in indoor laser shows under strict regulation. PMID:25506208

  15. Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution offers many opportunities in metabolic engineering; however, several constraints still exist as evolutionary trade-offs may impose collateral cost to obtain new traits. The application of adaptive evolution for strains development could be further improved by elucidating the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants exhibited significant correlation with attenuation of glucose utilization. These results indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy is the dominant mechanism in the observed trade-off, and it is likely realized by changes in glucose signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HannaGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

  17. Polyol-mediated C-dot formation showing efficient Tb3+/Eu3+ emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hailong; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Gössl, Dorothee M; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Feldmann, Claus

    2014-07-18

    C-dots (3-5 nm in diameter) obtained by most simple heating of polyols (glycerol, diethylene glycol and PEG 400) show intense blue and green emission (50% quantum yield). Upon modification with TbCl3/EuCl3, energy transfer from the C-dots to the rare-earth metal results in line-type Tb(3+) (green)/Eu(3+) (red) emission with quantum yields up to 85%. PMID:24887063

  18. Peritoneal ectopic lesions from women with endometriosis show abnormalities in progesterone-dependent glycan expression

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Nardo, Luciano G.; Litta, Pietro; Fazleabas, Asgerally T.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of 12 paired peritoneal ectopic and eutopic endometria for histochemical binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, normally found in the mid–late secretory part of the cycle, showed a failure of lectin binding in 9 of 11 secretory-phase lesions although the eutopic specimens generally stained normally. This failure of glycan expression in the secretory phase may result from various anomalies, including an inability to respond to progesterone, possibly due to a lack of, or to nonf...

  19. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Acm, Voeten Helene; Njue Carolyne; Remes Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows a...

  20. University of Pittsburgh study of peptide vaccine shows evidence of immunological response in children with gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers from Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Brain Tumor Program have demonstrated that peptide vaccines in children with gliomas, the most common type of brain tumor, not only were well-tolerated but also showed evidence of immunological responses. The results of the study were presented during a press conference at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 in Chicago.

  1. Task 23 -- User`s guide to GRI-ShowFlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    GRI-ShowFlow is a compilation of flow and transport groundwater models under one user-friendly, graphical interface in the Microsoft{reg_sign}Windows{trademark} 3.1 environment. The groundwater models as well as the interface were derived from existing codes. The motivation behind the development of GRI-ShowFlow was twofold: (1) there is a need to compare and assess various analytical and screening-level models that are being used by regulatory agencies and (2) there is a need for the nonexpert to be able to use these screening-level models and the resulting information without expert interpretation. GRI-ShowFlow was developed for use by gas industry environmental staff who may have little experience with hydrogeology or groundwater models but must be able to quickly determine whether there is sufficient chance of groundwater contamination and whether a site does or does not require a more extensive examination. Special attention was therefore given to the Help System in GRI-ShowFlow, which aids the development of the minimal amount of data required by the program and the interpretation of the resulting data. The objective of GRI-ShowFlow is to bring together the existing EPA models in a user-friendly environment and to compare them to each other as well as to new models that contain analytical solutions to three-dimensional source descriptions. A three-dimensional body will more closely reflect the shapes of contaminant sources than one- or two-dimensional geometries. In the real world, contamination sources such as landfills, storage pits, and lagoons will, after all, occupy a three-dimensional space.

  2. Degradation of impact fracture during accelerated aging of weld metal on microalloyed steel; Degradacion de la tenacidad al impacto durante el envejecimiento acelerado de soldadura en acero microaleado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Arista, B.; Hallen, J. M.; Albiter, A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of accelerated aging on the toughness and fracture of the longitudinal weld metal on an API5L-X52 line pipe steel was evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact test, fracture analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Aging was performed at 250 degree centigrade for 100 to 1000 h. The impact results indicated a significant reduction in the fracture energy and impact toughness as a function of aging time, which were achieved by the scanning electron microscope fractography that showed a decrease in the vol fraction of microvoids by Charpy ductile failure with the aging time, which favored the brittle fracture by transgranular cleavage. The minimum vol fraction of microvoids was reached at 500 h due to the peak aged. The microstructural analysis indicated the precipitation of transgranular iron nano carbides in the aged specimens, which was related to the deterioration of toughness and change in the ductile to brittle behavior. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. The effect of aging at 343/degree/C on type 308 stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three nominally 25-mm (1-in) thick shielded metal-arc welds were prepared from 304L base plate with 308 filler material, to obtain three different ferrite levels (4, 8, and 12 %). Portions of these welds were then aged at 343/degree/C for 3000, 10000, and 20000 hours. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were taken from the welds. The tensile results were similar for all the specimens and showed little effect of aging on either the yield or ultimate tensile strengths. The Charpy impact properties of the higher ferrite content materials were significantly degraded by these agings, with larger decreases in the impact energy with increased aging time. The microstructures of the welds were examined by metallography and transmission electron microscopy, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the mechanical properties and the fractography are discussed in light of the observed changes in the microstructure. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Prediction of Mechanical Properties of 25CrMo48V Seamless Tube Using Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Laibo; Zhang, Chuanyou; Wang, Qingfeng; Wang, Mingzhi; Yan, Zesheng

    In this investigation, a neural network model was established to predict mechanical properties of 25CrMo48V seamless tubes. The sensitivity analysis was also performed to estimate the relative significance of each chemical composition in mechanical behavior of steel tubes. The results of this investigation show that there is a good agreement between experimental and predicted values indicating desirable validity of the model. Among those alloying elements, the elements of carbon, silicon and chromium tended to play a more important role in controlling both the yielding strength and the Charpy-V-Notch transverse impact toughness. In comparison, the impurities such as O, N, S and P have a relatively weak impact. More detailed dependences of mechanical properties on each chemical composition in isolation can be revealed using the established model. The well-trained neural network has a great potential in designing tough and ultrahigh-strength seamless tubes and modeling the on-line production parameters.

  5. Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

  6. Design of a low-alloy high-strength and high-toughness martensitic steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-jun; Ren, Xue-ping; Yang, Wen-chao; Zang, Yue

    2013-08-01

    To develop a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel with high strength and high toughness, a series of martensitic steels were studied through alloying with various elements and thermodynamic simulation. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the designed steel were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing and Charpy impact test. The results show that cementite exists between 500°C and 700°C, M7C3 exits below 720°C, and they are much lower than the austenitizing temperature of the designed steel. Furthermore, the Ti(C,N) precipitate exists until 1280°C, which refines the microstructure and increases the strength and toughness. The optimal alloying components are 0.19% C, 1.19% Si, 2.83% Mn, 1.24% Ni, and 0.049% Ti; the tensile strength and the V notch impact toughness of the designed steel are more than 1500 MPa and 100 J, respectively.

  7. Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Li, Chunjing; Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2014-12-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

  8. Problem of low cycle high temperature fatigue of the 13HMF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the influence of various types of multiple thermal cycles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the 13HMF steel, investigations have been performed by using the thermal and stress cycle simulator and by taking advantage of the design of experiments. Specimens were heated to maximum temperatures in the range of 600-1200 oC, different soaking times at those temperatures were applied and cooling times t8/5 to room temperature. During the tests specimens were free to deform, as well as loaded by a tensile force. Microstructures of simulated heat affected zones (HAZ) have been investigated, Vickers hardness HV10, Charpy V notch toughness and mechanical properties (Re, Rm, A5) were determined. Results are presented in the form of equations and graphs, which show relations between the parameters of thermal cycles and the individual properties of simulated HAZ's. (author)

  9. Effect of strain ageing on yield strength and post yield behavior of FCAW-G ferritic weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Badri K.; Brady, Noel; Ogborn, John [The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH, (United States); Wang, Yong-Yi [Center for reliable energy systems, Columbus, OH, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Strain aging can occur in pipeline steels that are subjected to thermal cycles after plastic deformation. This phenomenon is not well understood. This paper studies the effect of straining and aging on weld properties. More precisely, the study investigated the effect of micro-alloying on the microstructure and the properties of weld metal when a flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G) process is used. The weld metal strength (yield and tensile), the ductility (uniform and total elongation) and the toughness (Charpy V-Notch testing) are characterized for two different micro-alloying additions (titanium or vanadium). The tensile samples were also subjected to varying levels of strain. It is found that the yield and tensile strength increased with the increase in pre-strain, confirming the presence of strain aging. For the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT), the results showed that the DBTT of the weld metal evolved slightly to higher temperatures with increase in pre-strain.

  10. Uma aproximação analí­tica do formato televisual do reality show Big Brother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Andacht

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta alguns resultados de uma pesquisa comparada sobre o funcionamento semiótico de um formato televisivo global em duas de suas produções locais, Rio de la Plata e Brasil, nos anos 2001 e 2002. Através da perspectiva sociossemiótica baseada no modelo de Peirce, procura-se analisar os elementos próprios da significação do formato e de sua contextualização local. Descreve-se o reality show Big Brother como uma melocrônica dos bastidores da interação humana, em atenção aos componentes sí­gnicos centrais do formato, isto é, í­ndices e í­cones, que emergem na encenação televisual do face a face cotidiano. A contemplação turí­stica da ordem de interação ou do âmbito da sociabilidade permite compreender mudanças nas formas sociais que vão muito além do reduzido espaço do reality show glocal da Endemol, p.ex. no discurso eleitoral televisivo brasileiro. Palavras chave reality show, semiótica triádica, gênero hí­brido, sociabilidade. Abstract The article presents some results of a comparative research on the semiotic functioning of a global television genre in two of its local productions, that of the River Plate and that of Brazil, in the years 2001 and 2002. Through a sociosemiotic perspective based on the model of C. S. Peirce, the text accounts for the specific elements of signification of the format and of its local contextualization. The Big Brother reality show is deemed to be a hybrid genre, namely, a melochronicle of the backstage of human interaction, on account of the basic sign components of this TV format, i.e., indexes and icons, which emerge in the televisual staging of everyday face to face encounters. A tourist-like contemplation of the order of interaction or sociability realm allows us to understand changes in the social forms that reach far beyond the limited realm of the glocal Endemol reality show, for instance, in the Brazilian television political campaign. Key words reality show; triadic semiotic; hybrid genre; social interaction.

  11. School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

  12. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis Shows Sodium Houttuyfonate-Mediated Inhibition of Autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sodium houttuyfonate (SH, an addition compound of sodium bisulfite and houttuynin, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against 21 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus strains grown in planktonic cultures. Microarray results showed decreased levels of autolysin atl, sle1, cidA and lytN transcripts in the SH-treated strain as compared to the control strain, consistent with the induction of the autolytic repressors lrgAB and sarA and with the downregulation of the positive regulators agrA and RNAIII. Triton X-100-induced autolysis was significantly decreased by SH in S. aureus ATCC 25923, and quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis demonstrated SH-mediated reduction of extracellular murein hydrolase activity in these cells. Anti-biofilm assay showed that SH is poorly active against S. aureus grown in biofilm cultures, whereas SH diminished the amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that SH may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release in the early phase. Some of the microarray results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.

  13. Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    Ageing theories predict that evolution should inevitably lead to an increase of mortality and decrease of fertility with age. However, a recent study across different species shows that this prediction only applies to really few species. In fact there is a great diversity of mortality trajectories in nature. Additionally, empirical studies have previously concluded that age matters: the probabilities of species to die as a function of age are highly diverse. Some species even show that mortality decreases with age (negative senescence). Albeit these findings, most studies still assume that mortality is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different models are needed to explore the diversity of mortality trajectories in animals. However, our state of demographic knowledge even for vertebrates is by far deficient to incorporate the effects on age. Exploring 13 available datasets on vertebrate life histories traits, our results show surprising figures that highlight the urgency to fill up knowledge gaps to manage populations of threatened species.

  14. Different types of Budd-Chiari syndrome showed different circulation directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve the knowledge for flow direction of renal-spleen circulation in Budd-Chiari syndrome and effects in treatment. Methods: Two Budd-Chiari syndrome patients with reno-splenic venous shunt were treated by PTA, and the circulation directions were investigated. Results: One case with hepatic vein occlusion showed the circulation from left renal-spleen vein to IVC; another case with IVC stenosis proximal to heart showed the flow direction from spleen left renal vein to varices and finally to SVC. The circulation disappeared after treatment with PTA. Conclusions: The direction of circulation in different types of Budd-Chiari with portal hypertension may be different and should be identified clearly for a suitable management

  15. [Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal showing complete response following chemoradiotherapy--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Gonda, Tsuyoshi; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Nakada, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tateo; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal which showed complete response following chemoradiotherapy. A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (T2N0M0 stage II). Chemoradiotherapy comprising peroral tegafur/uracil and external radiotherapy (60 Gy) to the pelvic space resulted in complete response 4 months after the initiation of the treatment. PET-CT showed recurrence in paraortic lymph node, right sacral and left pubic bone 11 months after the initiation of treatment, although the primary lesion did not relapse. The patient is now given 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin in addition to external radiotherapy (57.5 Gy) to the metastatic lymph node. This case suggests that we should take measures to prevent distant metastases in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. PMID:18219895

  16. Non-specific Inflammatory Disease Showed Abnormal FDG Uptake in Lower Extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Hong, Young Hoon; Lee, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Including malignancy, various disease can show abnormal uptake in bone marrow.{sup 1,2} We report a case of non-specific inflammatory FDG uptake in bone marrow mimicking malignancy. A 35-year old woman with fever of unknown origin (FUO) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to find out fever focus and unknown malignancy. {sup 18}F-FDG was injected and imaged 1hr after injection with Discovery ST (GE, USA). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT whole body image showed abnormal uptake in lower extremities. MRI and biopsy was also done in the sites of abnormal uptake. PET and MRI suspect malignancy, but biopsy result was non-specific inflammatory process. The patient was improved her clinical condition after antibiotics therapy.

  17. Non-specific Inflammatory Disease Showed Abnormal FDG Uptake in Lower Extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Including malignancy, various disease can show abnormal uptake in bone marrow.1,2) We report a case of non-specific inflammatory FDG uptake in bone marrow mimicking malignancy. A 35-year old woman with fever of unknown origin (FUO) underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT to find out fever focus and unknown malignancy. 18F-FDG was injected and imaged 1hr after injection with Discovery ST (GE, USA). 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body image showed abnormal uptake in lower extremities. MRI and biopsy was also done in the sites of abnormal uptake. PET and MRI suspect malignancy, but biopsy result was non-specific inflammatory process. The patient was improved her clinical condition after antibiotics therapy

  18. A Case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome Which Shows Space Occupying Lesion on Liver Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hae; Lee, Youn Ha; Seo, Dae Won; Jang, Tae Jong; Hwang, In Shup; Kim, Young Jung; Kim, So Yon; Lee, Gwon Jun [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    A twenty-one-year old man visited our hospital due to abdominal distension for a month. On the physical examination, there was severe abdominal distension with fluctuation and shifting dullness. The routine laboratory results were within normal range. On the Magnetic Resonance angiography, there wasn't any blood flow within the right and middle hepatic vein. So we concluded that the etiologic disease was Budd Chiari syndrome. On the liver scan, there was cold area (absence of radiouptake) on entire right lobe of the liver, increased uptake on the bone marrow and showed splenomegaly. This finding was similar to the liver mass occupying right lobe with underlying chronic liver disease. On the previous reports, it is quite uncommon finding that Budd-Chirari syndrome shows lesion like space occupying one on the liver scan. So we report this case with a review of the literature.

  19. Remote haptic perception of slanted surfaces shows the same scale expansion as visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Dennis M; McManama, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Previous work has shown that overestimates of geographic slant depend on the modality used (verbal or haptic). Recently, that line of reasoning has come into question for many reasons, not the least of which is that the typical method used for measuring "action" has been the use of a palm board, which is not well calibrated to any type of action toward slanted surfaces. In the present work, we investigated how a remote haptic task that has been well calibrated to action in previous work is related to verbal overestimates of slanted surfaces that are out of reach. The results show that haptic estimates are perceptually equivalent to the verbal overestimates that have been found in numerous previous studies. This work shows that the haptic perceptual system is scaled in the same way as the visual perceptual system for estimating the orientation of slanted surfaces that are out of reach. PMID:25515432

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy showing large-scale inhomogeneity in the presumed Martian meteorite Zagami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, L.; Petersen, D.; Madsen, M. B.

    1992-07-01

    A group of nine achondritic meteorites, the SNC-meteorites, are believed to be rocks from the planet Mars. The authors have performed Mössbauer spectroscopy of specimens from one of these meteorites, Zagami. Surprisingly, the Mössbauer spectra of two separate samples from Zagami are very different. One of the samples shows no olivine, in agreement with the description of the meteorite Zagami in the literature. The other sample shows that about 23% of the iron is placed in olivine, and X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the existence of olivine as a major component in this sample. One is thus forced to conclude that the meteorite Zagami is inhomogeneous on a macroscopic scale. This result has evidently implications for the understanding of the igneous rocks on Mars, and thus for the interpretation of their Mössbauer spectra.

  1. Input-anticipating critical reservoirs show power law forgetting of unexpected input events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Norbert Michael

    2015-05-01

    Usually reservoir computing shows an exponential memory decay. This letter investigates under which circumstances echo state networks can show a power law forgetting. That means traces of earlier events can be found in the reservoir for very long time spans. Such a setting requires critical connectivity exactly at the limit of what is permissible according to the echo state condition. However, for general matrices, the limit cannot be determined exactly from theory. In addition, the behavior of the network is strongly influenced by the input flow. Results are presented that use certain types of restricted recurrent connectivity and anticipation learning with regard to the input, where power law forgetting can indeed be achieved. PMID:25774542

  2. A Case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome Which Shows Space Occupying Lesion on Liver Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twenty-one-year old man visited our hospital due to abdominal distension for a month. On the physical examination, there was severe abdominal distension with fluctuation and shifting dullness. The routine laboratory results were within normal range. On the Magnetic Resonance angiography, there wasn't any blood flow within the right and middle hepatic vein. So we concluded that the etiologic disease was Budd Chiari syndrome. On the liver scan, there was cold area (absence of radiouptake) on entire right lobe of the liver, increased uptake on the bone marrow and showed splenomegaly. This finding was similar to the liver mass occupying right lobe with underlying chronic liver disease. On the previous reports, it is quite uncommon finding that Budd-Chirari syndrome shows lesion like space occupying one on the liver scan. So we report this case with a review of the literature.

  3. A spatial model showing differences between juxtacrine and paracrine mutual oocyte-granulosa cells interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeldin, Islam M; Elsayed, Asmaa; Kim, Su Jin; Moon, Joon Hu; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2015-02-01

    The bidirectional communication between oocytes and granulosa cells are mediated by several factors via a local feedback loop(s). The current model was carried out to study the spatial mutual interaction of porcine denuded oocytes and granulosa cells either in direct contact (juxtacrine) or paracrine co-culture using transwell system. Transwell 0.4 ?m polyester membrane inserts were used to permit oocytes-granulosa cells paracrine communication with a distance of 2 mm between them in co-culture. Oocytes were cultured with granulosa cells in a defined basic maturation medium for 44 h. In results, oocyte secreted factors (OSFs; GDF9 and BMP15) temporal expression showed progressive decrement by the end of culture in case of direct contact with granulosa cells while it was increased progressively in the paracrine co-culture groups. However, oocytes that were cultured in direct contact showed a significant increase in blastocyst development after parthenogenetic activation than the paracrine co-cultured ones (20% vs. 11.5%, respectively). By the end of culture, granulosa cell count in direct contact showed a significant decrease than the indirect co-culture group (1.2 x 105 cell/mL vs. 2.1 x 10(5) cell/mL, respectively). Steroids (P4 and E2) and steriodogenesis enzymes mRNA levels showed significant temporal alterations either after 22 h and 44 h of IVM in both juxtacrine and paracrine co-culture systems (P ? 0.05). CX43 was much more highly expressed in the granulosa of the direct contact group than the indirect co-culture group. These results indicate the difference in mutual communication between oocytes and granulosa cells that were cocultured either in direct contact (juxtacrine) or with a short distance (paracrine) and propose a new paradigm to study different ovarian follicular cells interaction. PMID:25757237

  4. Analysis of Gentilly-2 pump trip tests showing the effect of electrical forces on pump rundown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present SOPHT-G2/MiniSOPHT-G2 simulation results of two tests involving the primary pump P4 rundown at Gentilly-2 when the reactor was at very low power. The first test was a primary heat transport pump P4 trip conducted during the 2001 scheduled shutdown by opening the pump breaker. The second test is a slow power transfer from the main service transformer to the standby transformer of electric bus D06 supplying P4 performed during the 2001 restart. The first test is used to validate the SOPHT-G2 pump rundown model particularly in the first two seconds. The simulation results of the instrumented channels using MiniSOPHT-G2 show that the overall trends are well reproduced. The comparison between the SOPHT-G2 simulation results with the pump trip test and the slow power transfer test results shows that the pump rundown is just slightly faster for the power transfer test. In addition, taking into account the initial conditions before each test (i.e, primary system at 57oC for pump trip test and 175oC for power transfer test), the difference in the pump rundown time is significant. This effect can be important in some loss of class IV power events where a faster pump rundown can result in a higher power excursion due to additional void generation by comparison to pump rundown due to an opening of the pump breaker. (author)

  5. Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthaLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  6. Glaciers of Larsen B embayment area show marked speed-up since shelf collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Bohlander, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Satellite images spanning the period before, during, and after the break-up of the Larsen B ice shelf in March, 2002, show a flow speed increase of several glaciers feeding the now-disintegrated shelf area. Further, the rate of speed-up increased in the months after shelf collapse. Landsat 7 band 8 images (15m pixel size) from 27 Jan 2000, 06 Dec 2001, 06 Apr 2002, 18 Dec 2002, and 20 Feb 2003 were used in an image correlation feature-tracking algorithm to gather the ice motion data along flow centerlines. Crane Glacier, a glacier near Caution Point peninsula, and the Hektoria-Green-Evans glacier system all showed evidence of speed-up. Leppard Glacier, feeding into the remaining southern section of the Larsen B shelf, showed no change in speed over the period. Speeds in the lower portions of the Crane Glacier (for example) increased from 1.7 m/day (27 Jan 2000 to 06 Apr 2002) to 3.1 m/day (06 Apr 2002 to 18 Dec 2002) and then 4.1 m/day (18 Dec 2002 to 20 Feb 2003). Leppard Glacier's lower trunk remained at 1.2 m/day through the same period. Errors in flow speeds are no worse than 10% for the shortest time-interval pair, and much better for other pairs, due to excellent image co-registration on stationary rock features flanking the glaciers. Measurements across all image pairs give consistent results. The results imply: that ice shelf removal has a significant, rapid effect on feeder glacier flow; that the removal of the ice shelf directly affects glacier force balance; and that climate-related shelf removal for other shelves fed by larger ice streams will likely result in a rapid speed-up of those glaciers and a change in the mass balance of the adjacent ice sheet.

  7. [Stapedectomy: long term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Montero, E; Fraile Rodrigo, J; Marín Garrido, C; Sampériz, L Carmen; Llorente Arenas, E; Naya Gálvez, M J; Ortiz García, A

    2002-04-01

    Stapedectomy, with its most innovatory variations, constitutes the treatment of choice for otoesclerosis. Short term results are spectacular, getting GAP closures of less than 5 dB approximatelly in 94% patients, variations depending on the authors. Long term follow up check results show a gradual auditory deterioration. The aim of this study is to audiometric evolution of patients operated of stapedectomy 7 to 10 years ago in our department and to correlate the results with those obtained by other authors, in an attempt to unify conclusions. PMID:12185900

  8. Examination of parameters affecting overload fracture behavior of flaw-tip hydrides in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in Candu reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Service-induced flaws in Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes in Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium Reactors) nuclear reactors are susceptible to a crack initiation and growth mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), which is a repetitive process that involves hydrogen diffusion, hydride precipitation, growth and fracture of a hydride region at the flaw-tip under a constant load. Crack initiation may also occur under another loading condition when the hydride region is subjected to an overload. An overload occurs when the hydride region at the flaw tip is loaded to a stress higher than that at which this region is formed such as when the reactor experiences a transient pressure higher than the normal operating pressure where the hydride region is formed. Flaw disposition requires justification that the hydride region overload will not fracture the hydride region, and initiate DHC. In this work, monotonically increasing load experiments were performed on unirradiated Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube specimens containing simulated debris frets (V-notch) and bearing pad frets (BPF, U-shape notch) to examine overload fracture behavior of flaw-tip hydrides formed under hydride ratcheting conditions. Hydride cracking in the overload tests was detected by the acoustic emission technique and confirmed by post-test metallurgical examination. Test results indicate that the resistance to overload fracture is affected by a number of parameters including hydride formation stress, flaw shapeuding hydride formation stress, flaw shape (V-notch vs. BPF) and flaw radius (0.015 mm vs. 0.1 mm). The notch-tip hydride morphologies were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which show that they are affected by the hydride formation conditions, resulting in different overload fracture resistance. Finite element stress analyses were also performed to obtain flaw-tip stress distributions for interpretation of the test results. (authors)

  9. Why does a Large Shadow Economy not show up in Administrative Inspections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Takala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the apparent gap that exists between very high estimates of the size of the shadow economy and the results of various tax and policy authorities’ inspections. The analyses are based on Finnish data, with the benchmark values for the size of the shadow economy taken from a recent parliamentary investigation which arrived at very high values for all types of shadow economy activities. These estimates are compared with the Finnish Tax Administration’s own data on tax audits. The data are also used in assessing the fiscal results from tax inspections and other administrative actions. These values suggest that it is pointless to spend enormous amounts of resources to curtail the shadow economy unless one can show that there are important economies of scale in tax audits and law enforcement. Our estimates do not support the idea of increasing returns in tax audits.

  10. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in {Li [In(1,3 - BDC)2]}n and enhancement of the H2 uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  11. Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidor, Christian A; O'Keefe, F Robin; Damiani, Ross; Steyer, J Sébastien; Smith, Roger M H; Larsson, Hans C E; Sereno, Paul C; Ide, Oumarou; Maga, Abdoulaye

    2005-04-14

    New fossils from the Upper Permian Moradi Formation of northern Niger provide an insight into the faunas that inhabited low-latitude, xeric environments near the end of the Palaeozoic era (approximately 251 million years ago). We describe here two new temnospondyl amphibians, the cochleosaurid Nigerpeton ricqlesi gen. et sp. nov. and the stem edopoid Saharastega moradiensis gen. et sp. nov., as relicts of Carboniferous lineages that diverged 40-90 million years earlier. Coupled with a scarcity of therapsids, the new finds suggest that faunas from the poorly sampled xeric belt that straddled the Equator during the Permian period differed markedly from well-sampled faunas that dominated tropical-to-temperate zones to the north and south. Our results show that long-standing theories of Late Permian faunal homogeneity are probably oversimplified as the result of uneven latitudinal sampling. PMID:15829962

  12. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves; Radon in oesterreichischen Schaubergwerken und -hoehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES GmbH), Linz (Austria). Kompetenzzentrum Radiooekologie und Radon; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung; Gschnaller, J. [GT-Analytic KEG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  13. Inner retinal damage after exposure to green diode laser during a laser show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sohee Jeon, Won Ki Lee Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Here we report two cases of retinal damage after exposure to a 510 nm laser diode during a laser show. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who presented with decreased visual acuity in her right eye after visiting a dance party with a diode laser show (wavelength 510 nm, power 2 mW, although she did not directly see the light. Retinal examination revealed a sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage and a small laser burn. The second patient was a 20-year-old female who visited for decreased vision in her left eye. She described similar events as the first patient. An exposure to green diode laser can result in retinal damage. It is strongly recommended that certified personnel operate laser devices used in indoor laser shows under strict regulation. Keywords: green diode laser, sub-internal limiting membrane hemorrhage, inner retinal damage

  14. Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2014-08-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular foodborne pathogen responsible for listeriosis. In a recent study, in which we investigated neglected exogenous routes of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union, we have isolated 15 L. monocytogenes strains in food products, which were imported from the Republic of Moldavia to Romania and illegally sold at a local market. The aim of this study was to characterize the subtype and virulence potential of these 15 L. monocytogenes strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that these L. monocytogenes strains belong to six different sequence types (ST2, ST8, ST9, ST20, ST121 and ST155). In addition, in vitro virulence assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco2 and macrophage-like THP1 cells showed a high strain variability regarding the invasion efficiency in Caco2 cells (0.98-2.78%) and the intracellular growth rate in both cell types. Both ST121 strains and the ST9 isolate were unable to invade Caco2 cells, and all ST155 strains showed no proliferation inside macrophages and revealed low cytotoxicity. Furthermore we performed sequence analysis of three main virulence factors: PrfA, internalin A (InlA) and listeriolysin O (LLO). The Romanian food isolates showed a high diversity in the InlA and LLO amino acid sequences, whereas the amino acid sequence of PrfA of all strains was identical. Overall, the amino acid sequences of PrfA, InlA and LLO were identical for strains belonging to the same ST. We detected in total 30 different amino acid substitutions, resulting in seven different InlA variants, two of which have not yet been described. The three strains, which were unable to invade Caco2 cells, harboured a premature stop codon resulting in truncated InlA. Furthermore, we detected four different amino acid substitutions in the LLO sequence, which are present in four variants. The number of LLO mutations correlates negatively with intracellular growth in Caco2 and THP1 cells and subsequently with cytotoxicity. In conclusion, we show that L. monocytogenes isolated from food samples from a Romanian black market show distinct virulence profiles, due to a high diversity in the amino acid sequence of main virulence factors. PMID:25241012

  15. Fifteen million years of evolution in the Oryza genus shows extensive gene family expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Julie; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Haberer, Georg; Billheimer, Dean D; Yu, Yeisoo; Liu, Liana C; Rivera, Luis F; Mayer, Klaus; Chen, Mingsheng; Wing, Rod A

    2014-04-01

    In analyzing gene families in the whole-genome sequences available for O. sativa (AA), O. glaberrima (AA), and O. brachyantha (FF), we observed large size expansions in the AA genomes compared to FF genomes for the super-families F-box and NB-ARC, and five additional families: the Aspartic proteases, BTB/POZ proteins (BTB), Glutaredoxins, Trypsin ?-amylase inhibitor proteins, and Zf-Dof proteins. Their evolutionary dynamic was investigated to understand how and why such important size variations are observed between these closely related species. We show that expansions resulted from both amplification, largely by tandem duplications, and contraction by gene losses. For the F-box and NB-ARC gene families, the genes conserved in all species were under strong purifying selection while expanded orthologous genes were under more relaxed purifying selection. In F-box, NB-ARC, and BTB, the expanded groups were enriched in genes with little evidence of expression, in comparison with conserved groups. We also detected 87 loci under positive selection in the expanded groups. These results show that most of the duplicated copies in the expanded groups evolve neutrally after duplication because of functional redundancy but a fraction of these genes were preserved following neofunctionalization. Hence, the lineage-specific expansions observed between Oryza species were partly driven by directional selection. PMID:24214894

  16. The Fluency Amplification Model: fluent stimuli show more intense but not evidently more positive evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sabine; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2014-05-01

    Processing fluency plays a large role in forming judgments, as research repeatedly shows. According to the Hedonic Fluency Model, more fluently processed stimuli are rated more affectively positive than less fluently processed stimuli. Most research documenting such findings uses neutral or positive stimuli with low complexity, thus any potential impact of initial stimulus valence cannot be tested. In the present study, 60 IAPS stimuli ranging from very negative to very positive valence were rated on liking by participants. Processing fluency was manipulated through perceptual priming (7 ms). Results of Experiment 1 (N = 35) support the prediction of the Hedonic Fluency Model, but only for stimuli with an initially positive valence. However, when negative stimuli were processed more fluently, they were rated as more negative than when processed less fluently. Experiment 2 (N = 39) showed that enhancing the accessibility of the stimulus content (via prolonging the prime duration to 100 ms) cannot account for the results of Experiment 1, since Experiment 2 failed to replicate the findings obtained in Experiment 1. Potential factors influencing affective evaluation of negative stimuli are discussed. A model is offered for the reinterpretation of processing fluency as an amplifying factor for evaluative judgment. PMID:24603044

  17. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123.

  18. Diabetes patients show different time-course of myocardial perfusion improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Seok, J. W.; Eo, J. S. [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is known to cause microangiopathy. The microangiopathy is hardly detectable on the coronary angiography. Myocardial perfusion imaging shows the resultant perfusion status which reflects the microangiopathy. For patients who underwent revascularization, the microangiopathy could affect the myocardial perfusion improvement. Diabetes patients probably experience the different myocardial perfusion improvement as compared to the non-diabetes patients although they have similar angiographic findings. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is a time-course difference of perfusion improvement between the diabetes and non diabetes patients who showed patent angiographic findings after coronary artery grafting surgery (CABG). A total of 129 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in this study. Myocardial SPECTs performed at previous, short-term (3 month), and mid-term (1 year) to CABG. One-year follow up angiography was done 411{+-}121 days after surgery. Graft patency was determined according to the FitzGibbon et al. Segments were assigned to vascular territories using a 20 segment model. The segments of excellent patency were included in this study. Time course differences of concerned segments were analyzed using RMANOVA. The number of segments enrolled was 764 of diabetes and 1083 of non-diabetes. At short-term follow up, reversibility score was 2.8{+-}8.1% in diabetes and 0.3{+-}7.5% in non-diabetes. At long-term follow up, reversibility score was 1.8{+-}8.0% in diabetes and 0.1{+-}7.3% in non-diabetes. The time-course of reversibility score was significantly different between the diabetes and non diabetes (p<0.001) Diabetic segments showed high residual reversibility score than non-diabetic segments after CABG although the angiographic finding was patent in both groups. This result is maybe attributable to microangiopathy induced by diabetes.

  19. Human immunoglobulin classes and subclasses show variability in VDJ gene mutation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Katherine J L; Wang, Yan; Collins, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Somatic point mutations provide glimpses into B-cell histories, and mutation numbers generally correlate with antibody affinity. We recently proposed a model of human isotype function, based in part on mutation analysis, in which the dominant pathway of isotype switching involves B cells moving sequentially through the four immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclasses. This should result in predictable differences in affinity between isotypes, and this helps explain how different isotypes work together. The model built on analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain sequences amplified from Papua New Guinean villagers, which showed highly significant differences in the mean number of V-REGION mutations in sequences, associated with the different IgG subclasses. To determine whether this relationship between mutation levels and isotypes is a more general phenomenon, the present study was conducted in healthy, urban residents of Sydney, Australia. VDJ sequences were generated from eight individuals, using 454 pyrosequencing, from cells expressing all isotypes except IgD and IgE. This resulted in 35?118 unique, productive VDJ sequences for the study. The data confirm that VDJ genes associated with progressively more 3' Ig heavy chain gamma (IGHG) constant region genes show increasing levels of point mutation. Mean V-REGION mutations in IgA1 and IgA2 sequences were similar. Patterns of mutations also differed between isotypes. Despite their association with T-independent responses, IgG2 sequences showed significantly more mutational evidence of antigen selection than other IgG isotypes. Antigen selection was also significantly higher in IgA2 than in IgA1 sequences, raising the possibility of a preferential switch pathway from IGHG2 to IGHA2. PMID:24913324

  20. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FrancisM Miezin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS.

  1. Grain size and temperature influence on the toughness of a CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Victor Hugo C. de, E-mail: victor.albuquerque@fe.up.pt [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Melo, Tadeu Antonio de A, E-mail: tadeu@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Gomes, Rodinei M., E-mail: gomes@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lima, Severino Jackson G. de, E-mail: jackson@lsr.ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Laboratorio de Solidificacao Rapida LSR, Cidade Universitaria, S/N 58059-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEMec)/Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, S/N 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-11-25

    Research highlights: {yields} This work evaluated the capacity of a CuAlBe alloy to absorb energy until rupture. {yields} The V-notch Charpy test was adopted at -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. {yields} Charpy tests were complemented by DSC, DSC with optical microscope and by SEM. {yields} First work to analyze the toughness of a CuAlBe alloy based on the Charpy test. {yields} The results are of relevant value to enhance the understanding of the CuAlBe alloy. - Abstract: This work is a study of the influence of grain size and temperature on the toughness of CuAlBe shape memory alloys with (CuAlBeNbNi) and without NbNi (CuAlBe) grain refiner elements. The toughness analysis was based on the V-notch Charpy impact test under temperatures of -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. A statistical analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the toughness of both alloys was influenced by temperature and grain size. The CuAlBeNbNi alloy absorbed higher impact energy than the CuAlBe alloy showing that the refining elements improved the toughness of the alloy. To confirm and complement these findings, the fracture surfaces were evaluated by stereomicroscopy. Smooth homogeneous surfaces and rough heterogonous surfaces were detected for the CuAlBeNbNi and CuAlBe alloys, respectively. Predominately brittle zones were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy in both alloys. Furthermore, to determine the phase transformation temperatures and the associated microstructures, the alloys were assessed by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DSC with optical microscopy.

  2. Grain size and temperature influence on the toughness of a CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? This work evaluated the capacity of a CuAlBe alloy to absorb energy until rupture. ? The V-notch Charpy test was adopted at -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. ? Charpy tests were complemented by DSC, DSC with optical microscope and by SEM. ? First work to analyze the toughness of a CuAlBe alloy based on the Charpy test. ? The results are of relevant value to enhance the understanding of the CuAlBe alloy. - Abstract: This work is a study of the influence of grain size and temperature on the toughness of CuAlBe shape memory alloys with (CuAlBeNbNi) and without NbNi (CuAlBe) grain refiner elements. The toughness analysis was based on the V-notch Charpy impact test under temperatures of -150, -100, -50, 0, 50, 100 and 150 deg. C. A statistical analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the toughness of both alloys was influenced by temperature and grain size. The CuAlBeNbNi alloy absorbed higher impact energy than the CuAlBe alloy showing that the refining elements improved the toughness of the alloy. To confirm and complement these findings, the fracture surfaces were evaluated by stereomicroscopy. Smooth homogeneous surfaces and rough heterogonous surfaces were detected for the CuAlBeNbNi and CuAlBe alloys, respectively. Predominately brittle zones were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy in both alloys. Furthermore, to determine the phase transformation temperatures and the associated microstructures, the alloys wed microstructures, the alloys were assessed by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and DSC with optical microscopy.

  3. A new two-phase dimeticone pediculicide shows high efficacy in a comparative bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesenfeld Oliver

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeticones kill head lice by physical means. Here we assessed in a comparative bioassay the ex vivo efficacy of "NYDA® sensitiv", a new two-phase dimeticone-based pediculicide similar to a product established on the market, but without fragrances. Methods We compared efficacy of the new product to a positive dimeticone control group, a sample of four other insecticidal and natural head lice products marketed in Germany, and an untreated control. In a bioassay, lice were exposed ex vivo to products and examined for activity for up to 24 hours, following a standard protocol. Results After 6 and 24 hours, 13.7 and 88.5% of untreated control lice did not show major vital signs. In contrast, no lice showed major vital signs 5 minutes after treatment with the new product or the control dimeticone group (NYDA®. This effect persisted at all observation points (100% efficacy. Efficacy of 0.5% permethrin (Infectopedicul® ranged between 76 and 96% in evaluations between 5 min and 6 hours. All lice treated with a coconut-based compound (mosquito® Läuseshampoo did not show major vital signs after 5 min, but mortality was only 58% after one hour. Pyrethrum extract (Goldgeist® forte showed an efficacy of 22 - 52% between 5 min and 3 hours after treatment; after 6 hours, 76% of lice were judged dead. An oxyphthirine®-based compound (Liberalice DUO LP-PRO® killed 22 - 54% of lice in the first 6 hours. Conclusions The two-phase dimeticone compound NYDA® sensitiv is highly efficacious. The removal of fragrances as compared to an established dimeticone product did not affect in vitro efficacy.

  4. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells. The data further show that the mitochondria remain functional in Krebs' cycle activity and respiratory electron transfer that enables continued accelerated glycolysis. This may be a common adaptive strategy in cancer cells.

  5. Analysis and tests of TF magnet insulation samples for the JET upgrade to 4 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET Toroidal Field (TF) coils were originally designed for operation at 3.4 tesla. In order to upgrade the field to 4 tesla and thus improve the performance of the JET machine, new mechanical tests and analysis were carried out on the insulation of TF coil samples. They were aimed at investigating the mechanical properties and the status of the insulation in order to set allowable stresses and force limits. In particular since the shear stress in the insulation is strongly affected by the shear modulus of elasticity G, it is important to measure this parameter. A method for the measurement of G in glass-resin composites, the V-notched beam method (Iosipescu method), was applied. The particular shape of the rectangular Iosipescu V-notched sample and the particular modality of force application produce pure shear stress for a reliable measurement of the G value and of the shear strength of the insulation. The effect of temperature on these mechanical properties was also investigated. Results show higher average shear strength with lower scatter compared with previous tests on conventional rectangular samples, thus confirming the reliability of the method. Micrographic analysis of the insulation and comparison between the straight and curved regions of the magnet, where the highest stress occurs, confirm the good quality of the impregnation of the coil. Glass-resin content, void content, micros and TG measurements have been performed on different samples and correlaterformed on different samples and correlation between the different properties of the insulation investigated. Moreover fatigue tests at different temperatures were performed and data analyzed with the cumulative damage technique, which allows for an extrapolation of the fatigue curve with less samples than the standard method. (author)

  6. Small Clause Results Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Mateu, Jaume

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that argument structure constructions like complex telic path of motion constructions (John walked to the store) or complex resultative constructions (The dog barked the chickens awake) are not to be regarded as "theoretical entities" (Jackendoff (1997b); Goldberg (1995)). As an alternative to these semanticocentric accounts, I argue that their epiphenomenal status can be shown iff we take into account some important insights from three syntactically-...

  7. El SHOW DE JORGE BARÓN como paradigma de neopopulismo cultural en la televisión Colombiana JORGE BARON'S show as paradigm of cultural neo-populism in the colombian television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Noemí Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo parte de la investigación de campo sobre El Show de las Estrellas, el programa musical más antiguo y popular de la televisión colombiana. El análisis de caso es un pretexto para replantear la discusión sobre políticas culturales en el contexto -aparentemente paradójico- de violencia estructural, privatización y auge del populismo de derecha que caracteriza la política en Colombia en los últimos años.This article comes from the investigation field of the Stars Show (El Show de las Estrellas, the oldest and most popular musical TV show in Colombian television. The case analysis is an excuse to reframe the discussion on cultural policies in the context, apparently paradoxical, of structural violence, privatization and peak of the right populism that characterizes the Colombian politics in the last years.

  8. El SHOW DE JORGE BARÓN como paradigma de neopopulismo cultural en la televisión Colombiana / JORGE BARON'S show as paradigm of cultural neo-populism in the colombian television

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Noemí, Rodríguez; Adolfo, Chaparro Amaya.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo parte de la investigación de campo sobre El Show de las Estrellas, el programa musical más antiguo y popular de la televisión colombiana. El análisis de caso es un pretexto para replantear la discusión sobre políticas culturales en el contexto -aparentemente paradójico- de violencia es [...] tructural, privatización y auge del populismo de derecha que caracteriza la política en Colombia en los últimos años. Abstract in english This article comes from the investigation field of the Stars Show (El Show de las Estrellas), the oldest and most popular musical TV show in Colombian television. The case analysis is an excuse to reframe the discussion on cultural policies in the context, apparently paradoxical, of structural viole [...] nce, privatization and peak of the right populism that characterizes the Colombian politics in the last years.

  9. Hyraceum, the fossilized metabolic product of rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis): shows GABA-benzodiazepine receptor affinity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreas, Olsen; Linda C., Prinsloo; Louis, Scott; Anna K., Jäger.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english HYRACEUM, AN ACCRETION OF URINE AND dung of rock hyraxes (also known as rock dassies), when fossilized with age, has been used in South Africa for the traditional treatment of epilepsy. We report on tests of 14 hyraceum samples, collected at various geographical locations in South Africa, and assaye [...] d for GABA-benzodiazepine receptor affinity. Ethanolic extracts of four of the hyraceum samples assayed positive, whereas all aqueous extracts were inactive. Qualitative TLC resolution of the ethanolic extracts shows a complex mixture of constituents, with no feature being a distinguishing pattern for all four active samples. These preliminary results are not in conflict with the traditional use of hyraceum as a treatment for epilepsy by the settlers of Gamkaskloof.

  10. Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage

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    Vyskot Boris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to this study, no differences in gene expression between male and female dioecious plants in the vegetative state had been detected. Among dioecious plants displaying sexual dimorphism, Silene latifolia is one of the most studied species. Although many sexually dimorphic traits have been described in S. latifolia, all of them are quantitative, and they usually become apparent only after the initiation of flowering. Results We present RT-PCR-based evidence that in S. latifolia, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is present long before the initiation of flowering. We describe three ESTs that show sex-specific (two male specific and one female specific transcription at the rosette stage before the first flowering season. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of early pre-flowering sexual dimorphism in angiosperms.

  11. PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesser?, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

    2012-04-01

    Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries. PMID:22805970

  12. Transport model of controlled molecular rectifier showing unusual negative differential resistance effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granhen, Ewerton Ramos; Reis, Marcos Allan Leite; Souza, Fabrício M; Del Nero, Jordan

    2010-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the charge accumulated Q in a three-terminal molecular device in the presence of an external electric field. Our approach is based on ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methodology contained in Gaussian package. Our main finding is a negative differential resistance (NDR) in the charge Q as a function of an external electric field. To explain this NDR effect we apply a phenomenological capacitive model based on a quite general system composed of many localized levels (that can be LUMOs of a molecule) coupled to source and drain. The capacitance accounts for charging effects that can result in Coulomb blockade (CB) in the transport. We show that this CB effect gives rise to a NDR for a suitable set of phenomenological parameters, like tunneling rates and charging energies. The NDR profile obtained in both ab initio and phenomenological methodologies are in close agreement. PMID:21121303

  13. Serological evidences showing the involvement of free-living pheasants in the influenza ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Donatelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1995 to 2002, 219 sera were collected in Northern Italy from wild pheasants, in order to establish the possible involvement of these Galliformes birds in the influenza ecology. A serological survey for avian influenza viruses (AIVs was carried out by ELISA test in order to detect type A influenza antibodies. The overall seroprevalence was 12.3%, with yearly values ranging from 0% to 42.5%. No antibodies against either H5 or H7 AIV subtypes were found by hemagglutination-inhibition test. Data from 16 recaptured birds, among 113 animals banded for individual identification, showed seroconversions in 2 pheasants. Our results indicate AIV circulation in free-living pheasants; the involvement of this land-based bird species in influenza ecology is discussed.

  14. Mycological study for a management plan of a neotropical show cave (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of microorganisms. The allocthonous input of organic matter and microbes into the warm Neotropical caves may favor the development of filamentous fungi, including pathogenic species. Histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic species commonly found in caves and associated with bat and bird guano. Many Brazilian caves have been historically visited due to scenic and religious tourism. The objective of this study was to perform a microbiology study for a management plan of a show cave in Brazil, focusing on the presence and distribution of pathogenic and opportunistic fungi in the cave. Statistic analysis was used to verify the influence of touristic activity on airborne fungi spore load. Fungi were isolated from air and guano in Lapa Nova Cave. Samples were obtained through serial dilution, direct and settle plate techniques. For H. capsulatum, samples were incubated in specific media and conditions. Airborne fungal spore load was compared prior and during visitation and statistically analyzed. A total of 2,575 isolates from the genera Aspergillus, Calcarisporium, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Emericella, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Mucor, Purpureocillium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were identified. Histoplasma capsulatum was not isolated from the cave. Eleven opportunistic species were identified. Significant (p<0.05 variations on fungal richness in the air occurred due to cave visitation. Areas of potential microbiologic risks were indicated and management actions suggested. The results suggest a diverse community inhabiting the cave. Possible opportunistic species should be monitored in show caves and microbiota should always be included in the elaboration of cave management plans. This is the first detailed microbiologic study for a management plan of a show cave in the country. It provides relevant information for future management plans.

  15. Partial amino acid sequence of apolipoprotein(a) shows that it is homologous to plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] is a glycoprotein with M/sub r/ ? 280,000 that is disulfide linked to apolipoprotein B in lipoprotein(a) particles. Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) are correlated with atherosclerosis. Partial amino acid sequence of apo(a) shows that it has striking homology to plasminogen. Plasminogen is a plasma serine protease zymogen that consists of five homologous and tandemly repeated domains called kringles and a trypsin-like protease domain. The amino-terminal sequence obtained for apo(a) is homologous to the beginning of kringle 4 but not the amino terminus of plasminogen. Apo(a) was subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin or V8 protease, and fragments generated were isolated and sequenced. Sequences obtained from several of these fragments are highly (77-100%) homologous to plasminogen residues 391-421, which reside within kringle 4. Analysis of these internal apo(a) sequences revealed that apo(a) may contain at least two kringle 4-like domains. A sequence obtained from another tryptic fragment also shows homology to the end of kringle 4 and the beginning of kringle 5. Sequence data obtained from the two tryptic fragments shows homology with the protease domain of plasminogen. One of these sequences is homologous to the sequences surrounding the activation site of plasminogen. Plasminogen is activated by the cleavage of a specific arginine residue by urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator; however, the corresponding site in apo( however, the corresponding site in apo(a) is a serine that would not be cleaved by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase. Using a plasmin-specific assay, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for lipoprotein(a) particles. These results suggest that apo(a) contains kringle-like domains and an inactive protease domain

  16. Establishment of a novel Chinese metastatic melanoma cell line showing the new cytogenetic and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiuli; Zhu, Guannan; Li, Yan; Liu, Ying; Luan, Qi; Dai, Wei; Wang, Lei; Liao, Wenjun; Gao, Tianwen; Li, Chunying

    2015-04-01

    Malignant melanoma remains the most life-threatening skin cancer to date. What makes it worse is the incidence keeps increasing worldwide, including in China. Notably, clinical studies revealed the distinct features in the Chinese population differing from those in Caucasians, which give hints to variant mechanisms underlying. Therefore, it is of great importance to generate a cell line with similar background for melanoma research in Chinese even Asian patients. However, most melanoma cell lines in use are derived from Caucasians, thus, we established one novel metastatic melanoma cell line, FLFMM-34, derived from a Han Chinese woman. The cell line showed positive for S100, HMB45, vimentin and melan-A. Chromosome analysis revealed multiple structural aberrations. Gene-mutation analysis identified that FLFMM-34 cells had BRAF(V600E) mutation and deletions of exon 2 and 3 in p16/CDKN2A. Importantly, two novel mutations including TP53(P33R) and TP53(R142H) have been detected. RT-PCR results showed that FLFMM-34 cells expressed a higher mRNA level of cyclinD1 than three other melanoma cell lines, WM793B, 1205Lu and A2058. In addition, in vivo mice model demonstrated that the cells could be transplanted into the subcutis of nude mice and produced tumors associated with lymphoid node metastases. In conclusion, these data indicate that FLFMM-34 cell line can be employed as a suitable model for melanoma research in Chinese Han population. PMID:25639772

  17. Exploratory behaviour in NO-dependent cyclase mutants of Drosophila shows defects in coincident neuronal signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tares Sophie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila flies explore the environment very efficiently in order to colonize it. They explore collectively, not individually, so that when a few land on a food spot, they attract the others by signs. This behaviour leads to aggregation of individuals and optimizes the screening of mates and egg-laying on the most favourable food spots. Results Flies perform cycles of exploration/aggregation depending on the resources of the environment. This behavioural ecology constitutes an excellent model for analyzing simultaneous processing of neurosensory information. We reasoned that the decision of flies to land somewhere in order to achieve aggregation is based on simultaneous integration of signals (visual, olfactory, acoustic during their flight. On the basis of what flies do in nature, we designed laboratory tests to analyze the phenomenon of neuronal coincidence. We screened many mutants of genes involved in neuronal metabolism and the synaptic machinery. Conclusion Mutants of NO-dependent cyclase show a specifically-marked behaviour phenotype, but on the other hand they are associated with moderate biochemical defects. We show that these mutants present errors in integrative and/or coincident processing of signals, which are not reducible to the functions of the peripheral sensory cells.

  18. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  19. Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

  20. Pathological Findings of Pemphigus Vulgaris Showing Giant Cobblestone-Like Conjunctival Papillae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Mari; Sugano, Akira; Murata, Ichidai; Suzuki, Tamio; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To describe the pathophysiological findings of a patient with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) showing giant conjunctival papillae. Methods A 64-year-old man who had mucosal-dominant PV with giant conjunctival papillae, resembling those of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), underwent an ophthalmological workup. The clinical and pathological findings were investigated. Results Ophthalmic interventions were unable to provide the desired beneficial effects, and multiple excisions were necessary to remove the proliferative conjunctival lesions. Histopathological investigations of the excised tissues demonstrated acantholysis and a subconjunctival infiltration with numerous inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils. However, in contrast to typical VKC, mast cells and eosinophils were rarely found in the subconjunctival tissues. Direct immunofluorescent staining showed a significant deposition of immunoglobulin G and complement component 3 in the epithelial intercellular substance, consistent with mucosal-dominant PV. Then, the patient was hospitalized because of oral erosion exacerbation and malnutrition. Because of the patient's declining general condition, we administered an increasing dose of a systemic steroid with an intravenous immunoglobulin, after which his ocular lesions and symptoms improved. Conclusions The histological conjunctival papilla findings were quite different from those of VKC papillae. If PV causes a lesion in a patient, systemic immunosuppression might be more effective than topical ophthalmic treatment because of overall immunological involvement. PMID:24163678

  1. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  2. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making. PMID:24171931

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana transgenics overexpressing IBR3 show enhanced susceptibility to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T-Y; Desclos-Theveniau, M; Chien, C-T; Zimmerli, L

    2013-09-01

    The gene, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-RESPONSE (IBR) 3, is thought to participate in peroxisomal ?-oxidation of IBA to indole-3-acetic acid. Here we show that IBR3 may also play a role in Arabidopsis thaliana defence response to microbial pathogens. IBR3 is up-regulated during infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 bacteria. Although mutant ibr3-4 did not show a pathogen phenotype, lines overexpressing IBR3 demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Increased susceptibility phenotypes of IBR3 overexpressors were correlated with defective SA defence signalling and impairment of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) activation. Notably, reactive oxygen species production was reduced in IBR3 overexpressors after treatment with the microbe-associated molecular patterns flg22 and efl26. Later PTI responses, such as accumulation of FRK1 transcripts and callose deposition were also reduced in transgenics overexpressing IBR3 after inoculation with the Type III secretion system deficient bacterial mutant Pst DC3000 hrcC or treatment with flg22 or elf26. Importantly, overexpression of IBR3 did not affect indole-3-acetic acid content or auxin-responsive gene expression. These results suggest a novel role for IBR3 in A. thaliana defence response against bacterial pathogens. PMID:23906045

  4. A new small-molecule Aurora B inhibitor shows antitumor activity in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Jie; Jiang, Chenxiao; Yang, Xianmei; Cao, Lihuan; Yu, Long

    2015-02-01

    The Aurora kinase family, as a group of serine/threonine kinases regulating cell cycles, are frequently overexpressed or amplified in human tumors. Here, we showed that the small molecule S4 could inhibit Aurora kinase in both of biochemincal and cell-based levels. The Aurora B inhibition of S4 treatment inhibited the phosphorylation of Histone H3 at serine 10 in HeLa and SMMC7721 cells. Cell proliferation assay showed that inhibition of Aurora kinase led to reduced cancer cell growth. As assessed in colony formation experiment, S4 blocked the capability of the HeLa cells to develop colonies. Subsequently, S4 treatment blocked the mitotic G2/M-G1 phase progression which is characterized by the accumulations of cells with 4 N DNA content, induced a cell cycle arrest in a pseudo G1 phase and resulted in apoptotic cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manners. Taken together, this Aurora kinase inhibitor S4 induces growth inhibition of cancer cell line. PMID:25348602

  5. [Twelve-month-old infants show social preferences for native-dialect speakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yuko; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Sachie; Itakura, Shoji

    2014-08-01

    Recent research demonstrates that social preferences for native language speakers emerge early in development, indicating that infants prefer speakers from their own society. Dialect may also be a reliable cue to group membership because it provides information about an individual's social and ethnic identity. We investigated whether infants showed social preferences toward native-dialect speakers over those with unfamiliar dialects. Infants at 9 and 12 months of age were shown videos in which two adults (a native-dialect speaker and an unfamiliar-dialect speaker) each spoke to and then offered an identical toy to the participating infants. Next, two real versions of the toys were presented to the infants in person. The 12-month-old infants preferentially reached for the toy offered by the native-dialect speaker. The 9-month-old infants also showed a preference for native-dialect speakers but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that dialects may be a reliable cue to group membership, and that infants' orientation toward members of their native community may guide their social and cultural learning. PMID:25272442

  6. Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-11

    One of the most striking outcomes of coevolution between species is egg mimicry by brood parasitic birds, resulting from rejection behavior by discriminating host parents. Yet, how exactly does a host detect a parasitic egg? Brood parasitism and egg rejection behavior provide a model system for exploring the relative importance of different visual cues used in a behavioral task. Although hosts are discriminating, we do not know exactly what cues they use, and to answer this it is crucial to account for the receiver's visual perception. Color, luminance ("perceived lightness") and pattern information have never been simultaneously quantified and experimentally tested through a bird's eye. The cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis and its hosts show spectacular polymorphisms in egg appearance, providing a good opportunity for investigating visual discrimination owing to the large range of patterns and colors involved. Here we combine field experiments in Africa with modeling of avian color vision and pattern discrimination to identify the specific visual cues used by hosts in making rejection decisions. We found that disparity between host and foreign eggs in both color and several aspects of pattern (dispersion, principal marking size, and variability in marking size) were important predictors of rejection, especially color. These cues correspond exactly to the principal differences between host and parasitic eggs, showing that hosts use the most reliable available cues in making rejection decisions, and select for parasitic eggs that are increasingly mimetic in a range of visual attributes. PMID:20421497

  7. Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Yuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamashita, Satoshi [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nakazawa@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic charge transfer salt of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br shows superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a {sup 3}He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

  8. Corrective jitter motion shows similar individual frequencies for the arm and the finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Alon, Uri; Friedman, Jason

    2015-04-01

    A characteristic of visuomotor tracking of non-regular oscillating stimuli are high-frequency jittery corrective motions, oscillating around the tracked stimuli. However, the properties of these corrective jitter responses are not well understood. For example, does the jitter response show an idiosyncratic signature? What is the relationship between stimuli properties and jitter properties? Is the jitter response similar across effectors with different inertial properties? To answer these questions, we measured participants' jitter frequencies in two tracking tasks in the arm and the finger. Thirty participants tracked the same set of eleven non-regular oscillating stimuli, vertically moving on a screen, once with forward-backward arm movements (holding a tablet stylus) and once with upward-downward index finger movements (with a motion tracker attached). Participants' jitter frequencies and tracking errors varied systematically as a function of stimuli frequency and amplitude. Additionally, there were clear individual differences in average jitter frequencies between participants, ranging from 0.7 to 1.15 Hz, similar to values reported previously. A comparison of individual jitter frequencies in the two tasks showed a strong correlation between participants' jitter frequencies in the finger and the arm, despite the very different inertial properties of the two effectors. This result suggests that the corrective jitter response stems from common neural processes. PMID:25630905

  9. Transchromosomic cell model of Down syndrome shows aberrant migration, adhesion and proteome response to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotter Finbarr E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down syndrome (DS, caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21, is the most common genetic birth defect. Congenital heart defects (CHD are seen in 40% of DS children, and >50% of all atrioventricular canal defects in infancy are caused by trisomy 21, but the causative genes remain unknown. Results Here we show that aberrant adhesion and proliferation of DS cells can be reproduced using a transchromosomic model of DS (mouse fibroblasts bearing supernumerary HSA21. We also demonstrate a deacrease of cell migration in transchromosomic cells independently of their adhesion properties. We show that cell-autonomous proteome response to the presence of Collagen VI in extracellular matrix is strongly affected by trisomy 21. Conclusion This set of experiments establishes a new model system for genetic dissection of the specific HSA21 gene-overdose contributions to aberrant cell migration, adhesion, proliferation and specific proteome response to collagen VI, cellular phenotypes linked to the pathogenesis of CHD.

  10. Paralogous cAMP receptor proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis show biochemical and functional divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritu; Zaveri, Anisha; Gopalakrishnapai, Jayashree; Srinath, Thiruneelakantan; Thiruneelakantan, Srinath; Varshney, Umesh; Visweswariah, Sandhya S

    2014-12-16

    The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) family of transcription factors consists of global regulators of bacterial gene expression. Here, we identify two paralogous CRPs in the genome of Mycobacterium smegmatis that have 78% identical sequences and characterize them biochemically and functionally. The two proteins (MSMEG_0539 and MSMEG_6189) show differences in cAMP binding affinity, trypsin sensitivity, and binding to a CRP site that we have identified upstream of the msmeg_3781 gene. MSMEG_6189 binds to the CRP site readily in the absence of cAMP, while MSMEG_0539 binds in the presence of cAMP, albeit weakly. msmeg_6189 appears to be an essential gene, while the ?msmeg_0539 strain was readily obtained. Using promoter-reporter constructs, we show that msmeg_3781 is regulated by CRP binding, and its transcription is repressed by MSMEG_6189. Our results are the first to characterize two paralogous and functional CRPs in a single bacterial genome. This gene duplication event has subsequently led to the evolution of two proteins whose biochemical differences translate to differential gene regulation, thus catering to the specific needs of the organism. PMID:25434596

  11. Computational fluid dynamics models of conifer bordered pits show how pit structure affects flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Paul J

    2012-02-01

    • The flow of xylem sap through conifer bordered pits, particularly through the pores in the pit membrane, is not well understood, but is critical for an understanding of water transport through trees. • Models solving the Navier-Stokes equation governing fluid flow were based on the geometry of bordered pits in black spruce (Picea mariana) and scanning electron microscopy images showing details of the pores in the margo of the pit membrane. • Solutions showed that the pit canals contributed a relatively small fraction of resistance to flow, whereas the torus and margo pores formed a large fraction, which depended on the structure of the individual pit. The flow through individual pores in the margo was strongly dependent on pore area, but also on the radial location of the pore with respect to the edge of the torus. • Model results suggest that only a few per cent of the pores in the margo account for nearly half of the flow and these pores tend to be located in the inner region of the margo where their contribution will be maximized. A high density of strands in outer portions of the margo (hence narrower pores) may be more significant for mechanical support of the torus. PMID:22142249

  12. BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress

  13. ? Sulphate PNA (PNA S): highly selective DNA binding molecule showing promising antigene activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Concetta; Moggio, Loredana; Malgieri, Gaetano; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs), nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. ? PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the ? position of the backbone show interesting properties in terms of secondary structure and affinity of binding toward complementary nucleic acids. In this paper we illustrate our results obtained on new analogues, bearing a sulphate in the ? position of the backbone, developed to be more DNA-like in terms of polarity and charge. The synthesis of monomers and oligomers is described. NMR studies on the conformational properties of monomers and studies on the secondary structure of single strands and triplexes are reported. Furthermore the hybrid stability and the effect of mismatches on the stability have also been investigated. Finally, the ability of the new analogue to work as antigene, interfering with the transcription of the ErbB2 gene on a human cell line overexpressing ErbB2 (SKBR3), assessed by FACS and qPCR, is described. PMID:22586450

  14. Rats with altered behaviour following nerve injury show evidence of centrally altered thyroid regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn-Watt, E; Banati, R B; Keay, K A

    2014-08-01

    The co-morbidity of mood disturbance, in a proportion of patients, is now described across a wide range of chronic disease states. Similarly, a 'Low Thyroid Syndrome' is also reported in a proportion of individuals with chronic diseases. Here, we report on central changes in an animal model of inflammatory stress in which altered social behaviour, representing social disability, persists in a sub-group of rats following injury. We showed in an earlier study that rats with social disability following injury have significantly decreased peripheral thyroid hormones, with no increase in Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). Only rats identified by behavioural change showed changes in hypothalamic gene expression. In whole hypothalamus extracted RNA, relative expression of mRNA for Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) was significantly down-regulated in disabled rats (p=0.039) and deiodinase 3 up-regulated (p=0.006) compared to controls. Specifically in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), numbers of immunoreactive cells for deiodinase 3-like and thyroid hormone receptor beta-like proteins were decreased in the sub-group with disability compared to the control group (p=0.031 and p=0.011 respectively). In rats with behavioural change post-injury, down-regulation of TRH provides an explanation for the failure of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to respond to the post-injury decrease in thyroxine. Decreased local expression of deiodinase 3 protein, resulting in a local increase in T3, offers an explanation for down regulation of TRH in the hypophysiotrophic TRH neurons. It is possible that, in a sub-group of animals identified behaviourally, a mechanism resulting in hypothalamic down-regulation of the HPT axis persists following inflammatory injury. PMID:25069097

  15. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  16. Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood John N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

  17. Combination of Pitavastatin and melatonin shows partial antineoplastic effects in a rat breast carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Orendáš, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Kružliak, Peter; Adamicová, Katarína; Pé?, Martin; Stollárová, Nadežda; Adamkov, Marián

    2014-10-01

    Our previous results indicated significant tumor-suppressive effects of different statins in rat mammary carcinogenesis. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the chemopreventive effects of Pitavastatin alone and in combination with the pineal hormone melatonin in the model of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Pitavastatin was administered dietary (10mg/kg) and melatonin in an aqueous solution (20?g/ml). Chemoprevention began 7 days prior to carcinogen administration and subsequently continued for 15 weeks until autopsy. At autopsy, mammary tumors were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Compared to controls, Pitavastatin alone reduced average tumor volume by 58% and lengthened latency by 8 days; on the other hand, the drug increased tumor frequency by 23%. Combined administration of Pitavastatin with melatonin decreased tumor frequency by 23%, tumor volume by 44% and lengthened tumor latency by 5.5 days compared to control animals. The analysis of carcinoma cells showed significant increase in caspase-3 expression in both treated groups and a tendency of increased caspase-7 expression after Pitavastatin treatment alone. Significant expression decrease of Ki67 was found in carcinoma cells from both treated groups. Compared to control carcinoma cells, Pitavastatin alone increased VEGF expression by 41%, however melatonin totally reversed its undesirable effect. Pitavastatin combined with melatonin significantly increased femur compact bone thickness in animals. Pitavastatin alone decreased plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol levels, however it significantly increased levels of glucose. In summary, our results show a partial antineoplastic effect of Pitavastatin combined with melatonin in the rat mammary gland carcinoma model. PMID:25450902

  18. Clonal myoblasts and myotubes show differences in lectin-binding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J T; Akeson, R A

    1983-04-15

    To determine changes in distribution or mobility of cell-surface glycoconjugates during myogenesis the binding of fluorescein-conjugated plant lectins to myoblasts and myotubes of the L6 rat skeletal muscle cell line has been studied. Binding has been carried out at 4 degrees C on either live or glutaraldehyde-fixed cells. Fluorescein conjugates of soybean agglutinin (Fl-SBA), wheat germ agglutinin (Fl-WGA), concanavalin A (Fl-conA) and Lens culinaris agglutinin (Fl-LCA) produced predominantly uniform fluorescence on both live and fixed myoblasts. On fixed myotubes, Fl-LCA, Fl-conA and Fl-SBA again produced predominantly uniform fluorescence, whereas Fl-WGA showed a pattern of diffuse, irregular spots in addition to uniform fluorescence. Fl-conA, Fl-LCA and Fl-WGA binding to live myotubes resulted in patterns quite similar to those on fixed myotubes; the only differences being the presence of weak patterns of diffuse spots with Fl-LCA and Fl-conA and an enhanced pattern of diffuse spots with Fl-WGA. Fl-SBA, however, showed a unique pattern on live myotubes which consisted of discrete, round spots and minimal uniform fluorescence. With shorter labeling times, Fl-SBA produced relatively more prominent uniform fluorescence on live myotubes. It appears, therefore, that the native distribution of SBA, conA and LCA-binding sites is similar and predominantly random on L6 myoblasts and myotubes, whereas some WGA-binding sites may be aggregated on myotubes. The results also suggest that SBA-binding sites readily cluster at 4 degrees C on myotubes but not myoblasts, whereas the other lectin sites undergo little or no redistribution on either cell type. Thus the mobility of SBA-binding sites may increase with differentiation. PMID:6852121

  19. Gefitinib (IRESSA sensitive lung cancer cell lines show phosphorylation of Akt without ligand stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minegishi Yuji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of gefitinib (IRESSA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC lend support to the need for improved patient selection in terms of gefitinib use. Mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene is reported to be associated with clinical responsiveness to gefitinib. However, gefitinib-sensitive and prolonged stable-disease-defined tumors without EGFR gene mutation have also been reported. Methods To identify other key factors involved in gefitinib sensitivity, we analyzed the protein expression of molecules within the EGFR family, PI3K-Akt and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways and examined the sensitivity to gefitinib using the MTT cell proliferation assay in 23 lung cancer cell lines. Results We identified one highly sensitive cell line (PC9, eight cell lines displaying intermediate-sensitivity, and 14 resistant cell lines. Only PC9 and PC14 (intermediate-sensitivity displayed an EGFR gene mutation including amplification. Eight out of the nine cell lines showing sensitivity had Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation, while only three out of the 14 resistant lines displayed this characteristic (P = 0.0059. Furthermore, the ratio of phosphor-Akt/total Akt in sensitive cells was higher than that observed in resistant cells (P = 0.0016. Akt phosphorylation was partially inhibited by gefitinib in all sensitive cell lines. Conclusion These results suggest that Akt phosphorylation without ligand stimulation may play a key signaling role in gefitinib sensitivity, especially intermediate-sensitivity. In addition, expression analyses of the EGFR family, EGFR gene mutation, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed that the phosphorylated state of EGFR and Akt might be a useful clinical marker of Akt activation without ligand stimulation, in addition to EGFR gene mutation and amplification, particularly in adenocarcinomas.

  20. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane permeability of the fungal membranes. Conclusion A berry specific cDNA clone, Vv-AMP1, was isolated and characterized and shown to encode a plant defensin. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 displayed non-morphogenic antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of fungi, probably altering the membrane permeability of the fungal pathogens. The expression of this peptide is highly regulated in Vitis vinifera, hinting at an important defense role during berry-ripening.

  1. PET amyloid ligand [11C]PIB uptake shows predominantly striatal increase in variant Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, J; Verkkoniemi, A; Aalto, S; Paetau, A; Ahonen, J-P; Viitanen, M; Någren, K; Rokka, J; Haaparanta, M; Kalimo, H; Rinne, J O

    2008-07-01

    Variant Alzheimer's disease (VarAD) with spastic paraparesis and presenile dementia is associated with certain mutations of the presenilin 1 (PS-1) gene, particularly those leading to deletion of exon 9 (PS-1Delta E9). VarAD is neuropathologically characterized by the presence of unusually large, Abeta42 positive, non-cored 'cotton wool' plaques (CWPs), also devoid of dystrophic neurites. The aim of the present study was to find out whether [(11)C]PIB would show increased uptake and serve as an in vivo biomarker of amyloid accumulation in VarAD. A further aim was to assess the correspondence of the [(11)C]PIB binding to the amount and type of Abeta deposits in another group of deceased VarAD patients' brains. We studied four patients with VarAD and eight healthy controls with PET using [(11)C]PIB as tracer. Parametric images were computed by calculating the region-to-cerebellum and region-to-pons ratio in each voxel over 60-90 min. Group differences in [(11)C]PIB uptake were analysed with automated region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. [(11)C]PIB uptake was compared to the immunohistochemically demonstrated deposition of Abeta in the brains of another group of four deceased VarAD patients. Patients with VarAD had significantly higher [(11)C] PIB uptake than the control group in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex and thalamus. In the caudate and putamen [(11)C]PIB uptake, expressed as region-to-cerebellum ratio, was on the average 43% greater than the mean of the control group. The increases in the anterior (28%) and posterior (27%) cingulate gyrus, occipital cortex (21%) and thalamus (14%) were smaller. All VarAD patients showed this similar topographical pattern of increased [(11)C]PIB uptake. The results were essentially similar when the uptake was expressed as region-to-pons ratios. [(11)C]PIB imaging shows increased uptake in patients with VarAD especially in the striatum, and it can be used to detect amyloid accumulation in vivo in these patients. The pattern of increased [(11)C]PIB uptake is different from that described in sporadic Alzheimer's disease and resembles that seen in Alzheimer's disease patients with certain presenilin-1 mutations or amyloid precursor protein gene duplication showing predominantly striatal increase in [(11)C]PIB uptake. PMID:18583368

  2. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mountcastle, A M [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Concord Field Station, Bedford, MA 01730 (United States); Daniel, T L, E-mail: mtcastle@u.washington.ed [Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  3. Relaxin-3-deficient mice showed slight alteration in anxiety-related behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MasakiTanaka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide belonging to the relaxin/insulin superfamily. Studies using rodents have revealed that relaxin-3 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the nucleus incertus of the pons, the axons of which project to forebrain regions including the hypothalamus. There is evidence that relaxin-3 is involved in several functions, including food intake and stress responses. In the present study, we generated relaxin-3 gene knockout (KO mice and examined them using a range of behavioral tests of sensory/motor functions and emotion-related behaviors. The results revealed that relaxin-3 KO mice exhibited normal growth and appearance, and were generally indistinguishable from wild genotype littermates. There was no difference in bodyweight among genotypes until at least 28 weeks after birth. In addition, there were no significant differences between wild-type and KO mice in locomotor activity, social interaction, hot plate test performance, fear conditioning, depression-like behavior, and Y-maze test performance. However, in the elevated plus maze test, KO mice exhibited a robust increase in the tendency to enter open arms, although they exhibited normal performance in a light/dark transition test and showed no difference from wild-type mice in the time spent in central area in the open field test. On the other hand, a significant increase in the acoustic startle response was observed in KO mice. These results indicate that relaxin-3 is slightly involved in the anxiety-related behavior.

  4. Characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of motile aeromonads isolated from freshwater ornamental fish showing signs of septicaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, S S S de S; Wijewardana, T G; Arulkanthan, A; Igarashi, Y; Tan, E; Kinoshita, S; Watabe, S; Asakawa, S

    2014-05-13

    A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ?3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host. PMID:24991740

  5. Endodontic therapy of maxillary second molar showing an unusual internal anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fontana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge of the complex anatomy of maxillary molars and location of extra canals are essential for diagnosis and endodontic treatment success. Objective: The purpose of this study was to report a clinical case showing a varying number of palatal roots in a second maxillary molar with the aid of operating microscope (OM. Case report: A four-rooted maxillary permanent second molar with 2 separated palatal canals undergone endodontic therapy. After endodontic access, examination of the chamber floor using an operating microscope revealed two distinct palatal canals orifices. A radiograph was taken after the working lengths of each canal were estimated by means of an electronic apex locator which clearly identified the four roots with independent four canals. The canals were instrumented with ProTaper™ rotatory instruments under irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite, obturated with Pulp Canal Sealer® and continue wave technique. After completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Results: After endodontic access, the presence of two different palatal canals was found in a second maxillary molar, resulting from a variation in the number of palatal roots of this tooth. Conclusion: The high magnification and clear illumination quality provided by the dental operating microscope increase endodontic treatment success of the variations in the internal anatomy of the tooth.

  6. Chronic myelogenous leukemia accompanied by megaloblastic anemia showing atypical clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiso, Hiromi; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Shimano, Shun-ichi; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2011-11-01

    Leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and an increased vitamin B(12) level are characteristic findings of chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP). Here, we report a patient with CML-CP accompanied by megaloblastic anemia. A 61-year-old man consulted our hospital because of anemia and thrombocytopenia. On physical examination, there were no remarkable findings; there was no hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory findings were: hemoglobin 6.0 g/dl; MCV 113.6 fl; platelet count 100×10(9)/l; white cell count 8.66×10(9)/l; and LDH 1,236 IU/l. Peripheral blood smear demonstrated hypersegmented neutrophils and megalocytes with emergence of myeloblasts, giant metamyelocytes, and nucleated red cells. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid levels were low. Bone marrow examination showed megaloblastic change in the erythroblasts and myeloid hyperplasia. Following vitamin B(12) and folic acid administration, anemia and thrombocytopenia rapidly improved; thereafter, marked leukocytosis became evident. Based on the presence of t(9;22)(q34;q11) on cytogenetic study and a positive result for Major bcr/abl fusion gene, a diagnosis of CML-CP was established. This case illustrates that ineffective erythropoiesis results in anemia and thrombocytopenia in CML with vitamin B12 and/or folic acid deficiency. PMID:22185800

  7. Lead-iodide nanowire perovskite with methylviologen showing interfacial charge-transfer absorption: a DFT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Giorgi, Giacomo

    2014-09-01

    Methylviologen lead-iodide perovskite (MVPb2I6) is a self-assembled one-dimensional (1-D) material consisting of lead-iodide nanowires and intervening organic electron-accepting molecules, methylviologen (MV(2+)). MVPb2I6 characteristically shows optical interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions from the lead-iodide nanowire to MV(2+) in the visible region and unique ambipolar photoconductivity, in which electrons are transported through the three-dimensional (3-D) organic network and holes along the 1-D lead-iodide nanowire. In this work, we theoretically study the electronic band-structure and photocarrier properties of MVPb2I6 by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results clearly confirm the experimentally reported type-II band alignment, whose valence band mainly consists of 5p (I) orbitals of the lead-iodide nanowires and the conduction band of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of MV(2+). The DFT calculation also reveals weak charge-transfer interactions between the lead-iodide nanowires and MV(2+). In addition, the electronic distributions of the valence and conduction bands indicate the 3-D transport of electrons and 1-D transport of holes, supporting the reported experimental result. PMID:25050419

  8. Akt shows variable sensitivity to an Hsp90 inhibitor depending on cell context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsp90 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy based on their ability to promote proteasomal degradation of oncogenic protein kinases and nuclear receptors. Results from recent studies suggest that cancer cells are more sensitive to these inhibitors than cells from healthy tissues. We analyzed an immortalized cell line Ba/F3 for sensitivity to the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin in the absence and presence of the oncogenic tyrosine fusion kinase NPM-ALK expressed from a retroviral vector. Our results showed that NPM-ALK expression makes Akt and Cdk4 more resistant to degradation in the presence of geldanamycin, and there was a slightly reduced amount of apoptosis. The mechanism underlying the effect of NPM-ALK on Akt stability was probed by comparison of the turnover of the kinase after translation inhibition and geldanamycin treatment. We observed that Akt was degraded more rapidly in the presence of GA than upon translation inhibition without NPM-ALK expression. This suggests that NPM-ALK protects the mature kinase. Furthermore, Akt failed to bind to the Cdc37 chaperone in cells expressing NPM-ALK, which also correlates with increased Akt stability

  9. Characterization of indium-tin oxide sputtering targets showing various densities of nodule formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) target materials for direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, showing various rates of nodule formation, were subjected to analyses of lattice parameter, relative density, electrical properties, optical absorption spectra in 0.5-5 eV and oxygen deficiency, ?, in (In0.905Sn0.095)2O3+x-?. The ? value was evaluated by heating the sample powders in a closed-system oxygen analyzer involving a solid electrolyte and analyzing their oxygen uptake rate from the Ar + O2 circulating gas. The oxygen uptake by the powders started at approximately 623 K, and the successive oxygen release took place at higher temperatures than 823 K. For each sample, the lattice parameter monotonically decreased with the amount of oxygen absorbed, much like energy absorption maximum at approximately 1 eV. Among all the samples, energy absorption maximum at approximately 1 eV decreased linearly with decreasing conduction electron density, n. The correlations of ? with conduction electron density and relative density were not good, compared with that with lattice parameter. These results have implied that, for the samples with relative density higher than 99.5%, locally inhomogeneous conduction electron density, due to local deviation from the uniform distributions of tin ion and oxygen vacancy, increased the rate of nodule formation. A convenient manner for detecting the target quality has beer detecting the target quality has been suggested based on the experimental results

  10. ISSR markers show differentiation among Italian populations of Asparagus acutifolius L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudio Luciano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asparagus acutifolius L. is a dioecious and native plant species, widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. It is known for its fine flavour and could represent an important resource for cultivation programs in desert areas. Few molecular studies have been performed on this species. In the present paper, the ISSR technique was employed to study genetic diversity in Italian A. acutifolius. Results Twenty-three primers produced a total of 228 polymorphic fragments used to evaluate genetic variation. FST (0.4561 and Theta B (0.4776 values indicate a wide genetic variation among the samples examined. The distance UPGMA tree grouped together the genotypes strictly according to their geographical origin, showing that each sample is genetically structured and can be considered a distinct population. AMOVA analysis further confirmed genetic structuring of the populations. Population-specific fragments were also detected. Conclusion The results suggest that ISSR markers are useful in distinguishing the populations of A. acutifolius according to geographical origin, and confirm the importance of genetic studies for designing germplasm conservation strategies.

  11. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between and within subpopulations were analysed in three periods of time to describe changes in genetic connectedness between subpopulations. A decline in GS (0.97–0.45), GC0.5 (0.69–0.13) and r (0.018–0.014) in the recent years was observed. Both subpopulations have a common genetic pool; however, if the specialisation process continues, it will result in two unrelated (genetic) groups.

  12. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  13. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  14. Perception And Preferences Of People Regarding Reality Shows – A Study In Navsari City Of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirhusen Patel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising popularity of the reality shows on Indian television has added a new dimension to the production of TV programs. Most of the television shows which are being telecast nowadays are reality shows specializing in dancing, singing, and acting. Today's reality shows are rewriting our cultural scripts, altering our perception, our social relationships and our relationships to the natural world. In this descriptive study, the researcher has found that people are really fond of watching reality shows which range from cookery to talent hunt and comedy show types. Majority of the respondents, however, felt that these types of shows are often scripted for increasing TRPs and increasing financial and commercial success. Major drivers for watching reality shows are break from routine, controversies, glamour and entertainment. However, most of the people were not still holding any views whether such types of reality shows make any sort of impact on the society.

  15. Pathobiochemical, hematological and immunological findings in pigs with an acute radiation syndrome showing only a few clinical symptoms. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute radiation syndrome showing only a few clinical symptoms was examined using biochemical tests. Store pigs received a whole-body irradiation of 2 Gy (200 rad). 11 biochemical tests were used for plasma and the whole blood. Activity changes were observed in the enzymes ALD, LDH, GOT and CPK after irradiation. The results show that despite of only a few clinical symptoms of the radiation syndrome considerable enzyme changes reveal individually differing radiation effects. (author)

  16. Atomic force microscopy shows connexin26 hemichannel clustering in purified membrane fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, Brian; Ambrosi, Cinzia; Barnard, Heather; Arce, Fernando Teran; Sosinsky, Gina E; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-12-01

    Connexin proteins form hexameric assemblies known as hemichannels. When docked to form gap junction (GJ) channels, hemichannels play a critical role in cell-cell communication and cellular homeostasis, but often are functional entities on their own in unapposed cell membranes. Defects in the Connexin26 (Cx26) gene are the major cause of hereditary deafness arising from dysfunctional hemichannels in the cochlea. Structural studies of Cx26 hemichannels properly trafficked and inserted in plasma membranes, including their clustering that forms a plaque-like feature in whole gap junctions, are limited. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface topography of Cx26 hemichannels using two different membrane preparations. Rat Cx26 containing appended carboxy terminal V5 and hexahistidine tags were expressed in baculovirus/Sf9 cell systems. The expressed Cx26 proteins form hemichannels in situ in Sf9 cells that were then purified either as (1) Sf9 membrane fragments containing Cx26 hemichannels or (2) solubilized hemichannels. The latter were subsequently reconstituted in liposomes. AFM images of purified membrane fragments showed clusters of protein macromolecular structures in the membrane that at higher magnification corresponded to Cx26 hemichannels. Hemichannels reconstituted into DOPC bilayers displayed two populations of channel heights likely resulting from differences in orientations of inserted hemichannels. Hemichannels in the protein rich portions of purified membranes also showed a reduced channel height above the bilayer compared to membranes with reconstituted hemichannels perhaps due to reduced AFM probe access to the lipid bilayer. These preparations of purified membranes enriched for connexin hemichannels that have been properly trafficked and inserted in membranes provide a platform for high-resolution AFM imaging of the structure, interconnexon interactions, and cooperativity of properly trafficked and inserted noncrystalline connexin hemichannels. PMID:25365227

  17. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voeten Helene ACM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be addressed through income-generating activities.

  18. Mannosylerythritol lipid, a yeast extracellular glycolipid, shows high binding affinity towards human immunoglobulin G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikegami Toru

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many attempts to develop new materials with stability and high affinity towards immunoglobulins. Some of glycolipids such as gangliosides exhibit a high affinity toward immunoglobulins. However, it is considerably difficult to develop these glycolipids into the practical separation ligand due to their limited amounts. We thus focused our attention on the feasible use of "mannosylerythritol lipid A", a yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, as an alternative ligand for immunoglobulins, and undertook the investigation on the binding between mannosylerythritol lipid A (MEL-A and human immunoglobulin G (HIgG. Results In ELISA assay, MEL-A showed nearly the same binding affinity towards HIgG as that of bovine ganglioside GM1. Fab of human IgG was considered to play a more important role than Fc in the binding of HIgG by MEL-A. The bound amount of HIgG increased depending on the attached amount of MEL-A onto poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (polyHEMA beads, whereas the amount of human serum albumin slightly decreased. Binding-amount and -selectivity of HIgG towards MEL-A were influenced by salt species, salt concentration and pH in the buffer solution. The composite of MEL-A and polyHEMA, exhibited a significant binding constant of 1.43 × 106 (M-1 for HIgG, which is approximately 4-fold greater than that of protein A reported. Conclusions MEL-A shows high binding-affinity towards HIgG, and this is considered to be due to "multivalent effect" based on the binding molar ratio. This is the first report on the binding of a natural human antibody towards a yeast glycolipid.

  19. Monocytes of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia show alterations in cholesterol metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Muhidien

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma cholesterol promotes the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in which monocyte-derived lipid-laden macrophages are frequently found. To analyze, if circulating monocytes already show increased lipid content and differences in lipoprotein metabolism, we compared monocytes from patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH with those from healthy individuals. Methods Cholesterol and oxidized cholesterol metabolite serum levels of FH and of healthy, gender/age matched control subjects were measured by combined gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy. Monocytes from patients with FH and from healthy subjects were isolated by antibody-assisted density centrifugation. Gene expression profiles of isolated monocytes were measured using Affymetrix HG-U 133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. We compared monocyte gene expression profiles from FH patients with healthy controls using a Welch T-test with correction for multiple testing (p Results Using microarray analysis we found in FH patients a significant up-regulation of 1,617 genes and a down-regulation of 701 genes compared to monocytes from healthy individuals. These include genes of proteins that are involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, disposition, and cellular efflux of cholesterol. In addition, plasma from FH patients contains elevated amounts of sterols and oxysterols. An increased uptake of oxidized as well as of native LDL by FH monocytes combined with a down-regulation of NPC1 and ABCA1 explains the lipid accumulation observed in these cells. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that circulating FH monocytes show differences in cell physiology that may contribute to the early onset of atherosclerosis in this disease.

  20. Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, G; Madsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH subpopulations of the current generation. The material comprised horses that participated in the studbook entry inspections between 2005 and 2010. KWPN is registering jumping and dressage horses using different codes since 2005. Ancestors were traced back as far as possible in the pedigree to define the base generation. Subsequently the base generation was divided into 3 base groups, according to having only descendants in JH, in DH or in both subpopulations. Subsequently, the genetic contribution of the 3 base groups to the subpopulations was estimated. DMUTRACE software was used to make the pedigrees files and to calculate the genetic contributions. The base generation comprised 8205 horses, 2 857 only had descendants in JH, 1893 only in DH and 3455 in both subpopulations. The latter base-group also had the largest contributions to both subpopulations: 92.6% to JH and 96.0% to DH. The “specialist” base groups had smaller genetic contributions but 47.8% of horses in JH and 34.1% in DH receive genes from them. Observed by year of birth, the number of horses that received genes from specialist groups increased from 39.8 to 56.0 % in JH and from 31.9 to 39.5 % in DH. Results from this study show that JH and DH subpopulations have a large part of their genetic base in common. However, an increasing percentage of animals receive genetic contributions from “specialist” genetic groups within the genetic base. This trend is more profound in the jumping discipline.

  1. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with potentially important consequences for second language acquisition and related fields. PMID:22470434

  2. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metscher Brian D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.. We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole tissue samples. We demonstrate the method on selected invertebrate and vertebrate specimens, and propose that reinvestigation of historical serial section material may be regarded as a special benefit.

  3. De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gahlan Parul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature. The transcriptome information of this species is limited with the availability of few hundreds of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the public databases. In order to gain insight into temperature mediated molecular changes, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and analyses were carried out at 15°C and 25°C, the temperatures known to modulate picrosides content. Results Using paired-end (PE Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 20,593,412 and 44,229,272 PE reads were obtained after quality filtering for 15°C and 25°C, respectively. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 74,336 assembled transcript sequences were obtained, with an average coverage of 76.6 and average length of 439.5. Guanine-cytosine (GC content was observed to be 44.6%, while the transcriptome exhibited abundance of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 45.63% markers. Large scale expression profiling through "read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM", showed changes in several biological processes and metabolic pathways including cytochrome P450s (CYPs, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs and those associated with picrosides biosynthesis. RPKM data were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of 19 genes, wherein 11 genes behaved in accordance with the two expression methods. Conclusions Study generated transcriptome of P. kurrooa at two different temperatures. Large scale expression profiling through RPKM showed major transcriptome changes in response to temperature reflecting alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways, and provided insight of GC content and SSR markers. Analysis also identified putative CYPs and UGTs that could help in discovering the hitherto unknown genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis.

  4. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors.

  5. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine; Munoz-cuevas, M.; Jonge, R.; Rosenkrantz, J. T.; Lo?fstro?m, Charlotta; Aarts, H.; Olsen, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non-replicating stationary phase cells of S. Typhimurium caused by the exposure to 45°C and to pH 5 for 30 min was monitored by microarray hybridizations at the end of the treatment period as well as immediatel...

  6. 77 FR 43517 - Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...associated with an air show and associated pyrotechnics, which are discussed further below...2012, an air show with associated pyrotechnics will be held over Lake Winnebago in...acrobatic maneuvers with associated pyrotechnics proximate to a gathering of...

  7. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition. PMID:25774127

  8. Characterization of indium-tin oxide sputtering targets showing various densities of nodule formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omata, Takahisa [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: omata@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kita, Masao [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Okada, Hideya [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuka-Yao-Matsuo, Shinya [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Ono, Naoki [Electronics Materials Sector, Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd, 2081 Tohsen, Ohmuta 836-0003 (Japan); Ikawa, Hiroyuki [Department Applied Chemistry, Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 1030 Shimo-Ogino, Atsugi 243-0292 (Japan)

    2006-05-01

    Eight Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) target materials for direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, showing various rates of nodule formation, were subjected to analyses of lattice parameter, relative density, electrical properties, optical absorption spectra in 0.5-5 eV and oxygen deficiency, {delta}, in (In{sub 0.905}Sn{sub 0.095}){sub 2}O{sub 3+x-{delta}}. The {delta} value was evaluated by heating the sample powders in a closed-system oxygen analyzer involving a solid electrolyte and analyzing their oxygen uptake rate from the Ar + O{sub 2} circulating gas. The oxygen uptake by the powders started at approximately 623 K, and the successive oxygen release took place at higher temperatures than 823 K. For each sample, the lattice parameter monotonically decreased with the amount of oxygen absorbed, much like energy absorption maximum at approximately 1 eV. Among all the samples, energy absorption maximum at approximately 1 eV decreased linearly with decreasing conduction electron density, n. The correlations of {delta} with conduction electron density and relative density were not good, compared with that with lattice parameter. These results have implied that, for the samples with relative density higher than 99.5%, locally inhomogeneous conduction electron density, due to local deviation from the uniform distributions of tin ion and oxygen vacancy, increased the rate of nodule formation. A convenient manner for detecting the target quality has been suggested based on the experimental results.

  9. Male carriers of the FMR1 premutation show altered hippocampal-prefrontal function during memory encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnMWang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous functional MRI (fMRI studies have shown that fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 premutation allele carriers (FXPCs exhibit decreased hippocampal activation during a recall task and lower inferior frontal activation during a working memory task compared to matched controls. The molecular characteristics of FXPCs includes 55 to 200 CGG trinucleoutide expansions, increased FMR1 mRNA levels, and decreased FMRP levels especially at higher repeat sizes. In the current study, we utilized MRI to examine differences in hippocampal volume and function during an encoding task in young male FXPCs. While no decreases in either hippocampal volume or hippocampal activity were observed during the encoding task in FXPCs, FMRP level (measured in blood correlated with decreases in parahippocampal activation. In addition, activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during correctly encoded trials correlated negatively with mRNA levels. These results, as well as the established biological effects associated with elevated mRNA levels and decreased FMRP levels on dendritic maturation and axonal growth, prompted us to explore functional connectivity between the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus using a psychophysiological interaction analysis. In FXPCs, the right hippocampus evinced significantly lower connectivity with right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and right parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, the weaker connectivity between the right hippocampus and VLPFC was associated with reduced FMRP in the FXPC group. These results suggest that while FXPCs show relatively typical brain response during encoding, faulty connectivity between frontal and hippocampal regions may have subsequent effects on recall and working memory.

  10. Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kang-Jian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system.

  11. Perception And Preferences Of People Regarding Reality Shows – A Study In Navsari City Of Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Zakirhusen Patel; Mihir Soni

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of the reality shows on Indian television has added a new dimension to the production of TV programs. Most of the television shows which are being telecast nowadays are reality shows specializing in dancing, singing, and acting. Today's reality shows are rewriting our cultural scripts, altering our perception, our social relationships and our relationships to the natural world. In this descriptive study, the researcher has found that people are really fond of watching re...

  12. "Power/Knowledge" and the Educational Experiences and Expectations of Australian Show People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick Alan; Danaher, Geoffrey Radcliffe

    2000-01-01

    Uses semi-structured interviews with Australian show people, children and adults, and their home tutors and teachers to show how the Traveller people's dissatisfaction with the learning opportunities available in the past has fueled their determination to have a separate school for show children. (SLD)

  13. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools predicated on assumptions of…

  14. Dating of processes in karst and caves implication for show caves prezentation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bosák, Pavel

    Liptovský Mikuláš : International Show Caves Association, 2011 - (Bella, P.; Gažík, P.), s. 34-41 ISBN 978-80-89310-59-3. [Congress International Show Caves Association /6./. Demänovská Valley (SK), 18.10.2010-23.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : karst * speleogenesis * karst sediments * dating methods * geochronology * show caves Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangj@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fu, Wei [School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xi, Junhua [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); He, Hong [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhao, Shichao; Lu, Hongwei [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •N doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods were obtained by a hydrothermal route. •N doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity. •Doped nitrogen replaces surface saturated O{sub 3c} is considered to be the cause. -- Abstract: Different from many works which focus on doping to improve the visible light absorption and the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}, this work finds that the N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods have tunable photocatalytic selectivity. This finding was confirmed by the photo-degradation of azo dyes. Results reveal that pure rutile TiO{sub 2} mainly exhibit no selectivity in the photocatalytic degradation of a methylene blue and methyl orange (MO) mixed solution, whereas N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} exhibits photocatalytic selectivity for MO. N doping has been shown to greatly change the surface state than the energy band structure of TiO{sub 2}. In a deeper analysis, some doped N atoms replace surface saturated O{sub 3c} on the {1 1 0} facets of rutile TiO{sub 2} and act as unsaturated N{sub 3c}, which enhances adsorbent selectivity and relevant photocatalytic activity of MO. This research hopes that by providing a deeper understanding of non-metal doping in TiO{sub 2}, a new strategy for photocatalytic selectivity can be developed.

  16. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows surface structure changes in carvacrol-treated bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Storia, Antonietta; Ercolini, Danilo; Marinello, Francesco; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Villani, Francesco; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Carvacrol is a major component in some essential oils such as oregano and thyme and its inhibitory effect on the growth of various microorganisms is well documented. However, the active mechanism of carvacrol, as well as that of other essential oil components, has not yet been fully established and has generally not been well investigated. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-related bacterial strains was preliminarily verified and the effect of carvacrol on their cell envelope was further investigated by atomic force microscopy analysis. The atomic force microscopy images of the cells treated with carvacrol 3.3 mM for 1 h were analyzed by an appropriate software in order to visualize the effect of the treatment and to determine the values of cell surface roughness and some biometric parameters (cell length and width). The results showed that all microorganisms tested were sensitive to carvacrol both in solid and liquid media. Furthermore, images of cells of all strains treated with carvacrol exhibited appreciable modifications, indicating a change in cell surface structure. Finally, both length and diameter of the microorganisms decreased after contact with carvacrol. PMID:21168481

  17. Chimeric, mutant orexin receptors show key interactions between orexin receptors, peptides and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Da-Thao; Bonaventure, Pascal; Hack, Michael; Mirzadegan, Taraneh; Dvorak, Curt; Letavic, Michael; Carruthers, Nicholas; Lovenberg, Timothy; Sutton, Steven W

    2011-09-30

    Orexin receptor antagonists are being investigated as therapeutic agents for insomnia and addictive disorders. In this study the interactions between the orexin receptors (orexin 1 receptor and orexin 2 receptor), orexin peptides, and small molecule orexin antagonists were explored. To study these phenomena, a variety of mutant orexin receptors was made and tested using receptor binding and functional assays. Domains of the two orexin receptors were exchanged to show the critical ligand binding domains for orexin peptides and representative selective orexin receptor antagonists. Results from domain exchanges between the orexin receptors suggest that transmembrane domain 3 is crucially important for receptor interactions with small molecule antagonists. These data also suggest that the orexin peptides occupy a larger footprint, interacting with transmembrane domain 1, the amino terminus and transmembrane domain 5 as well as transmembrane domain 3. Transmembrane domain 3 has been shown to be an important part of the small molecule binding pocket common to rhodopsin and ?2-adrenergic receptors. Additional orexin receptor 2 point mutations were made based on the common arrangement of receptor transmembrane domains shown in the G-protein coupled receptor crystal structure literature and the impact of orexin 2 receptor residue threonine 135 on the ligand selectivity of the 2 orexin receptors. These data support a model of the orexin receptor binding pocket in which transmembrane domains 3 and 5 are prominent contributors to ligand binding and functional activity. The data also illustrate key contact points for ligand interactions in the consensus small molecule pocket of these receptors. PMID:21679703

  18. Satellite III non-coding RNAs show distinct and stress-specific patterns of induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Sonali, E-mail: sonalis@iitk.ac.in [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Parihar, Rashmi [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Ganesh, Subramaniam, E-mail: sganesh@iitk.ac.in [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2009-04-24

    The heat shock response in human cells is associated with the transcription of satellite III repeats (SatIII) located in the 9q12 locus. Upon induction, the SatIII transcripts remain associated with the locus and recruit several transcription and splicing factors to form the nuclear stress bodies (nSBs). The nSBs are thought to modulate epigenetic changes during the heat shock response. We demonstrate here that the nSBs are induced by a variety of stressors and show stress-specific patterns of induction. While the transcription factor HSF1 is required for the induction of SatIII locus by the stressors tested, its specific role in the transcriptional process appears to be stress dependent. Our results suggest the existence of multiple transcriptional loci for the SatIII transcripts and that their activation might depend upon the type of stressors. Thus, induction of SatIII transcripts appears to be a generic response to a variety of stress conditions.

  19. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-Jing; Zou, Ji-Li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-Wei; Wu, Jin-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1-5?mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

  20. A variant in FTO shows association with melanoma risk not due to BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Mark M; Law, Matthew H; Stacey, Simon N; Han, Jiali; Fang, Shenying; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Harland, Mark; MacGregor, Stuart; Taylor, John C; Aben, Katja K; Akslen, Lars A; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Bakker, Bert; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Bergman, Wilma; Scarrà, Giovanna Bianchi; Brown, Kevin M; Calista, Donato; Chaudru, Valerié; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Cust, Anne E; Demenais, Florence; de Waal, Anne C; D?bniak, Tadeusz; Elder, David E; Friedman, Eitan; Galan, Pilar; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Goldstein, Alisa M; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hansson, Johan; Helsing, Per; Ho?evar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; Hopper, John L; Ingvar, Christian; Janssen, Marjolein; Jenkins, Mark A; Kanetsky, Peter A; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G Mark; Leachman, Sancy; Lee, Jeffrey E; Lubi?ski, Jan; Mackie, Rona M; Mann, Graham J; Mayordomo, Jose I; Molven, Anders; Mulder, Suzanne; Nagore, Eduardo; Novakovi?, Srdjan; Okamoto, Ichiro; Olafsson, Jon H; Olsson, Håkan; Pehamberger, Hubert; Peris, Ketty; Grasa, Maria Pilar; Planelles, Dolores; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Randerson-Moor, Juliette; Requena, Celia; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Santinami, Mario; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Snowden, Helen; Song, Fengju; Sulem, Patrick; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Tuominen, Rainer; Van Belle, Patricia; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Rossum, Michelle M; Wei, Qingyi; Wendt, Judith; Zelenika, Diana; Zhang, Mingfeng; Landi, Maria Teresa; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Bishop, D Timothy; Amos, Christopher I; Hayward, Nicholas K; Stefansson, Kari; Bishop, Julia A Newton; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of an association study of melanoma based on the genome-wide imputation of the genotypes of 1,353 cases and 3,566 controls of European origin conducted by the GenoMEL consortium. This revealed a novel association between several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 8 of the FTO gene, including rs16953002, which replicated using 12,313 cases and 55,667 controls of European ancestry from Europe, the USA and Australia (combined p=3.6×10?12, per-allele OR for A=1.16). As well as identifying a novel melanoma susceptibility locus, this is the first study to identify and replicate an association with SNPs in FTO not related to body mass index (BMI). These SNPs are not in intron 1 (the BMI-related region) and show no association with BMI. This suggests FTO’s function may be broader than the existing paradigm that FTO variants influence multiple traits only through their associations with BMI and obesity. PMID:23455637

  1. Refolded scFv Antibody Fragment against Myoglobin Shows Rapid Reaction Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Nam Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the VH–VL sequence with a (Gly4Ser3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10?4 M?1·s?1 and 6.29 × 10?3 s?1, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 107 M?1 (kon/koff, maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor.

  2. Refolded scFv antibody fragment against myoglobin shows rapid reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Jun-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Wan; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Park, Sung-Goo; Lee, Myung Kyu; Paek, Se-Hwan; Woo, Eui-Jeon

    2014-01-01

    Myoglobin is one of the early biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction. Recently, we have screened an antibody with unique rapid reaction kinetics toward human myoglobin antigen. Antibodies with rapid reaction kinetics are thought to be an early IgG form produced during early stage of in vivo immunization. We produced a recombinant scFv fragment for the premature antibody from Escherichia coli using refolding technology. The scFv gene was constructed by connection of the V(H)-V(L) sequence with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The scFv fragment without the pelB leader sequence was expressed at a high level, but the solubility was extremely low. A high concentration of 8 M urea was used for denaturation. The dilution refolding process in the presence of arginine and the redox reagents GSH and GSSH successfully produced a soluble scFv protein. The resultant refolded scFv protein showed association and dissociation values of 9.32 × 10?? M?¹·s?¹ and 6.29 × 10?³ s?¹, respectively, with an affinity value exceeding 10? M?¹ (k(on)/k(off)), maintaining the original rapid reaction kinetics of the premature antibody. The refolded scFv could provide a platform for protein engineering for the clinical application for diagnosis of heart disease and the development of a continuous biosensor. PMID:25530617

  3. JAIF survey shows expansion of nuclear market but sees levelling-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum released the results of the fiscal 1984 survey of the nuclear industry in Japan, on December 18, 1985. The report showed that the nuclear industry maintained a strong expansionary trend as the nuclear related sales of mining and manufacturing industries were up by 26 % over the previous year to the total of 1,722.9 billion yen. However, there was a decrease in the expenditure of the electrical utility industry, which is the principal user, on nuclear power plant construction, as well as in the number of technical section workers in mining and manufacturing industries, which has reached the peak in the last couple of years. The report pointed out that the nuclear industry faces a period of adjustment after the end of the expansionary period, and that this basic pattern is likely to continue for several years, and the new order of nuclear power plants is likely to decline. This survey is the 26th of its kind by sending questionnaires to 1222 companies in 25 business sectors. 902 companies responded. The nuclear sales of mining and manufacturing industries, the investment for research facilities, nuclear-related workers, and the future market prospect are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Arctigenin blocks the unfolded protein response and shows therapeutic antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Hwang, Ji-Hwan; Cha, Mi-Ran; Yoon, Mi-Young; Son, Eun-Soon; Tomida, Akihiro; Ko, Bosung; Song, Si-Whan; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Hwang, Yong-il; Park, Hae-Ryong

    2010-07-01

    Cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors are constantly or intermittently exposed to stressful microenvironments, including glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and other forms of nutrient starvation. These tumor-specific conditions, especially glucose deprivation, activate a signaling pathway called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which enhances cell survival by induction of the stress proteins. We have established a screening method to discover anticancer agents that could preferentially inhibit tumor cell viability under glucose-deprived conditions. Here we identify arctigenin (ARC-G) as an active compound that shows selective cytotoxicity and inhibits the UPR during glucose deprivation. Indeed, ARC-G blocked expression of UPR target genes such as phosphorylated-PERK, ATF4, CHOP, and GRP78, which was accompanied by enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2 alpha during glucose deprivation. The UPR inhibition led to apoptosis involving a mitochondrial pathway by activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, ARC-G suppressed tumor growth of colon cancer HT-29 xenografts. Our results demonstrate that ARC-G can be served as a novel type of antitumor agent targeting the UPR in glucose-deprived solid tumors. PMID:20232300

  5. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Nicola K; Feltwell, Theresa; Pickard, Derek; Clare, Simon; Toribio, Ana L; Fookes, Maria; Roberts, Kevin; Monson, Rita; Nair, Satheesh; Kingsley, Robert A; Bulgin, Richard; Wiles, Siouxsie; Goulding, David; Keane, Thomas; Corton, Craig; Lennard, Nicola; Harris, David; Willey, David; Rance, Richard; Yu, Lu; Choudhary, Jyoti S; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A; Parkhill, Julian; Frankel, Gad; Dougan, Gordon; Salmond, George P C; Thomson, Nicholas R

    2011-04-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease. PMID:21490962

  6. Two sex-chromosome-linked microsatellite loci show geographic variance among North American Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad S. Coates

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based O. nubilalis population and pedigree analysis indicated female specificity of a (GAAAATn microsatellite, and male specificity of a CAYCARCGTCACTAA repeat unit marker. These loci were respectively named Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome 1 (ONW1 and O. nubilalis Z-chromosome 1 (ONZ1. Intact repeats of three, four, or five GAAAAT units are present among ONW1 alleles, and biallelic variation exists at the ONZ1 locus. Screening of 493 male at ONZ1 and 448 heterogametic females at ONZ1 and ONW1 loci from eleven North American sample sites was used to construct genotypic data. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and F-statistics indicated no female haplotype or male ONZ1 allele frequency differentiation between voltinism ecotypes. Four subpopulations from northern latitudes, Minnesota and South Dakota, showed the absence of a single female haplotype, a significant deviation of ONZ1 data from Hardy-Weinberg expectation, and low-level geographic divergence from other subpopulations. Low ONZ1 and ONW1 allele diversity could be attributed either to large repeat unit sizes, low repeat number, reduced effective population (Ne size of sex chromosomes, or the result of recent O. nubilalis introduction and population expansion, but likely could not be due to inbreeding. These sequences have been deposited in GenBank AF442958, and AY102618 to AY102620.

  7. Text mining of the classical medical literature for medicines that show potential in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  8. Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Dragoo, J W; Serdyukova, N A; Stone, G; Cavagna, P; Menotti, A; Nie, W; O'Brien, P C M; Wang, J; Burkett, S; Yuki, K; Roelke, M E; O'Brien, S J; Yang, F; Stanyon, R

    2008-01-01

    The karyotypic relationships of skunks (Mephitidae) with other major clades of carnivores are not yet established. Here, multi-directional chromosome painting was used to reveal the karyological relationships among skunks and between Mephitidae (skunks) and Procyonidae (raccoons). Representative species from three genera of Mephitidae (Mephitis mephitis, 2n = 50; Mephitis macroura, 2n = 50; Conepatus leuconotus, 2n = 46; Spilogale gracilis, 2n = 60) and one species of Procyonidae (Procyon lotor, 2n = 38) were studied. Chromosomal homology was mapped by hybridization of five sets of whole-chromosome paints derived from stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), cat, skunks (M. mephitis; M. macroura) and human. The karyotype of the raccoon is highly conserved and identical to the hypothetical ancestral musteloid karyotype, suggesting that procyonids have a particular importance for establishing the karyological evolution within the caniforms. Ten fission events and five fusion events are necessary to generate the ancestral skunk karyotype from the ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results show that Mephitidae joins Canidae and Ursidae as the third family of carnivores that are characterized by a high rate of karyotype evolution. Shared derived chromosomal fusion of stone marten chromosomes 6 and 14 phylogenetically links the American hog-nosed skunk and eastern spotted skunk. PMID:19051045

  9. Polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes impregnated with silver nanoparticles show improved biofouling resistance and virus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, Katherine; Brunet, Léna; Mahendra, Shaily; Li, Dong; Zhang, Anna; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2009-02-01

    Biofouling and virus penetration are two significant obstacles in water treatment membrane filtration. Biofouling reduces membrane permeability, increases energy costs, and decreases the lifetime of membranes. In order to effectively remove viruses, nanofiltration or reverse osmosis (both high energy filtration schemes) must be used. Thus, there is an urgent demand for low pressure membranes with anti-biofouling and antiviral properties. The antibacterial properties of silver are well known, and silver nanoparticles (nAg) are now incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products for microbial control. In this study, nAg incorporated into polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (nAg-PSf) exhibited antimicrobial properties towards a variety of bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12 and Pseudomonas mendocina KR1, and the MS2 bacteriophage. Nanosilver incorporation also increased membrane hydrophilicity, reducing the potential for other types of membrane fouling. XPS analysis indicated a significant loss of silver from the membrane surface after a relatively short filtration period (0.4 L/cm2) even though ICP analysis of digested membrane material showed that 90% of the added silver remained in the membrane. This silver loss resulted in a significant loss of antibacterial and antiviral activity. Thus, successful fabrication of nAg-impregnated membranes needs to allow for the release of sufficient silver ions for microbial control while preventing a rapid depletion of silver. PMID:19046755

  10. The Phenolics from the Roots of Livistona chinensis Show Antioxidative and Obsteoblast Differentiation Promoting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Zeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting activity of the phenolics isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of Livistona chinensis. Two new phenolics, (2R,3R-3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavane (1, and phenanthrene-2,4,9-triol (2, together with six known phenolics 3–8, were isolated and identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting abilities of the compounds 1–3, 7–8 were tested, the phenolics 1–3, 7 showed effects on proliferation of osteoblastic cells and antioxidative activity of 3.125–50 µg/mL. In addition, the phenolics 1–3 observably increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin content and hydroxyproline content in osteoblastic cells. Phenolic 1 at 12.5 µg/mL concentration significantly increased the area of nodules by about 9.35-fold. The antioxidative activity results indicated that the anti-osteoporosis effects of these phenolics may be linked to a reduction of oxidative stress. The observed effects of these phenolics on bone formation by rat osteoblastic cells suggest that these phenolics may have beneficial effects on bone health.

  11. Titanate nanowire scaffolds decorated with anatase nanocrystals show good protein adsorption and low cell adhesion capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding XL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Xianglong Ding,1 Xiaoqin Yang,2 Lei Zhou,1 Haibin Lu,1 Shaobing Li,1 Yan Gao,1 Chunhua Lai,1 Ying Jiang11Center of Oral Implantology, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaBackground and methods: In this report, layered microporous titanate nanowire scaffolds (TiNWs were constructed via a hydrothermal route and then decorated with anatase nanocrystals (ANs@TiNWs by immersion in TiCl4 solution. The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs was measured. The TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs were then compared for their ability to adsorb protein and adhere to MG63 cells.Results: The diameter and specific surface area of the ANs@TiNWs were significantly larger than for TiNWs, and the ANs@TiNWs had an enhanced protein-adsorbing effect. It was found that the MG63 cells were less able to adhere to the flat titanium substrate than the TiNWs and ANs@TiNWs, and that this cell-repellant ability was greater with ANs@TiNWs. Other MG63 cell functions, proliferation in particular, were also inhibited by ANs@TiNWs.Conclusion: ANs@TiNWs show a high protein adsorption and cell-repellant capacity which would be useful in drug delivery.Keywords: protein adsorption, antiadhesion, nanotopography, drug delivery

  12. Insect antimicrobial peptides show potentiating functional interactions against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Cytry?ska, Ma?gorzata; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Dobslaff, Kristin; Wiesner, Jochen; Twyman, Richard M; Zuchner, Thole; Sadd, Ben M; Regoes, Roland R; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteins are important components of innate immunity against pathogens in insects. The production of AMPs is costly owing to resource-based trade-offs, and strategies maximizing the efficacy of AMPs at low concentrations are therefore likely to be advantageous. Here, we show the potentiating functional interaction of co-occurring insect AMPs (the bumblebee linear peptides hymenoptaecin and abaecin) resulting in more potent antimicrobial effects at low concentrations. Abaecin displayed no detectable activity against Escherichia coli when tested alone at concentrations of up to 200 ?M, whereas hymenoptaecin affected bacterial cell growth and viability but only at concentrations greater than 2 ?M. In combination, as little as 1.25 ?M abaecin enhanced the bactericidal effects of hymenoptaecin. To understand these potentiating functional interactions, we investigated their mechanisms of action using atomic force microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based quenching assays. Abaecin was found to reduce the minimal inhibitory concentration of hymenoptaecin and to interact with the bacterial chaperone DnaK (an evolutionarily conserved central organizer of the bacterial chaperone network) when the membrane was compromised by hymenoptaecin. These naturally occurring potentiating interactions suggest that combinations of AMPs could be used therapeutically against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that have acquired resistance to common antibiotics. PMID:25833860

  13. Overexpression of metK shows different effects on avermectin production in various Streptomyces avermitilis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuejin; Wang, Qingxin; Guo, Weiqun; Cai, Yujuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Shiwei; Xiang, Shuangyun; Song, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    The S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene (metK) from Streptomyces avermitilis was cloned into multi-copy vector pIJ653 and integrative vector pSET152 yielding two metK expression plasmids pYJ02 and pYJ03, respectively. When wild-type strain ATCC31267 was transformed with these two plasmids, avermectin production was increased about 2.0-fold and 5.5-fold, respectively. The introduction of integrative expression plasmid pYJ03 into the engineered strain GB-165, which produces only avermectin B, promoted the production of avermectin approximately 2.0-fold. However, introduction of pYJ02 did not influence avermectin accumulation in GB-165. Moreover, transformation of the avermectin-overproducing industry strain 76-05 with these two plasmids did not stimulate avermectin production. These results showed that there were different effects of metK expression levels on avermectin production in various S. avermitilis strains. Additionally, the transcript levels of metK, aveR (the avermectin pathway-specific regulatory gene) and aveA1 (one avermectin biosynthesis gene) meet the expectation of fermentation levels of avermectin in wild-type strain and its recombinant strains. The gene expression levels of metK, aveR and aveA1 in GB-165 and 76-05 were much higher then those in wild-type strain, which probably limited the increasement of avermectin by overexpression of metK. PMID:23579768

  14. Glycoprotein 63 (gp63) genes show gene conversion and reveal the evolution of Old World Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Isabel L; Gaunt, Michael W; Stothard, J Russell; Miles, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    Species of the subgenus Leishmania (Leishmania) cause the debilitating disease leishmaniasis on four continents. Species grouped within the Leishmania donovani complex cause visceral leishmaniasis, a life-threatening disease, often associated with poverty, and affecting some 0.5 million people each year. The Leishmania glycoprotein GP63, or major surface protease, is a metalloprotease involved in parasite survival, infectivity and virulence. Here, we show that evolution of the gp63 multigene family is influenced by mosaic or fragmental gene conversion. This is a major evolutionary force for both homogenisation and for generating diversity, even in the absence of sexual reproduction. We propose here that the high GC content at the third codon position in the gp63 family of Old World Leishmania may be higher in multicopy regions, under the biased gene conversion model, because increased copy numbers may lead to increased rates of recombination. We confirm that one class of gp63 genes with an extended 3'end signal, gp63(EXT), reveals genetic groups within the complex and gives insights into evolution and host associations. Gp63(EXT) genes can also provide the basis for rapid and reliable genotyping of strains in the L. donovani complex. Our results confirmed that a more stringent definition of Leishmania infantum is required and that the species Leishmania archibaldi should be suppressed. PMID:17280675

  15. Analysis of experimental evidence that shows adverse effects of salt and its relation to hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bravo A.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study by Taylor et al published in June 2010 in the American Journal of Hypertension questions the effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the diet in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. The publication of this article has lead to great controversy and medical associations and learned societies responded promptly. The response criticized the results of the meta-analysis and pointed out its methodological shortcomings. In this review we critically appraise the experimental evidence that shows the importance of diet salt intake and its role as a determinant of blood pressure. We briefly describe the paradigm that explains the role of salt intake in contributing in the regulation of blood pressure (Guyton hypothesis and model and we mention the experimental evidence that supports this. We briefly comment on the classical studies that indicate that salt intake (NaCl contributes directly to the development of high blood pressure and target tissues. Finally, we briefly mention the experimental data that is related with the controversy on the role of salt (NaCl or sodium as prohypertensive agents.

  16. [Comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Yang, Feng-Tang

    2002-02-01

    We have established a comparative chromosome map between red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) and dog by chromosome painting with biotin-labelled chromosome-specific probes of the dog. Dog probes specific for the 38 automates delineated 71 homologous segments in the metaphase chromosomes of red panda. Of the 38 autosomal paints, 18 probes each delineated one homologous segment in red panda genome, while the other 20 ones each detected two to five homologous segments. The dog X chromosome-specific paint delineated the whole X chromosome of the red panda. The results indicate that at least 28 fissions (breaks), 49 fusions and 4 inversions were needed to "convert" the dog karyotype to that of the red panda, suggesting that extensive chromosome rearrangements differentiate the karyotypes of red panda and dog. Based on the established comparative chromosome homologies of dog and domestic cat, we could infer that there were 26 segments of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved segments defined by dog paints in red panda and domestic cat genomes revealed at least 2 cryptic inversions in two large chromosomal regions of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. The karyotype of red panda shows high degree of homology with that of domestic cat. PMID:11901994

  17. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Koeda, Michihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2006-09-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was no sex difference in the self-rating score of jealousy for sexual and emotional infidelity, men and women showed different brain activation patterns in response to the two types of infidelity. During jealous conditions, men demonstrated greater activation than women in the brain regions involved in sexual/aggressive behaviors such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. In contrast, women demonstrated greater activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Our fMRI results are in favor of the notion that men and women have different neuropsychological modules to process sexual and emotional infidelity. Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of the jealousy-related behaviors predominantly observed in males. PMID:16829139

  18. Chin Shan analyses show advantages of whole pool multi-rack approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel storage racks are essentially thin-walled, cellular structures of prismatic cross-section. Although the details of design vary from one supplier to another, certain key physical attributes are common to all designs. For example, all racks feature square cells of sufficient opening size and height to enable insertion and withdrawal of the fuel assembly. The array of cells is positioned in a vertical orientation and is supported off the pool slab surface by four or more support legs. The spent fuel pool is filled with the individual fuel racks. The plenum created by the support legs is essential for proper cooling of the fuel assemblies stored in the rack, which relies on natural convective cooling to extract the heat emitted by the spent fuel. However, it has the insalutary effect of making it kinematically less stable. Regulatory authorities require careful and comprehensive analysis of the response of the racks under the seismic motions postulated for the pool slab. Results from whole pool multi-rack (WPMR) analyses at the Chin Shan and Oyster Creek nuclear plants point up the potential inadequacies of single rack 3D analyses, and show just how important it is to carry out WPMR simulations, despite their abstruseness and high cost. (author)

  19. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L. lactis subsp. cremoris NCDO712. The growth of both C2 and NCDO712 was unaffected by exogenous aspartate. Also, the growth rate of the pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of L. lactis was affected by exogenous aspartate. The maximum observed reduction in the growth rate was similar to 35% when compared with the wild-type strain, and this varied with the concentration of aspartic acid. The observed effect of aspartate could be explained by the accumulation of the toxic pyrimidine de novo pathway intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate. Assays of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes of L. lactis LM0230 showed that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid.

  20. Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Allen, Andrew P; Bastviken, David; Conrad, Ralf; Gudasz, Cristian; St-Pierre, Annick; Thanh-Duc, Nguyen; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2014-03-27

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century. Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times. Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to expected increases in global temperature is therefore fundamental to predicting whether the carbon cycle will mitigate or accelerate climate change. Methanogenesis is the terminal step in the remineralization of organic matter and is carried out by strictly anaerobic Archaea. Like most other forms of metabolism, methanogenesis is temperature-dependent. However, it is not yet known how this physiological response combines with other biotic processes (for example, methanotrophy, substrate supply, microbial community composition) and abiotic processes (for example, water-table depth) to determine the temperature dependence of ecosystem-level CH4 emissions. It is also not known whether CH4 emissions at the ecosystem level have a fundamentally different temperature dependence than other key fluxes in the carbon cycle, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Here we use meta-analyses to show that seasonal variations in CH4 emissions from a wide range of ecosystems exhibit an average temperature dependence similar to that of CH4 production derived from pure cultures of methanogens and anaerobic microbial communities. This average temperature dependence (0.96 electron volts (eV)), which corresponds to a 57-fold increase between 0 and 30°C, is considerably higher than previously observed for respiration (approximately 0.65 eV) and photosynthesis (approximately 0.3 eV). As a result, we show that both the emission of CH4 and the ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions increase markedly with seasonal increases in temperature. Our findings suggest that global warming may have a large impact on the relative contributions of CO2 and CH4 to total greenhouse gas emissions from aquatic ecosystems, terrestrial wetlands and rice paddies. PMID:24670769

  1. NCR1(+) cells in dogs show phenotypic characteristics of natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl-Rosado, Christine; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Brun-Hansen, Hege C; Storset, Anne K

    2015-03-01

    No specific markers for natural killer (NK) cells in dogs have currently been described. NCR1 (NKp46, CD355) has been considered a pan species NK cell marker and is expressed on most or all NK cells in all species investigated except for the pig which has both a NCR1(+) and a NCR1(-) population. In this study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 healthy dogs, 37 dogs with a clinical diagnosis, including a dog diagnosed with LGL leukemia, and tissue samples from 8 dogs were evaluated for NCR1(+) expression by a cross reacting anti bovine NCR1 antibody. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were found in the blood of 93 % of healthy dogs and comprised up to 2.5 % of lymphocytes in PBMC. In a selection of healthy dogs, sampling and immunophenotyping were repeated throughout a period of 1 year revealing a substantial variation in the percentage of CD3(-)NCR1(+) over time. Dogs allocated to 8 disease groups had comparable amounts of CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells in PBMC to the healthy individuals. All organs examined including liver, spleen and lymph nodes contained CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells. Circulating CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells were further characterized as CD56(-)GranzymeB(+)CD8(-). A CD3(+)NCR1(+) population was observed in PBMC in 79 % of the healthy dogs examined representing at the most 4.8 % of the lymphocyte population. In canine samples examined for CD56 expression, CD56(+) cells were all CD3(+) and NCR1(-). To our knowledge, this is the first examination of NCR1 expression in the dog. The study shows that this NK cell associated receptor is expressed both on populations of CD3(+) and CD3(-) blood lymphocytes in dogs and the receptor is found on a CD3(+) GranzymeB(+) CD8(+) leukemia. Our results support that CD56 is expressed only on CD3(+) cells in dogs and shows that NCR1 defines a different CD3(+) lymphocyte population than CD56(+)CD3(+) cells in this species. CD3(-)NCR1(+) cells may represent canine NK cells. PMID:25434421

  2. Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Development Shows Rejuvenescence Regarding Epithelial Proliferation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiszter, Katalin; Galamb, Orsolya; Sipos, Ferenc; Krenács, Tibor; Veres, Gábor; Wichmann, Barnabás; Kalmár, Alexandra; Patai, Árpád V.; Tóth, Kinga; Valcz, Gábor; Molnár, Béla; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) development is a sequential process showing age-dependency, uncontrolled epithelial proliferation and decreased apoptosis. During juvenile growth cellular proliferation and apoptosis are well balanced, which may be perturbed upon aging. Our aim was to correlate proliferative and apoptotic activities in aging human colonic epithelium and colorectal cancer. We also tested the underlying molecular biology concerning the proliferation- and apoptosis-regulating gene expression alterations. Materials and Methods Colorectal biopsies from healthy children (n1?=?14), healthy adults (n2?=?10), adult adenomas (n3?=?10) and CRCs (n4?=?10) in adults were tested for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and TUNEL apoptosis assay. Mitosis- and apoptosis-related gene expression was also studied in healthy children (n1?=?6), adult (n2?=?41) samples and in CRC (n3?=?34) in HGU133plus2.0 microarray platform. Measured alterations were confirmed with RT-PCR both on dependent and independent sample sets (n1?=?6, n2?=?6, n3?=?6). Results Mitotic index (MI) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intact juvenile (MI?=?0.33±0.06) and CRC samples (MI?=?0.42±0.10) compared to healthy adult samples (MI?=?0.15±0.06). In contrast, apoptotic index (AI) was decreased in children (0.13±0.06) and significantly lower in cancer (0.06±0.03) compared to healthy adult samples (0.17±0.05). Eight proliferation- (e.g. MKI67, CCNE1) and 11 apoptosis-associated genes (e.g. TNFSF10, IFI6) had altered mRNA expression both in the course of normal aging and carcinogenesis, mainly inducing proliferation and reducing apoptosis compared to healthy adults. Eight proliferation-associated genes including CCND1, CDK1, CDK6 and 26 apoptosis-regulating genes (e.g. SOCS3) were differently expressed between juvenile and cancer groups mostly supporting the pronounced cell growth in CRC. Conclusion Colorectal samples from children and CRC patients can be characterized by similarly increased proliferative and decreased apoptotic activities compared to healthy colonic samples from adults. Therefore, cell kinetic alterations during colorectal cancer development show uncontrolled rejuvenescence as opposed to the controlled cell growth in juvenile colonic epithelium. PMID:24098334

  3. Enhancing Science Performance in Students with Learning Disabilities Using Cover, Copy, and Compare: A Student Shows the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tawnya J.; Dittmer, Karen I.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2002-01-01

    In the current study a multiple baseline across tasks design was used to determine if the self-managed academic intervention known as cover, copy, and compare (CCC) could be used to enhance accuracy in identifying parts of the human heart in three students with learning disabilities. Results showed that immediately after implementing the CCC…

  4. Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoldo Piccardo; Francesco Paparo; Riccardo Picazzo; Mehrdad Naseri; Paolo Ricci; Andrea Marziano; Lorenzo Bacigalupo; Ennio Biscaldi; Gian Andrea Rollandi; Filippo Grillo-Ruggieri; Mohsen Farsad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Chol...

  5. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Satellite Shows Pacific Running Hot and Cold, September 12, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea-surface height measurements taken by the U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on September 12, 1998; these sea surface heights are an indicator of the changing amount of heat stored in the ocean. The tropical Pacific Ocean continues to exhibit the complicated characteristics of both a lingering El Nino, and a possibly waning La Nina situation. This image shows that the rapid cooling of the central tropical Pacific has slowed and this area of low sea level (shown in purple) has decreased slightly since last month. It is still uncertain, scientists say, that this cold pool will evolve into a long-lasting La Nina situation. Remnants of the El Nino warm water pool, shown here in red and white, are still lingering to the north and south of the equator. The coexistence of these two contrasting conditions indicates that the ocean and the climate system remain in transition. These strong patterns have remained in the climate system for many months and will continue to influence weather conditions around the world in the coming fall and winter. The satellite's sea-surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1997-98 El Nino because the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite measures the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision. The purple areas are about 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal, creating a deficit in the heat supply to the surface waters. The white areas show the sea surface is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it's about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The green areas indicate normal conditions. The purple areas are 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal and the blue areas are 5 to 13 centimeters (2 to 5 inches) below normal. The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white area) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. A La Nina situation is essentially the opposite of an El Nino condition, but during La Nina the trade winds are stronger than normal and the cold water that normally exists along the coast of South America extends to the central equatorial Pacific. A La Nina situation also changes global weather patterns, and is associated with less moisture in the air resulting in less rain along the west coasts of North and South America.For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov

  6. An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamadori,Ichiro

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available An autopsy case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showing clinical features of dilated cardiomyopathy was reported. The patient was a 60-year-old female complaining of chest discomfort from the age of 40. At autopsy, both ventricles were dilated. Microscopically myocardial loss, fibrosis and disarray of hypertrophic myocardial fibers were observed. The areas showing myocardial disarray were distributed close to the scar-like fibrotic areas. Coronary arteries and intramyocardial arterioles showed minimal stenotic changes.

  7. Relations between silicate and oxide forms of uranium mineralization in stratiform ore shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In finely dispersed ores of a stratiform uranium ore show of a new genetic type, we identified the complex relations between the oxide and silicate phases of uranium mineralization. These show this ore show to be of the hydrothermal group in which similar phenomena have been known for a long time. It is concluded that the mutual transformation of the oxide and silicate phases is more common than previously supposed

  8. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  9. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  10. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  11. BEM46 Shows Eisosomal Localization and Association with Tryptophan-Derived Auxin Pathway in Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Leiß, K.; Bönniger, C.; Sardar, P.

    2014-01-01

    BEM46 proteins are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions remain elusive. We reported previously that the BEM46 protein in Neurospora crassa is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is essential for ascospore germination. In the present study, we established a bem46 knockout strain of N. crassa. This ?bem46 mutant exhibited a level of ascospore germination lower than that of the wild type but much higher than those of the previously characterized bem46-overexpressing and RNA interference (RNAi) lines. Reinvestigation of the RNAi transformants revealed two types of alternatively spliced bem46 mRNA; expression of either type led to a loss of ascospore germination. Our results indicated that the phenotype was not due to bem46 mRNA downregulation or loss but was caused by the alternatively spliced mRNAs and the peptides they encoded. Using the N. crassa ortholog of the eisosomal protein PILA from Aspergillus nidulans, we further demonstrated the colocalization of BEM46 with eisosomes. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a single interaction partner: anthranilate synthase component II (encoded by trp-1). This interaction was confirmed in vivo by a split-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) approach. The ?trp-1 mutant showed reduced ascospore germination and increased indole production, and we used bioinformatic tools to identify a putative auxin biosynthetic pathway. The genes involved exhibited various levels of transcriptional regulation in the different bem46 transformant and mutant strains. We also investigated the indole production of the strains in different developmental stages. Our findings suggested that the regulation of indole biosynthesis genes was influenced by bem46 overexpression. Furthermore, we uncovered evidence of colocalization of BEM46 with the neutral amino acid transporter MTR. PMID:24928924

  12. Nanoimages show disruption of tubulin polymerization by chlorpyrifos oxon: Implications for neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorus agents cause cognitive deficits and depression in some people. We hypothesize that the mechanism by which organophosphorus agents cause these disorders is by modification of proteins in the brain. One such protein could be tubulin. Tubulin polymerizes to make the microtubules that transport cell components to nerve axons. The goal of the present work was to measure the effect of the organophosphorus agent chlorpyrifos oxon on tubulin polymerization. An additional goal was to identify the amino acids covalently modified by chlorpyrifos oxon in microtubule polymers and to compare them to the amino acids modified in unpolymerized tubulin dimers. Purified bovine tubulin (0.1 mM) was treated with 0.005-0.1 mM chlorpyrifos oxon for 30 min at room temperature and then polymerized by addition of 1 mM GTP to generate microtubules. Microtubules were visualized by atomic force microscopy. Chlorpyrifos oxon-modified residues were identified by tandem ion trap electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Nanoimaging showed that low concentrations (0.005 and 0.01 mM) of chlorpyrifos oxon yielded short, thin microtubules. A concentration of 0.025 mM stimulated polymerization, while high concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 mM) caused aggregation. Of the 17 tyrosines covalently modified by chlorpyrifos oxon in unpolymerized tubulin dimers, only 2 tyrosines were labeled in polymerized microtubules. The two labe in polymerized microtubules. The two labeled tyrosines in polymerized tubulin were Tyr 103 in EDAANNY*R of alpha tubulin, and Tyr 281 in GSQQY*R of beta tubulin. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon binding to tubulin disrupts tubulin polymerization. These results may lead to an understanding of the neurotoxicity of organophosphorus agents.

  13. The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC50 values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC50 values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 ?M, XPC: 0.18 ?M, and normal cells: > 180 ?M). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ? Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ? Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ? Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy options in NER-deficient tumors.

  14. VO2+ complexation by bioligands showing keto-enol tautomerism: a potentiometric, spectroscopic, and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daniele; Varnágy, Katalin; Timári, Sarolta; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2011-10-17

    The interaction of VO(2+) ion with ligands of biological interest that are present in important metabolic pathways--2-oxopropanoic acid (pyruvic acid, pyrH), 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropanoic acid (3-hydroxypyruvic acid, hydpyrH), oxobutanedioic acid (oxalacetic acid, oxalH(2)), (S)-hydroxybutanedioic acid (l-malic acid, malH(2)), and 2,3-dihydroxy-(E)-butanedioic acid (dihydroxyfumaric acid, dhfH(2))--was described. Their complexing capability was compared with that of similar ligands: 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (hydbut) and 3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione (squaric acid, squarH(2)). All of these ligands (except l-malic acid) exhibit keto-enol tautomerism, and the presence of a metal ion can influence such an equilibrium. The different systems were studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV-vis spectroscopies and with pH potentiometry. Density functional theory (DFT) methods provide valuable information on the relative energy of the enol and keto forms of the ligands both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, on the geometry of the complexes, and on EPR and electronic absorption parameters. The results show that most of the ligands behave like ?-hydroxycarboxylates, forming mono- and bis-chelated species with (COO(-), O(-)) coordination, demonstrating that the metal ion is able to stabilize the enolate form of some ligands. With dihydroxyfumaric acid, the formation of a non-oxidovanadium(IV) complex, because of rearrangement of dihydroxyfumaric to dihydroxymaleic acid (dhmH(2)), can be observed. With 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, complexation of VO(2+) does not take place and the reason for this behavior is explained by chemical considerations and computational calculations. PMID:21902189

  15. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Adrenal incidentalomas showing unilateral concordant visualization by adrenocortical scintigraphy. Comparison with adenomas in Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adrenocortical adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome (Cushing's adenoma) produces a unilateral concordant visualization (UCV) imaging pattern in which the adenoma is only visualized on radioiodocholesterol adrenocortical scintigraphy. But because this imaging pattern is also noted in some patients with adrenal incidentalomas, we examined whether the UCV-incidentaloma was essentially identical with Cushing's adenoma and would develop Cushing's syndrome. The subjects were 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas (mean size, 30 mm; range, 20-45 mm) and 6 patients with Cushing's adenomas (mean size, 28 mm; range, 25-35 mm). Endocrinological evaluations showed several abnormalities including blunted diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol within the normal range, low plasma ACTH and/or high 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS levels in 8 of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but these abnormalities did not meet the diagnostic criteria of Cushing's syndrome. Adrenal uptake of the tracer in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas was not statistically different from that in the patients with Cushing's adenomas and had no relationship with hormonal values in either patient group. Tumor size on CT correlated with the levels of 24-hr urinary 17-OHCS (r=0.75, p=0.02) and plasma cortisol at 7:00 (r=0.82, p=0.007) in the patients with UCV-incidentalomas, but not in the patients with Cushing's adenomas. Although 3 UCV-incidentalomas increased slightly in size, none of 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas has de 9 patients with UCV-incidentalomas has developed Cushing's syndrome for 4 to 52 months. These results suggest that the UCV-incidentaloma may be essentially different from the Cushing's adenoma and unlikely to develop Cushing's syndrome. (author)

  17. The endoperoxide ascaridol shows strong differential cytotoxicity in nucleotide excision repair-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Rashda [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Efferth, Thomas [Institute of Pharmacy und Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Kuhmann, Christine [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Opatz, Till [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hao, Xiaojiang [Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204 (China); Popanda, Odilia, E-mail: o.popanda@dkfz.de [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Targeting synthetic lethality in DNA repair pathways has become a promising anti-cancer strategy. However little is known about such interactions with regard to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Therefore, cell lines with a defect in the NER genes ERCC6 or XPC and their normal counterparts were screened with 53 chemically defined phytochemicals isolated from plants used in traditional Chinese medicine for differential cytotoxic effects. The screening revealed 12 drugs that killed NER-deficient cells more efficiently than proficient cells. Five drugs were further analyzed for IC{sub 50} values, effects on cell cycle distribution, and induction of DNA damage. Ascaridol was the most effective compound with a difference of > 1000-fold in resistance between normal and NER-deficient cells (IC{sub 50} values for cells with deficiency in ERCC6: 0.15 ?M, XPC: 0.18 ?M, and normal cells: > 180 ?M). NER-deficiency combined with ascaridol treatment led to G2/M-phase arrest, an increased percentage of subG1 cells, and a substantially higher DNA damage induction. These results were confirmed in a second set of NER-deficient and -proficient cell lines with isogenic background. Finally, ascaridol was characterized for its ability to generate oxidative DNA damage. The drug led to a dose-dependent increase in intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species at cytotoxic concentrations, but only NER-deficient cells showed a strongly induced amount of 8-oxodG sites. In summary, ascaridol is a cytotoxic and DNA-damaging compound which generates intracellular reactive oxidative intermediates and which selectively affects NER-deficient cells. This could provide a new therapeutic option to treat cancer cells with mutations in NER genes. -- Highlights: ? Thousand-fold higher Ascaridol activity in NER-deficient versus proficient cells. ? Impaired repair of Ascaridol-induced oxidative DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. ? Selective activity of Ascaridol opens new therapy options in NER-deficient tumors.

  18. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  19. A de-novo STXBP1 gene mutation in a patient showing the Rett syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Romina; Saettini, Francesco; Panzeri, Elena; Arrigoni, Filippo; Bassi, Maria T; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-03-25

    This study reports on a 9-year-old girl who developed West syndrome and showed clinical features fulfilling the main revised diagnostic criteria for typical Rett syndrome (hand washing, severe cognitive impairment with absence of language, ataxic gait, progressive scoliosis and autistic features). Mutation analyses for methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5/STK9), ARX and Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) genes were carried out, with negative results. A known de-novo c.1217G>A missense mutation in exon 14 leading to the substitution of a conserved residue, p.R406H in domain3b of the syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) gene, was detected. The STXBP1 gene encodes the syntaxin-binding protein 1, a neuron-specific protein involved in synaptic vesicle release at both glutaminergic and GABAergic synapses. This function is also affected by MECP2 gene mutations, which are known to lead to a decrease in glutamate and GABA receptors' density. It is possible to speculate that the impairment in synaptic plasticity represents the pathogenic link between MECP2 and STXBP1 gene mutations. On reviewing the clinical features of the reported patients with the same mutation in the STXBP1 gene, it has been observed that poor eye contact, tremour, dyskinesia, head/hand stereotypies and both cognitive and motor progressive deterioration are common symptoms, although never considered as indicative of a Rett syndrome phenotype. In conclusion, the case described here suggests a relationship between the Rett syndrome and the STXBP1 gene not described so far, making the search for STXBP1 gene mutations advisable in patients with Rett syndrome and early onset of epilepsy. PMID:25714420

  20. BEM46 shows eisosomal localization and association with tryptophan-derived auxin pathway in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Leiß, K; Bönniger, C; Sardar, P; Kempken, F

    2014-08-01

    BEM46 proteins are evolutionarily conserved, but their functions remain elusive. We reported previously that the BEM46 protein in Neurospora crassa is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is essential for ascospore germination. In the present study, we established a bem46 knockout strain of N. crassa. This ?bem46 mutant exhibited a level of ascospore germination lower than that of the wild type but much higher than those of the previously characterized bem46-overexpressing and RNA interference (RNAi) lines. Reinvestigation of the RNAi transformants revealed two types of alternatively spliced bem46 mRNA; expression of either type led to a loss of ascospore germination. Our results indicated that the phenotype was not due to bem46 mRNA downregulation or loss but was caused by the alternatively spliced mRNAs and the peptides they encoded. Using the N. crassa ortholog of the eisosomal protein PILA from Aspergillus nidulans, we further demonstrated the colocalization of BEM46 with eisosomes. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a single interaction partner: anthranilate synthase component II (encoded by trp-1). This interaction was confirmed in vivo by a split-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) approach. The ?trp-1 mutant showed reduced ascospore germination and increased indole production, and we used bioinformatic tools to identify a putative auxin biosynthetic pathway. The genes involved exhibited various levels of transcriptional regulation in the different bem46 transformant and mutant strains. We also investigated the indole production of the strains in different developmental stages. Our findings suggested that the regulation of indole biosynthesis genes was influenced by bem46 overexpression. Furthermore, we uncovered evidence of colocalization of BEM46 with the neutral amino acid transporter MTR. PMID:24928924

  1. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Ray; Lavy, Adi; Mayzel, Boaz; Ilan, Micha

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are potent filter feeders and as such are exposed to high fluxes of toxic trace elements, which can accumulate in their body over time. Such is the case of the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei, which has been shown to accumulate up to 8500 mg/Kg of the highly toxicelement arsenic. T. swinhoei is known to harbor a multitude of sponge-associated bacteria, so it is hypothesized that the associated-bacteria will be tolerant to high arsenic concentration. This study also investigates the fate of the arsenic accumulated in the sponge to test if the associated-bacteria have an important role in the arsenic accumulation process of their host, since bacteria are key players in the natural arsenic cycle. Separation of the sponge to sponge cells and bacteria enriched fractions showed that arsenic is accumulated by the bacteria. Sponge-associated, arsenic-tolerant bacteria were cultured in the presence of 5 mM of either arsenate or arsenite (equivalent to 6150 mg/Kg arsenic, dry weight). The 54 isolated bacteria were grouped to 15 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and isolates belonging to 12 OTUs were assessed for tolerance to arsenate at increased concentrations up to 100 mM. Eight of the 12 OTUs tolerated an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of arsenate, and some exhibited external biomineralization of arsenic–magnesium salts. The biomineralization of this unique mineral was directly observed in bacteria for the first time. These results may provide an explanation for the ability of the sponge to accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Furthermore arsenic-mineralizing bacteria can potentially be used for the study of bioremediation, as arsenic toxicity affects millions of people worldwide.

  2. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer. PMID:25148840

  3. Gadofluorine M-enhanced MRI shows involvement of circumventricular organs in neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glumm Robert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circumventricular organs (CVO are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in determining immune cell recruitment into the brain. Methods In a longitudinal study we investigated in vivo alterations of CVO during neuroinflammation, applying Gadofluorine M- (Gf enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. SJL/J mice were monitored by Gadopentate dimeglumine- (Gd-DTPA and Gf-enhanced MRI after adoptive transfer of proteolipid-protein-specific T cells. Mean Gf intensity ratios were calculated individually for different CVO and correlated to the clinical disease course. Subsequently, the tissue distribution of fluorescence-labeled Gf as well as the extent of cellular inflammation was assessed in corresponding histological slices. Results We could show that the Gf signal intensity of the choroid plexus, the subfornicular organ and the area postrema increased significantly during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, correlating with (1 disease severity and (2 the delay of disease onset after immunization. For the choroid plexus, the extent of Gf enhancement served as a diagnostic criterion to distinguish between diseased and healthy control mice with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 80%. Furthermore, Gf improved the detection of lesions, being particularly sensitive to optic neuritis. In correlated histological slices, Gf initially accumulated in the extracellular matrix surrounding inflammatory foci and was subsequently incorporated by macrophages/microglia. Conclusion Gf-enhanced MRI provides a novel highly sensitive technique to study cerebral BBB alterations. We demonstrate for the first time in vivo the involvement of CVO during the development of neuroinflammation.

  4. Do North Atlantic eels show parallel patterns of spatially varying selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Malene G.; Pujolar, Jose Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The two North Atlantic eel species, the European and the American eel, represent an ideal system in which to study parallel selection patterns due to their sister species status and the presence of ongoing gene flow. A panel of 80 coding-gene SNPs previously analyzed in American eel was used to genotype European eel individuals (glass eels) from 8 sampling locations across the species distribution. We tested for single-generation signatures of spatially varying selection in European eel by searching for elevated genetic differentiation using F-ST-based outlier tests and by testing for significant associations between allele frequencies and environmental variables. Results: We found signatures of possible selection at a total of 11 coding-gene SNPs. Candidate genes for local selection constituted mainly genes with a major role in metabolism as well as defense genes. Contrary to what has been found for American eel, only 2 SNPs in our study correlated with differences in temperature, which suggests that other explanatory variables may play a role. None of the genes found to be associated with explanatory variables in European eel showed any correlations with environmental factors in the previous study in American eel. Conclusions: The different signatures of selection between species could be due to distinct selective pressures associated with the much longer larval migration for European eel relative to American eel. The lack of parallel selection in North Atlantic eels could also be due to most phenotypic traits being polygenic, thus reducing the likelihood of selection acting on the same genes in both species.

  5. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...2012, The Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's...determined that the air show event poses various hazards to the...posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City...the safety zone during the event. In the event that this...

  6. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...Due to the timing of the event, waiting 30 days to make...2012, the Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's...determined that the air show event poses various hazards to...posed by the Nautical City Festival Air Show near Rogers...

  7. Occupational Portrayal of Men and Women on the Most Frequently Mentioned Television Shows of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Stephen A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of male vs. female occupational portrayals in terms of occupational prestige on the six television shows most frequently mentioned by preschool children. The following shows were viewed and analyzed six times: Sesame Street, Bugs Bunny, Roadrunner, Batman, Flintstones, and Happy Days.…

  8. 75 FR 59966 - Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Wantagh, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park, Wantagh, NY AGENCY...zone for the annual New York Air Show at Jones Beach State Park in Wantagh, New York...maneuvers over the Atlantic Ocean off of Jones Beach State Park. DATES: This rule...

  9. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a 1970-7 American…

  10. 77 FR 29637 - Game Show Network, LLC v. Cablevision Systems Corp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...1, 1994 under the name ``Game Show Network,'' \\4\\ which...not all of it, consisting of games of skill and chance and reality...an entry- level package of digital cable programming and a digital...carriage complaint filed by Game Show Network, LLC against...

  11. 77 FR 44470 - Safety Zone; Seafair Blue Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...authorizes an agency to issue a rule without...Angels Air Show Performance. B. Basis and...Federalism A rule has implications for federalism...otherwise have taking implications under Executive...not have tribal implications under Executive...Angels Air Show Performance, Seattle,...

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopy showing laser-scale inhomogeneity in the presumed Martian meteorite Zagami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, L.; Petersen, D.; Madsen, M. B.

    1992-07-01

    The Moessbauer spectra of two separate samples of Zagami meteorite were analyzed and found to be very different. One of the samples shows no olivine, and the other shows that about 23 percent of the iron is placed in olivine, which is a major component of this sample. It is concluded that the Zagami meteorite is inhomogeneous on a macroscopic scale.

  13. Using Journals to Show Students What Social Psychology Is All about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Professional journals serve the vital scientific function of disseminating knowledge to colleagues. In so doing, journals become the "face" and "voice" of the professional disciplines they represent. Journal content shows the major topics of interest, the scope, and the boundaries of the profession. It shows the techniques and methods of research…

  14. 75 FR 57857 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule...entitled: Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI in the Federal Register (75 FR 159). We received no...

  15. Real Science: MIT Reality Show Tracks Experiences, Frustrations of Chemistry Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    A reality show about a college course--a chemistry class no less? That's what "ChemLab Boot Camp" is. The 14-part series of short videos is being released one episode at a time on the online learning site of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The novel show follows a diverse group of 14 freshmen as they struggle to master the laboratory…

  16. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  17. A Physics Show Performed by Students for Kids: From Mechanics to Elementary Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dreiner, H K

    2007-01-01

    We describe an initiative at the University of Bonn, where the students develop and perform a 2 hour physics show for school classes and the general public. The show is entertaining and educational and is aimed at children aged 10 and older. For the physics students this is a unique experience to apply their knowledge at an early stage and gives them the chance to develop skills in the public presentation of science, in front of 520 people per show. We have extended the activity to put on an elementary particle physics show for teenagers. Furthermore, local high schools have picked up the idea; their students put on similar shows for fellow students and parents. We would be interested in hearing about related activities elsewhere.

  18. Visual detection of gas shows from coal core and cuttings using liquid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Portions of core or cutting samples that have active gas shows can be identified by applying a liquid leak detector to the core surface. Although these gas shows can be caused by manmade changes to the coals' internal structure and surface of the core during the coring process, in many cases, the marked gas shows overlie changes in maceral composition, subtle fractures or coal, coal structure and so forth that seemingly are places where natural primary permeability is higher and gas shows would be favored. Given the limited time available for core description before a core is closed in a canister, using the liquid leak detector method to mark gas shows enhances core description by providing a photographic record of places of apparently increased gas flow likely related to enhanced coal permeability that cannot be easily detected otherwise.

  19. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of the highest-resolution teleseismic tomography study yet performed of the upper mantle beneath Iceland. The experiment used data gathered by the Iceland Hotspot Project, which operated a 35-station network of continuously recording, digital, broad-band seismometers over all of Iceland 1996-1998. The structure of the upper mantle was determined using the ACH damped least-squares method and involved 42 stations, 3159 P-wave, and 1338 S-wave arrival times, including the phases P, pP, sP, PP, SP, PcP, PKIKP, pPKIKP, S, sS, SS, SKS and Sdiff. Artefacts, both perceptual and parametric, were minimized by well-tested smoothing techniques involving layer thinning and offset-and-averaging. Resolution is good beneath most of Iceland from ??? 60 km depth to a maximum of ??? 450 km depth and beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone and near-shore parts of the Reykjanes ridge. The results reveal a coherent, negative wave-speed anomaly with a diameter of 200-250 km and anomalies in P-wave speed, Vp, as strong as -2.7 per cent and in S-wave speed, Vs, as strong as -4.9 per cent. The anomaly extends from the surface to the limit of good resolution at ??? 450 km depth. In the upper ??? 250 km it is centred beneath the eastern part of the Middle Volcanic Zone, coincident with the centre of the ??? 100 mGal Bouguer gravity low over Iceland, and a lower crustal low-velocity zone identified by receiver functions. This is probably the true centre of the Iceland hotspot. In the upper ??? 200 km, the low-wave-speed body extends along the Reykjanes ridge but is sharply truncated beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. This suggests that material may flow unimpeded along the Reykjanes ridge from beneath Iceland but is blocked beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. The magnitudes of the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs anomalies cannot be explained by elevated temperature alone, but favour a model of maximum temperature anomalies upwellings driven by basal heating, passive upwelling in response to plate separation and lateral temperature gradients. Although we cannot resolve structure deeper than ??? 450 km, and do not detect a bottom to the anomaly, these models suggest that it extends no deeper than the mantle transition zone. Such models thus suggest a shallow origin for the Iceland hotspot rather than a deep mantle plume, and imply that the hotspot has been located on the spreading ridge in the centre of the north Atlantic for its entire history, and is not fixed relative to other Atlantic hotspots. The results are consistent with recent, regional full-thickness mantle tomography and whole-mantle tomography images that show a strong, low-wave-speed anomaly beneath the Iceland region that is confined to the upper mantle and thus do not require a plume in the lower mantle. Seismic and geochemical observations that are interpreted as indicating a lower mantle, or core-mantle boundary origin for the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Iceland hotspot should be re-examined to consider whether they are consistent with upper mantle processes.

  20. MR findings of nasal cavity lesions showing the infundibular widening on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Uk; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Several kinds of nasal cavity lesions located in the region of the infundibulum on CT. At such time, the visualization of these lesions is very similar. The purpose of this study was to differentially diagnose these nasal cavity lesions through evaluation of the MR findings. In 51 cases of pathologically proven nasal cavity masses which on CT showed infundibular widening, we retrospectively evaluated the MR findings. The cases involved prolapsed antral mucosa from sinusitis(n=15), inverted papilloma(n=10), antrochoanal polyp(n=10), aspergillosis(n=9), and nasal polyp(n=7). All patients underwent both CT and MR. imaging. In all cases, CT findings were similar ; soft tissue masses filling the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity were associated with infundibular widening caused by pressure on the uncinate process, leading to erosion. Differential diagnosis by CT was very difficult ; MR T2 weighted imaging was most effective for differential diagnosis of these nasal cavity masses. Prolapsed antral mucosa showed central inhomogeneous mixed signal intensity, with a peripheral rim of hyperintensity along the sinus wall and nasal component. Antrochoanal polyps showed homogeneous bright signal intensity of the antral and nasal component. Aspergillosis showed central dark signal foci. Inverted papillomas showed mixed intermediate and high intensity mixed with high signal intensity. Nasal polyps showed striation mixed of intermediate and high signal intensity, while nasal polyp showed striation of intermediate and high intensity. On Gd-enhanced T1 weighted images, prolapsed antral mucosa and antrochoanal polyp showed peripheral rim enhancement of the antral and nasal component. In contrast, inverted papilloma and nasal polyp showed intense enhancement of the mass and can be separate from the sinus inflammatory disease. Various nasal cavity masses showing infundibular widening on CT can be differentiated on MR images, especially of these are T2 weighted or contrast enhanced T1 weighted.

  1. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non-replicating stationary phase cells of S. Typhimurium caused by the exposure to 45uC and to pH 5 for 30 min was monitored by microarray hybridizations at the end of the treatment period as well as immediately and 30 minutes after conditions were set back to their initial values, 25uC and pH 7. One hundred and two out of 120 up-regulated genes during the heat shock remained up-regulated 30 minutes after the temperature was set back to 25uC, while only 86 out of 293 down regulated genes remained down regulated 30 minutes after the heat shock ceased. Thus, the majority of the induced genes exhibited hysteresis, i.e., they remained up-regulated after the environmental stress ceased. At 25uC the transcriptional regulation of genesencoding for heat shock proteins was determined by the previous environment. Gene networks constructed with up-regulated genes were significantly more modular than those of down-regulated genes, implying that down-regulation was significantly less synchronized than upregulation. The hysteretic transcriptional response to heat shock was accompanied by higher resistance to inactivation at 50uC as well as cross-resistance to inactivation at pH 3; however, growth rates and lag times at 43uC and at pH 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment and a deterministic source of variability in gene regulation.

  2. HD 51844: An Am ? Scuti in a binary showing periastron brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareter, M.; Paparó, M.; Weiss, W.; García Hernández, A.; Borkovits, T.; Lampens, P.; Rainer, M.; De Cat, P.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Vos, J.; Poretti, E.; Baglin, A.; Michel, E.; Baudin, F.; Catala, C.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Pulsating stars in binary systems are ideal laboratories to test stellar evolution and pulsation theory, since a direct, model-independent determination of component masses is possible. The high-precision CoRoT photometry allows a detailed view of the frequency content of pulsating stars, enabling detection of patterns in their distribution. The object HD 51844 is such a case showing periastron brightening instead of eclipses. Aims: We present a comprehensive study of the HD 51844 system, where we derive physical parameters of both components, the pulsation content and frequency patterns. Additionally, we obtain the orbital elements, including masses, and the chemical composition of the stars. Methods: Time series analysis using standard tools was employed to extract the pulsation frequencies. Photospheric abundances of 21 chemical elements were derived by means of spectrum synthesis. We derived orbital elements both by fitting the observed radial velocities and the light curves, and we did asteroseismic modelling as well. Results: We found that HD 51844 is a double lined spectroscopic binary. The determined abundances are consistent with ? Delphini classification. We determined the orbital period (33.498 ± 0.002 d), the eccentricity (0.484 ± 0.020), the mass ratio (0.988 ± 0.02), and the masses to 2.0 ± 0.2 M? for both components. Only one component showed pulsation. Two p modes (f22 and f36) and one g mode (forb) may be tidally excited. Among the 115 frequencies, we detected triplets due to the frequency modulation, frequency differences connected to the orbital period, and unexpected resonances (3:2, 3:5, and 3:4), which is a new discovery for a ? Sct star. The observed frequency differences among the dominant modes suggest a large separation of 2.0-2.2 d-1, which are consistent with models of mean density of 0.063 g cm-3, and with the binary solution and TAMS evolutionary phase for the pulsating component. The binary evolution is in an intermediate evolutionary phase; the stellar rotation is super-synchronised, but circularisation of the orbit is not reached. Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph attached to the Mercator Telescope which is operated on the island of La Palma by the University of Leuven (IvS) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. The HERMES spectrograph is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6 m telescope, under programme LP185.D-0056.Table 9 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. VRAC: Simulation Results #1

    CERN Document Server

    Huc, Florian

    2009-01-01

    In order to make full use of geographic routing techniques developed for large scale networks, nodes must be localized. However, localization and virtual localization techniques in sensor networks are dependent either on expensive and sometimes unavailable hardware (e.g. GPS) or on sophisticated localization calculus (e.g. triangulation) which are both error-prone and with a costly overhead. Instead of localizing nodes in a traditional 2-dimensional space, we use directly the raw distance to a set of anchors to route messages in a multi-dimensional space. This should enable us to use any geographic routing protocol in a robust and efficient manner in a very large range of scenarios. We test this technique for two different geographic routing algorithms, namely GRIC and ROAM. The simulation results show that using the raw coordinates does not decrease their efficiency.

  4. Results from Amanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present an update on the results from the Amanda-B10 detector which operated in 1997 at depths of 1500 to 2000 meters in the deep Antarctic ice. The goal of Amanda project is to search for extra-terrestrial neutrinos. As a precursor to such a search we have studied atmospheric neutrinos which act as a calibration source for the detector. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos at a rate consistent with Monte-Carlo predictions establishes Amanda-B10 as a neutrino telescope. The Amanda-B10 data has been searched for evidence of several classes of neutrinos and for magnetic monopoles. Searches for a diffuse high energy neutrino flux and for neutrinos in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts have been conducted. Preliminary data analyses show no excess of neutrinos has been found. (A.C.)

  5. Results from LHCf Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricomi Alessia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at ?s = 0.9 TeV and ?s = 7 TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

  6. Authenticity Through Cooperation of the Host and the Guests in a Chinese TV Talk Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-mei ZHOU

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available TV talk shows have always been the focus of attention in mass media studies from the perspective of discourse analysis. Many studies are centered on how the hosts and guests achieve their respective authenticity. What remains largely unexplored is how the hosts and guests cooperate to construct authenticity for the talk show. By focusing on the cooperative nature of the relationship between the hosts and the guests in the realization of this authenticity intended by the talk show Behind The Headlines With Wen Tao, this paper explores the content and form to demonstrate how the talk show successfully provides news information and entertains the audience in a genuine sense through cooperation strategies.
    Key words: talk show, authenticity, cooperation
    Résumé: Le talk show est depuis longtemps le foyer d’attention dans l’étude des mass médias dans la perspective de l’analyse du discours. Beaucoup des recherches sont centrées sur comment les animateurs et les invités accomplissent leur authenticité respective. Ce qui reste largement exploré, c’est comment les animateurs et les invités coopèrent pour construire l’authenticité du programme. En concentrant sur la nature coopérative de la relation entre les animateurs et les invités dans la réalisation de cette authenticité attendue par le programme de talk show Derrière le gros titre avec Wen Tao, le présent article explore le contenu et la forme afin de démontrer comment le talk show offre avec succès de nouvelles informations et entretient l’audience avec des stratégies de coopération.
    Mots-Clés: talk show, authenticité, coopération
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  7. Media Framing of Sports Competitions. Going Beyond the War and the Show Frames of Sports Events

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitriu, Diana Luiza

    2012-01-01

    As an interdisciplinary field, sports activate and re-contextualize a wide repertoire of symbolic elements, among which war nand show ethos seem to be the most prominent. The aim of this study is to go beyond the "war" and the "show" frames duality and to discuss the emergenceof a new hybrid construct: the sports war-show. Based on a discourse analysis of textual and visual units – images and their corollary captions, the study outlines the way in which media frame an international sports e...

  8. The silence at trade shows: : A case study at Hannover Messe

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniel; Bengtsson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the non-verbal communication such as the body language in the context of a trade show. The non-verbal communication is one of the primary conveyors of messages and trade shows are one of the major channels were firms attract new customers. However the combination of trade shows and non-verbal communication is overlooked. The method consists of interviews with visitors and observations of the booths and the visitors. The setting was chosen as the annual Hannover Messe were ...

  9. A Physics Show Performed by Students for Kids: From Mechanics to Elementary Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiner, Herbert K.

    2007-01-01

    We describe an initiative at the University of Bonn, where the students develop and perform a 2 hour physics show for school classes and the general public. The show is entertaining and educational and is aimed at children aged 10 and older. For the physics students this is a unique experience to apply their knowledge at an early stage and gives them the chance to develop skills in the public presentation of science, in front of 520 people per show. We have extended the acti...

  10. Deficit irrigation scheduling based on plant growth stages showing water stress tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing municipal and industrial demands for water, its allocation for agriculture is decreasing steadily. The major agricultural use of water is for irrigation, which, thus, is affected by decreased supply. Therefore, innovations are needed to increase the efficiency of use of the water that is available. There are several possible approaches. Irrigation technologies and irrigation scheduling may be adapted for more-effective and rational uses of limited supplies of water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation methods are preferable to less efficient traditional surface methods. It is necessary to develop new irrigation scheduling approaches, not necessarily based on full crop water requirement, but ones designed to ensure the optimal use of allocated water. Deficit (or regulated deficit) irrigation is one way of maximizing water use efficiency (WUE) for higher yields per unit of irrigation water applied: the crop is exposed to a certain level of water stress either during a particular period or throughout the whole growing season. The expectation is that any yield reduction will be insignificant compared with the benefits gained through diverting the saved water to irrigate other crops. The grower must have prior knowledge of crop yield responses to deficit irrigation. This paper reviews yield responses of major field crops to deficit irrigation, including cotton, maize, potato, sugar cane, soybean and wheat. Crop yields obtained under various levels of reduced evapained under various levels of reduced evapotranspiration were fitted to the linear crop yield response functions of Stewart et al. (1977). Results show that cotton, maize, wheat, sunflower, sugar beet and potato are well suited to deficit irrigation practices, with reduced evapotranspiration imposed throughout the growing season. This list may also include common bean, groundnut, soybean and sugar cane where reduced evapotranspiration is limited to (a) certain growth stage(s). With a 25 percent deficit, WUE was 1.2 times that achieved under normal irrigation practices. Irrigation scheduling based on deficit irrigation requires careful evaluation to ensure enhanced efficiency of use of increasingly scarce supplies of irrigation water. (author)

  11. Numerical Interpretation of Laboratory and Field Data Showing CO2-induced Groundwater Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Varadharajan, C.; Spycher, N.; Bianchi, M.; Nico, P. S.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Trautz, R. C.; Pugh, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    One of the issues related to the risk assessment of CO2 geological sequestration is the potential impact of leaking CO2 on shallow groundwater quality. Numerous studies have been conducted using laboratory tests, natural analogues and numerical models to evaluate the changes in ion concentrations in groundwater induced by elevated CO2 concentrations. In this study, a controlled-release field experiment, integrated with laboratory tests and numerical modeling, has been conducted to simulate the release of CO2 from a geologic storage site. This allowed us to study the transport as well as the chemical mechanisms leading to the CO2-induced mobilization of trace elements. The field test involved a dipole system in which the groundwater was pumped from one well, saturated with CO2 at the pressure corresponding to the hydraulic pressure of the aquifer, and then re-injected into the same aquifer using a second well. Groundwater quality data were collected in four monitoring wells. At the same time, a series of lab-scale sequential leaching experiments were carried out with synthetic groundwater solutions at different pH conditions and CO2 concentrations. Although concentration changes of some ions are generally comparable for laboratory and field tests, the release of some trace elements was observed in the laboratory but not in the field test. This might be attributed to differences in test setup and scale. In this presentation, we will discuss numerical model interpretations of both laboratory and field tests, aiming to reconcile the differences in the datasets with consistent geochemical models. This will further allow us to gain new insights on the geochemical mechanisms potentially involved in the CO2-induced mobilization of trace elements. Modeling results show that aquifer sediments possess weak pH buffering capacity provided by surface protonation reactions and possibly the dissolution of carbonate minerals. The dissolution of calcite and subsequent calcium-driven cation exchange reactions provide one possible explanation for the observed increase in concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals. A refinement of the geochemical model is currently ongoing to gain a better understanding of the different release characteristics of some elements in laboratory and field tests.

  12. Study of KIC 8561221 observed by Kepler: an early red giant showing depressed dipolar modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García, R. A.; Pérez Hernández, F.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The continuous high-precision photometric observations provided by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions have allowed us to understand the structure and dynamics of red giants better using asteroseismic techniques. A small fraction of these stars show dipole modes with unexpectedly low amplitudes. The reduction in amplitude is more pronounced for stars with a higher frequency of maximum power, ?max. Aims: In this work we want to characterise KIC 8561221 in order to confirm that it is currently the least evolved star among this peculiar subset and to discuss several hypotheses that could help explain the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. Methods: We used Kepler short- and long-cadence data combined with spectroscopic observations to infer the stellar structure and dynamics of KIC 8561221. We then discussed different scenarios that could contribute to reducing the dipole amplitudes, such as a fast-rotating interior or the effect of a magnetic field on the properties of the modes. We also performed a detailed study of the inertia and damping of the modes. Results: We have been able to characterise 36 oscillations modes, in particular, a few dipole modes above ?max that exhibit nearly normal amplitudes. The frequencies of all the measured modes were used to determine the overall properties and the internal structure of the star. We have inferred a surface rotation period of ~91 days and uncovered a variation in the surface magnetic activity during the last 4 years. The analysis of the convective background did not reveal any difference compared to "normal" red giants. As expected, the internal regions of the star probed by the ? = 2 and 3 modes spin 4 to 8 times faster than the surface. Conclusions: With our grid of standard models we are able to properly fit the observed frequencies. Our model calculation of mode inertia and damping give no explanation for the depressed dipole modes. A fast-rotating core is also ruled out as a possible explanation. Finally, we do not have any observational evidenceof a strong deep magnetic field inside the star. Table 3 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Mitochondrial DNA studies show asymmetrical Amerindian admixture in Afro-Colombian and Mestizo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Clemencia; Gelvez, Nancy; Keyeux, Genoveva

    2003-02-01

    The origin of the African populations that arrived on the Colombian coasts at the time of the Spanish conquest and their subsequent settlement throughout the country and interaction with Amerindian and Spanish populations are features that can be analyzed through the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. For this purpose, the present study investigates the admixture between these populations by analyzing the markers defining the main (A, B, C, D) and minor (X) founder haplogroups in Native Americans, the principal African haplogroup (L), and additional generic markers present in Caucasian (I, J, K, H, T, U, V, W) and minor African lineages (L3). As part of an interdisciplinary research program (the Expedición Humana, furthered by the Universidad Javeriana and directed by J.E. Bernal V.), 159 Afro-Colombians from five populations in which they are the majority and 91 urban Mestizos were studied. No Amerindian haplogroups (A-D, X) were detected in 81% of the Afro-Colombians. In those samples with Amerindian lineages (average 18.8%, with a range from 10% to 43%), haplogroup B predominated. When analyzed for the presence of African haplotypes, Afro-Colombians showed an overall frequency of 35.8% for haplogroup L mtDNAs, although with broad differences between populations. A few Afro-Colombian samples (1.9%) had mutations that have not been described before, and might therefore be considered as previously unsampled African variants or as new mutations arising in the American continent. Conversely, in Mestizos less than 22% of their mtDNAs belonged to non-Amerindian lineages, of which most were likely to be West Eurasian in origin. Haplogroup L mtDNAs were found in only one Mestizo (1.1%), indicating that, if present, admixture with African women would bring in other, rarer African lineages. On the other hand, in an accompanying paper (Keyeux et al. 2002) we have shown that Amerindians from Colombia have experienced little or no matrilineal admixture with Caucasians or Africans. Taken together, these results are evidence of different patterns of past ethnic admixture among Africans, Amerindians, and Spaniards in the geographic region now encompassing Colombia, which is also reflected in much of the region's cultural diversity. PMID:12713143

  14. Biodiversity Indicators Show Climate Change Will Alter Vegetation in Parks and Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C. Coops

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While multifaceted, a chief aim when designating parks and protected areas is to support the preservation of biological diversity, in part, through representing and conserving the full range of landscape conditions observed throughout a representative area. Parks and protected areas are, however, typically developed using a static interpretation of current biodiversity and landscape conditions. The observed and potential climate change impacts to biodiversity have created a need to also contemplate how parks and protected areas will respond to climate change and how these areas will represent the future range of landscape conditions. To assess change in biodiversity, broad-scale ecosystem information can be sourced from indirect remotely sensed indicators. Quantifying biodiversity through indirect indicators allows characterization of inter-relationships between climate and biodiversity. Such characterizations support the assessment of possible implications of climatic change, as the indicators can be generated using modeled forecasts of future climatic conditions. In this paper we model and map impacts of climate change on British Columbia’s parks and protected areas by quantifying change in a number of remotely sensed indicators of biodiversity. These indicators are based on the measured amount of incoming solar energy used by vegetation and map the overall annual energy utilization, variability (seasonality, and latent or baseline energy. We compare current conditions represented by parks and protected areas, to those forecasted in the year 2065. Our results indicate that parks and protected areas are forecasted to become more productive and less seasonal, due to increased vegetation productivity in higher elevation environments. While increased vegetation productivity may be beneficial for biodiversity overall, these changes will be particularly problematic for sensitive and specialist species. Future gaps in vegetation conditions protected by parks and protected areas are observed in the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains and the central interior region of British Columbia. Protected areas along the Coast Mountains, Vancouver Island highlands, and the Rocky Mountains show the greatest levels of change in the biodiversity indicators, including decreasing seasonality, with the Mountain Hemlock ecozone most at risk. Examples of large parks that are predicted to experience rapid change in vegetation characteristics include Strathcona, Garabaldi, and Kitlope. Our maps of future spatial distributions of indirect biodiversity indicators fill a gap in information products available for adaptive parks management and provide an opportunity for dialogue and further research on the use of future scenarios of landscape conditions in conservation planning.

  15. High dose intermittent sorafenib shows improved efficacy over conventional continuous dose in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC responds to agents that inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor of VEGF receptor, is effective at producing tumor responses and delaying median progression free survival in patients with cytokine refractory RCC. However, resistance to therapy develops at a median of 5 months. In an effort to increase efficacy, we studied the effects of increased sorafenib dose and intermittent scheduling in a murine RCC xenograft model. Methods Mice bearing xenografts derived from the 786-O RCC cell line were treated with sorafenib according to multiple doses and schedules: 1 Conventional dose (CD continuous therapy; 2 high dose (HD intermittent therapy, 3 CD intermittent therapy and 4 HD continuous therapy. Tumor diameter was measured daily. Microvessel density was assessed after 3 days to determine the early effects of therapy, and tumor perfusion was assessed serially by arterial spin labeled (ASL MRI at day 0, 3, 7 and 10. Results Tumors that were treated with HD sorafenib exhibited slowed tumor growth as compared to CD using either schedule. HD intermittent therapy was superior to CD continous therapy, even though the total dose of sorafenib was essentially equivalent, and not significantly different than HD continuous therapy. The tumors exposed to HD sorafenib had lower microvessel density than the untreated or the CD groups. ASL MRI showed that tumor perfusion was reduced to a greater extent with the HD sorafenib at day 3 and at all time points thereafter relative to CD therapy. Further the intermittent schedule appeared to maintain RCC sensitivity to sorafenib as determined by changes in tumor perfusion. Conclusions A modification of the sorafenib dosing schedule involving higher dose intermittent treatment appeared to improve its efficacy in this xenograft model relative to conventional dosing. MRI perfusion imaging and histologic analysis suggest that this benefit is related to enhanced and protracted antiangiogenic activity. Thus, better understanding of dosing and schedule issues may lead to improved therapeutic effectiveness of VEGF directed therapy in RCC and possibly other tumors.

  16. MOST light-curve analysis of the ? Doradus pulsator HR 8799, showing resonances and amplitude variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódor, Á.; Chené, A.-N.; De Cat, P.; Bognár, Zs.; Wright, D. J.; Marois, C.; Walker, G. A. H.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Rowe, J. F.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The central star of the HR 8799 system is a ? Doradus-type pulsator. The system harbours four planetary-mass companions detected by direct imaging, and is a good solar system analogue. The masses of the companions are not accurately known because the estimation depends greatly on the age of the system, which is also not known with sufficient accuracy. Asteroseismic studies of the star might help to better constrain the age of HR 8799. We organized an extensive photometric and multi-site spectroscopic observing campaign to study the pulsations of the central star. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the pulsation properties of HR 8799 in detail via the ultra-precise 47 d nearly continuous photometry obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations in STars (MOST) space telescope, and to find as many independent pulsation modes as possible, which is the prerequisite for an asteroseismic age determination. Methods: We carried out Fourier analysis of the wide-band photometric time series. Results: We find that resonance and sudden amplitude changes characterize the pulsation of HR 8799. The dominant frequency is always at f1 = 1.978 d-1.Many multiples of one-ninth of the dominant frequency appear in the Fourier spectrum of the MOST data: n/9 f1, where n = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,13,14,17,18}. Our analysis also reveals that many of these peaks show strong amplitude decrease and phase variations even on the 47 d time scale. The dependencies between the pulsation frequencies of HR 8799 make the planned subsequent asteroseismic analysis rather difficult. We point out some resemblance between the light curve of HR 8799 and the modulated pulsation light curves of Blazhko RR Lyrae stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  17. Repeated injections of 131I-rituximab show patient-specific stable biodistribution and tissue kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally assumed that the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiolabelled antibodies remain similar between dosimetric and therapeutic injections in radioimmunotherapy. However, circulation half-lives of unlabelled rituximab have been reported to increase progressively after the weekly injections of standard therapy doses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the pharmacokinetics of repeated 131I-rituximab injections during treatment with unlabelled rituximab in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients received standard weekly therapy with rituximab (375 mg/m2) for 4 weeks and a fifth injection at 7 or 8 weeks. Each patient had three additional injections of 185 MBq 131I-rituximab in either treatment weeks 1, 3 and 7 (two patients) or weeks 2, 4 and 8 (two patients). The 12 radiolabelled antibody injections were followed by three whole-body (WB) scintigraphic studies during 1 week and blood sampling on the same occasions. Additional WB scans were performed after 2 and 4 weeks post 131I-rituximab injection prior to the second and third injections, respectively. A single exponential radioactivity decrease for WB, liver, spleen, kidneys and heart was observed. Biodistribution and half-lives were patient specific, and without significant change after the second or third injection compared with the first one. Blood T1/2?, calculated from the sequential blood samples and fitteom the sequential blood samples and fitted to a bi-exponential curve, was similar to the T1/2 of heart and liver but shorter than that of WB and kidneys. Effective radiation dose calculated from attenuation-corrected WB scans and blood using Mirdose3.1 was 0.53+0.05 mSv/MBq (range 0.48-0.59 mSv/MBq). Radiation dose was highest for spleen and kidneys, followed by heart and liver. These results show that the biodistribution and tissue kinetics of 131I-rituximab, while specific to each patient, remained constant during unlabelled antibody therapy. RIT radiation doses can therefore be reliably extrapolated from a preceding dosimetry study. (orig.)

  18. Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioral preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceEldineMorton

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: The right and left brain-oriented hemisity subtype subjects, sorted on the anatomical basis of upon which brain side their vgACC was thickest, showed numerous significant differences in their “either-or” type of behavioral preferences.

  19. 20 CFR 416.1826 - Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...prove that your marriage has ended you must show us the decree of divorce or annulment or the death certificate if you can. If you cannot, you must tell us why not and give us whatever evidence you can. (c)...

  20. Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.

  1. California Measles Outbreak Shows How Quickly Disease Can Resurface in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. California Measles Outbreak Shows How Quickly Disease Can Resurface in ... 22, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Immunization Measles WEDNESDAY, Jan. 21, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Fifteen years ...

  2. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da, Silva; José Roberto Postali, Parra.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no [...] cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  3. Hepatitis C Infections in Hospitals Show Need for Tight Infection Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis C Infections in Hospitals Show Need for Tight ... 2015) Friday, February 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Hepatitis C Infection Control Patient Safety FRIDAY, Feb. 27, ...

  4. 25 CFR 26.33 - How do I show I need job training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.33 How do I show I need job training? The need for Job Placement and Training is shown by completing an application...

  5. CMS experiment : animation showing the construction of the main structural components of CMS together

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Multimedia Production Unit

    2003-01-01

    This 17-minute long animation shows the construction of the main structural components of CMS in the surface hall in Cessy and offers a detailed overview of the installation in the experimental cavern.

  6. Study Shows Iron Supplementation After Blood Donation Shortens Hemoglobin Recovery Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... show/NCT01555060 International Program Expands Efforts to Improve Blood Transfusion Safety: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/news/spotlight/fact-sheet/international-program-expands-efforts-improve-blood-transfusion-safety ### Up to top This page last reviewed on ...

  7. STABLE VARIANTS OF SPERM ANEUPLOIDY AMONG HEALTHY MEN SHOW ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN GERMINAL AND SOMATIC ANEUPLOIDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable variants of sperm aneuploidy among healthy men show associations between germinal and somatic aneuploidy The purpose of this study was to identify healthy men who reproducibly produced increased frequencies of sperm with numerical chromosomal abnormalities and to d...

  8. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0189] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  9. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0153] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  10. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.)

  11. Political Tv Talk Shows on Greek Television: Live Broadcasting as an ideological and Cognitive frame

    OpenAIRE

    Ioanna Vovou

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a semiopragmatic analysis of the political talk shows on Greek television that reveals a symbolic conception of the TV studio and it’s value-attributing mechanisms through which principles of democratic dialogue are enacted inside this kind of social and media frame. Political talk shows create the notion of a complex temporality, larger than the concept of events presented live, afecting the political and social vision of the audience.

  12. A case of primary myelofibrosis showing an interesting image on bone and bone marrow scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a 73-year-old woman with primary myelofibrosis, bone and bone marrow scintigraphy were performed. Bone scintigram showed the diffusely increased skeletal uptake, especially in peripheral bones, and the relatively diminished renal uptake. On the other hand, bone marrow scintigraphy showed the remarkable peripheral expansion. Thus, to evaluate the pathophysiology and the lesion of bone and bone marrow in primary myelofibrosis, both scintigraphies seem to be useful and essential. (author)

  13. Case of primary myelofibrosis showing an interesting image on bone and bone marrow scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Morita, Kouichi

    1987-09-01

    On a 73-year-old woman with primary myelofibrosis, bone and bone marrow scintigraphy were performed. Bone scintigram showed the diffusely increased skeletal uptake, especially in peripheral bones, and the relatively diminished renal uptake. On the other hand, bone marrow scintigraphy showed the remarkable peripheral expansion. Thus, to evaluate the pathophysiology and the lesion of bone and bone marrow in primary myelofibrosis, both scintigraphies seem to be useful and essential.

  14. Acoustic emission measurements for showing of thermal shock cracks on a cladded steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acoustic emission measurements were made on a cladded steel plate which was loaded on three points by several thousand thermal shocks. While the nondestructive testing with ultrasonic, eddy current and dye penetrant showed no flaw indications, the acoustic emission testing located two regions with higher event rates. The destructive testing of the plate showed cracks of 0,1 to 1 mm depth in this region. (orig.)

  15. Using television shows to teach communication skills in internal medicine residency

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Irene; Saber Sadra S; Wong Roger Y; Mark, Roberts J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To address evidence-based effective communication skills in the formal academic half day curriculum of our core internal medicine residency program, we designed and delivered an interactive session using excerpts taken from medically-themed television shows. Methods We selected two excerpts from the television show House, and one from Gray's Anatomy and featured them in conjunction with a brief didactic presentation of the Kalamazoo consensus statement on doctor-patient co...

  16. ? sulphate PNA (PNA S): Highly Selective DNA Binding Molecule Showing Promising Antigene Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Avitabile, Concetta; Moggio, Loredana; Malgieri, Gaetano; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs), nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. ? PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the ? position of the backbone show interesting pro...

  17. The Popularity of Dating TV Reality Shows in China : On the Perspective of Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Problem: The dating reality show If You Are the One, won the largest audience rating in China after 2 weeks of its debut.  The sudden popularity led to more and more TV stations rushing to produce dating reality shows, and the majority gets even higher ratings from critics, from media, the Chinese government and common Chinese citizens. Method: Quantitative analysis of a multi-question online survey by logistic regression to determine whether certain variables, identified through academic re...

  18. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  19. Generalized failure criterion for brittle materials At singular points- numerical/ experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research project to be described is aimed at generalizing the theory of fracture mechanics so to predict failure initiation in brittle structural components having any V-notch angle and tip radius, subject to mechanical or thermal loadings. Linear elastostatic structures in the vicinity of reentrant corners, or multi-material interfaces, may fail under critical loads. Thus, the development of an analytical failure criterion, which has not been yet established confidently, is necessary in predicting such loads, in order to ensure safety and reliability when brittle materials are used as structural mechanics. The continuous efforts will be devoted towards formulation of a robust failure criterion based on strain energy density (SED) to predict failure initiation at V-notch tips in brittle elastic materials taking into account specific geometry, material properties and types of loading. The current research describes a combined activity of analytical/numerical computations with experimental observations in seeking such a generalized criterion. The finite element method is used for extracting the quantities representing the elastic field in the vicinity of any V-notch tip. This information enables the computation of the elastic strain energy density proposed as the failure criterion. For establishing the critical value of the SED for any V-notch geometry, the computed value is correlated to experimental observations. The critical loads were determined by applying monocal loads were determined by applying monotonic loading in three and four point bending modes on single-edge V-notched beam specimens made of Alumina-Zirconia ceramic. The selected brittle ceramic was first characterized by X-Ray diffraction for determining the phases quantities and evaluation of grain size and morphology by means of optical microscopy. In addition the specific weight was found using conventional technique, while Young modulus and Poisson ratio were established utilizing ultrasonic methods. Each tip radius and V-angle was documented by optical means before and after the fracture. Crack opening displacement and acoustic emission were monitored simultaneously with the load trace. This comprehensive material characterization was performed in order to eliminate irregular specimens from the analysis. The critical failure load, together with the specimen's geometry and Young modulus are being used for the computation of the (SED)CR. The experimental observations and preliminary results for the validation of the failure criterion will be presented. The influence of the V-notch radius on the (SED)CR Will be also discussed

  20. Malten, a new synthetic molecule showing in vitro antiproliferative activity against tumour cells and induction of complex DNA structural alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatori, S; Bagaloni, I; Macedi, E; Formica, M; Giorgi, L; Fusi, V; Fanelli, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hydroxypyrones represent several classes of molecules known for their high synthetic versatility. This family of molecules shows several interesting pharmaceutical activities and is considered as a promising source of new antineoplastic compounds. Methods: In the quest to identify new potential anticancer agents, a new maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone)-derived molecule, named malten (N,N?-bis((3-hydroxy-4-pyron-2-yl)methyl)-N,N?-dimethylethylendiamine), has been synthesised and analysed at both biological and molecular levels for its antiproliferative activity in eight tumour cell lines. Results: Malten exposure led to a dose-dependent reduction in cell survival in all the neoplastic models studied. Sublethal concentrations of malten induce profound cell cycle changes, particularly affecting the S and/or G2-M phases, whereas exposure to lethal doses causes the induction of programmed cell death. The molecular response to malten was also investigated in JURKAT and U937 cells. It showed the modulation of genes having key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Finally, as part of the effort to clarify the action mechanism, we showed that malten is able to impair DNA electrophoretic mobility and drastically reduce both PCR amplificability and fragmentation susceptibility of DNA. Conclusion: Taken together, these results show that malten may exert its antiproliferative activity through the induction of complex DNA structural modifications. This evidence, together with the high synthetic versatility of maltol-derived compounds, makes malten an interesting molecular scaffold for the future design of new potential anticancer agents. PMID:20571494

  1. Long-term trends in water chemistry of acid-sensitive Swedish lakes show slow recovery from historic acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Futter, Martyn N.; Valinia, Salar; Lo?fgren, Stefan; Ko?hler, Stephan J.; Fo?lster, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Long-term (1987–2012) water quality monitoring in 36 acid-sensitive Swedish lakes shows slow recovery from historic acidification. Overall, strong acid anion concentrations declined, primarily as a result of declines in sulfate. Chloride is now the dominant anion in many acid-sensitive lakes. Base cation concentrations have declined less rapidly than strong acid anion concentrations, leading to an increase in charge balance acid neutralizing capacity. In many lakes, modeled organic acidity ...

  2. Writing Games: Continuity and Change in the Design and Development of Quiz Shows in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scaglioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As in the United States and in many countries across Europe, the quiz show was a founding genre for Italian television as far back as the 1950s: because of their broad appeal, such game shows as Lascia o raddoppia and Il musichiere contributed strongly to television’s burgeoning popularity during the subsequent decades. Since then, the quiz show has traversed different eras of television history, with partial and gradual changes to its textual features, aesthetics and narratives, as well as its production routines. Since the 1980s, with deregulation and the advent of commercial television, the Italian game-show market has become more international and more reliant on formats. In the genre’s long history, the “hidden profession” of writing TV games exhibits elements of both continuity and change. The needs of format-adaptation have highlighted two main areas of “localization”: question-writing and casting. This essay explores the profession of game-show writer in Italy and how the role has evolved. It adopts a historical framework to illuminate the continuity and change in the profession, in relation to a broader history of both the genre and the television medium, while also seeking to outline both the specificity of the Italian TV context and its connections with an international environment. 

  3. Liver cell adenoma showing sequential alteration of radiological findings suggestive of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kogure, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Satoshi Sekiguchi, Kazuyuki Ishida, Takehiko Igarashi, Yuta Wakui, Takao Iwasaki, Tooru Shimosegawa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A liver tumor 35 mm in diameter was found incidentally in a 40-year-old woman who had no history of liver diseases or the use of oral contraceptives. Radiological diagnostics showed the typical findings of liver cell adenoma (LCA. Dynamic computed tomography revealed that the tumor showed a homogenous enhancement in the arterial phase and almost the same enhancement as the surrounding liver parenchyma in the delayed phase. The tumor was found to contain fat on magnetic resonance imaging. A benign fat containing liver tumor was suggested. However, radiological findings altered, which caused us to suspect that a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC containing fat was becoming dedifferentiated. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the pathological findings showed the typical findings of LCA. This case was an extremely rare LCA, which had no background of risk for LCA and developed the sequential alteration of the radiological findings to suspect well-differentiated HCC.

  4. These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images show thermal infrared radiation from Jupiter at different wavelengths which are diagnostic of physical phenomena The 7.85-micron image in the upper left shows stratospheric temperatures which are elevated in the region of the A fragment impact (to the left of bottom). Temperatures deeper in the atmosphere near 150-mbar are shown by the 17.2-micron image in the upper right. There is a small elevation of temperatures at this depth, indicated by the arrow, and confirmed by other measurements near this wavelength. This indicates that the influence of the impact of fragment A on the troposphere has been minimal. The two images in the bottom row show no readily apparent perturbation of the ammmonia condensate cloud field near 600 mbar, as diagnosed by 8.57-micron radiation, and deeper cloud layers which are diagnosed by 5-micron radiation.

  5. Dendrigraft polymer-based synthesis of silver nanoparticles showing bright blue fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method is reported here for the synthesis of optically clear and stable colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. According to size they show different colours depending upon their plasmonic absorption frequencies. The materials have been synthesized at room temperature by chemical reduction of silver ions (silver nitrate) coordinated with dendrigraft polymer, polyethyleneimine (PEI) using formaldehyde in aqueous medium. UV-vis absorption and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show single-band absorption with peak maximum at 354 nm for ?3 nm sized particles, whereas a side band at ?400 nm was observed when the particle size increased to ?20 nm. Highly narrow particle size distribution was observed in case of samples having ?3 nm size silver particles and also the process of reduction could be completed within minutes. More interestingly, the 3-nm sized particles showed strong blue (474 nm) fluorescence under UV excitation. Thin films of all synthesized samples were prepared on silica substrate by fine spray coating technique

  6. Keeping your distance: attentional withdrawal in individuals who show physiological signs of social discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Ancret; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Spence, Charles J; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2015-04-01

    Being in close social proximity to a stranger is generally perceived to be an uncomfortable experience, which most people seek to avoid. In circumstances where crowding is unavoidable, however, people may seek to withdraw their attention from the other person. This study examined whether social discomfort, as indexed by electrodermal activity, is related to a withdrawal of attention in 28 (m=8, f=20) university students. Students performed a radial line bisection task while alone or together with a stranger facing them. Physiological arousal was indexed by a wrist monitor, which recorded electrodermal activity. Correlational analyses showed that individuals who displayed physiological discomfort when together showed a withdrawal of the perceived midpoint of the line towards them (and away from the stranger). Conversely, individuals who showed no discomfort exhibited an expansion of the perceived midpoint away from them. We propose that participants shift their attention away from the stranger to increase interpersonal distance and reduce anxiety/arousal. PMID:25447057

  7. [A case of filamentous fungal infection showing tumor-like expansion in the cisterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Setsuki; Kasahara, Hiroo; Sekine, Akiko; Fujita, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted for headache. The initial MRI showed a gadolinium-enhanced lesion in the prepontine area. Initial and repeated CSF examinations were negative for the fungal infection. Since the enhanced lesion expanded in the cisterns, and showed tumor-like appearance, brain biopsy was performed at 3 months from her first admission. Histological studies revealed filamentous fungal infection probably caused by the pseudallescheria boydii. Intrathecal miconazole injection through the Ommaya reservoir successfully ameliorated patient's symptoms and the MRI findings. Primary cisternal fungal infection showing tumor-like expansion typically fails to demonstrate its supportive findings by the CSF examination. Therefore, histopathological assessment after brain biopsy should be considered in cases that are not conclusive by means of conventional laboratory examinations. PMID:25342016

  8. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against ?-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against ?-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against ?-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author)

  9. Sacral chordoma in an adult showing an aggressive clinical course: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Yamashita, Hideki; Nagashima, Hideki; Teshima, Ryota

    2014-05-01

    The current report presents a case of a 78-year-old male with sacral chordoma, showing an aggressive clinical course. The patient underwent sacral resection, however, nine months later, multiple metastases were detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The metastases progressed rapidly and 15 months following surgery the patient succumbed to respiratory dysfunction. An autopsy revealed multiple metastases of the lung, liver, heart, kidneys and vertebrae. Pathologically, the tumors did not show proliferation of anaplastic cells or dedifferentiation; however, the metastatic tumor cells were smaller than the primary tumor cells. The Ki-67 labeling indices were tumors, therefore, the capacity for cellular proliferation of the tumors was considered to be low. Chordoma in adults are generally slow-growing tumors and are associated with a relatively prolonged course and frequent local recurrences. Therefore, it must be recognized that chordoma may grow rapidly and show an aggressive clinical course, even when the Ki-67 labeling index is low. PMID:24765153

  10. The Construction of National Memory Through Popular Culture. The Case of the Argentinian TV Show,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizondo Oviedo, María Verónica

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the borders of the complex television sign through the analysis of the Argentinian TV show "Peter Capusotto y sus videos". In it we find that humor is used as a mechanism to dismantle binary hierarchic political and social oppositions. The program is presented as a musical and comedy TV show where concepts such as popular culture and mass culture are questioned through different false musicians. We focus our attention in the character of Bombita Rodríguez, el Palito Ortega montonero due to the controversy generated in the cultural scene by the fact of bringing up recent aspects of Argentinian history.

  11. CA-125 change over time shows promise as screening tool for early detection of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating its change over time, CA-125, the protein long-recognized for predicting ovarian cancer recurrence, now shows promise as a screening tool for early-stage disease, according to researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The updated findings are published in Cancer; preliminary data were first presented at the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting. If a larger study shows survival benefit, the simple blood test could offer a much-needed screening tool to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages – even in the most aggressive forms – in post-menopausal women at average risk for the disease.

  12. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon measurements compared to the corresponding period of the previous year. However the road shows have been less successful in encouraging employers to measure radon with similar numbers of employers measuring radon during both these periods. It is anticipated that these radon road shows will continue during 2006. (author)

  13. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  14. Report on Results 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report discusses work being carried out in Norway to promote energy efficiency and the production of new renewable energy. An overall review of the quantifiable results of last year's activities at national level is available. It will serve to initiate an annual reporting tradition. The report represents a step towards an ongoing process for improved targeting and management of national efforts. During the course of the year 2000, NVE has evaluated and adjusted its activities and established a system involving indicators and reporting procedures. It is also important to take notice of the long-term work being undertaken to influence people's attitudes, even though this work is difficult to assess. NVE is investing in i.a. measures aimed at children and young people. Apart from directly influencing future energy users, this investment is also having an effect due to the children's encouragement of their parents to engage in more energy and environment-friendly behaviour. Published in 2000, the IEA report ''Trends in Norwegian Stationary Energy Use'' shows that total Norwegian energy consumption per GDP is not much higher than in other IEA countries, when adjusted for cold climate and industrial structure. However, Norwegians do stand out as intensive users of electricity. The IEA report shows a reduction of 10 TWh in energy usage when compared to the projected post 1990 figures. Energy efficiency activities have contributed towards this reduction. However, the potential for a more rational use of energy in Norway is still substantial and well documented. Based on experience most enterprises could save around 10% of energy used just by making changes to their operations, i.e. without major investments. Furthermore, the potential is growing because of massive technological developments in respect of energy usage, production and distribution. With this in mind, it is necessary to take full advantage of the extensive knowledge base regarding new renewable energy sources that is available through Nordic cooperation. During the course of the year a new energy body will be established to assume responsibility for initiatives encouraging more rational energy usage and more environment-friendly energy production. When this energy body commences operations next year, it will have a solid foundation on which to build further. It will inherit a well-founded system and an efficient structure. The results achieved during the year 2000 show savings in energy efficiency and the production of new renewable energy of 720 GWh. The gains could be even greater with clearly defined target-driven management. Due to internationalisation, Norway now has to deal with problems to which little attention was previously paid. All energy production has negative environmental co sequences. It is becoming increasingly obvious that we all need to contribute to limiting the damaging effects, while at the same time the international community needs to take the initiative in harmonizing measures which can result in a more sustainable and environment-friendly direction.

  15. Many Acne Patients Don't Take Their Meds, Survey Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many Acne Patients Don't Take Their Meds, Survey Shows ... Preidt Friday, March 20, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Acne Medicines FRIDAY, March 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many ...

  16. Correlation analyses between volatiles and glucosinolates show no evidence for chemical defense signaling in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FlorianPaulSchiestl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Positive correlations between volatile organic compounds (VOCs and defense chemicals indicate signaling of defense status. Such aposematic signaling has been hypothesized to be widespread in plants, however, it has up to now only been shown for visual signals. Correlations between identical compounds in different plant tissues, on the other hand, can be informative about the (co-regulation of their biosynthesis or emission. Here I use Brassica rapa to investigate 1 correlations between identical metabolites (volatiles, glucosinolates in leaf and flower tissue, and 2 correlations between volatiles and glucosinolates in the same plant organs (flowers and leaves. Whereas the amounts of many glucosinolates were positively correlated in leaves and flower tissue, identical leaf and floral VOCs showed no such correlations, indicating independent regulation of emission. None of the leaf or flower volatiles showed positive correlations with the two major glucosinolates (gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin or the sum of all glucosinolates in either leaves or flowers. Some VOCs, however, showed positive correlations with minor glucosinolates which, however, represented less than one percent of the total amounts of glucosinolates. Some leaf monoterpenes showed negative associations with gluconapin. The lack of consistent positive correlations between VOCs and major defense compounds suggests that plants do not chemically signal their defense status. This could be adaptive as it may avoid eavesdropping by specialist herbivores to locate their host plants. Negative correlations likely indicate chemical trade-offs in the synthesis of secondary metabolites.

  17. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...dangers associated with power boat races. Basis...contained between the People's Street T-Head...southernmost tip of the People's Street T-Head...race heat when the power boats have departed...International Boat Show Power Boat Races, Corpus...contained between the People's Street...

  18. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...USCG-2012-0633] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air...

  19. Impact of Pre-Procedure Interventions on No-Show Rate in Pediatric Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric endoscopy has evolved into an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal diseases in children. However, there is limited literature focusing on quality improvement initiatives in pediatric endoscopy. The primary goal of this project was to reduce the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. Also, we aimed to improve patient and family satisfaction with the procedure by identifying opportunities for improvement. A checklist was designed based on the potential causes of no-show. The endoscopy nurse coordinator reviewed the checklist when scheduling the procedure to identify patients at high risk for non-compliance. Once a risk factor was identified, appropriate actions were taken. She also made a pre-procedure phone call as a reminder and to address any of these risks for non-compliance if present. A patient satisfaction survey was used to identify potential areas for improvement. The no-show rate decreased from an average of 7% in the pre-intervention phase to 2% in the post-intervention phase (p = 0.009. 91% of the patients/family recorded an overall satisfaction of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1–5 5 being best. Quality improvement strategies decreased the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. A patient satisfaction survey helped in identifying areas for improvement.

  20. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…