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1

Effects of V-notch dimensions on charpy impact test results for differently sized miniature specimens of ferritic steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop the small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing, the effects of V-notch dimensions on the test results were investigated for miniaturized specimens of a ferritic steel, Japanese Ferrite/Martensite Dual Phase Steel (JFMS). The miniaturized Charpy specimens had four different square cross-sections of 3.3, 2, 1.5 and 1 mm, and each of them had a variety of V-notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle). All of the specimens were subjected to Charpy impact tests between 93 and 373 K using a specially instrumented impact machine. The fracture surfaces of all tested specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) varied noticeably depending upon the notch dimensions, some of the DBTTs exceeding that of the full size specimens. (2) The DBTTs for the miniaturized specimens were uniquely defined by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kt, leading to an important aspect that the DBTT for the full size specimens can be directly obtained from the DBTT of the miniaturized specimens with a V-notch giving a suitable value of Kt. (3) The upper shelf energy (USE) was dependent only on notch depth or ligament size, indicating that the notch geometry was practically unimportant. When all of the measured USEs were normalized by Bb2 or (Bb)3/2 (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), the normalized USEs of the miniaturized specimens agreed with that of the full size specimens within the range of ±15% except for one specimen whose notch root radius was as large as 0.25 mm. (4) The observed characteristics of fracture surface were essentially the same as those of the full size specimens. The measurement of lateral expansion, or ductility, was more useful in estimating the impact property of JFMS than that of fracture appearance (fibrous fracture). (author)

1993-11-01

2

Effects of V-notch dimensions on charpy impact test results for differently sized miniature specimens of ferritic steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to develop the small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing, the effects of V-notch dimensions on the test results were investigated for miniaturized specimens of a ferritic steel, Japanese Ferrite/Martensite Dual Phase Steel (JFMS). The miniaturized Charpy specimens had four different square cross-sections of 3.3, 2, 1.5 and 1 mm, and each of them had a variety of V-notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle). All of the specimens were subjected to Charpy impact tests between 93 and 373 K using a specially instrumented impact machine. The fracture surfaces of all tested specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) varied noticeably depending upon the notch dimensions, some of the DBTTs exceeding that of the full size specimens. (2) The DBTTs for the miniaturized specimens were uniquely defined by the elastic stress concentration factor, K[sub t], leading to an important aspect that the DBTT for the full size specimens can be directly obtained from the DBTT of the miniaturized specimens with a V-notch giving a suitable value of K[sub t]. (3) The upper shelf energy (USE) was dependent only on notch depth or ligament size, indicating that the notch geometry was practically unimportant. When all of the measured USEs were normalized by Bb[sup 2] or (Bb)[sup 3/2] (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), the normalized USEs of the miniaturized specimens agreed with that of the full size specimens within the range of [+-]15% except for one specimen whose notch root radius was as large as 0.25 mm. (4) The observed characteristics of fracture surface were essentially the same as those of the full size specimens. The measurement of lateral expansion, or ductility, was more useful in estimating the impact property of JFMS than that of fracture appearance (fibrous fracture). (author).

Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kayano, Hideo; Narui, Minoru; Yamazaki, Masanori (Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Branch, Inst. for Materials Research); Kano, Yoichi; Shibahara, Itaru

1993-11-01

3

A unified brittle fracture criterion for structures with sharp V-notches under mixed mode loading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unified brittle fracture criterion for cracks and V-notches under mixed mode loading is proposed by extending the maximum circumferential stress criterion and Novozhilov's criterion. The mixed mode fracture toughness and crack orientation of PMMA plates with a sharp V-notch are predicted by the proposed criterion. Tests were also carried out in order to investigate the mixed mode fracture of the PMMA plates. The fracture criterion is validated by comparison to experimental results

Kim, Jin Kwang; Cho, Sang Bong [Kyungnam University, Masan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-07-15

4

Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at {approximately}30{degrees}C to 1 x 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} in a commercial reactor cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at {approximately} 30{degrees}C ({approximately} 85{degrees}F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 16} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was {approximately} 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of {approximately} 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications.

Iskander, S.K.; Stoller, R.E.

1997-04-01

5

Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at ?30 degrees C to 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 in a commercial reactor cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at ? 30 degrees C (? 85 degrees F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was ? 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of ? 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications

1997-01-01

6

The fracture toughness evaluation by instrumented charpy V-notch test for irradiated narrow-gap mig weldment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a proposal to make some empirical correlation between the fracture toughness and the charpy V-notch impact test results for the irradiated Narrow Gap MIG weld deposit metal and their irradiated embrittlement is also examined by the method presently used in practice, determining the transition temperature shift at 30ft-lb absorbed energy. This study predicts a good correlation between the actual measurement of fracture toughness and the fracture toughness derived from the charpy V-notch impact test results. (orig./HP)

1981-08-21

7

Charpy V-notch impact testing and brittle fracture in an A508 CL.3 bainitic steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Charpy V-notch impact testing is widely used in the toughness diagnostic of large forged components, e.g. the vessel of pressurized water reactors (PWR). In an A508 Cl.3 bainitic steel tested at low temperature, cleavage occurs at the initiation of unstable failure. The results reported here are part of both an experimental program and numerical investigations in order to establish a non-empirical relationship between Charpy V-notch energy CVN and fracture toughness KIC. The Beremin model which is based on a critical fracture stress concept and Weibull statistics, is only applied on CVN tests. (orig.)

1997-08-01

8

Vortical structures in a laminar V-notched indeterminate-origin jet  

Science.gov (United States)

A flow visualization investigation using dye-injection and laser-induced fluorescence techniques has been carried out to understand the vortex dynamics resulting from a V-notched indeterminate-origin jet with two peaks and two troughs. The laminar jet (Re=2000) was studied under forcing and nonforcing conditions to investigate the resultant dynamics of coherent large- and small-scale flow structures. Present experimental observations indicated that the effects of the nozzle peaks and troughs differ from those reported previously. Instead of the peaks producing streamwise vortex pairs which spread outwards into the ambient fluid and the troughs generating similar vortex pairs but entraining ambient fluid into the jet flows as indicated by earlier studies, the present experimental observations showed that both peaks and troughs produce outward-spreading streamwise vortex pairs. Laser cross sections further showed that the subsequent formation of azimuthal ring vortices causes these streamwise vortex pairs to be entrained. This entrainment causes the streamwise vortex pairs to ``roll-up'' together with the ring vortices, leading to intense flow interactions between them. Interestingly, in a comparison with the experimental study reported by Longmire et al. [``Control of jet structure by crown-shaped nozzles,'' AIAA J. 30, 505 (1992)] using higher Reynolds number air jet (Re=19 000), it was found that forced jet flows with four peaks and four troughs yielded practically the same flow observations as the present nozzles with two peaks and two troughs. An updated flow model based on instantaneous and time-averaged evidence is presented to explain how the interaction of the vortex structures will give rise to the present new observations.

New, T. H.; Lim, K. M. K.; Tsai, H. M.

2005-05-01

9

Influence of phase transformations on the asymptotic residual stress distribution arising near a sharp V-notch tip  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the residual stress distribution induced by the solidification and cooling of a fusion zone in the vicinity of a sharp V-notch tip is investigated. The intensity of the residual asymptotic stress fields, quantified by the notch stress intensity factors, was studied for two different V-notch specimen geometries under generalized plane-strain conditions. In order to analyze the influence of phase transformations on the obtained results, simulations with and without the effects of phase transformation were carried out on ASTM SA 516 steel plates. Thanks to the possibilities of numerical modelling, additional analyses were performed without taking into account the transformation plasticity phenomenon. It was found that phase transformation effects (both volume change and transformation plasticity) have a great influence on the intensity and sign of the asymptotic stress fields at the sharp V-notch tips. This result is believed to be very important for the correct numerical determination (and future applications) of notch stress intensity factors resulting from asymptotic residual stress distributions induced by transient thermal loads. The analyses were performed with the finite element code SYSWELD. (paper)

2012-12-01

10

Characterising the process zone in complete fretting contacts using plain fatigue sharp V-notch specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this analysis is to demonstrate that it is possible to replicate the conditions prevalent in the process zone of a 'complete' locally slipping contact with an equivalent V-notch plain fatigue specimen. The methodology is as follows: using an asymptotic approach, we can determine the eigenvalues and hence spatial distribution of stresses for both the fretting and notch configurations, in the latter case, based on the Williams' solution. The first step, is to match these eigenvalues, and subsequently, to compare the resulting distribution of stresses. It will be shown that, although there is a comparatively large range of combinations of pad geometry and coefficients of friction where this is feasible, it is only for a very limited range that the resulting stress distributions coincide. This therefore, presents a means of isolating the effects of the differential motion and hence, slip displacement, characteristic of fretting contacts. The experimental implications of these results together with their limitations will be discussed.

Mugadu, A.; Hills, D. A.

2002-07-01

11

Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so that a quasi-static analysis would predict a size independent response. Sizes ranging from 1/4 to 16 times the ASTM standard size are analyzed and two sets of material properties are considered. No size effect is seen below a critical specimen size. Above this limit, a monotonic increase with specimen size is found for the normalized lower shelf energy (LSE) and the normalized upper shelf energy (USE) for both sets of material properties. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is found to increase monotonically with specimen size for one set of material properties, but a non-monotonic variation is found for the other set of material properties. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.

2004-01-01

12

Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ductile-brittle transition for a weld is investigated by numerical analyses of Charpy impact specimens. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow strength variations in a weldment in a HY100 steel. The predicted work to fracture shows a strong sensitivity to the location of the notch relative to the weld, with the most brittle behavior for a notch close to the narrow heat affected zone. The analyses illustrate the strong dependence of the transition temperature on stress triaxiality. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

2000-01-01

13

Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al2O3 and ZrO2 were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al2O3, ZrO2(3%Y2O3) micro-particled and ZrO2(3%Y2O3) nanometric, ZrO2-Al2O3 and Al2O3-ZrO2 composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

2009-06-07

14

Study on irradiation embrittlement of ferritic steels by means of impact testing with miniaturized Charpy V-notch specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief description is given of a specially designed equipment that permits the instrumented Charpy impact test with miniaturized V-notch specimens of a cross section as small as 1.5 by 1.5 or 1.0 by 1.0 mm. The effectiveness of using the miniaturized specimens in estimating the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the upper shelf energy (USE) for full size specimens of a ferritic steel is examined. It is shown that the data obtained from the miniaturized specimens can be used to estimate the DBTT and USE for full size specimens. The result is applied to the evaluation of the DBTT and USE of several kinds of ferritic steels that were neutron-irradiated in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor). 14 refs.; 11 figs.; 4 tabs..

Kayano, H.; Kurishita, H.; Narui, M.; Yamazaki, M. (Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (JP). Oarai Branch of Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and other Metals)

1991-09-01

15

Study on irradiation embrittlement of ferritic steels by means of impact testing with miniaturized Charpy V-notch specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief description is given of a specially designed equipment that permits the instrumented Charpy impact test with miniaturized V-notch specimens of a cross section as small as 1.5 by 1.5 or 1.0 by 1.0 mm. The effectiveness of using the miniaturized specimens in estimating the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the upper shelf energy (USE) for full size specimens of a ferritic steel is examined. It is shown that the data obtained from the miniaturized specimens can be used to estimate the DBTT and USE for full size specimens. The result is applied to the evaluation of the DBTT and USE of several kinds of ferritic steels that were neutron-irradiated in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor). 14 refs.; 11 figs.; 4 tabs

1991-09-01

16

Estimation of critical values for crack propagation from sharp v-notch.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Praha : IT ASc. CzR,v.v,, 2007 - (Zolotarev, I.), ?l. 82 ISBN 978-80-87012-06-2. - (Inženýrská mechanika. 14).[Engineering Mechanics 2007. Svratka (CZ), 14.05.2007-17.05.2007]Grant CEP: GA ?R GP106/06/P239; GA ?R GD106/05/H008Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z20410507Klí?ová slova: V-notchKód oboru RIV: JL - Únava materiálu a lomová mechanika

Majer, Zden?k; Huta?, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zden?k

17

The Evolution of the Maine Lobster V-Notch Practice: Cooperation in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Maine lobster industry is experiencing record high catches because, in all probability, of an effective management program. One of the most important conservation measures is the V-notch program that allows fishermen to conserve proven breeding females by notching the tails of egg-bearing lobsters. Such marked lobsters may never be taken. Although thousands of lobster fishermen participate, it is a voluntary practice. The genesis of this practice is not easily explained, because V-notchin...

James Acheson; Roy Gardner

2011-01-01

18

Experiment HFIR-MFE-T3 for low-temperature irradiation of miniaturized Charpy V-notch specimens of nickel-doped ferritic steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The HFIR-MFE-T3 experimental capsule is described. This experiment consists of miniature Charpy V-notch specimens of 12 Cr-1 MoVW and 12 Cr-1 MoVW-2 Ni alloys. The different levels of nickel will result in different helium levels generated during irradiation, and thus will allow for an evaluation of the effect of helium on impact properties. Irradiation of the capsule has started with projected fluence at midplane that will produce 10 dpa expected by January 1982

1982-03-01

19

Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

2009-07-01

20

Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis method of Charpy V-notch impact data before and after electron beam welding reconstitution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: The EBW can be successful applied for reconstitution of the CVN specimens. The equality of DBTT was checked by t/t'-test with its uncertainty. The CVN data before and after reconstitution is in good agreement. - Abstract: The specimen reconstitution technique is one of the most promising techniques to improve the surveillance program of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). In this study, unirradiated 30Mn2V low-alloy steels were chosen as the test materials, and the broken halves of Charpy V-notch impact (CVN) specimens were reconstituted to be new CVN specimens by the electron beam welding (EBW) as a pilot study in China. Taking the 20 insert reconstituted specimens as an example, Boltzmann function was used to fit the CVN data, the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and its uncertainty were evaluated, and the equality of DBTT between the reconstituted specimens and original specimens was checked by t/t'-test. There is a great consistency between CVN data of EBW reconstituted specimens and that of original specimens.

Wan Qiangmao, E-mail: wanqm@hotmail.co [Department of Material Engineering, School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Luojia Hill, Wuhan City (China); Research Center of Plant Life Management, Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xihuan Road 1788, Suzhou City (China); Wang Rong-shan, E-mail: snpi@qq.co [Research Center of Plant Life Management, Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xihuan Road 1788, Suzhou City (China); Shu Guogang [Department of Material Engineering, School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Luojia Hill, Wuhan City (China); China Nuclear Power Enginerring Co. Ltd., Shangbu Mid-Way 1001, Shenzhen City (China); Ding Hui [Department of Material Engineering, School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Luojia Hill, Wuhan City (China); Huang Ping; Lv Feng; Weng Likui [Research Center of Plant Life Management, Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Xihuan Road 1788, Suzhou City (China)

2011-02-15

22

The assets and limitations of the Charpy V-notch approach to pressure vessel safety in the surveillance programmes - A proposal for modifications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Charpy V-notch impact test data forms the primary basis in the present surveillance programmes of analysing the effects of radiation on the reactor pressure vessel. The weaknesses of this approach are discussed with regard to the requirement of minimum initial upper-shelf energy. The enforcement of this requirement could lead to regulatory action with a risk for outage of some of the existing commercial reactors. To prevent such consequences resulting from the ill-defined property of upper-shelf energy, a proposal is made for the introduction of fracture mechanics specimens in to the surveillance programmes in addition to the Charpy V specimens. Using the elastic-plastic fracture mechanics approach the material degradation due to such effects as strain ageing and radiation could then be evaluated in a much more quantitative manner. (author)

1979-12-01

23

A fracture criteria for V-notches in single-crystalline silicium; Ein Bruchkriterium fuer Spitzkerben in einkristallinem Silizium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tension near field in front of sharp V-notches in orthotropic materials can be described with the formula (ij = A1(ij1(()r-(1 when a symmetric stress is exposed on the V-notch. (ij1(() and (1 can be calculated analytically. The tension intensity criteria A1=A1C is taken as the fracture criteria for V-notches in single-crystalline silicium, which are produced in an anisotropic etch process. In this respect A1C is a characteristic material value, that must be assessed by experiments. By means of the Finite Element method geometrical functions are set up to calculate A1 for notched tension specimen and four-point bending specimen in dependence on notch dimensions and stress. (MM.) [Deutsch] Das Spannungsnahfeld vor scharfen Kerben in orthotropen Materialien laesst sich bei symmetrischer Belastung der Kerbe als {sigma}{sub ij} = A{sub 1}f{sub ij1}({phi})r{sup -{lambda}1} darstellen, wobei f{sub ij1}({phi}) und {lambda}{sub 1} analytisch berechenbar sind. Als Bruchkriterium fuer Spitzkerben in einkristallinem Silizium, die beim anisotropen Aetzprozess entstehen, wird das Spannungsintensitaetskriterium A{sub 1}=A{sub 1c} formuliert, wobei A{sub 1c} ein experimentell zu ermittelnder Materialkennwert ist. Mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente werden fuer gekerbte Zugproben und 4-Punkt-Biegeproben Geometriefunktionen zur Berechnung von A{sub 1} in Abhaengigkeit von Kerbabmessungen und Belastung aufgestellt. (orig.)

Heinzelmann, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Halle (Germany); Kuna, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Halle (Germany)

1994-12-31

24

On impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch type specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential for using subsize specimens to determine the actual properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for improved vessel condition monitoring that could be beneficial for light-water reactor plant-life extension. This potential is made conditional upon, on the one hand, by the possibility of cutting samples of small volume from the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. The plant-life extension will require supplemental surveillance data that cannot be provided by the existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize CVN type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens. This requires the development of a correlation of transition temperature and upper-shelf toughness between subsize and full-size specimens. The present study was conducted under the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Different published approaches to the use of subsize specimens were analyzed and five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and upper-shelf energies (USEs). Effects of specimen dimensions, including depth, angle, and radius of notch have been studied. The correlation of transition temperature determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimen is presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens was developed and is presented.

Mikhail, A.S.; Nanstad, R.K.

1994-12-31

25

On impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch type specimens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential for using subsize specimens to determine the actual properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for improved vessel condition monitoring that could be beneficial for light-water reactor plant-life extension. This potential is made conditional upon, on the one hand, by the possibility of cutting samples of small volume from the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. The plant-life extension will require supplemental surveillance data that cannot be provided by the existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize CVN type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens. This requires the development of a correlation of transition temperature and upper-shelf toughness between subsize and full-size specimens. The present study was conducted under the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Different published approaches to the use of subsize specimens were analyzed and five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and upper-shelf energies (USEs). Effects of specimen dimensions, including depth, angle, and radius of notch have been studied. The correlation of transition temperature determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimen is presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens was developed and is presented

1994-06-20

26

Showing similarity of results given by two methods: A commentary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a frequent need in the environmental sciences to show the similarity of the results given by two analytical methods. This cannot, however, be done within the conventional 'there is a difference' statistical hypothesis setting of, among others, Student's t-test. We demonstrate here a more appropriate approach that originates from drug testing and that can be applied with standard statistical software. It is a challenging approach, as it requires quantification of the similarity limit. If no pre-determined value is given for similarity, a potential data-supported similarity limit can be explored from the data. The approach has numerous other potential application areas, e.g. parallelism of regression slopes, homogeneity of variances and lack of interaction. - Showing similarity of two methods calls for specific, yet simple, statistical techniques

2007-01-01

27

Effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behaviour of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I investigated using subsize V-notch specimens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of neutron irradiation on the dynamic fracture toughness behaviour of the 12% Cr steel MANET-I was investigated using DIN 50115-KLST, subsize, V-notch impact bend specimens (3x4x27 mm[sup 3]). The microstructure of the steel was varied by employing different quenching and austenizing conditions. The specimens were irradiated in the HFR Petten at 300, 400, and 475deg C to displacement damage levels as high as 5 dpa[sub NRT]. Experimental results are reported from an ongoing program aimed at determining the influcene of irradiation-induced microstructural changes on the impact properties of MANET-I: The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), the relative fracture toughness, and the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness. Following irradiation a large increase in the DBTT and a remarkable decrease in the upper-shelf energy (USE) were observed. The changes in the properties depend strongly on the irradiation temperature. The DBTT and USE of the irradiated specimens also depend clearly on the initial microstructure of the material. The increase in DBTT and the decrease in USE are in general greater at 300 than at 400 and 475deg C. Under proper conditions the instrumented impact test can be used to determine the dynamic plane strain fracture toughness K[sub 1d] and the J-integral of unirradiated and irradiated materials. (orig.).

Wassilew, C.; Ehrlich, K. (Kernforschungszenrum Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Materialforschung (Germany))

1992-09-01

28

NIH Trial Shows Promising Results in Treating a Lymphoma in Young People  

Science.gov (United States)

... Funding Information Search the NIH Guide Search the NIH Guide NIH Guide advanced search Quick Links RePORT ... Wednesday, April 10, 2013, 5 p.m. EDT NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma ...

29

Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

30

Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under struct...

Ga?llego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Ferna?ndez-busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-ramon

2010-01-01

31

Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (? ? 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (? ? 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (? ? 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (? ? 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis.

Gallego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernandez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

2010-01-01

32

Charpy-V Notch Ductility Characteristics of Neutron-Irradiated A537-B and A350-LF2 Steel Weldments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear service performance of thin (3/4-inch) structural steel plate irradiated at 150F (65C) to a fluence of 2.5 x 10 to the 18th power neutrons sq cm of energies greater than 1 MeV has been examined and documented with experimental results. Five 3/...

R. A. Gray

1970-01-01

33

Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed.

Lucon, E

1999-04-01

34

Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed

1999-01-01

35

Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

36

Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:  

Science.gov (United States)

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

37

Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the other hand, transgenic lines expressing nontranslatable HC-Pro or translatable HC-Pro with a deletion of the central domain showed wild type symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and heterologous viruses. These results showed that CABMV HC-Pro is a pathogenicity determinant that conditions enhanced sensitivity to virus infection in plants, and that the central domain of the protein is essential for this. The severe symptoms in CABMV-infected HC-Pro expressing lines were remarkably followed by brief recovery and subsequent re-establishment of infection, possibly indicating counteracting effects of HC-Pro expression and a host defense response. One of the HC-Pro expressing lines (h48) was found to contain low levels of transgenic HC-Pro RNA and to be resistant to CABMV and to recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro. This indicated that h48 was (partially) posttranscriptionally silenced for the HC-Pro transgene inspite of the established role of HC-Pro as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Line h48 was not resistant to PVY, but instead showed enhanced symptoms compared to nontransgenic plants. This may be due to relief of silencing of the HC-Pro transgene by HC-Pro expressed by PVY. PMID:12206307

Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Verver, Jan; Sithole-Niang, Idah; Prins, Marcel; Van Kammen, A B; Wellink, Joan

2002-01-01

38

A brittle fracture criterion for PMMA V-notches tensile specimens based on a length-enriched eXtended Finite Element approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A criterion for the prediction of the static failure loads in tensile PMMA specimens with sharp notches is presented. The proposed criterion is based on a regularized version of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM, which has been previously applied to concrete-like materials. The main feature of the proposed approach is that the cracking process is not treated as a local process, but it is modeled by assuming that macro-cracks stem from the interaction of micro-cracks within a finite width process zone. The case of a brittle materials with thin process zone is tackled by assuming one layer of enriched finite elements. Preliminary results concerning PMMA specimens subjected to mode-one loading are presented.

P. Livieri

2011-07-01

39

Usefulness of DNA ploidy measurement on liquid-based smears showing conflicting results between cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus typing.  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve the positive predictive value (PPV) for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in primary screening, DNA ploidy was measured on the same liquid-based sample by image cytometry in 984 cases showing discrepancies between cytology and HR-HPV testing. Of the conflicting results, 14.5% corresponded to a cytologic lesion (from atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL]) without HPV detected, and 85.5% of smears were within normal limits but revealed an HR-HPV infection. A suspect DNA profile was associated significantly with a lesion. In 497 patients who underwent repeated HPV testing, a normal DNA profile at the first smear predicted the clearance of HPV infection (sensitivity, 81.5%; specificity, 45.4%; PPV, 69%; negative predictive value, 62.4%). In persistent HR-HPV infection, a suspect DNA profile at the first smear increased the PPVfrom 10.8% to 22.7% for the detection of a histologically proven HSIL with a sensitivity of 95.2%. DNA ploidy can be used to select smears with high risk of HSIL, especially in cases of persistent HR-HPV infection. PMID:12428790

Lorenzato, Marianne; Bory, Jean-Paul; Cucherousset, Jöel; Nou, Jean-Marie; Bouttens, Dominique; Thil, Corinne; Dez, Francine; Evrard, Ghislaine; Quereux, Christian; Birembaut, Philippe; Clavel, Christine

2002-11-01

40

Statistical analyses of fracture toughness results for two irradiated high-copper welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Fifth Irradiation Series were to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the transition temperature shift and the shape of the KIc curve described in Sect. 6 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31% were commercially fabricated in 215-mm-thick plates. Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact, tensile, drop-weight, and compact specimens up to 203.2 mm thick [1T, 2T, 4T, 6T, and 8T C(T)] were tested to provide a large data base for unirradiated material. Similar specimens with compacts up to 4T were irradiated at about 288 degrees C to a mean fluence of about 1.5 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV) in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Both linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods were used to analyze all cleavage fracture results and local cleavage instabilities (pop-ins). Evaluation of the results showed that the cleavage fracture toughness values determined at initial pop-ins fall within the same scatter band as the values from failed specimens; thus, they were included in the data base for analysis (all data are designated KJc)

1990-06-17

 
 
 
 
41

Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-12-01

42

Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degree C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME KIa curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs

1990-01-01

43

Long-range energy efficiency agreements show results in the foundry sector in the Netherlands; Meerjarenafspraken werpen resultaten af in gieterijbranche  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief overview is given of the results of the long-range energy efficiency agreement (MJA, abbreviated in Dutch) between the Dutch government and the foundry sector. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de resultaten van de meerjarenafspraak (MJA) tussen het Ministerie van Economische Zaken en de gieterijen sector.

Koppenol, T. [Rommelse Communicatieadvies, Velserbroek (Netherlands)

2003-04-01

44

Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse.

Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

2014-01-01

45

Solar Light Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

46

Showing Value (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

Denise Koufogiannakis

2009-06-01

47

Demonstration Road Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

48

Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

Sugawara Kazuo

2001-10-01

49

The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions  

CERN Document Server

Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

Barra, Orazio A

2013-01-01

50

Alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e hísticas hepáticas en donantes de sangre con anticuerpo al VHC positivo / Clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and hystic hepatic alterations in blood donors showing positive hepatitis virus C antibody test results  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de 69 donantes de sangre, con anticuerpos al virus C positivo detectados en el Banco de Sangre Provincial, remitidos a la consulta provincial del Hospital Universitario Provincial "Vladimir Ilich Lenin", entre enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2006, y a qui [...] enes se le realizó biopsia hepática translaparoscópica. Con el objetivo de estimar las alteraciones clínicas, humorales, laparoscópicas e histopatológicas hepáticas se revisaron las boletas de solicitud de biopsia. Hubo predominio de las hepatitis crónicas con actividad mínima (12; 33,33 %) y ligera (13; 36,1 %). La mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos (62; 89,9 %, y con transaminasas normales (47; 68,1 %). La laparoscopia constituyó una prueba muy específica, con un 84,4 % de especificidad, con un considerable valor de una prueba positiva, 75 %, para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica. Sin embargo, las bajas cifras de la sensibilidad (41 %) y del valor predictivo de una prueba negativa (57,1 %) para el diagnóstico de la hepatitis crónica, reafirman que la biopsia hepática sigue siendo la prueba de oro para el diagnóstico de esta enfermedad. Abstract in english An observational and descriptive study was made on 69 blood donors, who had positive C virus antibodies detected by the provincial blood bank and had been referred to "Vladimir Ilich Lenin" provincial university hospital from January 2000 to December 2006. They were performed translaparoscopic hepat [...] ic biopsy. For the purpose of estimating clinical, humoral, laparoscopic and histopathological hepatic disorders, the biopsy request forms were checked. Chronic hepatitis predominated, with minimal activity (12; 33.335) and slight activity (13; 36.1 %). Most of patients were asymptomatic (62; 89.9 %) and their transaminase values were normal (47; 68.1 %). Laparoscopy was a very specific test showing 84.4 % specificity, with a high value (75 %) in a positive test for chronic hepatitis diagnosis. However, low figures of sensitivity (41 %) and of the predictive value in a negative test (57.1 %) for chronic hepatitis diagnosis reaffirmed that hepatic biopsy continues to be the golden test for the diagnosis of this disease.

Agustín, Mulet Pérez; Évora, Arencibia Vidal; Martha, Gámez Escalona; Menelio, Pullés Labadié; Marlen, Pérez Lorenzo; Agustín, Mulet Gámez.

51

TAPS pressure vessel surveillance - results and evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SA302B (nickel modified) steel cladded with stainless steel is used as the pressure vessel material for the two 210 MWe boiling water reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. Charpy V-notch impact surveillance specimens representing the pressure vessel belt-line base, weld and the heat affected zone were irradiated at the wall and shroud locations. Some of these specimens were removed after 6.5 effective full power years (EFPY) of reactor operation. The neutron fluences at the locations were 5.31 x 1017 and 4.88 x 1018 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). The surveillance data generated from specimens removed after 6.5 EFPY were evaluated on the basis of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99, Revision 2, and the results had assured the integrity of the vessel beyond the end of design service life (EOL) of 40 years. The recent evaluation of the additional data generated from specimens removed after 13 EFPY has again confirmed the safety of the pressure vessel beyond EOL by an additional 20 EFPY. (author)

2001-01-01

52

Severe arrhythmia as a result of the interaction of cetirizine and pilsicainide in a patient with renal insufficiency: first case presentation showing competition for excretion via renal multidrug resistance protein 1 and organic cation transporter 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 72-year-old woman with renal insufficiency who was taking oral pilsicainide (150 mg/d) complained of feeling faint 3 days after she was prescribed oral cetirizine (20 mg/d). She was found to have a wide QRS wave with bradycardia. Her symptoms were relieved by termination of pilsicainide. The plasma concentrations of both drugs were significantly increased during the coadministration, and the cetirizine concentration decreased on cessation of pilsicainide despite the fact that treatment with cetirizine was continued, which suggested that the fainting was induced by the pharmacokinetic drug interaction. A pharmacokinetic study in 6 healthy male volunteers after a single dose of either cetirizine (20 mg) or pilsicainide (50 mg), or both, found that the renal clearance of each drug was significantly decreased by the coadministration of the drugs (from 475 +/- 101 mL/min to 279 +/- 117 mL/min for pilsicainide and from 189 +/- 37 mL/min to 118 +/- 28 mL/min for cetirizine; P = .008 and .009, respectively). In vitro studies using Xenopus oocytes with microinjected human organic cation transporter 2 and renal cells transfected with human multidrug resistance protein 1 revealed that the transport of the substrates of these transporters was inhibited by either cetirizine or pilsicainide. Thus elevated concentrations of these drugs as a result of a pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction via either human multidrug resistance protein 1 or human organic cation transporter 2 (or both) in the renal tubular cells might have caused the arrhythmia in our patient. Although cetirizine has less potential for causing arrhythmias than other histamine 1 blockers, such an interaction should be considered, especially in patients with renal insufficiency who are receiving pilsicainide. PMID:16580907

Tsuruoka, Shuichi; Ioka, Takashi; Wakaumi, Michi; Sakamoto, Koh-ichi; Ookami, Hitoshi; Fujimura, Akio

2006-04-01

53

Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, Kla of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10 degrees C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280 degrees C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284 degrees C to a fluence of 3.2 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Kla curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

1998-01-01

54

Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

1998-02-01

55

Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace

1994-05-18

56

Applications of surveillance programme results to reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment. Results of a coordinated research project 2000-2004  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This TECDOC has been developed under an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Surveillance Programme Results Application to Reactor Pressure Vessel Integrity Assessment. This CRP is the fifth in a series that have led to the defining of the most appropriate fracture toughness parameters (using relatively small test specimens) for ensuring structural integrity of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials. The CRP group consisted of 20 testing laboratories representing 15 Member States. The CRP had three main objectives: (1) to develop a large database of fracture toughness data using the Master Curve methodology for both precracked Charpy-sized specimens and one-inch thick (25.4 mm) compact tension (1T-CT) specimens, (2) to assess possible specimen bias effects and any effects of the range of temperatures used to determine T0, either using the single temperature or multi-temperature assessment methods, and (3) to develop international guidelines for measuring and applying Master Curve fracture toughness results for RPV integrity assessment. Fracture toughness test results showed clear evidence that lower values of unirradiated T0 were obtained using precracked Charpy specimens compared with results obtained from 1T-CT specimens. This bias in test results is very important when considering the use of precracked Charpy specimens for evaluating RPV integrity. In fact, this is a technical area where the results from this CRP were influential in changing the ASTM test method to include consideration of this effect. The direct measurement approach using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment has distinct advantages over the indirect methods used in the past for assessing radiation embrittlement effects. The Master Curve methodology already has been or is being assimilated into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, ASTM Standards, USNRC Regulations, German Regulations (KTA 3203), IAEA pressurized thermal shock guidelines for WWER reactors as well as the unified procedure for WWER component lifetime assessment and other industry guidance documents governing RPV integrity analysis. This report was written to allow nuclear utility engineers and industry scientists to directly measure fracture toughness using small surveillance size specimens of irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and directly apply the results using the Master Curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment. This report provides a summary of Master Curve fracture toughness test results on small surveillance type specimens of the IAEA Reference Material JRQ and other national steels from numerous laboratories throughout the world. In addition to transition temperature testing using Charpy V-notch test specimens, some emphasis was placed on using tensile and early-design fracture toughness test specimens applying elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods. Further progress in the application of fracture mechanics analysis methods for radiation damage assessment was achieved in this phase. Improvement and unification of neutron dosimetry methods provided better data with less inherent scatter. All results together with their analyses and raw data were summarized in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 265

2005-01-01

57

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Millan, Marília Pereira Bueno.

58

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-06-01

59

Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

Joly, E.

2004-01-01

60

Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

Ilana Feldman

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Producing Talent and Variety Shows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

Szabo, Chuck

1995-01-01

62

Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root of the notch as well as plastic deformations superior to 100%. After a fractography study allowing to identify the nature of the sites which lead to the cleavage initiation, the numerical study shows, particularly, the effect of the adiabatic heating and the taking into account of the growth of cavities around a second population of particles (carbides) on the ductile fissure. The application of the proposed methodology allows to describe the resilience data until middle energies of about 70 J. Beyond, an appearing weak dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature has to be introduced. On the other hand, the evolving of the toughness can be described until middle values of 170 MPa/m without introducing dependency of the cleavage constraint with temperature. (O.M.)

Tanguy, B

2001-07-15

63

A model for estimation of threshold values V-notch emanating fatigue cracks.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Lausanne : Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Materialkunde, 2000, s. 459.[Junior Euromat 2000. Lausanne (CH), 28.08.2000-01.09.2000]Grant CEP: GA AV ?R KSK1076602; GA AV ?R IBS2041001Kód oboru RIV: JL - Únava materiálu a lomová mechanika

Klusák, Jan

64

Evaluation of the threshold values for fatigue crack propagation starting at the V-notch.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Žilina : MC Energy, 2000 - (Kompiš, V.; Žmindák, M.; Maunder, E.), s. 014[International conference, Numerical methods in continuum mechanics /8./. Liptovský Ján (SK), 19.09.2000-24.09.2000]Grant CEP: GA AV ?R KSK1076602; GA AV ?R IBS2041001Kód oboru RIV: JL - Únava materiálu a lomová mechanika

Klusák, Jan; Knésl, Zden?k

65

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

Science.gov (United States)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface. During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles). The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left. The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green. Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil. The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

66

A perspective on thermal annealing of reactor pressure vessel materials from the viewpoint of experimental results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is believed that in the next decade or so, several nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) may exceed the reference temperature limits set by the pressurized thermal shock screening criteria. One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on RPVs is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the annealing response, or ''recovery'' of several irradiated RPV steels. The fracture toughness is one of the important properties used in the evaluation of the integrity of RPVs. Optimally, the fracture toughness is measured directly by fracture toughness specimens, such as compact tension or precracked Charpy specimens, but is often inferred from the results of Charpy V-notch impact specimens. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of models for embrittlement recovery which have been developed by Eason et al. Some of the issues in annealing that still need to be resolved are discussed

1996-03-10

67

Peptoid analogues of anoplin show antibacterial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have synthesised nine analogues of the antibacterial peptide anoplin with a peptoid residue at position 5 (H-GLLKXIKTLL-NH(2)). The most active compounds showed MIC-values of 12.5 and 25 microM against E.coli and S.aureus. These MIC-values are comparable with anoplin which showed 23 microM and 11 microM against E. coli and S.aureus. However, the selectivity was reversed. Our results indicate that peptoid analogues of anoplin are promising lead structures for developing new antibacterial agents. PMID:19799550

Meinike, K; Hansen, P R

2009-01-01

68

Results of examinations of pressure vessel samples and instrument nozzles from the TMI-2 lower head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen prism-shaped steel samples were removed from the lower head of the damaged TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel to assess the effects of approximately 19 metric tons of molten core debris that had relocated there during the 1979 loss-of-coolant accident. Metallographic examinations of the samples revealed that inside surface temperatures of 800 to 1,100 degree C were attained during the accident in an elliptical shaped ''hot spot'' ?1 x 0.7 m. Tensile, creep, and Charpy V-notch specimens were also cut from the samples to assess the mechanical properties of the lower head material at temperatures up to the peak accident temperature. These properties were used in a margin to failure analysis of the lower head. Examinations of instrument nozzles removed from the lower head region assisted in defining the relocation scenario of the molten core debris and showed that the lower head was largely protected from catastrophic failure by a solidified layer around the molten core debris that acted as a partial thermal insulator

1993-10-25

69

Results of examinations of pressure vessel samples and instrument nozzles from the TMI-2 lower head  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifteen prism-shaped steel samples were removed from the lower head of the damaged TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel to assess the effects of approximately 19 metric tons of molten core debris that had relocated there during the 1979 loss-of-coolant accident. Metallographic examinations of the samples revealed that inside surface temperatures of 800 to 1,100{degree}C were attained during the accident in an elliptical shaped ``hot spot`` {approx}1 {times} 0.7 m. Tensile, creep, and Charpy V-notch specimens were also cut from the samples to assess the mechanical properties of the lower head material at temperatures up to the peak accident temperature. These properties were used in a margin to failure analysis of the lower head. Examinations of instrument nozzles removed from the lower head region assisted in defining the relocation scenario of the molten core debris and showed that the lower head was largely protected from catastrophic failure by a solidified layer around the molten core debris that acted as a partial thermal insulator.

Korth, G.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-10-01

70

Pseudogout showing meningoencephalitic symptoms: crowned dens syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 70-year-old man who presented symptoms resembling those of meningoencephalitis and who was subsequently diagnosed as having a crowned dens syndrome. The patient exhibited severe neck pains, headache, high fever and a pain in his knee joints together with symptoms of the central nervous system. The patient's cerebrospinal fluid was almost clear and showed no sign of viral infection. An analysis of the synovial fluid in the right knee joint revealed typical calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition and a diagnosis of pseudogout was therefore made. A tomographic examination of the neck showed periodontoid calcification. The patient was first treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, but its effect was only minimal. On the other hand, the administration of corticosteroid resulted in a dramatic improvement in his condition. PMID:15497527

Sato, Yoshitomo; Yasuda, Tadashi; Konno, Seiko; Kuwayama, Akehisa; Komatsu, Kanji

2004-09-01

71

Boron aluminum crippling strength shows improvement  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also show that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.

Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.

1974-01-01

72

Pectin shows antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pectins are the collective name for a group of heterogeneous, high molecular weight, branched polysaccharides that are found in the cell walls of higher plants. In this study, we intend to determine the antibacterial activity of pectin against reference strains and clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. The results show that pectin produced antibacterial effects on all the 16 clinical isolates and 2 reference strains of H. pylori with the greatest antibacterial effect at a low pH (5.0 versus higher pHs. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration recorded was of 0.016 ?g/?l. Antibiotic resistance, therapy costs, and undesirable side effects stress the need for new antimicrobials or alternative therapies. The results from our study can further our goal of future eradication of H. pylori infection using new molecules.

Roula M. Abdel-Massih

2013-02-01

73

Results of examinations of pressure vessel samples and instrument tube nozzles from the TMI-2 lower head  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen prism-shaped steel samples were removed from the lower head of the damaged TMI-2 reactor pressure vessel to assess the effects of approximately 19 metric tons of molten core debris that had relocated there during the 1979 loss-of-coolant accident. Metallographic examinations of the samples revealed that inside-surface temperatures of 800 to 1100 degrees C were attained during the accident in an elliptical open-quotes hot spot close-quote ? 1 x 0.8 m. Tensile, creep, and Charpy V-notch specimens were cut from the samples to assess the mechanical properties of the lower head material at temperatures up to the peak accident temperature. These properties were used in a margin-to-failure analysis of the lower head. Examinations of instrument nozzles removed from the lower head region assisted in defining the relocation scenario of the molten core debris and showed that the lower head was largely protected from castrophic failure by a solidified layer below the molten core debris that acted as a partial thermal insulator

1994-04-01

74

Resultados histológicos e detecção do HPV em mulheres com células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado e lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau na colpocitologia oncológica Histological results and HPV detection in women with pap smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da colpocitologia oncológica (CO e da Captura de Híbridos II (CHII para o diagnóstico de lesão cervical histológica significativa (NIC2/3 em mulheres encaminhadas com CO contendo atipias celulares de significado indeterminado (ASCUS ou lesão escamosa intra-epitelial de baixo grau (LSIL. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal no qual foram incluídas 161 mulheres encaminhadas, entre agosto de 2000 e setembro de 2002, devido a CO com resultado de ASCUS ou LSIL. As mulheres responderam a questionário específico sobre características sociodemográficas e reprodutivas e foram submetidas a exame ginecológico com coleta de CO e CHII, sendo realizada colposcopia com eventual biópsia de áreas suspeitas. Foi aplicado o teste do qui-quadrado para as associações da idade, uso de condom, uso de anticoncepcional oral e tabagismo com os resultados da CHII. Foram calculados a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo da CO e da CHII para detectar NIC2/3. Todos os cálculos foram realizados com intervalos de confiança estatística de 95%. RESULTADOS: sessenta e sete porcento das mulheres com menos de 30 anos de idade tiveram testes positivos para o HPV. A CO e CHII tiveram sensibilidade de 82% em detectar NIC2/3 quando considerados como positivos ASCUS, LSIL ou HSIL. Quando se consideram como positivas apenas as CO com HSIL, este exame apresenta acentuado ganho de especificidade (de 29 para 95% e valor preditivo positivo (de 12 para 50%, superando a CHII, porém com redução igualmente significativa de sua sensibilidade (de 82 para 41%. CONCLUSÕES: nossos resultados indicaram grande potencial da CHII para detectar mulheres com NIC2/3 entre as pacientes com ASCUS/LSIL na CO de encaminhamento.OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of Pap smear and hybrid capture II (HCII to detect clinically significant cervical lesions (CIN2/3 in women referred to hospital due to atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL. METHODS: a cross-sectional study comprising 161 women referred to the Taubaté University Hospital due to ASCUS/LSIL, between August 2000 and September 2002. All women responded to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and were subjected to gynecological examination with specimen collection for Pap test and HCII, along with colposcopy and eventual cervical biopsy. The relationship between HCII results and age, use of condom, oral hormonal contraception, and smoking were evaluated by the chi-square test. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of both Pap test and HCII were calculated. All calculations were performed within 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: sixty-seven percent of the women that tested positive for HPV were less than 30 years old. Pap smear and HCII showed the same 82% sensitivity in detecting CIN2/3 when the threshold for a positive Pap result was ASCUS, LSIL or HSIL. Pap smear specificity and positive predictive values were substantially increased when only HSIL results were considered as positive (from 29 to 95% and 12 to 50%, respectively. These figures were superior to those of HCII, but at the expense of an expressive loss of sensitivity (from 82% to 41%. CONCLUSIONS: our results substantiate the potential of HCII in detecting CIN2/3 among women referred due to ASCUS/LSIL.

André Luis Ferreira Santos

2004-07-01

75

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-11-01

76

Showing elasticity differences by mr elastography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Differences of elasticity in tissue phantoms with inclusions of different elasticity were mapped by means of MR elastography (MRE). This new magnetic resonance imaging technique is based on the phase shift of the MR signal by switching a motion sensitizing magnetic field gradient simultaneously with the coupling of a shear wave. Wave patterns showing snapshots of the shear wave that propagates through the investigated substance were depicted in tomographic phase images. It was investigated wether a visualization of differences in elasticity of soft tissues was possible on the basis of differences in the wavelength. For this purpose, tissue phantoms with cylindrical inclusions were produced from agar gels, with agar concentrations between 1.0 and 1.5%. The diameters of the inclusions were of the order of a few centimetres. For diameters as small as 4 cm, there were still distinct differences in the wavelength between the matrix and the inclusion. The results of our study suggest that this technique has the potential for future application as an additional imaging method for tumor detection. (orig.)

2001-01-01

77

Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

78

New Psoriasis Drug Shows Promise in Trials  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Psoriasis Drug Shows Promise in Trials Secukinumab appears more ... Wednesday, July 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Medicines Psoriasis WEDNESDAY, July 9, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new ...

79

Melanoma Drug Trials Show Significant Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Melanoma Drug Trials Show Significant Promise By targeting immune ... Monday, June 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Medicines Melanoma MONDAY, June 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A relatively ...

80

Adult Stem Cell Research Shows Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Adult Stem Cell Research Shows Promise Search the Consumer Updates Section ... our office.” back to top So What Are Stem Cells? There are two basic kinds of stem cells ...

 
 
 
 
81

2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show  

CERN Multimedia

A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

2008-01-01

82

Data shows treatment inequalities for EU'  

...Data shows treatment inequalities for EU's multiple sclerosis patients | EurActiv The MS Barometer 2011, which has measured and compared wellbeing and quality ...of life for people living with multiple sclerosis in 33 European countries, including 26 EU member states, shows huge disparities in terms ... specialreport-brain-multiple-sclerosis,brain research,Multiple Sclerosis EU news & policy debates- across languages - en Click here for EU news »x ...Special Reports Enabling the Next Technology Revolution Industrial Renaissance The Brain and Multiple Sclerosis Quo Vadis Health and Safety at Work? Sustainable and ...

83

WebtopONE Everest show document  

...WebtopONE Everest upload page WebtopONE Everest show document Dokumentet hentes, vent venligst... Hvis dokumentet ikke hentes automatisk, kan det være fordi javascript ikke tillades i browseren. I så fald kan dokumentet hentes ved at klikke på linket nedenfor. Klik her for at hente dokumentet. Dokumentet åbnes muligvis i et separat vindue. ...

84

Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR  

CERN Multimedia

Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

1964-01-01

85

Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

2007-01-01

86

Creating a Slide-Tape Show.  

Science.gov (United States)

The opportunities for real language use in creating a slide show in the language class are described. Fifteen steps for replicating the project are included. Students choose the topic, develop the story line, create the dialogue, take the photographs, write the script, and act the roles. (PMJ)

Kert, Isabel

1980-01-01

87

A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens  

Science.gov (United States)

La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

Bouchard, Real

88

Influence of the sinngularity induced by the free surface on behaviour of thin body with a v-notch.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

. Ostrava : VŠB - Technická univerzita Ostrava, 2007, s. 1-8. ISBN 978-80-248-1389-9.[International Scientific Conference Applied Mechanics 2007 /9./. Malenovice (CZ), 16.04.2007-19.04.2007]Grant CEP: GA ?R GD106/05/H008; GA ?R GA101/05/0227Výzkumný zám?r: CEZ:AV0Z20410507Klí?ová slova: Surface singularityKód oboru RIV: JL - Únava materiálu a lomová mechanika

Majer, Zden?k; Huta?, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš

89

Malignant melanoma showing smooth muscle differentiation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A unique case of a metastatic non-desmoplastic sarcomatoid malignant melanoma in an axillary lymph node showing smooth muscle differentiation in a 54 year old woman is described. The tumour cells exhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF-35 and desmin positivity but were negative for S100 protein and HMB-45. Ultrastructural examination revealed smooth muscle phenotype and there was no evidence of myofibroblastic differentiation, a feature described previously in desmoplastic melanomas.

Banerjee, S. S.; Bishop, P. W.; Nicholson, C. M.; Eyden, B. P.

1996-01-01

90

IPI-145 shows promise in CLL patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from a phase I study of Infinity Pharmaceuticals' IPI-145, which inhibits both ? and ? isoforms of phosphoinositide3-kinase, suggest the drug is safe and effective in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24501284

2014-02-01

91

Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an apparent linear albedo or reflectance boundary. Color images yet to be returned from the Galileo spacecraft may help resolve the question of whether or not the two ends of Ida are made of different materials.

1994-01-01

92

Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence...

Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

2013-01-01

93

Clathrin Triskelia Show Evidence of Molecular Flexibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The clathrin triskelion, which is a three-legged pinwheel-shaped heteropolymer, is a major component in the protein coats of certain post-Golgi and endocytic vesicles. At low pH, or at physiological pH in the presence of assembly proteins, triskelia will self-assemble to form a closed clathrin cage, or “basket”. Recent static light scattering and dynamic light scattering studies of triskelia in solution showed that an individual triskelion has an intrinsic pucker similar to, but differing...

Ferguson, Matthew L.; Prasad, Kondury; Boukari, Hacene; Sackett, Dan L.; Krueger, Susan; Lafer, Eileen M.; Nossal, Ralph

2008-01-01

94

VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse  

Science.gov (United States)

A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature progressively outwards. Although its existence was not previously suspected, this lower-temperature gas turns out to be the most abundant constituent of Betelgeuse's atmosphere. "This alters our basic understanding of red-supergiant star atmospheres," explains Lim. "Instead of the star's atmosphere expanding uniformly because of gas heated to very high temperatures near its surface, it now appears that several giant convection cells propel gas from the star's surface into its atmosphere. This creates the complex structure we observe for Betelgeuse's atmosphere." Betelgeuse can be likened to an enormous "boiling" ball of gas heated by the release of energy from nuclear fusion in its core. The circulating boiling pattern -- convection -- appears as large regions of hot upwelling gas on the star's surface. "The idea that red-supergiant stars have enormous convection cells is not new," noted Marson. "This was suggested by Martin Schwarzschild more than 20 years ago, and was seen in optical images of Betelgeuse's surface in 1990." The new picture of Betelgeuse's atmosphere also helps resolve the mystery of how massive amounts of dust and gas are expelled from red supergiant stars, an important source of enrichment for the interstellar medium. If their atmospheres were entirely very hot at lower levels, dust grains would not be able to condense there. Dust grains could possibly condense at higher levels, but there they would not get enough "push" from the star's radiation to explain their outward movement. In the new picture, the relatively cool environment at lower levels allows dust grains to condense effectively; here they can be strongly propelled by the more-intense starlight, carrying gas with them. Indeed, dust has previously been inferred to form sporadically near Betelgeuse's surface, but its presence there was difficult to reconcile with the old picture. "This method for propelling the mass outflows of red giant and supergiant stars was proposed by Sun Kwok i

1998-04-01

95

Mesenchymal stem cells show radioresistance in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irradiation impacts on the viability and differentiation capacity of tissue-borne mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which play a pivotal role in bone regeneration. As a consequence of radiotherapy, bones may develop osteoradionecrosis. When irradiating human bone-derived MSC in vitro with increasing doses, the cells' self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and pre-adipocytes. As a large animal model comparable to the clinical situation, pig mandibles were subjected to fractionized radiation of 2 ? 9 Gy within 1 week. This treatment mimics that of a standardized clinical treatment regimen of head and neck cancer patients irradiated 30 ? 2 Gy. In the pig model, fractures which had been irradiated, showed delayed osseous healing. When isolating MSC at different time points post-irradiation, no significant changes regarding proliferation capacity and osteogenic differentiation potential became apparent. Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with a single dose of either 9 or 18 Gy in vivo, and MSC were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and 9 Gy irradiated bone with respect to proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were unveiled. Yet, cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first 2 weeks proliferation rates were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed normal proliferation behaviour. These findings imply that MSC can effectively cope with irradiation up to high doses in vivo. This finding should thus be implemented in future therapeutic concepts to protect regenerating tissue from radiation consequences. PMID:21762375

Singh, Sarvpreet; Kloss, Frank R; Brunauer, Regina; Schimke, Magdalena; Jamnig, Angelika; Greiderer-Kleinlercher, Brigitte; Klima, Günter; Rentenberger, Julia; Auberger, Thomas; Hächl, Oliver; Rasse, Michael; Gassner, Robert; Lepperdinger, Günter

2012-04-01

96

High temperature filter tests show exposure reduction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of reduction of exposure dose at BWR type reactors of the first and second NPP units in Oxcarshamen by means of high temperature filters of new construction are presented. In new filters instead of wire cuttings changeable cartridges are used. Each filtering cartridge is fixed in a stable vessel with flanges. Two or more cartridges connected in parallel constitute a new high temperature filter. The first test results have shown that the total 60Co absorption efficiency constitutes approximately 70%, 58Co is considerably higher, for 54Mn and 65Zn it is equal approximately 40%. For several years of NPP operation the application of new filters reduces the dose rate by approximately 35%

1981-01-01

97

The Source of Lake Wobegon (slide show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John J. Cannell's late 1980's "Lake Wobegon" reports suggested widespread deliberate educator manipulation of norm-referenced standardized test (NRT administrations and results, resulting in artificial test score gains. The Cannell studies have been referenced in education research since, but as evidence that high stakes (and not cheating or lax security cause test score inflation. This article examines that research and Cannell's data for evidence that high stakes cause test score inflation. No such evidence is found. Indeed, the evidence indicates that, if anything, the absence of high stakes is associated with artificial test score gains. The variable most highly correlated with test score inflation is general performance on achievement tests, with traditionally low-performing states exhibiting more test score inflation on low-stakes norm-referenced tests than traditionally high-performing states, regardless of whether or not a state also maintains a high-stakes testing program. The unsupported high-stakes-cause-test-score-inflation hypothesis seems to derive from the surreptitious substitution of an antiquated definition of the term "high stakes" and a few studies afflicted with left-out-variable bias. The source of test-score inflation is lax security, regardless the stakes of a test.

Richard P. Phelps

2007-05-01

98

Do Tantalum and Titanium Cups Show Similar Results in Revision Hip Arthroplasty?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Porous surfaces are intended to enhance osteointegration of cementless implants. Tantalum has been introduced in an effort to enhance osseointegration potential of uncemented components. We therefore compared the clinical outcome of acetabular components with two different porous surfaces. We retrospectively reviewed 283 patients (295 hips) who underwent cementless revision hip arthroplasty with either an HA-coated titanium cup (207 patients, 214 hips) or porous tantalum cup (79 patients, 81 ...

2010-01-01

99

Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

Graham J. Alexander

2011-10-01

100

DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations  

Science.gov (United States)

Two BQM-34 Firebee II drones were modified with supercritical airfoils, called the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW), for the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program, which ran from 1977 to 1983. In this view of DAST-1 (Serial # 72-1557), taken on June 12, 1980, severe wingtip flutter is visible. Moments later, the right wing failed catastrophically and the vehicle crashed near Cuddeback Dry Lake. Before the drone was lost, it had made two captive and two free flights. Its first free flight, on October 2, 1979, was cut short by an uplink receiver failure. The drone was caught in midair by an HH-3 helicopter. The second free flight, on March 12, 1980, was successful, ending in a midair recovery. The third free flight, made on June 12, was to expand the flutter envelope. All of these missions launched from the NASA B-52. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F-104 chase plane. When the DAST's mission ended, it deployed a parachute and then a specially eq

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effective Marketing Strategies to Attract Business Visitors at Trade Shows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trade shows have been the focus of recent research as constituting one of the most effective marketing strategies.Related issues have been discussed extensively in the literature. How to achieve better performance is central tothese discussions. Studies on the key factors that influence trade show performance have focused mainly onsubjective opinions from the perspective of the staff at exhibitions. In this study, we explored the key criteria fora business visitor in selecting suppliers at a trade show; that is, what kind of trade show strategies can promoteexhibitors’ performance? Trade show strategies from previous studies were first summarized. They wereclassified into three categories: before, at, and after the show. To address the problem of complexity anduncertainty, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP was used to explore the importance of the variousstrategies. The results showed that "follow-up after the exhibition" was the most important factor from theperspective of business visitors. “Active invitation before the exhibition” was considered to be the next mostimportant issue in attracting business visitors at a trade show. Among at-show strategies, the most important wasthat of staff knowledge of the product and trade details. The results of this study could contribute to enhancingtrade show performance.

Mei-Chin Chu

2013-11-01

102

Nissan at 33rd Tokyo Motor Show; Dai 33 kai Tokyo Motor show  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokyo Motor Show is one of the leading exhibition opportunities for automobile companies world wide in terms of both scale and features, including the number of visitors as well as the devotion of each participant. For many years, we have worked hard to excell at each session of this show, (through the display of concept cars and Nissan Motor's technological developments), the show has played an increasing role in enhancing Nissan's brand image. At the 33rd Tokyo Motor Show in October 1999 was held at a time when Nissan had drawn the attention of the market because of its tic-up with Renault. Nissan demonstrated a revolutionary change through the introduction of concept cars, environmental technology, safety technology, new models, and so on. (author)

Sekiguchi, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2000-01-01

103

Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds. Phase 2: Results of duplex-type experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degrees}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. {open_quotes}Mean{close_quote} curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) K{sub la} curve were fit to the data with only the {open_quotes}reference temperature{close_quotes} as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined.

Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

104

Managing Trade Show Campaigns:Why Managerial Responsibilities Matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examined the relationship between managerial responsibilities for important trade show tasks and the marketing performance of exhibiting firms. Drawing theoretical insights from the functionalist perspective of managerial roles and organizational role theory, this article proposed and validated theory based, multiple, task-managerial responsibility linkages using a large international b2b trade show as a context. The empirical results indicated that the marketing performance of e...

Tafesse, Wondwesen; Korneliussen, Tor

2012-01-01

105

?Branding At Trade Shows : ?How subcontractors use trade shows to strengthen their brand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Branding is a way for companies to differentiate their products and services from its competitors in the fierce competition in business today. This phenomena has up until recently mostly been used in the B2C context, but the importance of branding in the B2B context has been more and more acknowledged. Trade shows are a good way to find customers, and to display and sell products, but can it also be used to strengthen the brand of the exhibiting company? According to Nordiska Unde...

Andersson, Karl-johan; Alm, Simon; Andersson, Jörgen

2007-01-01

106

Intercan '99 - the Calgary oil and gas show: official show guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The official show guide features a list of exhibitor profiles and list of products and services. A leading technology seminar series, held during Intercan '99 presented 47 papers on such topics as economically viable benzene pollution solution, micro turbines for effective flare gas treatment, cost effective and technologically advanced silicated drilling fluids, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, predictive maintenance tools, advantages of the inclined free water knockout (IFWKO), isotherm systems, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, on-site bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated drill cuttings through composting technologies, a new environmentally acceptable drill mud oil and real-time well monitoring case studies. Papers were also presented on: Exacta's all in one series XI controller for air/fuel radio control, more efficient and cost effective coiled tubing technology, pressure enhancement of marginal gas, hands-free automatic oil well optimization, economically viable benzene pollution solution, new products to solve the soluble salt dilemma, real-time hydrocarbon reservoir management using PC based reservoir simulators,real-time bottom hole pressure monitoring system for fracturing operations and remote modular facilities and accommodation for maximized personnel productivity

1999-06-08

107

O show da Química: motivando o interesse científico / The Chemistry show: motivating the scientific interest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The aim of this article is to provide the understanding of the chemical world that underlies everything around us by introducing basic chemical concepts and their everyday applications. The specific topics presented were selected according to their relevance and their ability to be presented as an e [...] xhibition. This format is based on the visual effects that help the public to see abstract descriptions in a concrete form. In addition, a soundtrack is used to stimulate the affective intelligence and relax the public. According to the results obtained here, we can conclude that chemical demonstrations, combined with music, help the presentation of scientific topics and motivate and facilitate the "chemistry communication".

Agnaldo, Arroio; Káthia M., Honório; Karen C., Weber; Paula, Homem-de-Mello; Maria Teresa do Prado, Gambardella; Albérico B. F. da, Silva.

108

The Swimmer's view: does it really show what it is supposed to show? A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the basic principles in the primary survey of a trauma patient is immobilisation of the cervical spine till cleared of any injury. Lateral cervical spine radiograph is one of the important initial radiographic assessments. More than often additional radiographs like the Swimmer's view are necessary for adequate visualisation of the cervical spine. How good is the Swimmer's view in visualisation of the cervical spine after an inadequate lateral cervical spine radiograph? Methods 100 Swimmer's view radiographs randomly selected over a 2 year period in trauma patients were included for the study. All the patients had inadequate lateral cervical spine radiographs. The radiographs were assessed with regards to their adequacy by a single observer. The criteria for adequacy were adequate visualisation of the C7 body, C7/T1 junction and the soft tissue shadow. Results Only 55% of the radiographs were adequate. None of the inadequate radiographs provided adequate visualisation of the C7 body and the C7/T1 junction. In 42.2% radiographs the soft tissue shadow was unclear. Poor exposure accounted for 53% of the inadequacies while overlapping bones accounted for the rest. Conclusion Clearing the cervical spine prior to removing triple immobilisation is essential in a trauma patient. This needs adequate visualisation from C1 to C7/T1 junction. In our study Swimmer's views did not satisfactorily provide adequate visualisation of the cervical spine in trauma patients. We recommend screening the cervical spine by a CT scan when the cervical spine lateral radiographs and Swimmer's views are inadequate.

Yesupalan Rajam SU

2008-01-01

109

Atlantic salmon show capability for cardiac acclimation to warm temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in environmental temperature predicted to result from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been observed to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we show that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?°C with a maximum heart rate of ~\

Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P

2014-01-01

110

The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of all seven arthropod species tested (28-d EC10 values of approximately 0.03?µg/L). The results indicated a high aquatic risk of chronic exposure of imidacloprid to mayflies.

Roessink, I.; Merga, L. B.; Zweers, A. J.; Brink, P. J.

2013-01-01

111

Nuclear plant irradiated steel handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This reference handbook presents selected information extracted from the EPRI reactor surveillance program database, which contains the results from surveillance program reports on 57 plants and 116 capsules. Tabulated data includes radiation induced temperature shifts, capsule irradiation conditions and statistical features of the Charpy V-notch curves. General information on the surveillance materials is provided and the Charpy V-notch energy results are presented graphically

1986-01-01

112

The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG)

1983-01-01

113

Carbon nanotube sponge shows improved water clean-up  

...January February March Carbon nanotube sponge shows improved water clean-up 17 January 2014 | Source: Nanotechnology A carbon nanotube sponge capable of soaking up water contaminants, ... The carbon nanotube (CNT) sponges, uniquely doped with sulphur, also demonstrated a high capacity to absorb oil, potentially opening ... The results have been published today, 17 January, in IOP Publishing’s journal Nanotechnology. CNTs are hollow cylindrical structures composed of a single sheet ... Owing to their structure, CNTs have extraordinary thermal, chemical and mechanical properties that have led to an array of applications from body ...

114

SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

2010-01-01

115

The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability  

Science.gov (United States)

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

2011-06-01

116

Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. PMID:24626632

Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

2014-08-01

117

Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner. PMID:23727034

Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2013-09-01

118

Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Seikwan Oh

2011-10-01

119

Human resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, shows chaperone-like activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistin, a cysteine-rich adipocytokine, proposed as a link between obesity and diabetes in mice, was shown as a proinflammatory molecule in humans. We earlier reported that human resistin (hRes), a trimer, was resistant to heat and urea denaturation, existed in an oligomeric polydispersed state, and showed a concentration-dependent conformational change. These properties and an intimate correlation of hRes expression with cellular stress prompted us to investigate hRes as a possible chaperone. Here, we show that recombinant human resistin was able to protect the heat-labile enzymes citrate synthase and Nde1 from thermal aggregation and inactivation and was able to refold and restore their enzymatic activities after heat/guanidinium chloride denaturation. Furthermore, recombinant human resistin could bind misfolded proteins only. Molecular dynamics-based association-dissociation kinetics of hRes subunits pointed to resistin being a molecular chaperone. Bis-ANS, which blocks surface hydrophobicity, abrogated the chaperone activity of hRes, establishing the importance of surface hydrophobicity for chaperone activity. Replacement of Phe49 with Tyr (F49YhRes), a critical residue within the hydrophobic patch of hRes, although it could prevent thermal aggregation of citrate synthase and Nde1, was unable to refold and restore their activities. Treatment of U937 cells with tunicamycin/thapsigargin resulted in reduced hRes secretion and concomitant localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Escherichia coli transformants expressing hRes could be rescued from thermal stress, pointing to hRes's chaperone-like function in vivo. HeLa cells transfected with hRes showed protection from thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hRes, an inflammatory protein, additionally exhibited chaperone-like properties, suggesting a possible link between inflammation and cellular stress. PMID:24282299

Suragani, Madhuri; Aadinarayana, Varma D; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Pandey, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Tapan K; Ehtesham, Nasreen Zafar

2013-12-17

120

Model experiments showing simultaneous development of folds and transcurrent faults  

Science.gov (United States)

Simultaneous development of noncylindrical folds and transcurrent fractures has been studied using model techniques. A plasticine model was compressed in one direction and an initial formation of folds was followed by the initiation of conjugate sets of transcurrent fractures. It was recorded that with progressive deformation the length of each fracture and the displacement along it increase steadily and the rate of displacement varies at different stages of deformation. Individual fold geometries vary along their hinge lines and these geometrical variations appear to be due to interference of folds with the transcurrent fractures. These interference effects also change the amount of rotation of fractures. Fold structures are different on either side of the fault plane. A natural example from the Bude area, England, shows similar geometrical features. The method of determining fault displacement by comparing the positions of fold hinge lines on either side of a fault is discussed in the light of the above results.

Dubey, Ashok Kumar

1980-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca2+/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

2007-11-16

122

Testosterone gel shows promise in Phase III trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early results from a Phase III trial of Androgel, a testosterone replacement gel developed by Unimed Pharmaceuticals, shows that it effectively restores testosterone serum levels without skin irritation. The transdermal delivery has been found to adequately replace the hormone, and is easy to apply. The study did not target AIDS patients, but other studies have shown that testosterone-replacement therapy is effective in regaining muscle mass and improving the physical and mental state of HIV-positive patients. The drug will be sold in doses of 25 mg-dose packages, and clinicians will be able to prescribe two- or four-package doses as appropriate. Europeans have administered androgens in a gel form for over 15 years, but this is the first time such a product will be available in the United States. Unimed plans to submit the drug for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval soon. PMID:11366410

1999-06-01

123

Could Acoustic Emission Testing Show a Pipe Failure in Advance?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 20 years PETROBRAS has been attempting to use Acoustic Emission (AE) as an inspection tool. In this period the AE concept has changed from a revolutionary method to a way of finding areas to make a complete inspection. PETROBRAS has a lot of pressure vessels inspected by AE and with other NDTs techniques to establish their relationship. In other hand, PETROBRAS R&D Center has conducted destructive hydrostatic tests in pipelines samples with artificial defects made by milling. Those tests were monitored by acoustic emission and manual ultrasonic until the complete failure of pipe sample. This article shows the results obtained and a brief proposal of analysis criteria for this environment of test.

Soares, S. D.; Teixeira, J. C. G.

2004-02-01

124

Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition  

Science.gov (United States)

The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria.

Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

2013-01-01

125

PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan kompresi dan dekompresi file video, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan proses editing terhadap file video digital. Selain itu program juga dilengkapi dengan fasilitas untuk mendukung proses editing. Aplikasi tersebut dibuat dengan Microsoft Visual C++ dengan menggunakan teknologi DirectX, khususnya DirectShow. Aplikasi tersebut meyediakan fasilitas - fasilitas dasar yang membantu proses editing pada video digital. Dengan aplikasi tersebut dihasilkan file video baru dalam format AVI yang terbentuk dari proses editing yang dilakukan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan kemampuan aplikasi melakukan proses pemotongan dan penyisipan file video dalam format AVI, MPEG, MPG dan DAT. Proses pemotongan dan penyisipan dilakukan dengan urutan yang statis. Selain itu aplikasi juga menyediakan efek antara masing - masing clip. Dan yang terakhir melakukan proses penyimpanan satu file dalam format AVI yang terbentuk dari proses editing dalam aplikasi. Kata kunci: Multimedia, Video Editor, Direct-X, Direct-Show, AVI, MPG.

Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

2004-01-01

126

Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast cancer. However we found that there is no correlation between the metastasis showing restricted diffusion and primary pathology. Prospective studies with larger groups and more information are necessary regarding the correlation between the primary tumor histopathology and the ADC values of metastasis with restricted diffusion.

Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

2010-04-15

127

Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 ± 0.16 x 10-3 mm2/s and 0.78 ± 21 x 10-3 mm2/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast cancer. However we found that there is no correlation between the metastasis showing restricted diffusion and primary pathology. Prospective studies with larger groups and more information are necessary regarding the correlation between the primary tumor histopathology and the ADC values of metastasis with restricted diffusion.

2010-04-01

128

GAMS results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this contribution some recent results of the GAMS collaboration are shown. Some of them are still preliminary. Results on the following reactions are presented: ?-p ? (? ?0) n, ?-p ? (? ?0) n, and ?-p? ?-p (??) centrally produced. (orig.)

1991-06-01

129

Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

2012-07-01

130

Prosimian primates show ratio dependence in spontaneous quantity discriminations  

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Full Text Available We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of nonhuman animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object-file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object-file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (? 3, both values were large (> 3, or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of nonhuman primates.

SarahMychalJones

2012-12-01

131

ZEUS Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several results from the ZEUS Collaboration were presented at this Workshop. The highlights are presented in this summary, and include results from NLO QCD fits and determination of ?S, from forward jets and diffractive final states, from pentaquarks and searches and from heavy flavour production. Also the first results from the analysis of the HERA II e+p/e-p data are shown

2005-10-06

132

Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely- dispersed radio telescopes has existed for only a few years. Supernova 1993J was the first one that was both close enough and had radio emission strong enough to enable scientists to make such detailed images. While the circular images show that the explosion debris is expanding symmetrically, the radio emission is stronger on one side of the shell. The explanation for this is unclear. Some astronomers have suggested that the stronger emission could result from the debris interacting with a companion star orbiting the one that exploded. The researchers believe that their sequence of images, with the stronger emission persisting for months after the explosion, makes the companion-star hypothesis unlikely. Previous radio observations of older and larger supernova shells have revealed protrusions within the shell. The latest images, however, show no such protrusions. This places limits on theories of how the protrusions form. In addition, the new images show that Supernova 1993J's debris shell has shown no signs yet of slowing due to interaction with material surrounding it. The material from the star's explosion is moving at nearly 10,000 miles per second, according to the researchers. At that speed, the material would travel the distance from the Earth to Saturn in one day. When the angular expansion rate of the supernova debris measured by the radio observatories is combined with the expansion speed of the same debris, measured by optical astronomers, it is possible to obtain an accurate value of the distance to M81. The value determined, 11 million light-years, is similar to that obtained by other, independent, means. This is important, as astronomers continue to seek more accurate distances to celestial objects to better gauge the actual size of the Universe. In addition to the VLA and several antennas of the VLBA, the scientists used German and Italian radio telescopes, as well as NASA facilities in California and Spain.

1995-11-01

133

Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Japan Quake Shows How Stress Alters the Brain Victims ... people who experienced the devastating 2011 earthquake in Japan shows that although traumatic events can shrink parts ...

134

Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

2009-01-01

135

Effect of copper content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass MMA, low alloy steel weld metal deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of copper content in the range of 0.14-0.94 wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Ni-Cu low alloy steel weld metal deposits was investigated. All welds were prepared by manual metal arc welding technique in flat position. Microstructure of the welds was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopes. The results showed increase in acicular ferrite and microphases formed at the expense of primary ferrite and ferrite with second phase with steady refinement of microstructure. According to these microstructural changes, hardness, yield and ultimate tensile stresses increased while Charpy V-notch impact toughness and percent elongation reduced.

2009-06-01

136

Toughness properties up to service temperature (290"0C) for different thick pressure vessel components in SA 508 C1.3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A validation of fracture toughness characteristics, both in the transition zone and ductile regime was undertaken on specific PWR pressure vessel components: a nozzle and a steam generator tube plate. Dynamic fracture toughness results on specimens extracted from segregated zones were found conservatively predicted by the K (IR) reference curve of the ASME Code based on the RT (NDT) referencing procedure. The resistance against crack extension was characterized by the J-?a resistance curve method. Compilation of J (Ic values and slopes dJ/da) of the resistance curve originating from various forgings shows a close dependance with the CHARPY V notch upper shelf energy. (orig./HP)

1981-08-21

137

Non-conventional caries management techniques for children show promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

DesignSecondary care-based, three-arm parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.InterventionChildren aged three to eight years old with at least one primary molar tooth with caries into dentine involving two dental surfaces were randomised to either; conventional restoration (CR) with local anaesthesia, Hall technique (HT) or non-restorative caries treatment (NRCT) with no local anaesthetic. Only one tooth per child was included and parents were present during treatment.Outcome measureChild's pain perception (Visual Analogue Scale of Faces); behaviour (Frankl scale); and parents' and dentists' treatment opinions (five-point Likert scales).ResultsOne hundred and sixty-nine children (96 boys and 73 girls) were randomised; 52 received HT; 52 NRCT and 65 CR. Children showed more negative behaviour in the CR group (37%) compared to NRCT (21%) and HT (13%) (P = 0.047, CI = 0.41 to 0.52). Pain intensity was rated 'very low' or 'low' in 88% NRCT, 81% HT, and 72% CR (P = 0.11, CI = 0.10 to 0.12). NRCT and HT were 'very easy' or 'easy' to perform for >77% of dentists, compared to 50% in CR group (P pain perception and dentist/parent acceptability were similar. PMID:24971854

Thillainathan, Sharaniya; Duane, Brett

2014-06-01

138

Ca (II-EDTA shows antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic bacteria  

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Full Text Available Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt (Ca (II-EDTA was investigated for its antibacterial activity against the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of Ca (II-EDTA and its bactericidal activity. Ethylenediamine-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid calcium (II disodium salt inhibited the growth of all the periodontopathic bacteria tested in broth. An MIC of 60 mM was the most effective against P. gingivalis. An adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay revealed that Ca (II-EDTA showed bactericidal activity against the bacteria tested in a time-dependent manner. To determine its safety in mammalian cells, we investigated the viability of murine L929 cells subjected to Ca (II-EDTA treatment. At 75 mM, 93% ± 0.13% of the cells survived. These results indicate that Ca (II-EDTA is a candidate chelating agent for prevention of infection by periodontopathic bacteria.

Masao Yoshinari

2012-01-01

139

Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and Archaea  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play an essential role in genome rearrangement and evolution, and are widely used as an important genetic tool. Results In this article, we present genetic maps of recently active Insertion Sequence (IS elements, the simplest form of MGEs, for all sequenced cyanobacteria and archaea, predicted based on the previously identified ~1,500 IS elements. Our predicted IS maps are consistent with the NCBI annotations of the IS elements. By linking the predicted IS elements to various characteristics of the organisms under study and the organism's living conditions, we found that (a the activities of IS elements heavily depend on the environments where the host organisms live; (b the number of recently active IS elements in a genome tends to increase with the genome size; (c the flanking regions of the recently active IS elements are significantly enriched with genes encoding DNA binding factors, transporters and enzymes; and (d IS movements show no tendency to disrupt operonic structures. Conclusion This is the first genome-scale maps of IS elements with detailed structural information on the sequence level. These genetic maps of recently active IS elements and the several interesting observations would help to improve our understanding of how IS elements proliferate and how they are involved in the evolution of the host genomes.

Xu Ying

2008-01-01

140

Children with Autism Show Reduced Somatosensory Response: An MEG Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Lay Abstract Autism spectrum disorders are reported to affect nearly one out of every one hundred children, with over 90% of these children showing behavioral disturbances related to the processing of basic sensory information. Behavioral sensitivity to light touch, such as profound discomfort with clothing tags and physical contact, is a ubiquitous finding in children on the autism spectrum. In this study, we investigate the strength and timing of brain activity in response to simple, light taps to the fingertip. Our results suggest that children with autism show a diminished early response in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). This finding is most evident in the left hemisphere. In exploratory analysis, we also show that tactile sensory behavior, as measured by the Sensory Profile, may be a better predictor of the intensity and timing of brain activity related to touch than a clinical autism diagnosis. We report that children with atypical tactile behavior have significantly lower amplitude somatosensory cortical responses in both hemispheres. Thus sensory behavioral phenotype appears to be a more powerful strategy for investigating neural activity in this cohort. This study provides evidence for atypical brain activity during sensory processing in autistic children and suggests that our sensory behavior based methodology may be an important approach to investigating brain activity in people with autism and neurodevelopmental disorders. Scientific Abstract The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison to matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, painless taps applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32–1.64s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7–11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response.

Marco, Elysa J.; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S.; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S.; Dowling, Anne F.; Neuhaus, John M.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Hinkley, Leighton N. B.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

Narui, Jahan

2013-01-01

142

A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. ? It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. ? 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. ? Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. ? A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 ?M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

2010-09-03

143

Ganil results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent Ganil results are presented: hot nuclei properties and multifragmentation, study of flow change around the inversion energy. Mesons and hard photons production are also briefly discussed. Correlations with studies that have been led in Saturne energy range, and the developments that can be foreseen in the future have been discussed

1992-05-18

144

North and South America: Showing the Changing Seasons  

Science.gov (United States)

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the Western Hemisphere. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring, summer (for the Northern Hemisphere).

Allen, Jesse; Newcombe, Marte; Feldman, Gene

1998-09-09

145

Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

Klemm, W. R.

2007-01-01

146

"The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

Trier, James

2008-01-01

147

GAMS results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author emphasizes results of the GAMS Collaboration related to various subjects which have been approached during the last one and a half day. Five Institutes are involved in the GAMS Collaboration: IISN, IHEP, INFN, LAPP, LANL which are exploiting two experimental setups: one at IHEP (Serpukhov), known as GAMS-2000, the second at CERN (NA12 experiment), known as GAMS-4000. The results presented have mainly been obtained in the study of the exclusive reaction ?-p ? M0n where M0 decays finally into m? where m can reach a value as large as 12. Four topics are presented: ? decays, ?' decays, f0 (1590), first evidence for an exotic meson in the ??0 channel

1988-03-03

148

Amanda results  

CERN Multimedia

The AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) detector, located at the South Pole station, Antarctica, was recently expanded with the addition of six new strings, completing the phase referred to as AMANDA-II. This detector has been calibrated and in operation since January 2000. The first data analyses are currently underway. In this report we present an update on the results from the AMANDA-B10 detector, which operated during the austral winter 1997.

Hill, G C

2001-01-01

149

SAGE results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

1995-10-22

150

SAGE results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author) 19 refs.

Gavrin, V.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; SAGE Collaboration

1996-12-31

151

X-31 Unloading Returning from Paris Air Show  

Science.gov (United States)

After being flown in the Paris Air Show in June 1995, the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, California, is off-loaded from an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport after the ferry flight back to Edwards. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1995-01-01

152

Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

Cook, D.L.

2010-02-15

153

Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

2010-02-01

154

PVLAS results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The PVLAS experiment has built an apparatus to measure rotations and ellipticities induced by a transverse magnetic field onto linearly polarized laser light.Available results can be interpreted as observation of an unexpectedly large rotation effect between 10-7 and 4 10-7rad. If this rotation is due to the existence of a light spin zero boson of mass m and coupling to two photons 1/M, the ball-park values of the boson mass parameters are m=1meV and M=10+6GeV.

Gastaldi, Ugo

2005-01-01

155

When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

Kozak, Marcin

2011-01-01

156

Sepsis Study Comparing Three Treatment Methods Shows Same Survival Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

... March 18, 2014, 3:30 a.m. EDT Sepsis study comparing three treatment methods shows same survival ... or the usual high-level standard of care. Sepsis affects more than 800,000 Americans annually and ...

157

Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

... Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring ... may be the key to treating a debilitating skin disorder effectively, according to research conducted in mice and ...

158

Teen 'Sexting' Has a Double Standard, Study Shows  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Teen 'Sexting' Has a Double Standard, Study Shows Girls ... June 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Internet Safety Teen Sexual Health THURSDAY, June 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

159

Dengue Fever Vaccine Shows Some Promise in Trial  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dengue Fever Vaccine Shows Some Promise in Trial But ... July 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Childhood Immunization Dengue THURSDAY, July 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A potential ...

160

Alzheimer's Rate Falling in the United States, Studies Show  

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... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alzheimer's Rate Falling in the United States, Studies Show ... 2014) Tuesday, July 15, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Alzheimer's Disease Seniors' Health TUESDAY, July 15, 2014 (HealthDay ...

 
 
 
 
161

??????????????---?????? Computer Simulation, a Nice Case —Now We Can Show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????[1]????????????????????????????????????????????????“????”???This paper shows a case of computer simulation in China’s aerospace industry, which combines mathematics, physics, astronomy, electricity and manufacture[1]. This is a nice case and gives us some nice experiences for future.

???

2013-04-01

162

Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Educational Materials Do you want to know more about Parkinson's? PDF's materials provide ... Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar 20 2014 A simple outpatient procedure that ...

163

Levodopa Shows Slight Edge As Initial Treatment for Parkinson's  

Science.gov (United States)

Levodopa Shows Slight Edge as Initial Treatment for Parkinson’s - Jun 10 2014 People who took levodopa (which ... as Sinemet®) as their initial therapy after a Parkinson’s disease (PD) diagnosis reported, over the long term, ...

164

Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproectiv...

Jae-Chul Jung; Yeonju Lee; Sohyeon Moon; Jong Hoon Ryu; Seikwan Oh

2011-01-01

165

TODDLERS WITH ELEVATED AUTISM SYMPTOMS SHOW SLOWED HABITUATION TO FACES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explored social information processing and its relation to social and communicative symptoms in toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their siblings. Toddlers with more severe symptoms of autism showed slower habituation to faces than comparison groups; slower face learning correlated with poorer social skills and lower verbal ability. Unaffected toddlers who were siblings of children with ASD also showed slower habituation to faces compared with toddlers without siblings with A...

Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Namkung, Jessica; Toth, Karen; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

2010-01-01

166

Simple pneumonediastinum showing the findings of pleural effusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We experienced a case of simple pneumonediastinum showing the findings of pleural effusion. Frontal chest radiography showed not only pneumonediastinum but also diffuse haziness with sharp medical margin on left lower lung field, blunting of costophrenic angle, and indistinct contour of diaphragm simulating pleural effusion. CT scan confirmed that these findings arose from the displaced pleura and the associated compression atelectasis by loculated air on the anterior mediastinum

1992-09-01

167

Effective Marketing Strategies to Attract Business Visitors at Trade Shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trade shows have been the focus of recent research as constituting one of the most effective marketing strategies.Related issues have been discussed extensively in the literature. How to achieve better performance is central tothese discussions. Studies on the key factors that influence trade show performance have focused mainly onsubjective opinions from the perspective of the staff at exhibitions. In this study, we explored the key criteria fora business visitor in selecting suppliers at...

2013-01-01

168

Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis. PMID:21963740

Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

2011-01-01

169

Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to capacity projections developed in this edition, by the year 2035, world nuclear capacity is projected to grow to between 500 and 785 GWe net. Accordingly, world reactor- related uranium requirements are also projected to rise. As observed in the past, increased investment in exploration has resulted in important discoveries and the identification of new resources. It is foreseen that, if market conditions improve further, additional exploration will be stimulated leading to the identification of additional resources of economic interest. Even in the high-growth scenario to 2035, less than half of the identified resources described in this edition would be consumed. The challenge remains to develop mines in a timely and environmentally sustainable fashion as uranium demand increases. A strong market will be required for these resources to be developed within the time frame required to meet future uranium demand. In addition, current projections of uranium mine production capacities could satisfy projected high-case world uranium requirements until the late 2020s. However, given the challenges and length of time associated with increasing production at existing mines and opening new mines, it is unlikely that all production increases will proceed as planned. As a result, secondary sources of previously mined uranium will continue to be required, complemented to the extent possible by uranium savings achieved by specifying lower tails assays at enrichment facilities and technical developments in fuel cycle technology. While the status of supply and demand is considered from today's technologies perspective, it should be recognised that the deployment of advanced reactor and fuel cycle technologies can positively affect the long-term availability of uranium and could conceivably extend it to thousands of years. These are some of the findings from Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand , a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their member countries and states and commonly referred to as the ''Red Book''. This is the 23r

2010-07-20

170

The Effectiveness of Trade Shows in Global Competition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trade shows industry has experienced a rapid growth during the last years. They are considered as a vital communication technique especially for those companies that operate in international markets and that aim to reach specific audiences. Making them an integral part of the marketing communication strategy enables companies in: developing customer relationships; offering possibilities for sales and sales promotion; undertaking and maintaining good international business relations; monitoring international competition as well as minimizing entry barriers in new markets. During the last years, many Albanian companies that operate in foreign businesses have started to engage in trade shows. Face to face meetings with their potential customers and direct competitors are among the most important reasons for investing in this marketing tool. Even though the literature regarding trade shows effectiveness is increasing constantly, research on its effectiveness is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of trade shows as a marketing communication tool. More specifically, it is focused in studying the usage of trade shows by Albanian companies when competing on international markets.

JONIDA KELLEZI

2013-06-01

171

An induced sterile mutant in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) showing failure of chromosome pairing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a M_2 progeny row of black gram var. T9, resulting from irradiation treatment, a plant was recorded which showed considerable univalent formation. The M_2 progeny confirmed its generic nature, showing its possible monogenetic control. (auth.)

1978-01-01

172

The presentation of science in everyday life: the science show  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper constitutes a case-study of the `science show' model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest and imagination of young learners in STEM; challenge popular pre/misconceptions of science and scientists; reveal the broadness, plurality and everyday relevance of science; and induce a more fluent and equitable science nexus between expert and non-expert or learner groups. Discussion focuses on conversations with members of a UK and university based science communication outfit who comment on the potential of the science show as a model of non-formal science education and science engagement and the necessary conditions for its success.

Watermeyer, Richard

2013-09-01

173

Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May  

CERN Multimedia

On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

2013-01-01

174

MRF study shows processing costs of recyclables exceed revenues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section includes descriptions of recent developments in waste management. Topics include: a materials recovery facility (MRF) study shows that the processing costs of recyclables exceeds revenues; a UCLA-led consortium offers low cost training for hazardous waste workers: solar energy is explored as a promising technique for detoxification; the American Paper Institute (API) issues a new recycling directory; new software speeds site cleanup decisions; a news report covers medical waste management issues; ASTM approves a site assessment standard; and collections of recovered paper show a substantial increase in 1992. The significance of each topic is briefly delineated.

1992-12-01

175

CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show  

CERN Multimedia

One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

CERN Bulletin

2011-01-01

176

X-31 Kiel Probe Close-up Showing Inside  

Science.gov (United States)

A close-up photograph of the Kiel air data probe on the noseboom on the X-31 aircraft shows the orifices used to collect air pressure measurements. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) caused that aircraft to crash. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each has a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat. It is also called a 'J Turn' when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The aircraft was flown in tactical maneuvers against an F/A-18 and other tactical aircraft as part of the test flight program. During November and December 1993, the X-31 reached a supersonic speed of Mach 1.28. In 1994, the X-31 program installed software to demonstrate quasi-tailless operation. The X-31 flight test program was conducted by an international test organization (ITO) managed by the Advanced Research Projects Office (ARPA), known as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Office (DARPA) before March 1993. The ITO included the U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, Daimler-Benz (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm and Deutsche Aerospace), and NASA. Gary Trippensee was the ITO director and NASA Project Manager. Pilots came from participating organizations. The X-31 was 43.33 feet long with a wingspan of 23.83 feet. It was powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine that produced 16,000 pounds of thrust in afterburner.

1993-01-01

177

People with Kidney Disease Show Higher Cancer Risk in Study  

Science.gov (United States)

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People With Kidney Disease Show Higher Cancer Risk in Study More research ... Wednesday, April 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer Kidney Diseases WEDNESDAY, April 23, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Older adults ...

178

ArtShow: An Efficient Digital Image Database.  

Science.gov (United States)

ArtShow is a digital image database that employs sophisticated features for interactive presentations of data. To demonstrate the program, an example database was prepared, based on the collection at the National Bank of Greece with names, comments and keywords in the Greek language. Discussion includes: the database platform and internal…

Paliokas, I.; Kekkeris, G.; Karakos, A.

2000-01-01

179

Slippery Liquid-Infused Porous Surfaces Showing Marine Antibiofouling Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marine biofouling is a longstanding problem because of the constant challenges placed by various fouling species and increasingly restricted environmental regulations for antifouling coatings. Novel nonbiocidal strategies to control biofouling will necessitate a multifunctional approach to coating design. Here we show that slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPSs) provide another possible strategy to obtaining promising antifouling coatings. Microporous butyl methacrylate-ethylene dime...

2013-01-01

180

Chart titled GALILEO MISSION EVENTS shows spacecraft's timeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Chart titled GALILEO MISSION EVENTS shows spacecraft's timeline from launch into low Earth orbit through its Jupiter tour. Other events include Venus encounter, Earth 1 encounter, Gaspra encounter, Earth 2 encounter, Ida encounter, probe release, and Io/Relay/Joi satellite encounters. The events span approximately eight years (1989 through 1997).

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Anti-Alzheimer's Drug Shows Promise in Mice Study  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-Alzheimer's Drug Shows Promise in Mice Study Researchers hope ... Dallas Tuesday, June 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Alzheimer's Disease TUESDAY, June 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers ...

182

Head Gear incline shaft, showing engine houses and skip tipping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

207 x 153 mm. Showing the headgear machinery for lifting the trolleys to the surface, with the skips into which is poured the blue ground beyond, and the driving gear in the engine house in the background. A few figures sit in the foreground posed for the photographer.

2003-01-01

183

New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo, 400 years ago, to the world of modern astronomy, moving from the visible wavelength domain to explore the millimetre-wave view of the Universe, and leaving light-polluted cities for unique settings in some of the highest and driest places on Earth. "The fascinating topic, the breathtaking ESO astronomical images, the amazing 3D computer animations, and the very clever use of the music, all make this a really inspiring show," says Agnès Acker, President of the APLF. In search of our Cosmic Origins is available in three different formats: fulldome video, classical with video windows, and classical with slides. Fulldome video shows immerse the audience in a true 360-degree projected computer-generated virtual environment. The ALMA planetarium show is currently available in French and English. Several other language versions are in preparation: German, Italian, Spanish and Chilean Spanish, while further languages are planned: Danish, Dutch, Greek, Japanese, Portuguese and Brazilian Portuguese. The show will be available to all planetariums worldwide for a small fee, depending on the type and the size of the planetarium, to cover basic costs. The media are invited to attend, and see firsthand, the official screening during the European Film Festival, between 24 and 26 April 2009 in Espinho, Portugal. For media accreditation, please go to http://iff.multimeios.pt/index.php?option=com_wrapper&Itemid=45 A set of educational materials is also being prepared and will be finished in late April. To learn more about the show, please go to www.cosmicorigins.org

2009-03-01

184

Identifying factors affecting consumers purchase incidence at retail trade shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to examine variables influencing purchase incidences at retail trade shows. To this end, retailer and consumer related antecedent variables are proposed. The retailer related variables are represented by store environmental cues of sales staff services, store atmosphere and product assortment. The consumer related variables are represented by impulse buying tendency and perceived time pressure. Drawing on relevant literature, hypotheses are developed to link eac...

2012-01-01

185

Trade shows and the creation of market and industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study addresses the question of the constitution of markets in advanced societies.Specifically, the article studies the role of the traveling trade show in creatingthe real time computing market, which is part of the US electronics sector, duringthe mid-1990’s. Real time computing products assist the transfer, storage and processingof digital signals in real time and support many of the internet applicationswe use today.By applying ethnographic methods,we explore the general question o...

Aspers, Patrik; Darr, A.

2011-01-01

186

Ultra short yeast tropomyosins show novel myosin regulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropomyosin (Tm) is an alpha-helical coiled-coil actin-binding protein present in all eukaryotes from yeast to man. Its functional role has been best described in muscle regulation; however its much wider role in cytoskeletal actin regulation is still to be clarified. Isoforms vary in size from 284 or 248 amino acids in vertebrates, to 199 and 161 amino acids in yeast, spanning from 7 to 4 actin binding sites respectively. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the larger yTm1 protein is produced by an internal 38-amino acid duplication, corresponding to a single actin-binding site. We have produced an ultra-short Tm with only 125 amino acids by removing both of the 38 amino acid repeats from yTm1, with the addition of an Ala-Ser extension used to mimic the essential N-terminal acetylation. This short Tm, and an M1T mutant of it, bind to actin with a similar affinity to most Tms previously studied (K(50%) approximately 0.5 microm). However, an equilibrium fluorescence binding assay shows a much greater inhibition of myosin binding to actin than any previously studied Tm. Actin cosedimentation assays show this is caused by direct competition for binding to actin. The M1T mutant shows a reduced inhibition, probably due to weaker end-to-end interactions making it easier for myosin to displace Tm. All previously characterized Tms, although able to sterically block the myosin-binding site, are able to bind to actin along with myosin. By showing that Tm can compete directly with myosin for the same binding site these new Tms provide direct evidence for the steric blocking model. PMID:18006493

Maytum, Robin; Hatch, Victoria; Konrad, Manfred; Lehman, William; Geeves, Michael A

2008-01-25

187

A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral po...

2011-01-01

188

Cog2 Null Mutant CHO Cells Show Defective Sphingomyelin Synthesis*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The COG (conserved oligomeric Golgi complex) is a Golgi-associated tethering complex involved in retrograde trafficking of multiple Golgi enzymes. COG deficiencies lead to misorganization of the Golgi, defective trafficking of glycosylation enzymes, and abnormal N-, O- and ceramide-linked oligosaccharides. Here, we show that in Cog2 null mutant ldlC cells, the content of sphingomyelin (SM) is reduced to ?25% of WT cells. Sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) activity is essentially normal in ldlC ce...

Spessott, Waldo; Uliana, Andrea; Maccioni, Hugo J. F.

2010-01-01

189

Exhibitor satisfaction in business-to-business trade shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tradeshows are an essential instrument in the marketing of goods and services. Thus, the fair and tradeshow business has become a multi-billion dollar industry, in which trade fair organizers earn the biggest share of sales with exhibitors, paying fees for exhibition services. In order to increase service quality on trade shows, trade fair organizers strive for achieving a high level of exhibitor satisfaction. Despite its major importance for the fair and tradeshow industry, instruments to po...

2010-01-01

190

AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

2005-01-01

191

Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilitiesâ??two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.

2010-01-01

192

A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

Tallapaneni S

2011-02-01

193

"Skinless wonders": Body Worlds and the Victorian freak show.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, Gunther von Hagens's display of plastinated corpses opened in London. Although the public was fascinated by Body Worlds, the media largely castigated the exhibition by dismissing it as a resuscitated Victorian freak show. By using the freak show analogy, the British press expressed their moral objection to this type of bodily display. But Body Worlds and nineteenth-century displays of human anomalies were linked in more complex and telling ways as both attempted to be simultaneously entertaining and educational. This essay argues that these forms of corporeal exhibitionism are both examples of the dynamic relationship between the popular and professional cultures of the body that we often erroneously think of as separate and discrete. By reading Body Worlds against the Victorian freak show, I seek to generate a fuller understanding of the historical and enduring relationship between exhibitionary culture and the discourses of science, and thus to argue that the scientific and the spectacular have been, and clearly continue to be, symbiotic modes of generating bodily knowledge. PMID:22661573

Durbach, Nadja

2014-01-01

194

FIVE KEPLER TARGET STARS THAT SHOW MULTIPLE TRANSITING EXOPLANET CANDIDATES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities-two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

2010-12-10

195

Longitudinal MRI shows no cerebral abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MRI has previously provided conflicting results when used to search for brain abnormalities in sufferers of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Eighteen CFS patients and nine healthy volunteers each underwent MRI on two occasions, one year apart. The resulting images were examined for abnormalities in brain atrophy, deep white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cerebral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Mean proportionate CSF volume was not significantly different between subject groups. A...

Perrin, R.; Embleton, K.; Pentreath, V. W.; Jackson, A.

2010-01-01

196

Imprinted genes show unique patterns of sequence conservation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an evolutionary conserved mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation in placental mammals that results in silencing of one of the parental alleles. In order to decipher interactions between allele-specific DNA methylation of imprinted genes and evolutionary conservation, we performed a genome-wide comparative investigation of genomic sequences and highly conserved elements of imprinted genes in human and mouse. Results Evol...

Hutter Barbara; Bieg Matthias; Helms Volkhard; Paulsen Martina

2010-01-01

197

DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

2002-01-01

198

Tests show barrier coatings do not block cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on use of a barrier coating on a buried bare steel or corrosion-coated steel pipeline that does not hamper performance of the line's cathodic-protection system. That's the major conclusion of research funded by the American Gas Association's Pipeline Research Committee which studied the physical and electrochemical properties of the urethane foam and concrete barrier coatings. The study showed that both types of coatings would absorb sufficient amounts of moisture to permit adequate cathodic protection of the underlying steel surface.

Coulson, K.E.W. (NOVA Corp. of Alberta, Calgary (CA)); Barlo, T.J. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (US)); Werner, D.P. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (US))

1991-10-14

199

Human hepatocellular cancers show decreased prostaglandin E1 binding capacity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Specific binding of 3H-PGE1 to plasma membranes prepared from normal human hepatic tissue in the presence of Mg2+ reached saturation at concentrations greater than 50 nM, and could be displaced in the rank-order PGE1 greater than PGE2 greater than PGI2 greater than PGD2 greater than PGF2 alpha at 4 degrees C. Plasma membranes prepared from normal human hepatic tissue showed a high-affinity 3H-PGE1-binding capacity of 51.3 +/- 19.2 fmol mg-1 plasma membrane protein with an equilibrium dissocia...

Virgolini, I.; Sinzinger, H.; Ma?¼ller, C.; Hermann, M.

1989-01-01

200

Paks surveillance shows reactor vessels safe from embrittlement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surveillance of Hungary's Paks VVER 440 Pressurized Water Reactors by means of ''Loviisa-type'' shows that embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessels should not be a problem during their operational lifetime. Each reactor pressure vessel has six sets of specimens consisting of base metal (Cr-Mo-V alloyed steel), heat affected zone and weld. A set consists of twelve Charpy V specimens, twelve Charpy size 10 three-point-band specimens and six tensile specimens. Two sets are for studying thermal embrittlement. The specimens are located between the core and the vessel walls. (author).

Trampus, P. (Paksi Atomeroemue Vallalat, Paks (Hungary))

1990-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

1991-06-24

202

A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2005-01-01

203

Physics with Reactor Neutrinos: The Show has Begun!  

Science.gov (United States)

The next generation of reactor neutrino experiments started with the first Double Chooz result earlier this year and will continue with the RENO and Daya Bay experiments. The main goal of these experiments is the search for the last unknown mixing angle governing neutrino oscillations ?13. The results of these experiments will complete our picture of neutrino oscillations and are key for planning searches for CP violation. Along the way, they may teach us something about sterile neutrinos and the application of neutrinos to issues of nuclear non-proliferation. The physics and design of reactor neutrino experiments will be discussed, especially as it relates to the Double Chooz measurement of ?13.

Winslow, Lindley

2012-03-01

204

New cancer drug shows promise for treating advanced melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers from UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center report that a new drug in preliminary tests has shown promising results with very manageable side effects for treating patients with melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. The results were presented at the 2013 meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology today in Chicago by Dr. Antoni Ribas, professor of medicine in the UCLA division of hematology-oncology, who led the research. Following Ribas’ presentation, the study was published online ahead of press in the New England Journal of Medicine.

205

VTA neurons show a potentially protective transcriptional response to MPTP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parkinson's disease and its characteristic symptoms are thought to arise from the progressive degeneration of specific midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. In humans, DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and their projections to the striatum show selective vulnerability, while neighboring DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are relatively spared from degeneration. This pattern of cell loss is mimicked in humans, primates, and certain rodents by the neurotoxin MPTP. In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that there are factors in the VTA that are potentially neuroprotective against MPTP and that these factors change over time. We have found a dynamic transcriptional response within the cells of the VTA to sustained exposure to a low dose of MPTP. Specifically, the VTA has increased expression of 148 genes as an early response to MPTP and 113 genes as a late response to MPTP toxicity. This response encompasses many areas of cellular function, including protein regulation (Phf6) and ion/metal regulation (PANK2 and Car4). Notably, these responses were largely absent from the cells of the SN. Our data show a clear dynamic response in maintaining the homeostasis and viability of the neurons in the VTA that is lacking in the SN after neurotoxin challenge. PMID:20462502

Phani, Sudarshan; Gonye, Gregory; Iacovitti, Lorraine

2010-07-01

206

CERN's gamble shows perils, rewards of playing the odds  

CERN Document Server

Data from LEP has a three to four sigma certainty that the Higgs Boson has been seen. To declare a discovery though, normally five sigma is required. This article examines other occasions where even with this degree of certainty, the results finally turned out to be spurious (3 pages).

Seife, C

2000-01-01

207

La Realidad Simulada. Una Crítica del reality show / The simmulation of Reality. A critic of the reality show.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El reality show es el formato televisivo más exitoso de los últimos años. Este artículo efectúa una exploración en torno a dicho formato articulada en tres partes. Primero, se estudiará la tensión que los realities generan entre la representación como esquema estético tradicional y la simulación com [...] o esquema estético emergente; luego, se detallará la manera en que los realities participan en la producción del mundo como imagen; finalmente, se explicará el papel que los realities cumplen en el marco de la economía estética contemporánea y se ofrecerá una explicación sociopsicológica de su poder de seducción. El artículo en su conjunto aborda el estudio del reality a través del lente amplio de una crítica de la industria del entretenimiento. Abstract in english Reality shows are one of the most successful television genres in the last few years. The exploration that this article will make around this genre consists of three parts. First, the tension that realities cause between representation as a traditional aesthetic style and simulation as an emergent a [...] esthetic style will be examined. Second, the way realities participate in the construction of the world as image will be described. Finally, the article will explain the role that realities play in the contemporary aesthetic economy, and offer a socio-psychological explanation of its seductive power. The article approaches the study of reality shows by taking a critical perspective to the entertainment industry.

Ordóñez Díaz, Leonardo.

208

La Realidad Simulada. Una Crítica del reality show The simmulation of Reality. A critic of the reality show.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El reality show es el formato televisivo más exitoso de los últimos años. Este artículo efectúa una exploración en torno a dicho formato articulada en tres partes. Primero, se estudiará la tensión que los realities generan entre la representación como esquema estético tradicional y la simulación como esquema estético emergente; luego, se detallará la manera en que los realities participan en la producción del mundo como imagen; finalmente, se explicará el papel que los realities cumplen en el marco de la economía estética contemporánea y se ofrecerá una explicación sociopsicológica de su poder de seducción. El artículo en su conjunto aborda el estudio del reality a través del lente amplio de una crítica de la industria del entretenimiento.Reality shows are one of the most successful television genres in the last few years. The exploration that this article will make around this genre consists of three parts. First, the tension that realities cause between representation as a traditional aesthetic style and simulation as an emergent aesthetic style will be examined. Second, the way realities participate in the construction of the world as image will be described. Finally, the article will explain the role that realities play in the contemporary aesthetic economy, and offer a socio-psychological explanation of its seductive power. The article approaches the study of reality shows by taking a critical perspective to the entertainment industry.

Leonardo Ordóñez Díaz

209

Synthetic analogs of anoplin show improved antimicrobial activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the decapeptide anoplin and 19 analogs thereof tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC 700221) (VRE), and Candida albicans (ATCC 200955). The anoplin analogs contain substitutions in amino acid positions 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10. We use these peptides to study the effect of altering the charge and hydrophobicity of anoplin on activity against red blood cells and microorganisms. We find that increasing the charge and/or hydrophobicity improves antimicrobial activity and increases hemolytic activity. For each strain tested, we identify at least six anoplin analogs with an improved therapeutic index compared with anoplin, the only exception being Enterococcus faecium, against which only few compounds are more specific than anoplin. Both 2Nal(6) and Cha(6) show improved therapeutic index against all strains tested. PMID:24019229

Munk, Jens K; Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja J; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nyberg, Nils T; Hansen, Paul R

2013-11-01

210

Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

Ford, Barbara Meyers

2009-07-01

211

Motion Generation for Glove Puppet Show with Procedural Animation  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional Taiwanese glove puppet show is a unique form of performing art. In this work, we aim to use the aid of computer animation technologies to preserve this cultural heritage and create innovative ways of performance. By observing the demonstration of a puppet master, we analyze the characteristics of how a hand puppet is manipulated and design animation procedures mimicking the motion of a glove puppet. These procedures are implemented on a real-time animation platform for procedural animation. Through the system, we allow a user to perform glove puppet animation with high-level inputs. We hope that, with the help of this system, not only the art of manipulating a glove puppet can be systematically documented, but the entry barrier for learning it can also be greatly reduced.

Lin, Chih-Chung; Hou, Gee-Chin; Li, Tsai-Yen

212

Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm?1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u?1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

2012-10-07

213

Pediatric malignant germ cell tumors show characteristic transcriptome profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of childhood are rare and heterogeneous neoplasms thought to arise from primordial germ cells. They vary substantially in their natural history and show important clinical differences from their adult counterparts. To address the biological basis for these observations, we have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of global gene expression patterns in pediatric malignant GCTs and compared these findings with published data on adult testicular GCTs (TGCT). Our study included 27 primary tumors and assessed the principal malignant histologic types of pediatric GCT, yolk sac tumor (YST; n = 18), and seminoma (n = 9). Analysis of Affymetrix U133A GeneChip data was performed using the statistical software environment R, including gene set enrichment analysis, with cross-validation at the RNA and protein level. Unsupervised analysis showed complete separation of YSTs and seminomas by global gene expression profiles and identified a robust set of 657 discriminatory transcripts. There was no segregation of tumors of the same histology arising at different sites or at different ages within the pediatric range. In contrast, there was segregation of pediatric malignant GCTs and adult malignant TGCTs, most notably for the YSTs. The pediatric seminomas were significantly enriched for genes associated with the self-renewing pluripotent phenotype, whereas the pediatric YSTs were significantly enriched for genes associated with a differentiation and proliferation phenotype. We conclude that histologic type is the key discriminator in pediatric malignant GCTs and that the observed clinical differences between malignant GCTs of children and adults are mirrored by significant differences in global gene expression. PMID:18519683

Palmer, Roger D; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Gooding, Emma L; Muralidhar, Balaji; Thornton, Claire M; Pett, Mark R; Roberts, Ian; Schneider, Dominik T; Thorne, Natalie; Tavaré, Simon; Nicholson, James C; Coleman, Nicholas

2008-06-01

214

PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin wit...

2004-01-01

215

Aggressive Management of Tibial Osteomyelitis Shows Good Functional Outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Severe open tibial fractures can be successfully treated acutely with a combined orthopedic and plastic surgery approach, but a proportion will go on to develop chronic osteomyelitis. For the past 6 years, an aggressive approach of bone and soft tissue debridement followed by skeletal reconstruction and vascularized tissue transfer has been pursued by the orthopedic and plastic surgery teams at Liverpool Hospital. We present the results of our patient series. Methods: All patients...

Campbell, Raewyn; Berry, M. G.; Deva, Anand; Harris, Ian A.

2011-01-01

216

Does ELF chorus show evidence of power line stimulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has previously been reported that electromagnetic chorus exhibits a longitudinal dependence, with enhanced occurrence over population centers (Alaska-New Zealand, Eastern U.S.-Canada, Western Europe and Western Siberia). This result has been cited as possible evidence of Power Line Harmonic Radiation (PLR) control of magnetospheric chorus. In this paper the authors report an analogous study using chorus data from OGO-5 to test this result. Chorus is found to exhibit maxima over the Eastern USSR, Greenland and Central Siberia and minima over central and Eastern Canada, a distribution significantly different than the OGO-3 result. This gross discrepancy is explained as an effect of data oversampling (presistence) in the method of analysis used in the previous study. The OGO-5 data are reanalysed with the oversampling removed. It is found that none of the longitudinal maxima or minima are then statistically significant (<2sigma). Thus, they find no statistically significant correlation between longitude and chorus occurrence which implies that there is little or no evidence of PLR effects on chorus triggering. (Auth.)

1978-08-08

217

O show da Química: motivando o interesse científico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide the understanding of the chemical world that underlies everything around us by introducing basic chemical concepts and their everyday applications. The specific topics presented were selected according to their relevance and their ability to be presented as an exhibition. This format is based on the visual effects that help the public to see abstract descriptions in a concrete form. In addition, a soundtrack is used to stimulate the affective intelligence and relax the public. According to the results obtained here, we can conclude that chemical demonstrations, combined with music, help the presentation of scientific topics and motivate and facilitate the "chemistry communication".

Arroio Agnaldo

2006-01-01

218

Imprinted genes show unique patterns of sequence conservation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an evolutionary conserved mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation in placental mammals that results in silencing of one of the parental alleles. In order to decipher interactions between allele-specific DNA methylation of imprinted genes and evolutionary conservation, we performed a genome-wide comparative investigation of genomic sequences and highly conserved elements of imprinted genes in human and mouse. Results Evolutionarily conserved elements in imprinted regions differ from those associated with autosomal genes in various ways. Whereas for maternally expressed genes strong divergence of protein-encoding sequences is most prominent, paternally expressed genes exhibit substantial conservation of coding and noncoding sequences. Conserved elements in imprinted regions are marked by enrichment of CpG dinucleotides and low (TpG+CpA/(2·CpG ratios indicate reduced CpG deamination. Interestingly, paternally and maternally expressed genes can be distinguished by differences in G+C and CpG contents that might be associated with unusual epigenetic features. Especially noncoding conserved elements of paternally expressed genes are exceptionally G+C and CpG rich. In addition, we confirmed a frequent occurrence of intronic CpG islands and observed a decelerated degeneration of ancient LINE-1 repeats. We also found a moderate enrichment of YY1 and CTCF binding sites in imprinted regions and identified several short sequence motifs in highly conserved elements that might act as additional regulatory elements. Conclusions We discovered several novel conserved DNA features that might be related to allele-specific DNA methylation. Our results hint at reduced CpG deamination rates in imprinted regions, which affects mostly noncoding conserved elements of paternally expressed genes. Pronounced differences between maternally and paternally expressed genes imply specific modes of evolution as a result of differences in epigenetic features and a special response to selective pressure. In addition, our data support the potential role of intronic CpG islands as epigenetic key regulatory elements and suggest that evolutionary conserved LINE-1 elements fulfill regulatory functions in imprinted regions.

Helms Volkhard

2010-11-01

219

A solvable senescence model showing a mortality plateau  

CERN Multimedia

We present some analytic results for the steady states of the Penna model of sen escence, generalised to allow genetically identical individuals to die at differ ent ages via an arbitrary survival function. Modelling this with a Fermi functio n (of modest width) we obtain a clear mortality plateau late in life: something that has so far eluded explanation within such models. This suggests that factors causing variable mortality within genetically identical subpopulations, which include environmental effects, may be essential to understanding the mortality plateau seen in many real species.

Coe, J B; Cates, M E

2002-01-01

220

Nano-textured W shows improvement of thermionic emission properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laser-assisted nano-texturing of W substrates cathodes via ablation in liquid environment is experimentally realized. Two laser sources are used, either a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser or a Nd:YAG laser with pulse duration of 350 ps. Laser exposure of W results in the formation of hemi-spherical nanostructures situated on top of periodic ripples. Nano-textured thermionic W cathode demonstrates the decrease of the efficient work function by 0.3 eV compared to pristine surface. (orig.)

Barmina, E.V.; Serkov, A.A.; Shafeev, G.A. [General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stratakis, E. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, (IESL-FORTH), Heraklion (Greece); University of Crete, Materials Science and Technology Department, Heraklion (Greece); Fotakis, C. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, (IESL-FORTH), Heraklion (Greece); University of Crete, Physics Department, Heraklion (Greece); Stolyarov, V.N.; Stolyarov, I.N. [Roentgenprom, Protvino, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15

 
 
 
 
221

Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes  

CERN Document Server

Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

2012-01-01

222

Striatal neurones show sustained recovery from severe hypoglycaemic insult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucose deprivation provides a reliable model to investigate cellular responses to metabolic dysfunction, and is reportedly associated with permanent cell death in many paradigms. Consistent with previous studies, primary cultures of rat striatal neurones exposed to 24-h hypoglycaemia showed dramatically decreased sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) metabolism (used as a marker of cell viability) and increased TUNEL staining, suggesting widespread DNA damage typical of apoptotic cell death. Remarkably, restoration of normal glucose levels initiated a sustained recovery in XTT staining, along with a concomitant decrease in TUNEL staining, even after 24 h of hypoglycaemia, suggesting recovery of damaged neurones and repair of nicked DNA. No alterations in the levels of four DNA repair proteins could be detected during hypoglycaemia or recovery. A reduction in intracellular calcium concentration was seen in recovered cells. These data suggest that striatal cells do not die after extended periods of glucose deprivation, but survive in a form of suspended animation, with sufficient energy to maintain membrane potential. PMID:12871579

McDermott, C J; Bradley, K N; McCarron, J G; Palmer, A M; Morris, B J

2003-07-01

223

No enhanced astrocytoma showing low density area on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four cases were encountered of astrocytoma, which was seen as a low-density area in computed tomography (CT) which showed no increase following contrast enhancement. These patients were admitted into hospital one to three years after the onset of the disease but the neurological abnormality at the time of hospitalization was mild. Macroscopically, the tumors were soft and jellylike and had no cysts, except in one case in which small cysts were observed. Microscopically, one case was grade I astrocytoma with spongy degeneration; one case was grade II astrocytoma with numerous microcysts; one case was grade III astrocytoma with relatively high cellularity and microcysts; and the remaining case was grade III astrocytoma with a considerable amount of relatively large cytoplasma. All tumors were low in vascularity. All four tumors were subtotally or partially removed. More than one year after operation, no sign of recurrence was found clinically and no growth was observed in CT. A prolonged clinical course was suggested. The tumors were not necessarily of low grade. They were, however, soft and of low density in plain CT because of the content of liquid components, and there was no response to contrast enhancement and prolonged clinical course because of the low degree of vascularity. (author)

1982-01-01

224

Enterococcus faecalis strains show culture heterogeneity in cell surface charge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adhesion of micro-organisms to biotic and abiotic surfaces is an important virulence factor and involves different types of interactions. Enterococcus faecalis, a human commensal and an important opportunistic pathogen, has the ability to adhere to surfaces. Biliary stents frequently become clogged with bacterial biofilms, with E. faecalis as one of the predominant species. Six E. faecalis strains isolated from clogged biliary stents were investigated for the presence of specific biochemical factors involved in their adhesion: aggregation substances (Aggs) and the enterococcal surface protein (encoded by the esp gene). In addition, physico-chemical factors involved in adhesion (zeta potential and cell surface hydrophobicity) were determined, as well as the influence of ox bile on these properties. Two-thirds of the biliary stent isolates displayed culture heterogeneity in the pH dependence of their zeta potentials. Moreover, 24 out of 46 clinical isolates of E. faecalis, including 11 laboratory strains, also displayed such heterogeneity. The culture heterogeneity was demonstrated to be a stable trait, not caused by quorum sensing, not plasmid mediated, and independent of the presence of esp and Agg. Data presented show that culture heterogeneity in zeta potential enhances adhesion to an abiotic surface. A higher prevalence of culture heterogeneity in zeta potential in pathogenic as compared to non-pathogenic isolates could indicate that this phenomenon might play a role in virulence and putatively in pathogenesis. PMID:16514160

van Merode, Annet E J; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Waar, Karola; Krom, Bastiaan P

2006-03-01

225

Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination  

CERN Multimedia

On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

CERN Bulletin

2010-01-01

226

Maps Showing Seismic Landslide Hazards in Anchorage, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =~300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazard zones were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

Jibson, Randall W.; Michael, John A.

2009-01-01

227

Ductile to brittle transition of an A508 steel characterized by Charpy impact test, part I., experimental results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is devoted to the ductile–brittle transition behavior of a French A508 Cl3 (16MND5) steel. Due to its importance for the safety assessment of PWR vessels, a full characterization of this steel with Charpy V-notch test in this range of temperature was undertaken. The aim of this study is to provide a wide experimental database and microstructural observations to supply, calibrate and validate models used in a local approach methodology. Mechanical and fracture properties of the st...

2005-01-01

228

Rat ultrasonic vocalization shows features of a modular behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small units of production, or modules, can be effective building blocks of more complex motor behaviors. Recording underlying movements of vocal production in awake and spontaneously behaving male Sprague Dawley rats interacting with a female, I tested whether the underlying movements of ultrasonic calls can be described by modules. Movements were quantified by laryngeal muscle EMG activity and subglottal pressure changes. A module was defined by uniformity in both larynx movement and pressure pattern that resulted in a specific spectrographic feature. Modules are produced either singly (single module call type) or in combination with a different module (composite call type). Distinct modules were shown to be linearly (re)combined. Additionally, I found that modules produced during the same expiratory phase can be linked with or without a pause in laryngeal activity, the latter creating the spectrographic appearance of two separate calls. Results suggest that combining discrete modules facilitates generation of higher-order patterns, thereby increasing overall complexity of the vocal repertoire. With additional study, modularity and flexible laryngeal-respiratory coordination may prove to be a basal feature of mammalian vocal motor control. PMID:24828641

Riede, Tobias

2014-05-14

229

Material properties characterization of low carbon steel using TBW and PWHT techniques in smooth-contoured and U-shaped geometries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the effects of the temper bead welding (TBW) technique and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on mechanical properties of multi-layer welding on low carbon steel specimens using Charpy V-notch impact testing and tensile testing. Several samples of two different weld geometries, viz. (i) smooth-contoured, and (ii) U-shaped were made with multiple bead layers using both TBW and PWHT techniques. Impact testing showed that at room temperature and below, TBW gave an impact toughness in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) better than both PWHT and the parent material. At temperatures higher than the room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness in the HAZ. Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of the parent material. In tensile testing, both TBW and PWHT weld metal specimens produced acceptable results; however, TBW gave yield and tensile strengths closer to that of the actual material than PWHT. -- Highlights: • Effects of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and temper bead welding (TBW) on properties are tested. • Charpy V-notch impact and tensile testing was performed on multi-layer welding of low carbon steel. • At room temperature and below, TBW gave better impact toughness than both PWHT and parent material. • Above room temperature but below 60 °C, PWHT gave better impact toughness than TBW. • Above 60 °C, both TBW and PWHT showed impact toughness lower than that of parent material

2013-01-01

230

A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

1997-10-01

231

Renal tumors associated with germline SDHB mutation show distinctive morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germline succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutation causes pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome type 4 (PGL4). PGL4 is characterized by pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, type 2 (SDHB negative) gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal tumors, which are usually classified as carcinoma. We report 4 kindreds with 5 PGL4-associated renal tumors. Four of the tumors occurred before the age of 30 years, 4 were in the left kidney, 3 were in female patients, and 4 demonstrated consistent but previously unrecognized morphology. The tumors were composed of cuboidal cells with bubbly eosinophilic cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. Many of the cells displayed distinctive cytoplasmic inclusions, which were vacuolated or contained eosinophilic fluid-like material. The cells were arranged in solid nests or in tubules surrounding central spaces. The tumors were well circumscribed or lobulated and frequently showed cystic change. Benign tubules or glomeruli were often entrapped at the edges of the tumors. The fifth tumor lacked these features but displayed sarcomatoid dedifferentiation. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB was completely negative in all 4 available tumors. Death from metastatic disease occurred in the patient with dedifferentiated tumor 1 year after diagnosis, whereas the other 4 tumors were cured by local excision alone (mean follow-up, 11 y; range, 2 to 30 y). We conclude that morphology supported by negative immunohistochemistry for SDHB can be used to identify kindreds with germline SDHB mutations (PGL4 syndrome) presenting with this unique type of renal tumor. These renal tumors appear to have a good prognosis after complete excision unless there is sarcomatoid dedifferentiation. PMID:21934479

Gill, Anthony J; Pachter, Nicholas S; Chou, Angela; Young, Barbara; Clarkson, Adele; Tucker, Katherine M; Winship, Ingrid M; Earls, Peter; Benn, Diana E; Robinson, Bruce G; Fleming, Stewart; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

2011-10-01

232

Temperatures of galactic molecular clouds showing CO self-absorption  

Science.gov (United States)

The CO J = 2-1 line has been observed and, in most cases, mapped in 10 star-forming molecular clouds (W3, NGC 1333, NGC 2071, Mon R2, CRL 961, Rho Oph, W49N, W51A, DR 21, and Cep A). The CO J = 3-2 line has been observed in W3 and DR 21. The CO lines from all these sources are strongly self-absorbed. By comparing the present results with published CO(1-0) line profiles, it is found that large corrections to the temperatures of the cloud cores, as measured by the CO(1-0) lines, are required. The corrections for self-absorption bring the CO brightness temperatures into closer agreement with the grain temperatures inferred from far-IR photometry.

Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.; Wannier, P. G.; Huggins, P. J.; Werner, M. W.; Neugebauer, G.; Ennis, D.

1981-01-01

233

Temperatures of galactic molecular clouds showing CO self-absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CO J = 2--1 line has been observed and, in most cases, mapped in 10 star-forming molecular clouds (W3, NGC 1333, NGC 2071, Mon R2, CRL 961, rho Oph, W49N, W51A, DR 21, and Cep A). The CO J = 3--2 line has been observed in W3 and Dr 21. The CO lines from all of these sources are strongly self-absorbed. By comparing our results with published CO (1--0) line profiles, we find that large corrections to the temperatures of the cloud cores, as measured by the CO (1--0) lines, are required. The corrections for self-absorption bring the CO brightness temperatures into closer agreement with the grain temperatures inferred from far-infrared photometry

1981-04-15

234

New data show Norplant effective for 7 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to research conducted in Chile, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Finland, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, the levonorgestrel contraceptive implant Norplant offers up to 7 years of effective protection from pregnancy. The research involved two independent studies of 1210 women aged 18-40 in the seven countries using soft-tubing as well as hard-tubing Norplant implants. Overall, results indicated that cumulative 7-year pregnancy rates among Norplant users are comparable to rates among women who have been surgically sterilized. Moreover, among women ages 18-33 the 7-year Norplant pregnancy rates are comparable to the median rates of tubal sterilization methods for women of the same age and duration of use. For women ages 34 and older, without regard to weight at admission, the 7-year effectiveness of soft-tubing Norplant equals or surpasses that of tubal sterilization. PMID:12349759

2000-08-01

235

Map Showing Lava Inundation Zones for Mauna Loa, Hawaii  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The Island of Hawaii is composed of five coalesced basaltic volcanoes. Lava flows constitute the greatest volcanic hazard from these volcanoes. This report is concerned with lava flow hazards on Mauna Loa, the largest of the island shield volcanoes. Hilo lies 58 km from the summit of Mauna Loa, the Kona coast 33 km, and the southernmost point of the island 61 km. Hawaiian volcanoes erupt two morphologically distinct types of lava, aa and pahoehoe. The surfaces of pahoehoe flows are rather smooth and undulating. Pahoehoe flows are commonly fed by lava tubes, which are well insulated, lava-filled conduits contained within the flows. The surfaces of aa flows are extremely rough and composed of lava fragments. Aa flows usually form lava channels rather than lava tubes. In Hawaii, lava flows are known to reach distances of 50 km or more. The flows usually advance slowly enough that people can escape from their paths. Anything overwhelmed by a flow will be damaged or destroyed by burial, crushing, or ignition. Mauna Loa makes up 51 percent of the surface area of the Island of Hawaii. Geologic mapping shows that lava flows have covered more than 40 percent of the surface every 1,000 years. Since written descriptions of its activity began in A.D. 1832, Mauna Loa has erupted 33 times. Some eruptions begin with only brief seismic unrest, whereas others start several months to a year following increased seismic activity. Once underway, the eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities. For example, the 1950 flows from the southwest rift zone reached the ocean in approximately three hours. The two longest flows of Mauna Loa are pahoehoe flows from the 50-kilometer-long 1859 and the 48-kilometer-long 1880-81 eruptions. Mauna Loa will undoubtedly erupt again. When it does, the first critical question that must be answered is: Which areas are threatened with inundation? Once the threatened areas are established, we can address the second critical question: What people, property, and facilities are at risk? These questions can be answered by estimating the areas most likely to be affected by eruptions originating on various parts of the volcano. This report contains such estimates, based on the known source vents and areas affected by past eruptions. We have divided the volcano into potential lava inundation zones and prepared maps of these zones, which are presented here on the accompanying map sheets.

Trusdell, F. A.; Graves, P.; Tincher, C. R.

2002-01-01

236

"The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded that the legislation is not clear on the specific matters where a student undergoes practical training while they are still studying. The suggestion is that a sectoral determination must be put in place to regulate the relationship, the remuneration, the working hours and the working conditions and risks involved.The article is in Afrikaans.

J Deacon

2009-03-01

237

Dizer-mostrar o estranho / Saying-showing strangeness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho explora a vitalidade contemporânea de duas enfáticas vozes do século XX: Ludwig Wittgenstein e Samuel Beckett. Consideram-se em especial as seguintes divisas: de Wittgenstein, nada está oculto (Investigações, § 435); de Beckett, nada a expressar (Três diálogos com George Duthuit, I). O [...] dito de Wittgenstein é muitas vezes tomado como marca de renúncia à distinção, por ele antes sustentada, entre aquilo que se pode dizer e aquilo que apenas se mostra (Tractatus, Prefácio, 6.522). O dito de Beckett é, por sua vez, frequentemente visto como indício de uma visão cética da linguagem, que a condena a uma espécie de maldição da autorreferência. Tais formas de ler tendem a se ligar às percepções, bastante disseminadas, de que Wittgenstein escreve o comum (o "ordinário"); e Beckett, o absurdo. Questiono aspectos dessas duas produtivas leituras, sustentando que, de forma a meu ver um pouco debilitante, elas tendem a ignorar, ou talvez a apaziguar, um estranho que insiste em se dizer-mostrar na prosa poética dos dois autores. Abstract in english This paper explores the contemporary strength of two of last century's most emphatic voices: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Samuel Beckett. The following mottos are brought together with special attention: nothing is hidden, by Wittgenstein (Philosophical Investigations, §435); and nothing to express, by B [...] eckett (Three dialogues with Georges Duthuit, I). Wittgenstein's saying is frequently taken as indication that he renounces his earlier distinction between what can be said and what can only be shown (Tractatus, Preface, 6.522). Beckett's saying is, in turn, often seen as evidence of a skeptical take on language, whereas it is, so to speak, doomed to self-reference. These interpretations tend to be linked to the widespread perceptions that Wittgenstein writes the ordinary, whereas Beckett writes the absurd. I question some aspects of these two productive readings, arguing that, in a somewhat debilitating manner, they tend to ignore, or perhaps pacify, a strangeness that insists in saying-showing itself in the poetic prose of both authors.

Helena, Martins.

238

Chromatin decondensed by acetylation shows an elevated radiation response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed to 5 mM n-sodium butyrate were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays and cell survival was determined by the cell colony assay. In a separate set of experiments the acetylated chromatin obtained from these cells was irradiated and the change of molecular weight of the DNA was evaluated by alkaline sucrose density centrifugation. At a survival level of 10(-2) to 10(-4) cells exposed to butyrate were found to be 1.3-1.4 times more radiosensitive than control cells. Exposure of isolated chromatin to 100 Gy of 60Co gamma irradiation generated 0.9 +/- 0.03 single-strand breaks (ssb) per 10 Gy per 10(8) Da and 2.0 +/- 0.3 ssb/10 Gy/10(8) Da for control and acetylated chromatin, respectively. The elevated radiation sensitivity of chromatin relaxed by acetylation is in good agreement with previous results on chromatin expanded by histone H1 depletion. Packing and accessibility of DNA in chromatin appear to be major factors which influence the radiation sensitivity. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity of chromatin in various packing states is discussed in light of the variation of radiation sensitivity of whole cells in the cell cycle which incorporates repair

1989-01-01

239

Video Game Players Show More Precise Multisensory Temporal Processing Abilities  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention and visual perception in individuals with extensive experience playing action video games. These benefits manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about the ways in which video game experience alters perception and cognition. The current study examined whether video game players’ benefits generalize beyond vision to multisensory processing by presenting video game players and non-video game players auditory and visual stimuli within a short temporal window. Participants performed two discrimination tasks, both of which revealed benefits for video game players: In a simultaneity judgment task, video game players were better able to distinguish whether simple visual and auditory stimuli occurred at the same moment or slightly offset in time, and in a temporal-order judgment task, they revealed an enhanced ability to determine the temporal sequence of multisensory stimuli. These results suggest that people with extensive experience playing video games display benefits that extend beyond the visual modality to also impact multisensory processing.

Donohue, Sarah E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

240

OGJ group earnings show big gain for 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earnings for Oil and Gas Journal's group of 22 large US oil companies advanced sharply last year, increasing 70.9% from 1992. Group profits totaled $16.1 billion, with the gain stemming largely from lack of one time charges that depressed earnings in 1992. Adoption of new accounting rules associated with future postretirement costs caused the 1992 charges. US exploration and production earnings were mixed, tied in part to oil and gas production volumes. Higher gas prices and production helped boost earnings for a number of companies. But the earnings improvement from gas was offset by reduced oil production and prices. Results from non-U.S. E and P also were mixed. Average worldwide crude oil export prices were down from year earlier levels. However, for some companies this was offset by higher production levels and lower exploration costs. Earnings from refining and marketing were improved from 1992 levels, particularly for non-US operations. Lower feedstock costs, especially in the fourth quarter, helped boost earnings in this sector. Refining earnings gains also flowed from lower costs due to restructuring and an accompanying improvement in operating efficiency. The paper discusses world trends, operations and prices, US exploration and production, non-US E and P, US and non-US refining and marketing, petrochemicals, and the forecast for future demand

1994-04-04

 
 
 
 
241

Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

1994-01-10

242

Schizophrenia shows a unique metabolomics signature in plasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a severe complex mental disorder affecting 0.5–1% of the world population. To date, diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on personal and thus subjective interviews. The underlying molecular mechanism of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Using targeted metabolomics we quantified and compared 103 metabolites in plasma samples from 216 healthy controls and 265 schizophrenic patients, including 52 cases that do not take antipsychotic medication. Compared with healthy controls, levels of five metabolites were found significantly altered in schizophrenic patients (P-values ranged from 2.9 × 10?8 to 2.5 × 10?4) and in neuroleptics-free probands (P-values ranging between 0.006 and 0.03), respectively. These metabolites include four amino acids (arginine, glutamine, histidine and ornithine) and one lipid (PC ae C38:6) and are suggested as candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia. To explore the genetic susceptibility on the associated metabolic pathways, we constructed a molecular network connecting these five aberrant metabolites with 13 schizophrenia risk genes. Our result implicated aberrations in biosynthetic pathways linked to glutamine and arginine metabolism and associated signaling pathways as genetic risk factors, which may contribute to patho-mechanisms and memory deficits associated with schizophrenia. This study illustrated that the metabolic deviations detected in plasma may serve as potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis of schizophrenia.

He, Y; Yu, Z; Giegling, I; Xie, L; Hartmann, A M; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Kahn, R; Li, Y; Illig, T; Wang-Sattler, R; Rujescu, D

2012-01-01

243

Scan substraction to show intervention effects on myocardial perfusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When control radionuclide scans are separated by several days from experimental interventions and follow-up scanning, during the interval, physiological changes may have occurred which will produce erroneous results in the later data. Currently, after the control scans are obtained, the desired intervention is produced, a second isotope bolus is given and additional scans are made. Usually, the counts in the last scan before the intervention are subtracted by a digital computer from the corresponding elements in the follow-up scans. The computer also displays the differences on an intensity modulated cathode-ray-tube. Because of the short time interval, any changes reflect the effects of the intervention alone and not other contributing factors which might have occurred during a longer intervening time. The data from mongrel dog 43K heart scans suggests that combining scan subtraction with vasodilators could provide myocardial perfusion scanning information that heretofore has only been obtained by means of exercise or least squares regression analysis of serial scans made during a continuously decreasing isotope infusion. A significant advantage is that only the subtraction or regression analysis techniques provide a means of obtaining all the required data in a single scanning session even though subtraction does necessitate two bolus isotope injections

1975-01-15

244

Replicase-based plasmid DNA shows anti-tumor activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Double stranded RNA (dsRNA has multiple anti-tumor mechanisms. Over the past several decades, there have been numerous attempts to utilize synthetic dsRNA to control tumor growth in animal models and clinical trials. Recently, it became clear that intracellular dsRNA is more effective than extracellular dsRNA on promoting apoptosis and orchestrating adaptive immune responses. To overcome the difficulty in delivering a large dose of synthetic dsRNA into tumors, we propose to deliver a RNA replicase-based plasmid DNA, hypothesizing that the dsRNA generated by the replicase-based plasmid in tumor cells will inhibit tumor growth. Methods The anti-tumor activity of a plasmid (pSIN-? that encodes the sindbis RNA replicase genes (nsp1-4 was evaluated in mice with model tumors (TC-1 lung cancer cells or B16 melanoma cells and compared to a traditional pCMV-? plasmid. Results In cell culture, transfection of tumor cells with pSIN-? generated dsRNA. In mice with model tumors, pSIN-? more effectively delayed tumor growth than pCMV-?, and in some cases, eradicated the tumors. Conclusion RNA replicase-based plasmid may be exploited to generate intracellular dsRNA to control tumor growth.

Weiss Richard

2011-03-01

245

Asia-Pacific area shows big gains in processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the Asia-Pacific region's buoyant refining and petrochemical industries that are reacting to lessons from the Persian gulf war. First-and least palatable-is the knowledge there is no alternative to oil from the Middle East to fuel headlong economic growth. Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait, resulting in the loss of crude oil from both countries and the flow of products from Kuwait's sophisticated refining complexes, hammered home another valuable lesson. In a crisis, the petroleum industry-oil exporting countries in particular-will in the short term find it easier to make substitute crude supplies available than to conjure up products from alternative processing capacity. The Japanese, as might be expected, are implementing new policies to take account of this lesson. Japan's tightly controlled refining sector has been told it can expand capacity for the first time in 18 years. And, with the blessing of the Japanese government, a group of companies led by Nippon Oil has agreed to a joint venture with Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that will lead to new refining capacity in Japan and a new export refinery in Saudi Arabia that is likely to be dedicated to the Japanese market

1991-08-26

246

Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine. PMID:24367382

Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

2013-01-01

247

Assessment of the effects of neutron fluence on Swedish nuclear pressure vessels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear pressure vessels are subject to neutron irradiation during service causing embrittlement. This is one important factor in the overall problem of reactor vessel integrity. At present the irradiation effects are mainly assessed by the Charpy V-notch test. Two measures of embrittlement are defined: the increase of the ductile/brittle transition temperature and the decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The object of the present work is to assess these changes for the Swedish nuclear pressure vessels. On the basis of data from irradiations carried out in other countries and Swedish surveillance programmes, the expected end of life embrittlement is estimated for Swedish vessels. The results show that the embrittlement of most reactor vessels is expected to be quite small. Oskarshamn 1 and PWR-vessels, however, will probably show moderate changes, the former due to the higher copper content, and the latter due to the high end of life fluences. Some of the vessel materials which exhibit marginal properties in the upper-shelf energy, as measured by the Charpy V-notch impact test, are identified. It is recommended that fracture mechanics analyses be applied in these cases. (author)

1980-01-01

248

Two cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome showing interesting CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT. (Chiba, N.)

1982-01-01

249

Analysis and tests of TF magnet insulation samples for the JET upgrade to 4 tesla  

CERN Document Server

The JET Toroidal Field (TF) coils were originally designed for operation at 3.4 tesla. In order to upgrade the field to 4 tesla and thus improve the performance of the JET machine, new mechanical tests and analysis were carried out on the insulation of TF coil samples. They are aimed at investigating the mechanical properties and the status of the insulation in order to set allowable stresses and force limits. In particular since the shear stress in the insulation is strongly affected by the shear modulus of elasticity G, it is important to measure this parameter. A method for the measurement of G in glass-resin fibres, the V-notched beam method (Iosipescu method) , was applied. The particular shape of the rectangular Iosipescu V- notched sample and the particular modality of force application produce pure shear stress for a reliable measurement of the G value and of the shear strength of the insulation. The effect of temperature on these mechanical properties was also investigated. Results show higher averag...

Miele, P; Bettinali, L; Kaye, A; Last, J; Papastergiou, S; Riccardo, V; Visca, E

2000-01-01

250

Static and impact crack properties of a high-strength steel welded joint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to gain the benefits of weldable high-strength steels in pressurized equipment applications, satisfactory toughness and crack properties of the welded joint, both in the weld metal and the heat-affected -zone (HAZ), are required. Experimental investigations of toughness and crack resistance parameters through static and impact tests of a high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA) with a nominal yield strength of 700 MPa and its welded joint, were performed on Charpy-sized specimens, V-notched and pre-cracked, of the parent metal, weld metal and HAZ. The selected electrode produced slight undermatching and enabled the welded joints to be manufactured without cold cracks. The impact energy and its parts responsible for crack initiation and propagation were determined by toughness evaluation. Crack sensitivity, defined as the ratio of the impact energy for V-notched and for pre-cracked specimens, enabled a comparison of the homogeneous microstructure of the parent metal and the weld metal, and of the heterogeneous microstructure of the heat-affected-zone (HAZ), which indicated a better crack toughness behaviour of the HAZ. The results obtained showed that the toughness and crack resistance of the weld metal were significantly lower than those of the parent metal and the HAZ. The fracture mechanics parameters, J Ic integral, and plane strain fracture toughness, K Ic, as well as J resistance curves expressed the degradation less

2007-03-01

251

A new experimental method on brittle fracture propagation arrest characteristics of welded steel plate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usual ESSO test has not been successful for the propagation arrest test of the welded part. The paper shows a new type specimen which is a modification of the usual ESSO specimen with regard to notch geometry. It is machined with a chevron notch instead of a usual straight on. The brittle crack that starts from the chevron notch root goes along the weld bead because of higher mechanical constraint near the notch root. Three kinds of steels were here used and welded by three kinds of welding methods: manual welding, submerged arc welding, and electro-gas welding. In order to search the correlation between Charpy impact test results and fracture toughness, Charpy tests by 2mm V-notch and chevron notch were conducted. The transition temperature of chevron notch is higher than that of 2mm V-notch because of higher mechanical constraint. With regard to the brittle fracture propagation arrest characteristics of welded steel plate, the following conclusions were obtained. It is possible to get the propagation-arrest characteristics of welded parts if the chevron notched ESSO specimen is used. Ksub(c) values of welded parts are strongly affected by the welding conditions, for example, heat input, presence of reinforcement, geometry of fusion line. The fracture toughness of the welded part is considerably lower than that of the base metal. The correlation between Ksub(c) values and absorbed energy of Charpy impact test is not in agreement with the WES rule in Japan

1975-09-01

252

Who will be idol? The importance of social networks for winning on reality shows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines, both theoretically and empirically, the effect of social networks and belonging to minority groups (or race) on the probability of winning in reality television shows. We develop a theoretical model that studies viewer behavior by presenting a framework of competition between two contestants from two different groups. The results are examined empirically using unique contestant data from the highly popular reality show A Star Is Born, the Israeli counterpart of American I...

Heizler, Odelia; Kimhi, Ayal

2010-01-01

253

Results of value  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In its third year since inception, Coaltech 2020, the collaborative research programme, is already showing results - results that are aimed at ensuring the life span of South Africa's coal mines well into the 21st century. The article gives brief detail on a wide range of projects under way on topics including: identifying old pillars and previously mined areas; use of 2-D seismics at shallow depth; evaluating stripping methods to remove old pillars; prevention of spontaneous combustion; developing binderless briquetts; treatment of mine water; planting of crops in rehabilitation land with the use of mine water for irrigation; and looking at effects of mine closure. 2 photos.

Stone, A.

2001-10-01

254

Latest results from GAMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the latest results of the GAMS Collaboration are reviewed. The fo(1590) has been observed in central collisions, adding support to its glueball nature. Evidence has been found for an exotic 1-+ meson M(1405) decaying into ? degree? in the exclusive reaction ?-p ? M(1405)n at 100 GeV/c. New data are presented on the reaction ?-p ? ??n at 38 GeV/c showing the presence of two tensor mesons. 22 references, 8 figures

1988-09-01

255

Comparison of transition temperature shifts from static and dynamic tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper summarizes results of surveillance specimens programmes of WWER-440/V-213C type reactors. Comparison of transition temperature shifts, induced by irradiation, and determined from impact Charpy V-notch toughness as well as from static fracture toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy size specimens (COD) is given. Two methods have been used for determination of static fracture toughness shifts - standard COD type specimens from a standard surveillance programmes and reconstituted COD type specimens from broken halves of Charpy V-notch specimens. Results obtained are discussed from the point of view of irradiation conditions as well as of different type of testing. (author)

1997-09-15

256

Consumer behavior towards show-room services of two wheelers with reference to Cuddalore district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to find out the consumer behavior towards showroom service of two wheelers. A samples of 200 users selected randomly were studied. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect the data. The results reveal that users differ in consumer behaviour towards showroom services of two wheelers on the basis of satisfied random sampling. This study is made to describe the consumer satisfaction of two wheelers with respect to socio-economic characteristics as age, gender, occupation, family income, educational level and so on which is called descriptive study. The data were treated statistically using t-test, F-test and correlation. The result shows that students and employees are more satisfied about show room services. Demographic variables such as marital status, size of the family give significant effect related to show room services.

S.Pragadeeswaran

2009-12-01

257

Local Approach of the Charpy Test at Low Temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Charpy V-notch impact testing is widely used in the toughness assessment of large forged components, e.g. the pressure vessel for pressurised water reactors (PWR). At low temperature, A508 Cl.3 nuclear pressure vessel steel fails by cleavage fracture. The results reported here are part of both an experimental program and numerical investigations which aim at the establishment of a non-empirical relationship between the lower shelf Charpy V-notch energy, CVN, and the fracture toughness, KIc, o...

1996-01-01

258

Local approach of the Charpy test at low temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charpy V-notch impact testing is widely used in the toughness assessment of large forged components, e.g. the pressure vessel for pressurised water reactors (PWR). At low temperature, A508 Cl.3 nuclear pressure vessel steel fails by cleavage fracture. The results reported here are part of both an experimental program and numerical investigations which aim at the establishment of a non-empirical relationship between the lower shelf Charpy V-notch energy, CVN, and the fracture toughness, K{sub Ic}, of this material. Here, the applicability of the Beremin cleavage fracture model to the Charpy specimen is demonstrated. (orig.).

Rossoll, A. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT; Tahar, M. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT]|[Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Materiaux, Evry (France); Berdin, C. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT; Piques, R. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT]|[Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Materiaux, Evry (France); Forget, P. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT]|[CEA Saclay, CEREM, SRMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Prioul, C. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT; Marini, B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Lab. MSS-MAT]|[CEA Saclay, CEREM, SRMA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

1996-10-01

259

Beth Israel/Harvard study finds new immune therapy shows promise in kidney cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

An antibody that helps a person’s own immune system battle cancer cells shows increasing promise in reducing tumors in patients with advanced kidney cancer, according to researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. The results of an expanded Phase 1 trial presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology’s annual conference in Chicago, showed that some patients treated with a fully human monoclonal antibody developed by Bristol Myers Squibb had a positive response to the effort by the agent, BMS-936558, to prolong the immune system’s efforts to fight off renal cell carcinoma without some of the debilitating side effects common to earlier immunotherapies.

260

BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

M. PIESZKA

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Discourse Representations of Migrants in Political Talk-Shows in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we analyse the way in which talk-shows in Romania build upon intra-EU migration as a public issue. According to one of the research hypotheses, the topic of new migration is strategically used in the public environment, determining the taking of positions, agendas and forms of institutionalisation. The semiotic and discourse analysis of a corpus of political talk-shows broadcast in the period 2010-2011 by Romanian TV stations specialising in news and socio-political debates highlights discourse strategies that are relevant for the media construction of public issues in talk-shows. The article shows that in talks-shows migrants are represented "globally", from the perspective of categories of persons that can contribute to a competitive national image. Migrants become visible through their performances in the host country and, as a result, the moral distance from them becomes apparent through a politics of visibility (hence the visibility of mythical migration, of high-performance migration, etc.. Talk-shows do not present the issue of the Diaspora experience, namely of the position of migrants with respect to forms of otherness, cooperation or solidarity.

CAMELIA BECIU

2013-05-01

262

Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life.

HannaGärtner

2013-09-01

263

Adaptively evolved yeast mutants on galactose show trade-offs in carbon utilization on glucose  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Adaptive evolution offers many opportunities in metabolic engineering; however, several constraints still exist as evolutionary trade-offs may impose collateral cost to obtain new traits. The application of adaptive evolution for strains development could be further improved by elucidating the molecular mechanisms. In this study, adaptively evolved yeast mutants with improved galactose utilization ability showed impaired glucose utilization. The molecular genetic basis of this trade-off was investigated using a systems biology approach. Transcriptional and metabolic changes resulting from the improvement of galactose utilization were found maintained during growth on glucose. Moreover, glucose repression related genes showed conserved expression patterns during growth on both sugars. Mutations in the RAS2 gene that were identified as beneficial for galactose utilization in evolved mutants exhibited significant correlation with attenuation of glucose utilization. These results indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy is the dominant mechanism in the observed trade-off, and it is likely realized by changes in glucose signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

264

Polyol-mediated C-dot formation showing efficient Tb(3+)/Eu(3+) emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

C-dots (3-5 nm in diameter) obtained by most simple heating of polyols (glycerol, diethylene glycol and PEG 400) show intense blue and green emission (50% quantum yield). Upon modification with TbCl3/EuCl3, energy transfer from the C-dots to the rare-earth metal results in line-type Tb(3+) (green)/Eu(3+) (red) emission with quantum yields up to 85%. PMID:24887063

Dong, Hailong; Kuzmanoski, Ana; Gößl, Dorothee M; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Feldmann, Claus

2014-06-17

265

Entamoeba Shows Reversible Variation in Ploidy under Different Growth Conditions and between Life Cycle Phases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Under axenic growth conditions, trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica contain heterogenous amounts of DNA due to the presence of both multiple nuclei and different amounts of DNA in individual nuclei. In order to establish if the DNA content and the observed heterogeneity is maintained during different growth conditions, we have compared E. histolytica cells growing in xenic and axenic cultures. Our results show that the nuclear DNA content of E. histolytica trophozoites growing in axenic cul...

Mukherjee, Chandrama; Clark, C. Graham; Lohia, Anuradha

2008-01-01

266

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results: Porn video shows and lo...

2011-01-01

267

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. RESULTS: Porn video shows and loc...

Njue, C.; Voeten, H. A.; Remes, P.

2011-01-01

268

Meropenem-Clavulanic Acid Shows Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem in combination with clavulanic acid reduced the bacterial burden in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by 2 logs over 6 days. Despite poor stability in solution and a short half-life in rodents, treatment of chronically infected mice revealed significant reductions of bacterial burden in the lungs and spleens. Our results show that meropenem has activity in two in vivo systems, but stability and pharmacokinetics of long-term administration w...

England, Kathleen; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Arora, Kriti; Weiner, Danielle; Dayao, Emmanuel; Schimel, Daniel; Via, Laura E.; Barry, Clifton E.

2012-01-01

269

Especialistas psi em ação: sobre a distribuição de expertises num reality show.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a articulação entre as práticas dos especialistas psis e as modulações da intimidade a partir da sua exposição na mídia através do blog de um programa de televisão no formato de reality show. Foram analisados comentários dos seguidores do blog e cinco entrevistas semi-estruturadas com participantes do programa. Inspiradas em autores como Latour (2008 e Despret (2011, as pesquisadoras problematizam a distribuição da expertise a partir da análise do programa exibido no blog. Os resultados indicam que a distribuição da expertise ativa a todos que se articulam no dispositivo produzindo modos de subjetivar psicologizados. // Psi experts in action: on the distribution of expertise in a reality show. This paper aims to discuss the relationship between practices of psi experts and modulations of intimacy based on its exposure on a reality show microblog. Inspired by authors like Latour (2008 and Despret (2011, the researchers put in question the distribution of expertise in the reality show microblog. The results indicate that the distribution of expertise enables people who are articulated in the reality show enacting psychologized subjectivities.

Marcia Moraes

2014-05-01

270

No-shows to primary care appointments: subsequent acute care utilization among diabetic patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who no-show to primary care appointments interrupt clinicians’ efforts to provide continuity of care. Prior literature reveals no-shows among diabetic patients are common. The purpose of this study is to assess whether no-shows to primary care appointments are associated with increased risk of future emergency department (ED visits or hospital admissions among diabetics. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted using data from 8,787 adult diabetic patients attending outpatient clinics associated with a medical center in Indiana. The outcomes examined were hospital admissions or ED visits in the 6?months (182?days following the patient’s last scheduled primary care appointment. The Andersen-Gill extension of the Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess risk separately for hospital admissions and ED visits. Adjustment was made for variables associated with no-show status and acute care utilization such as gender, age, race, insurance and co-morbid status. The interaction between utilization of the acute care service in the six months prior to the appointment and no-show was computed for each model. Results The six-month rate of hospital admissions following the last scheduled primary care appointment was 0.22 (s.d.?=?0.83 for no-shows and 0.14 (s.d.?=?0.63 for those who attended (p?p? Conclusions No-show to a primary care appointment is associated with increased risk for hospital admission among diabetics recently hospitalized.

Nuti Lynn A

2012-09-01

271

Pressure locking test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

1996-07-15

272

Pressure locking test results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1996-12-01

273

Pressure locking test results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

1996-07-15

274

Task 23 -- User`s guide to GRI-ShowFlow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GRI-ShowFlow is a compilation of flow and transport groundwater models under one user-friendly, graphical interface in the Microsoft{reg_sign}Windows{trademark} 3.1 environment. The groundwater models as well as the interface were derived from existing codes. The motivation behind the development of GRI-ShowFlow was twofold: (1) there is a need to compare and assess various analytical and screening-level models that are being used by regulatory agencies and (2) there is a need for the nonexpert to be able to use these screening-level models and the resulting information without expert interpretation. GRI-ShowFlow was developed for use by gas industry environmental staff who may have little experience with hydrogeology or groundwater models but must be able to quickly determine whether there is sufficient chance of groundwater contamination and whether a site does or does not require a more extensive examination. Special attention was therefore given to the Help System in GRI-ShowFlow, which aids the development of the minimal amount of data required by the program and the interpretation of the resulting data. The objective of GRI-ShowFlow is to bring together the existing EPA models in a user-friendly environment and to compare them to each other as well as to new models that contain analytical solutions to three-dimensional source descriptions. A three-dimensional body will more closely reflect the shapes of contaminant sources than one- or two-dimensional geometries. In the real world, contamination sources such as landfills, storage pits, and lagoons will, after all, occupy a three-dimensional space.

NONE

1997-03-01

275

Results from Amanda  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we present an update on the results from the Amanda-B10 detector which operated in 1997 at depths of 1500 to 2000 meters in the deep Antarctic ice. The goal of Amanda project is to search for extra-terrestrial neutrinos. As a precursor to such a search we have studied atmospheric neutrinos which act as a calibration source for the detector. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos at a rate consistent with Monte-Carlo predictions establishes Amanda-B10 as a neutrino telescope. The Amanda-B10 data has been searched for evidence of several classes of neutrinos and for magnetic monopoles. Searches for a diffuse high energy neutrino flux and for neutrinos in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts have been conducted. Preliminary data analyses show no excess of neutrinos has been found. (A.C.)

Hill, G.C. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

2001-07-01

276

Results from Amanda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report we present an update on the results from the Amanda-B10 detector which operated in 1997 at depths of 1500 to 2000 meters in the deep Antarctic ice. The goal of Amanda project is to search for extra-terrestrial neutrinos. As a precursor to such a search we have studied atmospheric neutrinos which act as a calibration source for the detector. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos at a rate consistent with Monte-Carlo predictions establishes Amanda-B10 as a neutrino telescope. The Amanda-B10 data has been searched for evidence of several classes of neutrinos and for magnetic monopoles. Searches for a diffuse high energy neutrino flux and for neutrinos in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts have been conducted. Preliminary data analyses show no excess of neutrinos has been found. (A.C.)

2001-03-10

277

VRAC: Simulation Results #1  

CERN Document Server

In order to make full use of geographic routing techniques developed for large scale networks, nodes must be localized. However, localization and virtual localization techniques in sensor networks are dependent either on expensive and sometimes unavailable hardware (e.g. GPS) or on sophisticated localization calculus (e.g. triangulation) which are both error-prone and with a costly overhead. Instead of localizing nodes in a traditional 2-dimensional space, we use directly the raw distance to a set of anchors to route messages in a multi-dimensional space. This should enable us to use any geographic routing protocol in a robust and efficient manner in a very large range of scenarios. We test this technique for two different geographic routing algorithms, namely GRIC and ROAM. The simulation results show that using the raw coordinates does not decrease their efficiency.

Huc, Florian

2009-01-01

278

New results from VES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of the patial wave analysis(PWA) of the pi+pi-pi- and omegapi-pi0 systems are presented. The a3 and a4(2040) signals are observed in the rho(770)pi and f2(1270)pi channels. Indications of the a1' meson existence was found in the 1+0+ rhopi S-wave. The decay branching ratio of the a2(1320)- to omegapi-pi0 was measured. The 2+1+ wave shows a broad bump at M~1.7GeV. The decays of the pi2(1670), a4(2040) and pi(1740) into omegarho- were found. The resonance in the b1...

Dorofeev, V.; Collaboration, Ves

1999-01-01

279

Recent results on magnetars  

CERN Document Server

Several observations obtained in the last few years indicate that Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) are basically a single class of isolated neutron stars. Their properties are well explained by the magnetar model, based on neutron stars powered by magnetic fields as high as 10^14 -10^15 G. Here I report some recent results obtained for the transient Soft Gamma-ray Repeater SGR 1627-41, that started a new outburst after about 10 years from the previous one, and for the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408. The latter source recently showed a remarkable bursting activity, that reinforces the similarity between AXPs and SGRs.

Mereghetti, Sandro

2009-01-01

280

Results from LHCf Experiment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at ?s = 0.9 TeV and ?s = 7 TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

Tricomi Alessia

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Quest for the Best: How to Measure Central Bank Independence and Show its Relationship with Inflation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to check measures for explanatory power of central bank independence (CBI in a series of econometric tests. Measures of central bank autonomy offer a useful expression of the extent to which a central bank is able to keep the government away from influencing a change in the inflation rate. The more a measure represents this idea, the easier one can find a relation between the CBI value and the inflation rate. Results of estimations show that proxies by Grilli et al. (1991 are strong regressors of inflation rate, contrary to those by Cukierman et al. (1992. Moreover, estimation results challenge the belief that divergences in CBI-inflation rate estimations are due to differences in institutional features across samples of countries, not to differences in legal proxies of central bank independence. Already results from a homogenous group of industrial countries indicate that some indices perform “better” than others.

Aleksandra A. Maslowska

2011-08-01

282

Kill the song—steal the show: what does distinguish predicative metaphors from decomposable idioms?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing time of idiomatic and metaphoric expressions. In the first experiment, participants read sentences containing decomposable idioms, predicative metaphors or control expressions and performed a lexical decision task on figurative targets presented 0, 350, and 500 ms, or 750 after reading. Results demonstrated that idiomatic expressions were processed sooner than metaphoric ones. In the second experiment, participants were asked to assess the meaningfulness of idiomatic, metaphoric and literal expressions after reading a verb prime that belongs to the target phrase (identity priming). The results showed that verb identity priming was stronger for idiomatic expressions than for metaphor ones, indicating different mental representations. PMID:21153444

Caillies, Stéphanie; Declercq, Christelle

2011-06-01

283

Transcriptional and Functional Analysis Shows Sodium Houttuyfonate-Mediated Inhibition of Autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium houttuyfonate (SH, an addition compound of sodium bisulfite and houttuynin, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against 21 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus strains grown in planktonic cultures. Microarray results showed decreased levels of autolysin atl, sle1, cidA and lytN transcripts in the SH-treated strain as compared to the control strain, consistent with the induction of the autolytic repressors lrgAB and sarA and with the downregulation of the positive regulators agrA and RNAIII. Triton X-100-induced autolysis was significantly decreased by SH in S. aureus ATCC 25923, and quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis demonstrated SH-mediated reduction of extracellular murein hydrolase activity in these cells. Anti-biofilm assay showed that SH is poorly active against S. aureus grown in biofilm cultures, whereas SH diminished the amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that SH may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release in the early phase. Some of the microarray results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.

Lu Yu

2011-10-01

284

School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

Kisno

2014-03-01

285

Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

2009-10-15

286

Alzheimer's-associated A? oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal  

Science.gov (United States)

It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-?1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A? oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A? species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A? antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A?-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

Pitt, Jason; Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul; Klein, William L.

2009-01-01

287

alpha-Synuclein is expressed in a variety of brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-Synuclein is presynaptic nerve terminal protein and its immunoreactivity has been observed in such neurodegenerative structures as senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease or Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease. The physiological role of alpha-synuclein is still unknown. It is speculated that alpha-synuclein may be expressed in brain tumors, especially in those showing neuronal differentiation. We examined the immunohistochemical localization of alpha-synuclein in 77 human brain tumors. alpha-Synuclein was widely distributed in the brain tumors showing neuronal differentiation. As a result, positive immunostaining for alpha-synuclein was observed in ganglioglioma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pineocytoma/pineoblastoma, and central neurocytoma. Compared with other neuronal markers, the positive ratio of alpha-synuclein was not as high as synaptophysin, microtubule-associated protein 2, neuron-specific enolase and tau, but it was higher than neurofilament and chromogranin A. The expression of synaptophysin was diffusely observed in the cytoplasm, cellular processes and nucleus in tumors showing neuronal differentiation; however, the expression of alpha-synuclein was predominantly observed in the cytoplasm of the tumors as well as in the cellular processes. On the other hand, non-neuronal brain tumors such as astrocytic tumors or meningiomas were totally negative for alpha-synuclein. In conclusion, the appearance of an alpha-synuclein-positive structure was not limited to neurodegenerative diseases, but could also be detected in neoplastic cells showing neuronal differentiation. PMID:10672322

Kawashima, M; Suzuki, S O; Doh-ura, K; Iwaki, T

2000-02-01

288

Do Primary School Science Books for Children Show a Concern for Explanatory Understanding?  

Science.gov (United States)

Explanatory understanding is a valued goal in science education and yet research evidence suggests that, for a variety of reasons, it is not always a major concern of primary science teachers. Do primary science books show a concern for explanatory understanding? Using a structured analysis schedule, this study explored the extent to which 76 current primary science textbooks, intended for use with older primary children (7-11 years), showed a concern for explanatory understanding. The results indicated that the majority of the books did not reflect such a concern. Nevertheless, some books did include causal and intentional explanations. These could be a useful resource in that they could help shape both teachers' and children's conceptions of what counts as understanding in science.

Newton, L. D.; Newton, D. P.; Blake, A.; Brown, K.

2002-02-01

289

LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient heterogeneity in primary and synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1 hypomethylation is suggested to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. To assess intra-patient heterogeneity of LINE-1 methylation in CRC and to understand its biological relevance in invasion and metastasis, we evaluated the LINE-1 methylation at multiple tumor sites. In addition, the influence of stromal cell content on the measurement of LINE-1 methylation in tumor tissue was analyzed. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue was obtained from 48 CRC patients. Matched adjacent normal colon tissue, lymph node metastases and distant metastases were obtained from 12, 18 and 7 of these patients, respectively. Three different areas were microdissected from each primary tumor and included the tumor center and invasive front. Normal mucosal and stromal cells were also microdissected for comparison with the tumor cells. The microdissected samples were compared in LINE-1 methylation level measured by multicolor MethyLight assay. The assay results were also compared between microdissected and macrodissected tissue samples. Results LINE-1 methylation within primary tumors showed no significant intra-tumoral heterogeneity, with the tumor center and invasive front showing identical methylation levels. Moreover, no difference in LINE-1 methylation was observed between the primary tumor and lymph node and distant metastases from the same patient. Tumor cells showed significantly less LINE-1 methylation compared to adjacent stromal and normal mucosal epithelial cells. Consequently, LINE-1 methylation was significantly lower in microdissected samples compared to macrodissected samples. A trend for less LINE-1 methylation was also observed in more advanced stages of CRC. Conclusions LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient tumor heterogeneity, indicating the suitability of its use for molecular diagnosis in CRC. The methylation is relatively stable during CRC progression, leading us to propose a new concept for the association between LINE-1 methylation and disease stage.

Matsunoki Aika

2012-12-01

290

Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

Yan Jiyong

2011-10-01

291

GOSAT TANSO operation results  

Science.gov (United States)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center. Since February 7, 2009, the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) have been continuously operated. They acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The brief summary of instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan (grid and sun glint observation and special target mode), onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances are presented. TANSO-FTS Level 1A and 1B data processing algorithm and its updates on the ground are also presented. In addition we will show recent on orbit instrument status such as pointing accuracy, interferogram quality, and radiometric accuracy.

Nakajima, Masakatsu; Kuze, Akiihiko; Suto, Hiroshi; Shiomi, Kei

2010-05-01

292

Quantitative analysis of acid-base balance in show jumpers before and after exercise.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acid-base status of venous blood was studied in 17 show jumpers before and after exercise using both a traditional and a quantitative approach. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)), pH, haemoglobin, and plasma concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), potasium (K(+)), ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), total proteins, albumin, lactate and phosphorus were measured in jugular venous blood samples obtained before and immediately after finishing a show jumping competition. Bicarbonate, anion gap and globulin concentration were calculated from the measured parameters. 'Quantitative analysis' of acid-base balance was performed utilising values for three independent variables: PCO(2), strong ion difference [SID = (Na(+)+ K(+)+ Ca(2+)) - (Cl(-)+ Lact)] and total concentration of weak acids [A(T)= Alb (1 paragraph sign23 pH - 6 paragraph sign31) + Pi (0 paragraph sign309 pH - 0 paragraph sign469) 10/30 paragraph sign97]; plasma concentrations of hydrogen ion ([H(+)]) were also calculated from these variables using Stewart's equation. No significant changes in blood pH were detected after the show jumping competition. Exercise resulted in a significant increase in lactate, Na(+), K(+), haemoglobin, total proteins, albumin, globulin and anion gap, and a decrease in bicarbonate, Cl(-)and Ca(2+). PCO(2)decreased after exercise while SID and A(T)increased. A significant correlation between measured and calculated [H(+)] was found both before and after exercise. However, individual [H(+)] values were not accurately predicted from Stewart's equation. In conclusion, even though pH did not change, significant modifications in the acid-base balance of horses have been found after a show jumping competition. In addition, quantitative analysis has been shown to provide an adequate interpretation of acid-base status in show jumpers before and after exercise. PMID:10756125

Aguilera-Tejero, E; Estepa, J C; López, I; Bas, S; Mayer-Valor, R; Rodríguez, M

2000-04-01

293

Thymidine Kinase 1 Deficient Cells Show Increased Survival Rate After UV-Induced DNA Damage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balanced deoxynucleotide pools are known to be important for correct DNA repair, and deficiency for some of the central enzymes in deoxynucleotide metabolism can cause imbalanced pools, which in turn can lead to mutagenesis and cell death. Here we show that cells deficient for the thymidine salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) are more resistant to UV-induced DNA damage than TK1 positive cells although they have thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels of only half the size of control cells. Our results suggest that higher thymidine levels in the TK- cells caused by defect thymidine salvage to dTTP protects against UV irradiation.

Skovgaard, Tine; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

2010-01-01

294

Magnetite, a model system for mixed-valence oxides, does not show charge ordering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the charge ordering (CO) in magnetite below the Verwey transition. A new set of half-integer and mixed-integer superlattice reflections of the low-temperature phase have been studied by x-ray resonant scattering. None of these reflections show features characteristic of CO. We demonstrate the absence of CO along the c axis with the periodicity of either the cubic lattice q=(001) or the doubled cubic lattice q=(001/2). This result suggests that the Verwey transition is caused by strong electron-phonon interaction instead of an electronic ordering on the octahedral Fe atoms

2004-10-08

295

Correlation between radiation damage and magnetic properties in reactor vessel steels  

Science.gov (United States)

Since reactor pressure vessel steels are ferromagnetic, provide a convenient means to monitor changes in the mechanical properties of the material upon irradiation with high energy particles, by measuring their magnetic properties. Here, we discuss the correlation between mechanical and magnetic properties and microstructure, by studying the flux effect on the nuclear pressure vessel steel used in reactors currently under construction in Argentina. Charpy-V notched specimens of this steel were irradiated in the RA1 experimental reactor at 275 °C with two lead factors (LFs), 93 and 183. The magnetic properties were studied by means of DC magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance. The results show that the coercive field and magnetic anisotropy spatial distribution are sensitive to the LF and can be explained by taking into account the evolution of the microstructure with this parameter. The saturation magnetization shows a dominant dependence on the accumulated damage.

Kempf, R. A.; Sacanell, J.; Milano, J.; Guerra Méndez, N.; Winkler, E.; Butera, A.; Troiani, H.; Saleta, M. E.; Fortis, A. M.

2014-02-01

296

A Japanese family showing high-frequency hearing loss with KCNQ4 and TECTA mutations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Conclusions: We describe a Japanese family with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) harboring a c.211delC mutation in the KCNQ4 gene. Families showing progressive high-frequency SNHL should be investigated for mutations in the KCNQ4 gene. Objective: To determine the responsible deafness gene in a Japanese family with dominantly inherited high-frequency SNHL of unknown etiology. Methods: We performed hearing tests for five members of the family, and the three affected with hearing loss underwent further audiological and vestibular examinations. Genetic analysis was performed to identify any possible causative mutations, as well as analysis of detailed clinical findings to determine the phenotype. Results: The three affected subjects showed high-frequency SNHL. Extensive audiologic evaluation suggested cochlear involvement and progressive hearing loss. As for bilateral caloric testing, two of the three affected subjects showed hyporeflexia with recurrent vestibular symptoms. We identified the c.211delC mutation in the KCNQ4 gene and the c.2967C>A (p.H989Q) mutation in the TECTA gene. Based on the genotype-phenotype correlation, the c.211delC mutation in the KCNQ4 gene was associated with high-frequency SNHL in this family. PMID:24655070

Ishikawa, Kotaro; Naito, Takehiko; Nishio, Shin-Ya; Iwasa, Yoh-Ichiro; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Usami, Shin-Ichi; Ichimura, Keiichi

2014-06-01

297

Do dolphins rehearse show-stimuli when at rest? Delayed matching of auditory memory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their nighttime resting periods, non-dolphin sounds that they heard during performance shows. Generally, in the middle of the night, these animals produced vocal copies of whale sounds that had been broadcast during daily public shows. As their life history was fully known, we know that these captive dolphins had never had the opportunity to hear whale sounds before then. Moreover, recordings made before the whale sounds started being broadcast revealed that they had never emitted such sounds before. This is to our knowledge the first evidence for a separation between formation of auditory memories and the process of learning to produce calls that match these memories in a marine mammal. One hypothesis is that dolphins may rehearse some special events heard during the daytime and that they then express vocally what could be conceived as a more global memory. These results open the way for broader views on how animals might rehearse life events while resting or maybe dreaming.

DorotheeKremers

2011-12-01

298

Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (<1 mm particle size) mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction. PMID:24652060

Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

2014-06-01

299

Paddy plants inoculated with PGPR show better growth physiology and nutrient content under saline condition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The possible role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to alleviate salt stress during plant growth has been studied on paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) 'GJ-17' under greenhouse conditions; the study included growth parameters, mineral concentration, and antioxidant enzyme level. Salinity redu [...] ced plant growth, but PGPR inoculation reduced its harmful effect up to 1% salinity. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions showed 16% higher germination, 8% higher survival, 27% higher dry weight, and 31% higher plant height. Similarly, PGPR inoculated plants showed increased concentrations of N(26%), P (16%), K (31%), and reduced concentrations of Na (71%) and Ca (36%) as compared to non-inoculated control plants under saline conditions. Plants inoculated with PGPR under saline conditions also showed significant variations in antioxidant levels and growth physiology. Results suggested that inoculation with PGPR Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in salt-stressed plants could help to alleviate salt stress in the paddy.

Jha, Yachana; Subramanian, R.B.

300

Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

Tena Perišin

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Surface plasmon resonance shows that type IV pili are important in surface attachment by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type IV pili have been shown to play a role in the early stages of bacterial biofilm formation, but not in initial bacterial attachment. Here, using the surface analytical technique, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we follow the attachment of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa in real time. In contrast to previous studies, we show that type IV pili mutants are defective in attachment. Both mutants lacking pili (pilA), and those possessing an overabundance of pili (pilT), showed reduced SPR measured attachment compared with the wild-type PAO1 strain. Both pil mutants also showed reduced pathogenicity in a model insect host, as measured by percentage mortality after 24h. SPR revealed differences in the kinetics of attachment between pilA and pilT, differences obscured by endpoint assays using crystal violet stain. These results highlight the power of SPR in monitoring bacterial attachment in real time and also demonstrate an additional role for type IV pili beyond bacterial aggregation and micro-colony formation. PMID:16849183

Jenkins, A Toby A; Buckling, Angus; McGhee, Marsha; ffrench-Constant, Richard H

2005-06-22

302

Weld metal toughness - sources of variation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of weld toughness is largely studied using Charpy V-notch (CVN), but the CVN toughness values can vary widely in the same weld. This study investigated the causes of such variations in CVN measurements. Several CVN tests, a microstructure analysis and nanohardness measurements were performed to identify the microstructural properties affecting the CNV toughness values. The results showed that the CVN toughness values are controlled by local microstructure conditions. The size of austenite grain and ferritic microstructures are conditioned by cooling conditions. It is shown that the highly localized regions of coarse-grained ferrite are associated with the lowest CVN toughness measurements. It is also shown that the transformation of austenite into martensite under the load and reduced temperature associated with coarse ferrite microstructure explain the magnitude in CVN results.

Quintana, Marie; Major, Jeff; Dallam, Craig; James, Matt [Lincoln Electric, Cleveland, OH, (United States); Babu, S. S. [Ohia State University, Columbus, OH, (United States)

2010-07-01

303

Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents with TS.

FrancisM Miezin

2009-11-01

304

Alzheimer's-associated Abeta oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal.  

Science.gov (United States)

It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-beta1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt Abeta oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble Abeta species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific Abeta antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (Abeta-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics. PMID:19631677

Pitt, Jason; Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul; Klein, William L

2009-10-15

305

Leukocyte-technetium-99m uptake in Crohn's disease: Does it show subclinical disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) using technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) granulocyte scintigraphy. METHODS: Twenty patients (7 male and 13 female) with CD and five healthy volunteers were selected for 99mTc-HMPAO granulocyte scintigraphy. The Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI), blood tests and C-reactive protein (CRP) of each patient were performed 7 d before the scintigraphic images. The leukocytes were labeled according to the International Society of Radiolabeled Blood Elements (ISORBE) consensus protocol and the scintigraphic images, including single photon emission computed tomography, were obtained 30 min and 2 h after injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes. RESULTS: The labeling yield of the leukocytes with the lipophilic complex 99mTc-HMPAO was 55.0% ± 10%. Six of the 20 patients (30%) presented congruent results for the three parameters investigated (CDAI, Scintigraphic Index and CRP). On the other hand, 14 patients (70%) did not show congruent results. There was no significant correlation between the indices analyzed according to the Spearman test (P > 0.05, n = 20). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy could be important for determining inflammatory activity in CD even in the absence of clinical symptoms.

Mota, Luciene G; Coelho, Luiz GV; Simal, Carlos JR; Ferrari, Maria LA; Toledo, Clodomiro; Martin-Comin, Josep; Diniz, Simone OF; Cardoso, Valbert N

2010-01-01

306

A new two-phase dimeticone pediculicide shows high efficacy in a comparative bioassay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeticones kill head lice by physical means. Here we assessed in a comparative bioassay the ex vivo efficacy of "NYDA® sensitiv", a new two-phase dimeticone-based pediculicide similar to a product established on the market, but without fragrances. Methods We compared efficacy of the new product to a positive dimeticone control group, a sample of four other insecticidal and natural head lice products marketed in Germany, and an untreated control. In a bioassay, lice were exposed ex vivo to products and examined for activity for up to 24 hours, following a standard protocol. Results After 6 and 24 hours, 13.7 and 88.5% of untreated control lice did not show major vital signs. In contrast, no lice showed major vital signs 5 minutes after treatment with the new product or the control dimeticone group (NYDA®. This effect persisted at all observation points (100% efficacy. Efficacy of 0.5% permethrin (Infectopedicul® ranged between 76 and 96% in evaluations between 5 min and 6 hours. All lice treated with a coconut-based compound (mosquito® Läuseshampoo did not show major vital signs after 5 min, but mortality was only 58% after one hour. Pyrethrum extract (Goldgeist® forte showed an efficacy of 22 - 52% between 5 min and 3 hours after treatment; after 6 hours, 76% of lice were judged dead. An oxyphthirine®-based compound (Liberalice DUO LP-PRO® killed 22 - 54% of lice in the first 6 hours. Conclusions The two-phase dimeticone compound NYDA® sensitiv is highly efficacious. The removal of fragrances as compared to an established dimeticone product did not affect in vitro efficacy.

Liesenfeld Oliver

2009-12-01

307

FESEM Analysis showing evidence of aerosol Mixing over Indo-Gangetic Plains  

Science.gov (United States)

Kanpur AERONET deployed in January 2001 has provided a long-term dataset which has been used to understand the aerosol properties and aerosol long term trend in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Recent studies have revealed higher black carbon (BC) mass concentrations in the IGP, home to 900 million people. We present analysis of black carbon mass concentrations obtained from several locations in the IGP - namely Varanasi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Greater Noida and Delhi. Measurements show significant diurnal variation with higher BC concentrations in the morning hours and low concentrations during afternoon and evening time. Seasonally, BC concentrations are generally found to be higher during winter months compared to spring and summer monsoon season showing high seasonal variability. The higher winter-time BC is associated with a stable and shallow boundary layer which favors accumulation of pollutants over the IGP, resulting in dense haze conditions. Filter-based analysis, obtained from samples used in Aethalometer and high vacuum sampler, were analyzed to study aerosol surface characteristics and size of particles. Additionally, FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis show many dust minerals (Na, Al, Si, K, Fe), biogenic substances, fly ash of varying sizes 15 nanometer to 5 micron. The SEM imagery also show heterogeneous aerosol particles, sometimes these mineral grains are seen separately and sometime coating of fly ash and mineral particles are clearly seen. Similarly, Kanpur AERONET data is analyzed during winter and pre-monsoon season, contrasting aerosol properties (SSA, Refractive index and Size distribution) are found that are associated with large aerosol mixing, also supported from the FESEM analysis.

Singh, R. P.; Huth, J.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, S.; Pandey, S. N.

2012-12-01

308

Areva - 2011 Annual results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Areva's backlog established at 45.6 billion euros at the end of 2011, significantly increasing at the end of a year marked by the Fukushima accident, confirms the commercial dynamism of the group alongside its customers and reinforces the visibility on its future business level. In a difficult context, the slight decline in revenue in 2011 demonstrates the robustness of Areva's integrated model, resting mainly on recurring business generated in relation to Areva's customers' nuclear installed base, and benefiting from the development of Areva's renewable energies operations. Free operating cash flow before tax, although down over the whole year in 2011, improved in the second half, showing the first effects of Areva's stronger focus on cash generation and debt management. After the success of Areva's bond issue in September 2011, the Group's liquidity remains high at the end of 2011. The Areva teams are now dedicating all of their efforts to the deployment of the 'Action 2016' strategic action plan, which had already yielded its first positive results at the end of 2011, with an improvement in the cost structure of Areva's operations, an increase in order intake, and the launch of several disposals of minority interests. Summary of the 2011 financial results: - Backlog: euro 45.6 bn, +3.1% vs. 2010, i.e +6.7% over 3 months; - Revenue: euro 8.872 bn, i.e -2.6% vs. 2010; - Operating income: - euro 1.923 bn; - Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent: - euro 2.424 bn; - EBITDA: euro 1.068 bn ( euro 420 m excluding Siemens impact); - Free operating cash flow before tax: - euro 2.397 bn (- euro 1.366 bn excluding Siemens impacts), improvement over the second half; - Decrease in net debt of euro 124 m for the year; - Significant drop in general and administrative expenses, with a noticeable reduction between the first and the second half; - Launch of several disposals of minority interests

2012-01-01

309

Computer-aided detection of lung cancer on chest radiographs: differences in the interpretation time of radiologist's showing vs. not showing improvement with CAD  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from a clinical trial of a commercial CAD system for lung cancer detection, we are comparing the time used for interpreting chest radiographs between the radiologists showing improvement in detecting lung cancer with computer assistance to those not showing improvement. While measurement showed that the 15 radiologists as a group showed improvement (the Az was 0.8288 in independent reading, and 0.8654 in sequential reading with CAD, improvement has a P-value of 0.0058), there were 9 radiologists who showed improvement and 6 who did not. The behavior of the radiologists differed between the cases that contained cancer and those that were cancer-free. For the cases that contained a cancer, there was no statistically significant difference in time between the two groups (P-value 0.26). For the cancer-free cases, we found a statistically significant greater interpretation time for the radiologists whose performance in cancer detection was better with computer assistance compared to those without improvement (P-value 0.02). This work shows that radiologists who increased their detection of lung cancer using CAD, compared to those who showed no improvement, significantly increased their reading time when they determined that true negative cases for cancer were indeed true negative cases, but did not increase reading time for true positive decision on cancer cases.

Osicka, Teresa; Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Lure, Fleming; Xu, Xin-Wei; Lin, Jesse; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Ron

2003-05-01

310

2?-Fluoroarabino- and Arabinonucleic Acid Show Different Conformations, Resulting in Deviating RNA Affinities and Processing of Their Heteroduplexes with RNA by RNase H†‡  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

2?-Deoxy-2?-fluoro-arabinonucleic acid (FANA) and ANA paired to RNA are substrates of RNase H. The conformation of the natural DNA:RNA hybrid substrates appears to be neither A-form nor B-form. Consistent with this the conformations of FANA and ANA were found to be intermediate between the A- and B-forms. However, FANA opposite RNA is preferred by RNase H over ANA, and the RNA affinity of FANA considerably exceeds that of ANA. By investigating the conformational boundaries of FANA and ANA...

2006-01-01

311

Results from LHCf Experiment  

CERN Document Server

The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of $10^{17}$ eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

Tricomi, Alessia

2012-01-01

312

New results from VES  

CERN Document Server

The results of the patial wave analysis(PWA) of the pi+pi-pi- and omegapi-pi0 systems are presented. The a3 and a4(2040) signals are observed in the rho(770)pi and f2(1270)pi channels. Indications of the a1' meson existence was found in the 1+0+ rhopi S-wave. The decay branching ratio of the a2(1320)- to omegapi-pi0 was measured. The 2+1+ wave shows a broad bump at M~1.7GeV. The decays of the pi2(1670), a4(2040) and pi(1740) into omegarho- were found. The resonance in the b1(1235)pi wave with exotic quantum numbers jpc=1-+ at M~1.6 is observed and the simultaneous analysis of the 1-+ wave in the b1(1235)pi, etha'pi and rhopi final states is presented.

Dorofeev, V A

1999-01-01

313

Testbeam Results of Endcap RPC's  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, results are presented from the beamtest in 2002 of the full-scale RE-2/2 prototype RPC chamber assembled in Pakistan. The results are mainly related with the efficiency, time resolution, and rate capability of this non-oiled RPC. The CMS collaboration has imposed strict criteria on the performance parameters for RPC's. These results show that prototype RPC's meet with all the CMS criteria and are suitable for installation in CMS detector.

Ahmed, Ijaz; Hoorani, Hafeez; Aftab, Zia; Jan, J. A; Shariq Khan, M; Solaija, Tariq

2006-01-01

314

El SHOW DE JORGE BARÓN como paradigma de neopopulismo cultural en la televisión Colombiana / JORGE BARON'S show as paradigm of cultural neo-populism in the colombian television  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo parte de la investigación de campo sobre El Show de las Estrellas, el programa musical más antiguo y popular de la televisión colombiana. El análisis de caso es un pretexto para replantear la discusión sobre políticas culturales en el contexto -aparentemente paradójico- de violencia es [...] tructural, privatización y auge del populismo de derecha que caracteriza la política en Colombia en los últimos años. Abstract in english This article comes from the investigation field of the Stars Show (El Show de las Estrellas), the oldest and most popular musical TV show in Colombian television. The case analysis is an excuse to reframe the discussion on cultural policies in the context, apparently paradoxical, of structural viole [...] nce, privatization and peak of the right populism that characterizes the Colombian politics in the last years.

Rodríguez, Isabel Noemí; Chaparro Amaya, Adolfo.

315

78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA  

Science.gov (United States)

...USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic...USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This...with air show events. DATES: This...visit the Docket Management Facility in Room...Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01...with air show events. This rule is...USO Patriotic Festival Air Show,...

2013-05-28

316

Semantic Dementia Shows both Storage and Access Disorders of Semantic Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Previous studies have shown that some patients with semantic dementia (SD) have memory storage disorders, while others have access disorders. Here, we report three SD cases with both disorders. Methods. Ten pictures and ten words were prepared as visual stimuli to determine if the patients could correctly answer names and select pictures after hearing the names of items (Card Presentation Task, assessing memory storage disorder). In a second task, the viewing time was set at 20 or 300 msec (Momentary Presentation Task, evaluating memory access disorder) using items for which correct answers were given in the first task. The results were compared with those for 6 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results. The SD patients had lower scores than the AD group for both tasks, suggesting both storage and access disorders. The AD group had almost perfect scores on the Card Presentation Task but showed impairment on the Momentary Presentation Task, although to a lesser extent than the SD cases. Conclusions. These results suggest that SD patients have both storage and access disorders and have more severe access disorder than patients with AD.

Takahashi, Yumi; Meguro, Kenichi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kasai, Mari; Akanuma, Kyoko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

2014-01-01

317

45 CFR 1302.21 - Grantee shows legal status but not financial viability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...shows legal status but not financial viability. 1302.21 Section 1302.21...shows legal status but not financial viability. (a) If a grantee shows legal status but impaired financial viability the responsible HHS official...

2009-10-01

318

An NGR-integrated and enediyne-energized apoprotein shows CD13-targeting antitumor activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Targeting and inhibiting angiogenesis is a promising strategy for treatment of cancer. NGR peptide motif is a tumor-homing peptide, which could bind with CD13 expressed on tumor blood vessels. Lidamycin is a highly potent antitumor antibiotic, which is composed of an apoprotein (LDP) and an active enediyne chromophore (AE). Here, an NGR-integrated and enediyne-energized apoprotein composed of cyclic NGR peptide and lidamycin was developed by a two-step procedure. Firstly, we prepared the fusion protein composed of NGR peptide and LDP by recombinant DNA technology. Then, AE was reloaded to the fusion protein to get NGR-LDP-AE. Our experiments showed that NGR-LDP could bind to CD13-expressing HT-1080 cells, whereas the recombinant LDP (rLDP) showed weak binding. NGR-LDP-AE exerted highly potent cytotoxicity to cultured tumor cells in vitro. In vivo antitumor activity was evaluated in murine hepatoma 22 (H22) model and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 model. At the tolerable dose, NGR-LDP-AE and lidamycin inhibited H22 tumor growth by 94.8 and 66.9%, and the median survival time of the mice was 62 and 37 days, respectively. In the HT-1080 model, NGR-LDP-AE inhibited tumor growth by 88.6%, which was statistically different from that of lidamycin (74.5%). Immunohistochemical study showed that NGR-LDP could bind to tumor blood vessels. Conclusively, these results demonstrate that fusion of LDP with CNGRC peptide delivers AE to tumor blood vessels and improves its antitumor activity. PMID:23206754

Zheng, Yan-Bo; Shang, Bo-Yang; Li, Yi; Zhen, Yong-Su

2013-03-01

319

Partial amino acid sequence of apolipoprotein(a) shows that it is homologous to plasminogen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] is a glycoprotein with M/sub r/ ? 280,000 that is disulfide linked to apolipoprotein B in lipoprotein(a) particles. Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) are correlated with atherosclerosis. Partial amino acid sequence of apo(a) shows that it has striking homology to plasminogen. Plasminogen is a plasma serine protease zymogen that consists of five homologous and tandemly repeated domains called kringles and a trypsin-like protease domain. The amino-terminal sequence obtained for apo(a) is homologous to the beginning of kringle 4 but not the amino terminus of plasminogen. Apo(a) was subjected to limited proteolysis by trypsin or V8 protease, and fragments generated were isolated and sequenced. Sequences obtained from several of these fragments are highly (77-100%) homologous to plasminogen residues 391-421, which reside within kringle 4. Analysis of these internal apo(a) sequences revealed that apo(a) may contain at least two kringle 4-like domains. A sequence obtained from another tryptic fragment also shows homology to the end of kringle 4 and the beginning of kringle 5. Sequence data obtained from the two tryptic fragments shows homology with the protease domain of plasminogen. One of these sequences is homologous to the sequences surrounding the activation site of plasminogen. Plasminogen is activated by the cleavage of a specific arginine residue by urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator; however, the corresponding site in apo(a) is a serine that would not be cleaved by tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase. Using a plasmin-specific assay, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for lipoprotein(a) particles. These results suggest that apo(a) contains kringle-like domains and an inactive protease domain

1987-01-01

320

Fracture toughness of an ex-service power generating turbine rotor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the results from an ongoing project aimed at deriving fracture toughness correlations for improved assessment of the structural integrity and remaining life of low alloy steel pressure equipment where the principal damage mechanism is temper embrittlement. Charpy V-Notch impact testing, and small punch tests were performed on full size samples of a 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V (wt%) ex-service (136,000 h) turbine rotor steel in the as-received and de-embrittled to develop the correlation in FATT. The data shows that temper embrittlement is likely to be a significant concern in the Australian power generation scene, where numerous rotors such as that studied here remain in service. (author)

Shekhter, A.; Ringer, S.P. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Moss, C.J. [HRL Technology Pty. Ltd., Mulgrave (Australia); Hellier, A.K. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia). Materials Div.

1998-12-31

 
 
 
 
321

Evaluating mechanical properties of hybrid laser arc girth welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) is a promising new process for making girth welds on steel pipelines. This study investigated the mechanical properties of overmatched X80 and X100 pipeline steel girth welds made using the HLAW process. The testing of this process was conducted on NPS36 pipes of 10.4 mm and 14.3 mm thickness, respectively. Various weld positions were produced on X80 and X100 pipes. Laser inspection data were collected during the whole welding process. Also standard tests for girth welds, Charpy V-notch impact tests, CTOD tests, all weld metal (AWM) tension tests, were carried out. The results showed that the fracture transition temperature is higher at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions than at the 9 and 12 o'clock positions. The effect of clock position on fracture toughness is currently being explored; a modified CTOD has been developed to reduce the possibility of crack deviation.

Pussegoda, L. N.; Begg, D.; Holdstock, R.; Jodoin, A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd Techonology, Kanata, ON, (Canada); Ligh, K.; Rondeau, D. [Appliead Thermal Sciences Inc., Sanford, ME, (United States); Hansen, E. [ESAB, Florence, SC, (United States)

2010-07-01

322

Field girth weld HAZ toughness improvement - X80/grade 550  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat affected zone (HAZ) material is a big concern in the pipeline industry because of the alteration of the microstructure. This study investigates the chemical composition factors which optimize field weldability by enhancing HAZ toughness. Four X80/Grade 550 pipeline alloys were studied. Robotic welding methods were used to make welded skelp and flattened pipe welds. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests were performed to observe fracture resistance in the HAZ. The HAZ microstructure was studied using optical and Gleeble thermo-mechanical microscopy. The results showed that the HAZ toughness was better for material chemistries that produce lower phase transformation temperatures. Lower phase transformation temperature produced better microstructural phases, with finer prior austenite grain size. Phase transformation temperature and prior austenite grain size were related to the carbon or carbon equivalent content of the material.

Collins, L.E.; Penniston, C. [Evraz Inc. NA, Regina, SK, (Canada)

2010-07-01

323

The effect of aging at 343/degree/C on type 308 stainless steel welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three nominally 25-mm (1-in) thick shielded metal-arc welds were prepared from 304L base plate with 308 filler material, to obtain three different ferrite levels (4, 8, and 12 %). Portions of these welds were then aged at 343/degree/C for 3000, 10000, and 20000 hours. Charpy V-notch and tensile specimens were taken from the welds. The tensile results were similar for all the specimens and showed little effect of aging on either the yield or ultimate tensile strengths. The Charpy impact properties of the higher ferrite content materials were significantly degraded by these agings, with larger decreases in the impact energy with increased aging time. The microstructures of the welds were examined by metallography and transmission electron microscopy, and the fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the mechanical properties and the fractography are discussed in light of the observed changes in the microstructure. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Alexander, D.J.; Alexander, K.B.; Nanstad, R.K.

1989-01-01

324

Estimation of Fracture Toughness Degradation of High Temperature Materials by Nonlinear Acoustic Effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to develop an ultrasonic evaluation method for properties degradation of high temperature materials, a number of Cr-Mo-V steel samples were heat-treated and their damage mechanism was examined. Ultrasonic parameters such as velocity, attenuation, and more recently developed nonlinear acoustic parameter were measured. The nonlinear acoustic parameter was found to be most sensitive to material degradation mainly attributed to the precipitation of impurities in grain boundaries. When compared to the electrical resistivity results, the nonlinear parameters showed similar behavior. There existed a relatively good correlation between the nonlinear parameter and the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) obtained by Charpy V-notch impact test. Based on the relationship between the FATT and the fracture toughness (KIC), correlation between the nonlinear parameter and KIC was established

2000-10-01

325

Design of a low-alloy high-strength and high-toughness martensitic steel  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop a high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel with high strength and high toughness, a series of martensitic steels were studied through alloying with various elements and thermodynamic simulation. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the designed steel were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing and Charpy impact test. The results show that cementite exists between 500°C and 700°C, M7C3 exits below 720°C, and they are much lower than the austenitizing temperature of the designed steel. Furthermore, the Ti(C,N) precipitate exists until 1280°C, which refines the microstructure and increases the strength and toughness. The optimal alloying components are 0.19% C, 1.19% Si, 2.83% Mn, 1.24% Ni, and 0.049% Ti; the tensile strength and the V notch impact toughness of the designed steel are more than 1500 MPa and 100 J, respectively.

Zhao, Yan-jun; Ren, Xue-ping; Yang, Wen-chao; Zang, Yue

2013-08-01

326

Effect of strain ageing on yield strength and post yield behavior of FCAW-G ferritic weld metal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strain aging can occur in pipeline steels that are subjected to thermal cycles after plastic deformation. This phenomenon is not well understood. This paper studies the effect of straining and aging on weld properties. More precisely, the study investigated the effect of micro-alloying on the microstructure and the properties of weld metal when a flux cored arc welding (FCAW-G) process is used. The weld metal strength (yield and tensile), the ductility (uniform and total elongation) and the toughness (Charpy V-Notch testing) are characterized for two different micro-alloying additions (titanium or vanadium). The tensile samples were also subjected to varying levels of strain. It is found that the yield and tensile strength increased with the increase in pre-strain, confirming the presence of strain aging. For the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT), the results showed that the DBTT of the weld metal evolved slightly to higher temperatures with increase in pre-strain.

Narayanan, Badri K.; Brady, Noel; Ogborn, John [The Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, OH, (United States); Wang, Yong-Yi [Center for reliable energy systems, Columbus, OH, (United States)

2010-07-01

327

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Huntington's Disease Show CAG Repeat Expansion Associated Phenotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded stretch of CAG trinucleotide repeats that results in neuronal dysfunction and death. Here, the HD consortium reports the generation and characterization of 14 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from HD patients and controls. Microarray profiling revealed CAG expansion-associated gene expression patterns that distinguish patient lines from controls, and early onset versus late onset HD. Differentiated HD neural cells showed disease associated changes in electrophysiology, metabolism, cell adhesion, and ultimately cell death for lines with both medium and longer CAG repeat expansions. The longer repeat lines were however the most vulnerable to cellular stressors and BDNF withdrawal using a range of assays across consortium laboratories. The HD iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in HD and provides a novel human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics.

Mattis, Virginia B; Svendsen, Soshana P; Ebert, Allison; Svendsen, Clive N; King, Alvin R; Casale, Malcolm; Winokur, Sara T; Batugedara, Gayani; Vawter, Marquis; Donovan, Peter J; Lock, Leslie F; Thompson, Leslie M; Zhu, Yu; Fossale, Elisa; Singh Atwal, Ranjit; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Li, Jian-hong; Seong, IhnSik; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Xiaoli; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Akimov, Sergey; Arbez, Nicolas; Juopperi, Tarja; Ratovitski, Tamara; Chiang, Jason H; Kim, Woon Roung; Chighladze, Eka; Watkin, Erin; Zhong, Chun; Makri, Georgia; Cole, Robert N; Margolis, Russell L; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guoli; Ross, Christopher A; Kaye, Julia A; Daub, Aaron; Sharma, Punita; Mason, Amanda R; Finkbeiner, Steven; Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A; Rushton, David; Brazier, Stephen P; Battersby, Alysia A; Redfern, Amanda; Tseng, Hsui-Er; Harrison, Alexander W; Kemp, Paul J; Allen, Nicholas D; Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Cattaneo, Elena; Arjomand, Jamshid

2013-01-01

328

Delay in Cleavage of Porcine Embryos after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Shows Poorer Embryonic Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In pigs, the embryonic developmental ability after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is inferior to that resulting from in vitro fertilization (IVF). We evaluated the timing of cell division up to blastocyst formation on embryonic development after ICSI using either whole sperm (w-ICSI) or the sperm head alone (h-ICSI) and IVF as a control. At 10 h after ICSI or IVF, we selected only zygotes, and each of the zygotes/embryos was evaluated for cleavage every 24 h until 168 h. We then observed a delay in the 1st and 2nd cleavages of h-ICSI embryos and also in blastocoele formation by w-ICSI embryos in comparison with IVF embryos. The rate of blastocyst formation and the quality of blastocysts in both ICSI groups were inferior to those in the IVF group. In conclusion, the delay in cleavage of porcine ICSI embryos shows poorer embryonic development. PMID:24694523

Nakai, Michiko; Ozawa, Manabu; Maedomari, Naoki; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Ito, Junya; Onishi, Akira; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

2014-07-01

329

Radon in Irish Show Caves - Personal Monitoring Data From 2001-2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Directive 96/29/EURATOM and its transposition into national legislation demands the application of radiation protection measures if the presence of radon and radon decay products leads to significant increase in exposures of workers. Irish legislation further demands that laboratories carrying out radon measurements operate a high level quality assurance programme. As a result of a reconnaissance survey regular measurements of show cave guides have been made in order to assess exposure to radon in such workplaces and to ascertain that the limits set for radon are not exceeded. In 2000, an action level of 400 Bqm-3, was established. Doses in the range 0.3-12.0 mSv have been estimated for workers for the period 2001-2006

2008-08-07

330

Similarity of scattering rates in metals showing T-linear resistivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many exotic compounds, such as cuprate superconductors and heavy fermion materials, exhibit a linear in temperature (T) resistivity, the origin of which is not well understood. We found that the resistivity of the quantum critical metal Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7) is also T-linear at the critical magnetic field of 7.9 T. Using the precise existing data for the Fermi surface topography and quasiparticle velocities of Sr(3)Ru(2)O(7), we show that in the region of the T-linear resistivity, the scattering rate per kelvin is well approximated by the ratio of the Boltzmann constant to the Planck constant divided by 2?. Extending the analysis to a number of other materials reveals similar results in the T-linear region, in spite of large differences in the microscopic origins of the scattering. PMID:23413351

Bruin, J A N; Sakai, H; Perry, R S; Mackenzie, A P

2013-02-15

331

Microsatellite markers show distinctiveness of released and wild grey partridges in Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to study whether the present game farm stocks used for releases to the wild in Finland are similar to wild populations in their genetic structure, and if not, whether the wild populations show any signs of hybridisation. A total of 301 feather samples and ten microsatellite loci were used. Samples were collected from France, Great Britain, Finland (wild and captive and Greece. We estimated pairwise FST–values between study populations, examined population structure and identified possible first generation migrants. Pairwise FST–values indicated structuring among studied populations. Results indicate that the farm stock used for releases deviates from the wild populations. No signs of hybridisation between the released and native birds were detected.

Liukkonen, T.

2012-01-01

332

Single particle tracking in systems showing anomalous diffusion: the role of weak ergodicity breaking  

CERN Document Server

Anomalous diffusion has been widely observed by single particle tracking microscopy in complex systems such as biological cells. The resulting time series are usually evaluated in terms of time averages. Often anomalous diffusion is connected with non-ergodic behaviour. In such cases the time averages remain random variables and hence irreproducible. Here we present a detailed analysis of the time averaged mean squared displacement for systems governed by anomalous diffusion, considering both unconfined and restricted (corralled) motion. We discuss the behaviour of the time averaged mean squared displacement for two prominent stochastic processes, namely, continuous time random walks and fractional Brownian motion. We also study the distribution of the time averaged mean squared displacement around its ensemble mean, and show that this distribution preserves typical process characteristic even for short time series. Recently, velocity correlation functions were suggested to distinguish between these processes...

Burov, Stas; Metzler, Ralf; Barkai, Eli

2010-01-01

333

Organic molecules showing the characteristics of localised corrosion aggravation and inhibition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Novel experiment for the discovery of localised corrosion inhibitors. ? New method of identifying inhibitors promoting random distribution of anodic currents. ? Discovery of resorcinarene acid as an effective localised corrosion inhibitor. - Abstract: The behaviour of imidazoline and an acid functionalised resorcinarene as steel corrosion inhibitors in carbon dioxide (CO2)-saturated brine solutions has been studied using an electrochemically integrated multi-electrode array namely the wire beam electrode (WBE). Both imidazoline and resorcinarene acid provided excellent inhibition to general CO2 corrosion; however imidazoline was found to aggravate localised corrosion by creating a small number of major anodes that focused on a small area of the WBE surface, leading to highly concentrated anodic dissolution. The resorcinarene acid showed distinctively different behaviour by generating a large number of minor anodes randomly distributing over the WBE surface, leading to insignificant general anodic dissolution. These results indicate that resorcinarene acid provided effective localised corrosion inhibition by promoting a random distribution of insignificant anodic currents.

2011-05-01

334

Attendees Preference Modelling for an International Art Festival Based on Show Attendances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Falassi (1997 regards festivals as a time of celebration. Can festivalsbe considered catalysts for experiencinglocal art and culture or do they serve to promote an internationalised version of culture? This paper explores therole of arts festivals on local cultural consumption through festival attendees’ preferences to particular styles ofcultural performances. Using data from the 2009 Hong Kong Arts Festival the paper seeks to identify the factorsunderlining attendee preferences. Findings show that there is a demand for a balance of local and internationalcultural experiences. This result highlights the dual role of major festivals of both bringing the best ofinternational art to local residents while also showcasing the traditional and contemporary culture of the region.

Stephen Boyle

2012-05-01

335

Tranexamic acid-induced ligneous conjunctivitis with renal failure showed reversible hypoplasminogenaemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare severe conjunctivitis characterised by fibrin-rich, 'woody', pseudomembranes on the tarsal conjunctiva complicated by congenital hypoplasminogenaemia. A previous report suggested that ligneous conjunctivitis may result from tranexamic acid (TA)-induced 'secondary' hypoplasminogenaemia. However, the serum plasminogen level has not been confirmed in that scenario. We report for the first time a case of TA-induced ligneous conjunctivitis with reversible hypoplasminogenaemia. A 70-year-old woman developed a gastric ulcer that was treated with oral TA. After 5?weeks of treatment, the patient presented with bilateral pale yellow pseudomembranes on the palpebral conjunctivae. Haematological analysis showed hypoplasminogenaemia. We diagnosed ligneous conjunctivitis. TA was discontinued after 14?weeks after the gastric ulcer symptoms resolved. Six weeks after discontinuation of therapy, the pseudomembranes regressed and the serum plasminogen level returned to the normal range. TA should be considered a possible aetiology in the setting of unresolving ligneous conjunctivitis. PMID:24842363

Song, Youngseok; Izumi, Naohiro; Potts, Luke Benjamin; Yoshida, Akitoshi

2014-01-01

336

Metachronous metastasis- and survival-analysis show prognostic importance of lymphadenectomy for colon carcinomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphadenectomy is performed to assess patient prognosis and to prevent metastasizing. Recently, it was questioned whether lymph node metastases were capable of metastasizing and therefore, if lymphadenectomy was still adequate. We evaluated whether the nodal status impacts on the occurrence of distant metastases by analyzing a highly selected cohort of colon cancer patients. Methods 1,395 patients underwent surgery exclusively for colon cancer at the University of Lübeck between 01/1993 and 12/2008. The following exclusion criteria were applied: synchronous metastasis, R1-resection, prior/synchronous second carcinoma, age Results Five-year survival rates for TM + and TM- were 21% and 73%, respectively (p Conclusions Besides a higher T-category, a positive N-stage independently implies a higher probability to develop distant metastases and correlates with poor survival. Our data thus show a prognostic relevance of lymphadenectomy which should therefore be retained until conclusive studies suggest the unimportance of lmyphadenectomy.

Laubert Tilman

2012-03-01

337

Serological evidences showing the involvement of free-living pheasants in the influenza ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From 1995 to 2002, 219 sera were collected in Northern Italy from wild pheasants, in order to establish the possible involvement of these Galliformes birds in the influenza ecology. A serological survey for avian influenza viruses (AIVs was carried out by ELISA test in order to detect type A influenza antibodies. The overall seroprevalence was 12.3%, with yearly values ranging from 0% to 42.5%. No antibodies against either H5 or H7 AIV subtypes were found by hemagglutination-inhibition test. Data from 16 recaptured birds, among 113 animals banded for individual identification, showed seroconversions in 2 pheasants. Our results indicate AIV circulation in free-living pheasants; the involvement of this land-based bird species in influenza ecology is discussed.

Isabella Donatelli

2010-01-01

338

Dioecious Silene latifolia plants show sexual dimorphism in the vegetative stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to this study, no differences in gene expression between male and female dioecious plants in the vegetative state had been detected. Among dioecious plants displaying sexual dimorphism, Silene latifolia is one of the most studied species. Although many sexually dimorphic traits have been described in S. latifolia, all of them are quantitative, and they usually become apparent only after the initiation of flowering. Results We present RT-PCR-based evidence that in S. latifolia, sexual dimorphism in gene expression is present long before the initiation of flowering. We describe three ESTs that show sex-specific (two male specific and one female specific transcription at the rosette stage before the first flowering season. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular evidence of early pre-flowering sexual dimorphism in angiosperms.

Vyskot Boris

2010-09-01

339

Microchip-calorimetry of organic charge transfer complex which shows superconductivity at low temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic charge transfer salt of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br shows superconductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We succeeded to detect thermal anomaly microchip device TCG3880. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development details of the calorimeter and the detection system is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic fields dependence shows typical character of layered superconductor. - Abstract: We carried out thermodynamic measurements of organic charge transfer complex of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br, where BEDT-TTF is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene by TCG3880 chip device in order to examine capability of the chip calorimeter at low temperature region and under magnetic fields. TCG3880 chip is mounted on a {sup 3}He cryostat available in combination with a superconductive magnet up to 7 T. Thermal anomalies related to the glass-like freezing of ethylene groups of BEDT-TTF molecules and the superconductive transition were observed. A frequency dependence of the thermal anomaly of the glass formation and a magnetic fields dependence of the thermal anomaly of the superconductive transition are reported. The results presented in this work demonstrate that the TCG3880 is quite useful for thermodynamic investigations of the organic charge transfer complex with much reduced sample quantity as compared with those of relaxation and adiabatic calorimetry.

Muraoka, Yuki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamashita, Satoshi [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: nakazawa@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka 38, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

2012-03-20

340

MRI shows more severe hippocampal atrophy and shape deformation in hippocampal sclerosis than in Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

While hippocampal atrophy is a key feature of both hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathology underlying this finding differs in these two conditions. In AD, atrophy is due primarily to loss of neurons and neuronal volume as a result of neurofibrillary tangle formation. While the etiology of HS is unknown, neuron loss in the hippocampus is severe to complete. We compared hippocampal volume and deformations from premortem MRI in 43 neuropathologically diagnosed cases of HS, AD, and normal controls (NC) selected from a longitudinal study of subcortical ischemic vascular disease (IVD Program Project). HS cases (n = 11) showed loss of neurons throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the hippocampus in one or both hemispheres. AD cases (n = 24) met NIA-Reagan criteria for high likelihood of AD. Normal control cases (n = 8) were cognitively intact and showed no significant AD or hippocampal pathology. The mean hippocampal volumes were significantly lower in HS versus AD groups (P < .001). Mean shape deformations in the CA1 and subiculum differed significantly between HS versus AD, HS versus NC, and AD versus NC (P < .0001). Additional study is needed to determine whether these differences will be meaningful for clinical diagnosis of individual cases. PMID:21547227

Zarow, C; Wang, L; Chui, H C; Weiner, M W; Csernansky, J G

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress

2006-01-06

342

Arabidopsis thaliana transgenics overexpressing IBR3 show enhanced susceptibility to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-RESPONSE (IBR) 3, is thought to participate in peroxisomal ?-oxidation of IBA to indole-3-acetic acid. Here we show that IBR3 may also play a role in Arabidopsis thaliana defence response to microbial pathogens. IBR3 is up-regulated during infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 bacteria. Although mutant ibr3-4 did not show a pathogen phenotype, lines overexpressing IBR3 demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to Pst DC3000. Increased susceptibility phenotypes of IBR3 overexpressors were correlated with defective SA defence signalling and impairment of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) activation. Notably, reactive oxygen species production was reduced in IBR3 overexpressors after treatment with the microbe-associated molecular patterns flg22 and efl26. Later PTI responses, such as accumulation of FRK1 transcripts and callose deposition were also reduced in transgenics overexpressing IBR3 after inoculation with the Type III secretion system deficient bacterial mutant Pst DC3000 hrcC or treatment with flg22 or elf26. Importantly, overexpression of IBR3 did not affect indole-3-acetic acid content or auxin-responsive gene expression. These results suggest a novel role for IBR3 in A. thaliana defence response against bacterial pathogens. PMID:23906045

Huang, T-Y; Desclos-Theveniau, M; Chien, C-T; Zimmerli, L

2013-09-01

343

[Adult T-cell leukemia with cervical bone tumor showing immunophenotypic change].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 60-year-old man born in Miyazaki prefecture was admitted to our hospital complaining of skin rash in December 1989. On hematological examinations, leukocyte count was 14,200/microliters with 49% of abnormal lymphocytes showing lobulated nuclei. The surface marker study revealed their phenotype as CD4+8-. Anti human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) antibody and monoclonal integration of proviral DNA were positive. From the above results, he was diagnosed as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Abnormal lymphocytes gradually decreased without treatment after the first admission. In January, 1990, he began to complain of neck pain. Two months later he was readmitted because of paresis of extremities and disturbance of urination. Vertebral bone mass and a compressed spinal cord in the 4th cervic level were confirmed by MR imaging. He received a resection of tumor and an anterior fusion of vertebrae. The bone tumor was histologically diagnosed as malignant lymphoma, diffuse medium-size cell type and the infiltrating cells had their phenotype as CD4+8+. He was postoperatively treated with combination chemotherapies, but neurological abnormalities did not improve. He died of pneumonia on 35 days after the operation. A postmortem examination revealed extradural tumor formation with ATL cells. This case is considered to be rare in respect of both the disappearance of most peripheral abnormal lymphocytes without any treatments and the cervical bone tumor showing immunophenotypic change. PMID:1545518

Mori, N; Ogawa, R; Wake, A; Nagata, K; Sato, T; Tsukada, J; Nakata, K; Misago, M; Morimoto, I; Oda, S

1992-01-01

344

Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, show ability to maintain dermal papilla cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •First report on effects of various Wnts on DP cells. •Wnt-10b promoted trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed to a limited extent. •Canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, is important for DP cells maintenance. -- Abstract: Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles (HFs) and considered to be crucial for maintaining dermal papilla (DP) cells, the functional differences among them remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, 5a, 10b, 11) on the proliferation of mouse-derived primary DP cells in vitro as well as their trichogenesis-promoting ability using an in vivo skin reconstitution protocol. Wnt-10b promoted cell proliferation and trichogenesis, while Wnt-3a showed those abilities to a limited extent, and Wnt-5a and 11 had no effects. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of these Wnts on cultured DP cells obtained from versican-GFP transgenic mice and found that Wnt-10b had a potent ability to sustain their GFP-positivity. These results suggest that canonical Wnts, specifically Wnt-10b, play important roles in the maintenance of DP cells and trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp

2013-08-30

345

The Rhox homeobox gene family shows sexually dimorphic and dynamic expression during mouse embryonic gonad development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reproductive capacity is fundamental to the survival of all species. Consequently, much research has been undertaken to better understand gametogenesis and the interplay between germ cells and the somatic cell lineages of the gonads. In this study, we have analyzed the embryonic expression pattern of the X-linked gene family (R) under bar eproductive (h) under bar omeobox genes on the (X) under bar chromosome (Rhox) in mice. Our data show that eight members of the Rhox gene family are developmentally regulated in sexually dimorphic and temporally dynamic patterns in the developing germ cells during early gonadogenesis. These changes coincide with critical stages of differentiation where the germ cells enter either mitotic arrest in the testis or meiotic arrest in the ovary. Finally, we show that Rhox8 (Tox) is the only member of the Rhox gene family that is expressed in the somatic compartment of the embryonic gonads. Our results indicate that the regulation of Rhox gene expression and its potential function during embryogenesis are quite distinct from those previously reported for Rhox gene regulation in postnatal gonads.

Daggag, Hinda; Svingen, Terje

2008-01-01

346

Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits. PMID:23261185

Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

2013-08-30

347

Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa Province, India. A total of 200 bacterial isolates of actinobacteria was isolated. All isolates were screened for phosphate-solubilizing activity on Pikovskaya's agar. Thirteen different isolates exhibiting maximum formation of halos (zone of solubilization) around the bacterial colonies were selected for quantitative estimations of P-solubilization. Quantitative estimations for P-solubilization were analyzed for up to 10 days at intervals of 24 h. Maximum solubilization from 89.3 ± 3.1 to 164.1 ± 4.1 ?g ml(-1) was observed after 6 days of incubation in six of all isolates, while the isolate NII-1020 showed maximum P-solubilization. The increase in solubilization coincided with the drop in pH. Many of these species showed wide range of tolerance to temperature, pH, and salt concentrations. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were carried to identify the bacterial groups which are actively solubilized phosphate in vitro. Gene sequencing results reveal that all isolates were clustered into six different actinobacterial genera: Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Angustibacter, Kocuria, Isoptericola, and Agromyces. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize phosphate were indicative of the important role played by bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems. PMID:23288302

Dastager, Syed G; Damare, Samir

2013-05-01

348

The progeny of Legionella pneumophila in human macrophages shows unique developmental traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gram-negative bacterium Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of amoebae and an accidental human pathogen that causes a noncommunicable atypical pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). In some mammalian cells (e.g. HeLa), L. pneumophila follows a biphasic developmental cycle, differentiating between a replicative form that actively multiplies intracellularly, and a mature infectious form (MIF) that emerges as progeny. To date, it is not known whether the L. pneumophila progenies that emerge from amoebae and human macrophages reach similar developmental stages. Here, we demonstrate that in relation to the fully differentiated and highly infectious MIFs that emerge from amoebae, the L. pneumophila progeny that emerges from macrophages is morphologically undifferentiated, less resistant to antibiotics and less able to initiate infections. However, the L. pneumophila progeny from macrophages did not show any defects in intracellular growth. We thus concluded that macrophage infection with L. pneumophila yields a low number of bona fide MIFs. Because MIFs are the transmissive forms of L. pneumophila produced in vivo, our results showing that they are not efficiently produced in cultured macrophages provide an initial insight into why LD is not communicable. PMID:24206397

Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A

2013-12-01

349

Minisatellites show rare and simple intra-allelic instability in the mouse germ line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minisatellites provide very informative systems for analyzing processes of tandem repeat DNA turnover in humans. The mouse genome also contains authentic minisatellites, but none has yet been found to show high levels of instability. Indirect evidence using minisatellite variant repeat mapping by PCR in Mus musculus subspecies suggested that mouse minisatellites mutate at a rate below 10(-3) per gamete and mainly by intra-allelic events. This is in sharp contrast to the complex interallelic mutations observed at high frequency at some human loci. To define more directly the turnover mechanisms and rates of instability at one of the most variable mouse minisatellites (MMS80), we used size-enrichment small-pool PCR (SESP-PCR) to recover de novo mutant alleles from sperm DNA from homozygous BALB/cJ mice and from strain DHA heterozygotes. The sperm mutation rate at MMS80 was extremely low, at or below 5 x 10(-6) per sperm. Comparison of progenitor and mutant allele structures showed that these rare mutants had arisen by simple and primarily, if not exclusively, intra-allelic mutation events. These results suggest a fundamental difference in turnover mechanisms at minisatellites between mice and human. PMID:12079275

Bois, Philippe R J; Grant, Gemma R; Jeffreys, Alec J

2002-07-01

350

Effect of corticosterone on growth and welfare of broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tonic immobility (TI) test is commonly used to assess fear. Animals showing different TI durations demonstrate distinct behavior and biochemical responses to stress. However, less is known about how TI phenotype affects growth and welfare of domestic fowl. In this study, broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) were classified into short and long TI duration (STI and LTI) phenotypes and treated chronically with vehicle (CON) or corticosterone (CORT). STI broilers demonstrated significantly higher growth rate with higher breast muscle yield (PT4 (P=0.01). CORT severely reduced body weight, as well as the relative weight of muscle, bursa of Fabricius and spleen (Pelevated heterophile/lymphocyte ratio, and increased serum levels of total and free T3. STI broilers displayed more preening behavior (P<0.05), yet CORT elicited more walking behavior (P<0.05). No difference was observed in the welfare assessment scores between STI and LTI phenotypes under basal situation, while LTI chickens showed significantly increased incidence of pad dermatitis compared to STI under CORT exposure. The results suggest that STI broilers demonstrate better growth performance and higher adaptability to stress compared to LTI chickens. PMID:23266338

Wang, Song; Ni, Yingdong; Guo, Feng; Fu, Wenyan; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

2013-03-01

351

Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n?=?9) and lean C57 mice (n?=?9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor livers.

Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

2014-01-01

352

Bacterial biofilm shows persistent resistance to liquid wetting and gas penetration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the world's bacteria exist in robust, sessile communities known as biofilms, ubiquitously adherent to environmental surfaces from ocean floors to human teeth and notoriously resistant to antimicrobial agents. We report the surprising observation that Bacillus subtilis biofilm colonies and pellicles are extremely nonwetting, greatly surpassing the repellency of Teflon toward water and lower surface tension liquids. The biofilm surface remains nonwetting against up to 80% ethanol as well as other organic solvents and commercial biocides across a large and clinically important concentration range. We show that this property limits the penetration of antimicrobial liquids into the biofilm, severely compromising their efficacy. To highlight the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we performed experiments with mutant biofilms lacking ECM components and with functionalized polymeric replicas of biofilm microstructure. We show that the nonwetting properties are a synergistic result of ECM composition, multiscale roughness, reentrant topography, and possibly yet other factors related to the dynamic nature of the biofilm surface. Finally, we report the impenetrability of the biofilm surface by gases, implying defense capability against vapor-phase antimicrobials as well. These remarkable properties of B. subtilis biofilm, which may have evolved as a protection mechanism against native environmental threats, provide a new direction in both antimicrobial research and bioinspired liquid-repellent surface paradigms.

Epstein, Alexander K.; Pokroy, Boaz; Seminara, Agnese; Aizenberg, Joanna (Harvard)

2011-09-28

353

SPF Rabbits Infected with Rabbit Hepatitis E Virus Isolate Experimentally Showing the Chronicity of Hepatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focused on investigating the pathogenesis seen in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits following infection with a homologous rabbit HEV isolate (CHN-BJ-rb14) and comparing it to that seen following infection with a heterologous swine genotype 4 HEV isolate (CHN-XJ-SW13). Three of the four animals inoculated with the homologous rabbit HEV became infected, exhibiting an intermittent viremia, obvious fluctuations of liver function biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and persistent fecal virus shedding throughout the nine month study. In addition, liver histopathology showed both chronic inflammation and some degree of fibrosis. Both positive and negative-stranded HEV RNA and HEV antigen expression were detected in liver, brain, stomach, duodenum and kidney from the necropsied rabbits. Inflammation of extrahepatic tissue (duodenum and kidney) was also observed. Three of the four rabbits inoculated with the heterologous genotype 4 swine HEV also became infected, showing similar levels of anti-HEV antibody to that generated following infection with the homologous virus isolate. The duration of both viremia and fecal shedding of virus was however shorter following infection with the heterologous virus and there was no significant elevation of liver function biomarkers. These results suggest that rabbit HEV infection may cause more severe hepatitis and prolong the course of the disease, with a possible chronic trend of hepatitis in SPF rabbits.

Han, Jian; Lei, Yaxin; Liu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

2014-01-01

354

Cannabinoid agonists showing BuChE inhibition as potential therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designing drugs with a specific multi-target profile is a promising approach against multifactorial illnesses as Alzheimer's disease. In this work, new indazole ethers that possess dual activity as both cannabinoid agonists CB2 and inhibitors of BuChE have been designed by computational methods. On the basis of this knowledge, the synthesis, pharmacological evaluation and docking studies of a new class of indazoles has been performed. Pharmacological evaluation includes radioligand binding assays with [(3)H]-CP55940 for CB1R and CB2R and functional activity for cannabinoid receptors on isolated tissue. Additionally, in vitro inhibitory assays of AChE/BuChE and the corresponding competition studies have been carried out. The results of pharmacological tests have revealed that three of these derivatives behave as CB2 cannabinoid agonists and simultaneously show BuChE inhibition. In particular, compounds 3 and 24 have emerged as promising candidates as novel cannabinoids that inhibit BuChE by a non-competitive or mixed mechanism, respectively. On the other hand, both molecules show antioxidant properties. PMID:24378710

González-Naranjo, Pedro; Pérez-Macias, Natalia; Campillo, Nuria E; Pérez, Concepción; Arán, Vicente J; Girón, Rocio; Sánchez-Robles, Eva; Martín, María Isabel; Gómez-Cañas, María; García-Arencibia, Moisés; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Páez, Juan A

2014-02-12

355

Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players.  

Science.gov (United States)

To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life. PMID:24069009

Gärtner, H; Minnerop, M; Pieperhoff, P; Schleicher, A; Zilles, K; Altenmüller, E; Amunts, K

2013-01-01

356

A zebrafish model of glucocorticoid resistance shows serotonergic modulation of the stress response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One function of glucocorticoids is to restore homeostasis after an acute stress response by providing negative feedback to stress circuits in the brain. Loss of this negative feedback leads to elevated physiological stress and may contribute to depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated the early, developmental effects of glucocorticoid signaling deficits on stress physiology and related behaviors using a mutant zebrafish, grs357, with non-functional glucocorticoid receptors. These mutants are morphologically inconspicuous and adult-viable. A previous study of adult grs357 mutants showed loss of glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback and elevated physiological and behavioral stress markers. Already at five days post-fertilization, mutant larvae had elevated whole body cortisol, increased expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and failed to show normal suppression of stress markers after dexamethasone treatment. Mutant larvae had larger auditory-evoked startle responses compared to wildtype sibling controls (grwt, despite having lower spontaneous activity levels. Fluoxetine (Prozac treatment in mutants decreased startle responding and increased spontaneous activity, making them behaviorally similar to wildtype. This result mirrors known effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in modifying glucocorticoid signaling and alleviating stress disorders in human patients. Our results suggest that larval grs357 zebrafish can be used to study behavioral, physiological and molecular aspects of stress disorders. Most importantly, interactions between glucocorticoid and serotonin signaling appear to be highly conserved among vertebrates, suggesting deep homologies at the neural circuit level and opening up new avenues for research into psychiatric conditions.

EthanGahtan

2012-10-01

357

Relaxin-3-deficient mice showed slight alteration in anxiety-related behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide belonging to the relaxin/insulin superfamily. Studies using rodents have revealed that relaxin-3 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the nucleus incertus of the pons, the axons of which project to forebrain regions including the hypothalamus. There is evidence that relaxin-3 is involved in several functions, including food intake and stress responses. In the present study, we generated relaxin-3 gene knockout (KO mice and examined them using a range of behavioral tests of sensory/motor functions and emotion-related behaviors. The results revealed that relaxin-3 KO mice exhibited normal growth and appearance, and were generally indistinguishable from wild genotype littermates. There was no difference in bodyweight among genotypes until at least 28 weeks after birth. In addition, there were no significant differences between wild-type and KO mice in locomotor activity, social interaction, hot plate test performance, fear conditioning, depression-like behavior, and Y-maze test performance. However, in the elevated plus maze test, KO mice exhibited a robust increase in the tendency to enter open arms, although they exhibited normal performance in a light/dark transition test and showed no difference from wild-type mice in the time spent in central area in the open field test. On the other hand, a significant increase in the acoustic startle response was observed in KO mice. These results indicate that relaxin-3 is slightly involved in the anxiety-related behavior.

MasakiTanaka

2011-08-01

358

Dental microwear texture analysis shows within-species diet variability in fossil hominins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructing the diets of extinct hominins is essential to understanding the paleobiology and evolutionary history of our lineage. Dental microwear, the study of microscopic tooth-wear resulting from use, provides direct evidence of what an individual ate in the past. Unfortunately, established methods of studying microwear are plagued with low repeatability and high observer error. Here we apply an objective, repeatable approach for studying three-dimensional microwear surface texture to extinct South African hominins. Scanning confocal microscopy together with scale-sensitive fractal analysis are used to characterize the complexity and anisotropy of microwear. Results for living primates show that this approach can distinguish among diets characterized by different fracture properties. When applied to hominins, microwear texture analysis indicates that Australopithecus africanus microwear is more anisotropic, but also more variable in anisotropy than Paranthropus robustus. This latter species has more complex microwear textures, but is also more variable in complexity than A. africanus. This suggests that A. africanus ate more tough foods and P. robustus consumed more hard and brittle items, but that both had variable and overlapping diets. PMID:16079844

Scott, Robert S; Ungar, Peter S; Bergstrom, Torbjorn S; Brown, Christopher A; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; Walker, Alan

2005-08-01

359

Endodontic therapy of maxillary second molar showing an unusual internal anatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The knowledge of the complex anatomy of maxillary molars and location of extra canals are essential for diagnosis and endodontic treatment success. Objective: The purpose of this study was to report a clinical case showing a varying number of palatal roots in a second maxillary molar with the aid of operating microscope (OM. Case report: A four-rooted maxillary permanent second molar with 2 separated palatal canals undergone endodontic therapy. After endodontic access, examination of the chamber floor using an operating microscope revealed two distinct palatal canals orifices. A radiograph was taken after the working lengths of each canal were estimated by means of an electronic apex locator which clearly identified the four roots with independent four canals. The canals were instrumented with ProTaper™ rotatory instruments under irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite, obturated with Pulp Canal Sealer® and continue wave technique. After completion of root canal treatment, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Results: After endodontic access, the presence of two different palatal canals was found in a second maxillary molar, resulting from a variation in the number of palatal roots of this tooth. Conclusion: The high magnification and clear illumination quality provided by the dental operating microscope increase endodontic treatment success of the variations in the internal anatomy of the tooth.

Carlos Eduardo Fontana

2012-06-01

360

Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

Jahnke Vanessa E

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

ISSR markers show differentiation among Italian populations of Asparagus acutifolius L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Asparagus acutifolius L. is a dioecious and native plant species, widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin. It is known for its fine flavour and could represent an important resource for cultivation programs in desert areas. Few molecular studies have been performed on this species. In the present paper, the ISSR technique was employed to study genetic diversity in Italian A. acutifolius. Results Twenty-three primers produced a total of 228 polymorphic fragments used to evaluate genetic variation. FST (0.4561 and Theta B (0.4776 values indicate a wide genetic variation among the samples examined. The distance UPGMA tree grouped together the genotypes strictly according to their geographical origin, showing that each sample is genetically structured and can be considered a distinct population. AMOVA analysis further confirmed genetic structuring of the populations. Population-specific fragments were also detected. Conclusion The results suggest that ISSR markers are useful in distinguishing the populations of A. acutifolius according to geographical origin, and confirm the importance of genetic studies for designing germplasm conservation strategies.

Gaudio Luciano

2005-03-01

362

Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

2010-12-01

363

Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

Mountcastle, A M [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Concord Field Station, Bedford, MA 01730 (United States); Daniel, T L, E-mail: mtcastle@u.washington.ed [Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2010-12-15

364

Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles. PMID:21098955

Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

2010-12-01

365

Computational analysis shows why transcranial alternating current stimulation induces retinal phosphenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), which is a novel technique for the manipulation of cortical oscillations, can generate subjective visual sensations (phosphenes). In this work, we computationally investigate the current that reaches the eyes from tACS electrodes in order to show that phosphenes induced by tACS are retinal in origin. Approach. The finite-element method is used for modelling the path of the current in an anatomically realistic model of the head for various electrode montages. The computational results are used for analysing previous experimental data to investigate the sensitivity of the eye to electrical stimulation. Main results. Depending on the locations of both the stimulating and reference electrodes, a small portion of the stimulation current chooses a path that goes through the eyes. Due to the sensitivity of the retina to electrical stimulation, even distant electrodes can produce a sufficiently strong current at the eyes for inducing retinal phosphenes. Significance. The interference from retinal phosphenes needs to be considered in the design of tACS experiments. The occurrence of phosphenes can be reduced by optimizing the locations of the electrodes, or potentially increasing the number of reference electrodes to two or more. Computational modelling is an effective tool for guiding the electrode positioning.

Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

2013-08-01

366

HFE H63D mutation frequency shows an increase in Turkish women with breast cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The hereditary hemochromatosis gene HFE plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. The association between cancer and HFE hetero- or homozygosity has previously been shown including hepatocellular and nonhepatocellular malignancies. This study was performed to compare frequencies of HFE C282Y and H63D variants in Turkish women with breast cancer and healthy controls. Methods Archived DNA samples of Hacettepe University Oncology Institute were used in this study. The HFE gene was investigated by PCR-RFLP. Results All subjects studied were free from C282Y mutation. Thirty-nine patients had H63D mutation and were all heterozygous. H63D allele frequency was 22.2% (39/176 in the breast cancer patients, and 14% (28/200 in the healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis of cases with HFE H63D phenotype showed significant difference between breast cancer and healthy volunteers (P = 0.02. Conclusion Our results suggest that HFE H63D mutation frequencies were increased in the breast cancer patients in comparison to those in the general population. Also, odds ratios (odds ratio = 2.05 computed in this study suggest that H63D has a positive association with breast cancer.

Guler Emine

2006-02-01

367

Neutron spectra at different High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel surveillance locations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project addresses the potential problem of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports. Surveillance specimens irradiated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron flux levels (about 1.5E + 8 cm"-"2.s"-"1) and low temperatures (about 50 degrees C) showed embrittlement more rapidly than expected. Commercial power reactors have similar flux levels and temperatures at the level vessel support structures. The purposes of this work are to provide the neutron fluence spectra data that are needed to evaluate previously measured mechanical property changes in the HFIR, to explain the discrepancies in neutron flux levels between the nickel dosimeters and two other dosimeters, neptunium and beryllium, and to address any questions or peculiarities of the HFIR reactor environment. The current work consists of neutron and gamma transport calculations, dosimetry measurements, and least-squares logarithmic adjustment to obtain the best estimates for the neutron spectra and the related neutron exposure parameters. The results indicate that the fission rates in neptunium-237 (Np-237) and uranium-238 (U-238) and the helium production rates in beryllium-9 (Be-9) are dominated by photo-induced reactions. The displacements per atom rate for iron (dpa/s) from gamma rays is five times higher than the dpa/s from neutrons. The neutron fluxes in key 7, position 5 do not show any significant gradient in the surveillance capsule, but key 4 and key 2 showed differences in magnitude as well as in the shape of the spectrum. The stainless steel monitor in the V-notch of the Charpy specimens of the surveillance capsules is adequate to determine the neutron flux above 1.0 MeV at the desired V-notch location. Simultaneous adjustment of neutron and gamma fluxes with the measurements has been demonstrated and should avoid future problems with photo-induced reactions

1993-01-01

368

Neutron spectra at different High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pressure vessel surveillance locations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project addresses the potential problem of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) supports. Surveillance specimens irradiated at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at relatively low neutron flux levels (about 1.5E + 8 cm{sup {minus}2}.s{sup {minus}1}) and low temperatures (about 50{degrees}C) showed embrittlement more rapidly than expected. Commercial power reactors have similar flux levels and temperatures at the level vessel support structures. The purposes of this work are to provide the neutron fluence spectra data that are needed to evaluate previously measured mechanical property changes in the HFIR, to explain the discrepancies in neutron flux levels between the nickel dosimeters and two other dosimeters, neptunium and beryllium, and to address any questions or peculiarities of the HFIR reactor environment. The current work consists of neutron and gamma transport calculations, dosimetry measurements, and least-squares logarithmic adjustment to obtain the best estimates for the neutron spectra and the related neutron exposure parameters. The results indicate that the fission rates in neptunium-237 (Np-237) and uranium-238 (U-238) and the helium production rates in beryllium-9 (Be-9) are dominated by photo-induced reactions. The displacements per atom rate for iron (dpa/s) from gamma rays is five times higher than the dpa/s from neutrons. The neutron fluxes in key 7, position 5 do not show any significant gradient in the surveillance capsule, but key 4 and key 2 showed differences in magnitude as well as in the shape of the spectrum. The stainless steel monitor in the V-notch of the Charpy specimens of the surveillance capsules is adequate to determine the neutron flux above 1.0 MeV at the desired V-notch location. Simultaneous adjustment of neutron and gamma fluxes with the measurements has been demonstrated and should avoid future problems with photo-induced reactions.

Remec, I. [Josef Sefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kam, F.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-12-01

369

Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Angola show the StctVMNT haplotype in the pfcrt gene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment remains a mainstay of malaria control, but it is unfortunately strongly compromised by drug resistance, particularly in Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite. Although P. falciparum chemoresistance is well recognized all over the world, limited data are available on the distribution and prevalence of pfcrt and pfmdr1 haplotypes that mediate resistance to commonly used drugs and that show distinct geographic differences. Methods Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood samples collected in 2007 at four municipalities of Luanda, Angola, were genotyped using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes were assessed and haplotype prevalences were determined. Results and Discussion The most prevalent pfcrt haplotype was StctVMNT (representing amino acids at codons 72-76. This result was unexpected, since the StctVMNT haplotype has previously been seen mainly in parasites from South America and India. The CVIET, CVMNT and CVINT drug-resistance haplotypes were also found, and one previously undescribed haplotype (CVMDT was detected. Regarding pfmdr1, the most prevalent haplotype was YEYSNVD (representing amino acids at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246. Wild haplotypes for pfcrt and pfmdr1 were uncommon; 3% of field isolates harbored wild type pfcrt (CVMNK, whereas 21% had wild type pfmdr1 (NEYSNVD. The observed predominance of the StctVMNT haplotype in Angola could be a result of frequent travel between Brazil and Angola citizens in the context of selective pressure of heavy CQ use. Conclusions The high prevalence of the pfcrt SVMNT haplotype and the pfmdr1 86Y mutation confirm high-level chloroquine resistance and might suggest reduced efficacy of amodiaquine in Angola. Further studies must be encouraged to examine the in vitro sensitivity of pfcrt SVMNT parasites to artesunate and amodiaquine for better conclusive data.

Lutucuta Kosi Florbela JI

2010-06-01

370

Do Mergers Result in Collusion?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine coordinated effects of mergers in the Swedish retail market for gasoline during the period 1986-2002. Despite significant changes in market concentration and many factors conductive to coordination, the empirical analysis shows that the level of coordination is low. In addition, statistical tests reject the hypothesis that mergers and acquisitions result in coordinated effects. In particular, higher market concentration does not result in more collusive behavior and, consequently, ...

Ganslandt, Mattias; Norba?ck, Pehr-johan

2004-01-01

371

Resultative Predicates in Japanese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Washio (1997; 1999 observes that resultative predicates are divided into two different groups, strong and weak resultatives, depending on ‘patienthood’ of the object. This typology of resultatives seems to capture a point of crosslinguistic variation in resultatives; Japanese has weak but not strong resultatives, while English has both. Washio also observes that there is another group of examples that bears a superficial resemblance to resultatives but constitutes a different phenomenon, hence spurious resultatives. The difference between weak and strong resultatives is made in terms of the ‘affectedness’ of the verb. Thus the typology of resultatives proposed by Washio is semantically grounded. In this paper, I propose: (i a fine-grained distinction for Washio’s weak resultatives: (ii a syntactic analysis of the different resultative types. On the basis of syntactic evidence, I argue that there are two types of weak resultatives, an adjunct of VP and a complement of VP within the vP projection. I also argue that spurious resultatives are structurally higher than weak resultatives in Japanese.

Kaori Takamine

2007-12-01

372

Perception And Preferences Of People Regarding Reality Shows – A Study In Navsari City Of Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rising popularity of the reality shows on Indian television has added a new dimension to the production of TV programs. Most of the television shows which are being telecast nowadays are reality shows specializing in dancing, singing, and acting. Today's reality shows are rewriting our cultural scripts, altering our perception, our social relationships and our relationships to the natural world. In this descriptive study, the researcher has found that people are really fond of watching reality shows which range from cookery to talent hunt and comedy show types. Majority of the respondents, however, felt that these types of shows are often scripted for increasing TRPs and increasing financial and commercial success. Major drivers for watching reality shows are break from routine, controversies, glamour and entertainment. However, most of the people were not still holding any views whether such types of reality shows make any sort of impact on the society.

Zakirhusen Patel

2013-12-01

373

Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH subpopulations of the current generation. The material comprised horses that participated in the studbook entry inspections between 2005 and 2010. KWPN is registering jumping and dressage horses using different codes since 2005. Ancestors were traced back as far as possible in the pedigree to define the base generation. Subsequently the base generation was divided into 3 base groups, according to having only descendants in JH, in DH or in both subpopulations. Subsequently, the genetic contribution of the 3 base groups to the subpopulations was estimated. DMUTRACE software was used to make the pedigrees files and to calculate the genetic contributions. The base generation comprised 8205 horses, 2 857 only had descendants in JH, 1893 only in DH and 3455 in both subpopulations. The latter base-group also had the largest contributions to both subpopulations: 92.6% to JH and 96.0% to DH. The â??specialistâ? base groups had smaller genetic contributions but 47.8% of horses in JH and 34.1% in DH receive genes from them. Observed by year of birth, the number of horses that received genes from specialist groups increased from 39.8 to 56.0 % in JH and from 31.9 to 39.5 % in DH. Results from this study show that JH and DH subpopulations have a large part of their genetic base in common. However, an increasing percentage of animals receive genetic contributions from â??specialistâ? genetic groups within the genetic base. This trend is more profound in the jumping discipline.

Rovere, G; Madsen, Per

374

Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with potentially important consequences for second language acquisition and related fields. PMID:22470434

Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

2012-01-01

375

De novo sequencing and characterization of Picrorhiza kurrooa transcriptome at two temperatures showed major transcriptome adjustments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is an endangered plant species of medicinal importance. The medicinal property is attributed to monoterpenoids picroside I and II, which are modulated by temperature. The transcriptome information of this species is limited with the availability of few hundreds of expressed sequence tags (ESTs in the public databases. In order to gain insight into temperature mediated molecular changes, high throughput de novo transcriptome sequencing and analyses were carried out at 15°C and 25°C, the temperatures known to modulate picrosides content. Results Using paired-end (PE Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 20,593,412 and 44,229,272 PE reads were obtained after quality filtering for 15°C and 25°C, respectively. Available (e.g., De-Bruijn/Eulerian graph and in-house developed bioinformatics tools were used for assembly and annotation of transcriptome. A total of 74,336 assembled transcript sequences were obtained, with an average coverage of 76.6 and average length of 439.5. Guanine-cytosine (GC content was observed to be 44.6%, while the transcriptome exhibited abundance of trinucleotide simple sequence repeat (SSR; 45.63% markers. Large scale expression profiling through "read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM", showed changes in several biological processes and metabolic pathways including cytochrome P450s (CYPs, UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs and those associated with picrosides biosynthesis. RPKM data were validated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using a set of 19 genes, wherein 11 genes behaved in accordance with the two expression methods. Conclusions Study generated transcriptome of P. kurrooa at two different temperatures. Large scale expression profiling through RPKM showed major transcriptome changes in response to temperature reflecting alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways, and provided insight of GC content and SSR markers. Analysis also identified putative CYPs and UGTs that could help in discovering the hitherto unknown genes associated with picrosides biosynthesis.

Gahlan Parul

2012-03-01

376

KRAS, EGFR, PDGFR-?, KIT and COX-2 status in carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background CASTLE (Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the thyroid resembling lymphoepithelioma-like and squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus with different biological behaviour and a better prognosis than anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Methods We retrospectively investigated 6 cases of this very rare neoplasm in order to investigate the mutational status of KRAS, EGFR, PDGFR-? and KIT, as well as the immunohistochemical expression pattern of CD117, EGFR and COX-2, and possibly find new therapeutic targets. Results Diagnosis was confirmed by a moderate to strong expression of CD5, CD117 and CK5/6, whereas thyroglobulin, calcitonin and TTF-1 were negative in all cases. Tumors were also positive for COX-2 and in nearly all cases for EGFR. In four cases single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be detected in exon 12 of the PDGFR-? gene (rs1873778), in three cases SNPs were found in exon 20 of the EGFR gene (rs1050171). No mutations were found in the KIT and KRAS gene. Conclusions All tumors showed a COX-2 expression as well as an EGFR expression except for one case and a wild-type KRAS status. No activating mutations in the EGFR, KIT and PDGFR-? gene could be detected. Our data may indicate a potential for targeted therapies, but if these therapeutic strategies are of benefit in CASTLE remains to be determined. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1658499296115016

2014-01-01

377

Tobacco-expressed Brassica juncea chitinase BjCHI1 shows antifungal activity in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously isolated a Brassica juncea cDNA encoding BjCHI1, a novel chitinase with two chitin-binding domains, and have shown that its mRNA is induced by wounding and methyl jasmonate treatment (K.-J. Zhao and M.-L. Chye, Plant Mol. Biol. 40 (1999) 1009-1018). By the presence of two chitin-binding domains, BjCHI1 resembles the precursor of UDA (Urtica dioica agglutinin) but, unlike UDA, BjCHI1 retains its chitinase catalytic domain after post-translational processing. Here, we indicate the role of BjCHI1 in plant defense by demonstrating its mRNA induction upon Aspergillus niger infection or caterpillar Pieris rapae (L.) feeding. To further investigate the biological properties of BjCHI1, we transformed tobacco with a construct expressing the BjCHI1 cDNA from the CaMV 35S promoter. Subsequently, we purified BjCHI1 from the resultant transgenic Ro plants using a regenerated chitin column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Also, the significance of the second chitin-binding domain in BjCHI1 was investigated by raising transgenic tobacco plants expressing BjCHI2, a deletion derivative of BjCHI1 lacking one chitin-binding domain. Colorimetric chitinase assays at 25 degrees C, pH 5, showed no significant differences between the activities of BjCHI1 and BjCHI2, suggesting that chitinase activity, due to the catalytic domain, is not enhanced by the presence of a second chitin-binding domain. Both BjCHI1 and BjCHI2 show in vitro anti-fungal activity toward Trichoderma viride, causing reductions in hyphal diameter, hyphal branching and conidia size. PMID:12175020

Fung, King-Leung; Zhao, Kai-Jun; He, Zhu-Mei; Chye, Mee-Len

2002-09-01

378

Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be addressed through income-generating activities.

Voeten Helene ACM

2011-08-01

379

77 FR 47282 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI  

Science.gov (United States)

...USCG-2012-0688] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...a temporary deviation to the established Milwaukee Air and Water Show safety zone on Lake...

2012-08-08

380

76 FR 55347 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show  

Science.gov (United States)

...combining aspects of a trade mission, trade show presence and networking activities...familiarize themselves with this important trade fair, to conduct market research and...must meet the Singapore Air Show trade fair rules, which can be found at...

2011-09-07

 
 
 
 
381

76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi, TX...scheduled to take place during the Texas International Boat Show. The North American Tri-Hull Championship...

2011-04-04

382

Importance Performance Analysis as a Trade Show Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking Tool  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to introduce importance performance analysis as a trade show performance evaluation and benchmarking tool. Importance performance analysis considers exhibitors’ performance expectation and perceived performance in unison to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance. The present study uses data obtained from exhibitors of an international trade show to demonstrate how importance performance analysis can be used to evaluate and benchmark trade show performance...

Tafesse, Wondwesen; Skallerud, Ka?re; Korneliussen, Tor

2010-01-01

383

77 FR 49730 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY  

Science.gov (United States)

...USCG-2012-0043] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island...portion of the Niagara River during the Antique Boat Show powerboat races. This safety...proposed rulemaking entitled Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand...

2012-08-17

384

77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI  

Science.gov (United States)

...Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...show will be launched to the east of the Rogers City marina. The Captain of the Port...the Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City, MI, the Captain of the Port...

2012-05-21

385

77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI  

Science.gov (United States)

...Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the Federal Register (77...show will be launched to the east of the Rogers City marina. The Captain of the...

2012-07-11

386

45 CFR 1302.20 - Grantee to show both legal status and financial viability.  

Science.gov (United States)

...to show both legal status and financial viability. 1302.20 Section 1302.20 Public...show both legal status and financial viability. (a) Upon the occurrence...continue to have legal status and financial viability. Failure to make this showing may...

2010-10-01

387

78 FR 40081 - Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY  

Science.gov (United States)

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Antique Boat Show, Niagara River, Grand Island, NY...of the Niagara River during the Antique Boat Show powerboat races. The safety zone...Register. B. Basis and Purpose The Antique Boat Show is an annual event involving...

2013-07-03

388

We're Playing "Jeremy Kyle"! Television Talk Shows in the Playground  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on an episode of play in a primary school playground in England, which featured a group of children re-enacting elements of the television talk show "The Jeremy Kyle Show". The episode is analysed in the light of work that has identified the key elements of the talk show genre and the children's play is examined…

Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia

2014-01-01

389

Producing a Radio Show about Psychological Science: The Story of "Psychological Frontiers"  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe the development of a campus-based radio show about psychological science. The authors' goals in creating the show were to inform the public about the science of psychology and to create a teaching and learning resource for faculty members and students. The show, "Psychological Frontiers," airs twice a week and consists of…

Stark, Emily; Sachau, Daniel; Albertson, Dawn N.

2012-01-01

390

78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI  

Science.gov (United States)

...Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard...Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This temporary safety zone is necessary...associated with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31,...

2013-07-26

391

Customer interruption cost and results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

1997-12-31

392

myosin 7aa(-/-) mutant zebrafish show mild photoreceptor degeneration and reduced electroretinographic responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in myosin VIIa (MYO7A) cause Usher Syndrome 1B (USH1B), a disease characterized by the combination of sensorineural hearing loss and visual impairment termed retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Although the shaker-1 mouse model of USH1B exists, only minor defects in the retina have been observed during its lifespan. Previous studies of the zebrafish mariner mutant, which also carries a mutation in myo7aa, revealed balance and hearing defects in the mutants but the retinal phenotype has not been described. We found elevated cell death in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of myo7aa(-/-) mutants. While myo7aa(-/-) mutants retained visual behaviors in the optokinetic reflex (OKR) assay, electroretinogram (ERG) recordings revealed a significant decrease in both a- and b-wave amplitudes in mutant animals, but not a change in ERG threshold sensitivity. Immunohistochemistry showed mislocalization of rod and blue cone opsins and reduced expression of rod-specific markers in the myo7aa(-/-) ONL, providing further evidence that the photoreceptor degeneration observed represents the initial stages of the RP. Further, constant light exposure resulted in widespread photoreceptor degeneration and the appearance of large holes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). No differences were observed in the retinomotor movements of the photoreceptors or in melanosome migration within the RPE, suggesting that myo7aa(-/-) does not function in these processes in teleosts. These results indicate that the zebrafish myo7aa(-/-) mutant is a useful animal model for the RP seen in humans with USH1B. PMID:24698764

Wasfy, Meagan M; Matsui, Jonathan I; Miller, Jessica; Dowling, John E; Perkins, Brian D

2014-05-01

393

Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system.

Zhang Kang-Jian

2012-02-01

394

Chromosome painting shows that skunks (Mephitidae, Carnivora) have highly rearranged karyotypes.  

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The karyotypic relationships of skunks (Mephitidae) with other major clades of carnivores are not yet established. Here, multi-directional chromosome painting was used to reveal the karyological relationships among skunks and between Mephitidae (skunks) and Procyonidae (raccoons). Representative species from three genera of Mephitidae (Mephitis mephitis, 2n = 50; Mephitis macroura, 2n = 50; Conepatus leuconotus, 2n = 46; Spilogale gracilis, 2n = 60) and one species of Procyonidae (Procyon lotor, 2n = 38) were studied. Chromosomal homology was mapped by hybridization of five sets of whole-chromosome paints derived from stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), cat, skunks (M. mephitis; M. macroura) and human. The karyotype of the raccoon is highly conserved and identical to the hypothetical ancestral musteloid karyotype, suggesting that procyonids have a particular importance for establishing the karyological evolution within the caniforms. Ten fission events and five fusion events are necessary to generate the ancestral skunk karyotype from the ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results show that Mephitidae joins Canidae and Ursidae as the third family of carnivores that are characterized by a high rate of karyotype evolution. Shared derived chromosomal fusion of stone marten chromosomes 6 and 14 phylogenetically links the American hog-nosed skunk and eastern spotted skunk. PMID:19051045

Perelman, P L; Graphodatsky, A S; Dragoo, J W; Serdyukova, N A; Stone, G; Cavagna, P; Menotti, A; Nie, W; O'Brien, P C M; Wang, J; Burkett, S; Yuki, K; Roelke, M E; O'Brien, S J; Yang, F; Stanyon, R

2008-01-01

395

Sympatric Biomphalaria species (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert, Uganda, show homoplasies in shell morphology  

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Full Text Available The three known sympatricBiomphalaria species that occur in Lake Albert; B. choanomphala, B. stanleyi and B. sudanica, were studied using both molecular (COI, 16S and ITS and shell morphometric data. An unidentified sample of 18 Biomphalaria specimens from Lake Albert were divided in three morphotypes according to aperture height and coiling rate and subsequently identified through molecular inferences and morphometry. The 18 specimens were identified as follows; six specimens were identified as B. sudanica, seven species as B. stanleyi, four as B. cf. choanomphala and a single specimen as B. pfeifferi. The latter was inferred with strong molecular support only, since it had similar shell morphology to typical B. stanleyi snails, thus it might be an ecophenotypic form of B. pfeifferi adapted to a lacustrine environment. Biomphalaria stanleyi exists in forms that resemble B. choanomphala, and B. choanomphala has further overlap in morphology with B. smithi. However, the results showed some disagreement between molecular and morphometric identification, hence making it difficult to rely on shell morphology alone in identification. Overall the morphometric analysis divided Biomphalaria in two possible ecophenotypes i.e. a lacustrine type with rapidly increasing whorls and relatively high apertures and a non-lacustrine type (including snails inhabiting lake edges with slowly increasing whorls and low apertures.

Thomas K. Kristensen

2011-10-01

396

N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •N doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods were obtained by a hydrothermal route. •N doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods show tunable photocatalytic selectivity. •Doped nitrogen replaces surface saturated O{sub 3c} is considered to be the cause. -- Abstract: Different from many works which focus on doping to improve the visible light absorption and the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}, this work finds that the N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nano-rods have tunable photocatalytic selectivity. This finding was confirmed by the photo-degradation of azo dyes. Results reveal that pure rutile TiO{sub 2} mainly exhibit no selectivity in the photocatalytic degradation of a methylene blue and methyl orange (MO) mixed solution, whereas N-doped rutile TiO{sub 2} exhibits photocatalytic selectivity for MO. N doping has been shown to greatly change the surface state than the energy band structure of TiO{sub 2}. In a deeper analysis, some doped N atoms replace surface saturated O{sub 3c} on the {1 1 0} facets of rutile TiO{sub 2} and act as unsaturated N{sub 3c}, which enhances adsorbent selectivity and relevant photocatalytic activity of MO. This research hopes that by providing a deeper understanding of non-metal doping in TiO{sub 2}, a new strategy for photocatalytic selectivity can be developed.

Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangj@hdu.edu.cn [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fu, Wei [School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xi, Junhua [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); He, Hong [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhao, Shichao; Lu, Hongwei [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); School of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

2013-10-25

397

[Comparative chromosome painting shows the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a highly conserved karyotype].  

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We have established a comparative chromosome map between red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) and dog by chromosome painting with biotin-labelled chromosome-specific probes of the dog. Dog probes specific for the 38 automates delineated 71 homologous segments in the metaphase chromosomes of red panda. Of the 38 autosomal paints, 18 probes each delineated one homologous segment in red panda genome, while the other 20 ones each detected two to five homologous segments. The dog X chromosome-specific paint delineated the whole X chromosome of the red panda. The results indicate that at least 28 fissions (breaks), 49 fusions and 4 inversions were needed to "convert" the dog karyotype to that of the red panda, suggesting that extensive chromosome rearrangements differentiate the karyotypes of red panda and dog. Based on the established comparative chromosome homologies of dog and domestic cat, we could infer that there were 26 segments of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved segments defined by dog paints in red panda and domestic cat genomes revealed at least 2 cryptic inversions in two large chromosomal regions of conserved synteny between red panda and domestic cat. The karyotype of red panda shows high degree of homology with that of domestic cat. PMID:11901994

Tian, Ying; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Yang, Yun-Fei; Yang, Feng-Tang

2002-02-01

398

Healthy centenarians show high levels of circulating interleukin-22 (IL-22).  

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Aging is characterized by a progressive alteration of homeostatic mechanisms modulated by environmental and genetic factors. It is associated with a pro-inflammatory status. In centenarians, an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokine production balanced by anti-inflammatory immune response that would promote longevity is observed. Cytokine dysregulation is believed to play a key role in the proposed remodeling of the immune-inflammatory responses accompanying old age. IL-22 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-10 family and represents an important effector molecule of activated T helper (Th)-22, Th-1, and Th-17 cells. We recruited 17 healthy centenarians (4 males, 13 females, range 100-105 years). All ultralongeval subjects were living at home or in a nursing home. Sixteen healthy, sex-matched individuals (4 males, 12 females, range 60-95 years) were also recruited as controls. Centenarians displayed significantly higher circulating IL-22 levels compared to control population (4