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Sample records for Vagina

  1. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat ARA; Saw OHNMAR

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat ARA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malignant melanoma of the vagina. She was treated with radiotherapy as her disease was locally extensive and she was not a candidate for pelvis exenteration. This is the first recorded case of malignant melanoma to be diagnosed in Brunei Darussalam.

  3. Brenner tumour of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, A.M.; Fox, H.

    1995-01-01

    Polyps of the vagina are rare and are either of inflammatory/reactive or neoplastic origin. A case of extraovarian Brenner tumour of the vagina in a postmenopausal woman, who presented with a vaginal polyp, is described. The polyp was excised and on histological examination, had the triphasic pattern (transitional, glandular and stromal) characteristic of Brenner tumour. The histogenesis of Brenner tumour is discussed in the context of this unusual location and the controversy of its origin.

  4. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight cases of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the vagina are presented. All were treated with curie therapy, and 7 of 8 received chemotherapy in addition. With a median follow up of 4 yr, 6 of 7 had local control without surgery, 1 required colpohysterectomy for microscopic disease after curie therapy. These techniques of curie therapy and chemotherapy for localized rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina allow one to obtain the cure while avoiding mutilating surgery. (author)

  5. Imaging of the vagina and vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gynecological daily practices, the vulva and vagina are examined during physical examination, however there are situations where this is not possible or it is needed to determine the extension of an injury through imaging methods. The magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent cross-sectional modality for evaluation the alterations of vulva and vagina due its multiplanar evaluation and high tecidual contrast. Other cross-sectional modalities are ultrasound and enhanced computed tomography. This paper intends to give an overview of vaginal and vulvar pathology that can be identified by the radiologist. (author)

  6. Cáncer primario de vagina / Vaginal primary cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raiza, Ruiz Lorente; Daisy, Hernández Durán; Tania Graciela, Tamayo Lien; Ana Isabel, de la Torre.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma primario de vagina es una neoplasia poco frecuente, representando solamente el 1-2 % de todos los tumores malignos del área ginecológica. Según la FIGO solo se considera como cáncer primario de vagina a aquellas lesiones confinadas a la vagina sin invasión del cuello uterino o la vulva. [...] El pronóstico depende principalmente del estadio en que se encuentra la enfermedad, pero la supervivencia se reduce en pacientes mayores de 60 años de edad, si son sintomáticos al momento del diagnóstico, tienen lesiones del centro y tercio inferior de la vagina o tienen tumores mal diferenciados. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la experiencia en el manejo del cáncer primario de vagina, identificar variables demográficas y clínicas, mostrar la variedad histológica de presentación de esta neoplasia tan rara, así como el grado de diferenciación en cada caso. Igualmente relacionar estadio del cáncer, tratamiento y respuesta en cada una de las pacientes. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de cinco pacientes con cáncer primario de vagina atendidas en el Servicio de Patología de cuello del Hospital Ramón González Coro, durante el año 2008. La evaluación inicial consistió en una historia clínica completa, examen físico haciendo hincapié en el área ginecológica descartando lesiones en vulva o cuello uterino. A todas las pacientes se les realizó biopsia excisional del tumor, enviando la muestra al estudio histopatológico. Se les realizó cistoscopia, rectoscopia, urograma descendente, a aquellas pacientes con sospecha de infiltración de vejiga o recto, laboratorio, radiografía del tórax y se estadiaron según la clasificación de la FIGO. Abstract in english The primary vaginal carcinoma is a uncommon neoplasm present only in the 1-2% of all the malignant tumors of gynecology area. According to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics only is considered as a primary vaginal cancer of those lesions confined to vagina without invasion of cerv [...] ix or the vulva. The prognosis depends mainly on the disease stage, but the survival is reduced in patients aged over 60 if they are symptomatic at diagnosis, have lesions of the center and the inferior third of vagina or have ill-differentiated. The objectives of present study were to assess the experience in the vaginal primary cancer management, to identify demographic and clinical variables, to show the histological variety of presentation of this so rare neoplasm, as well as the differentiation grade of each case and to relate the cancer stage, the treatment and the response of each patient. It is retrospective study conducted in 5 patients presenting vaginal primary cancer seen in the Cervix Pathology Service of the "Ramón González Coro" Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital during 2008. The initial assessment included a complete medical record, physical examination with emphasis in the gynecological area ruling out vulva or cervix uteri lesions. All patients underwent excision biopsy of tumor with the corresponding histopathological study of the sample. A cystoscopy, rectoscopy descending urogram were carried out in those patients with a possible bladder or rectum infiltration, lab tests, thorax Rx staged according the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification.

  7. Linfoma no Hodgkin primario de vagina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eva María, Guldrís N; María Pía, Vázquez C; Elba, Carballo N; Magdalena, Porto Q; Luis, Heliodoro Alba O; Begoña, Iglesias R.

    Full Text Available La afectación primaria del tracto genital femenino de los linfomas no Hodgkin es poco frecuente (2% de los linfomas primarios extraganglionares). Los órganos más afectados son los ovarios seguidos del cérvix, siendo la localización endometrial y vaginal extremadamente rara. Presentamos el caso de un [...] a paciente de 44 años diagnosticada de linfoma primario de vagina, estadio IE A, con remisión completa tras tratamiento combinado quimioterápico y quirúrgico. Es importante tener presente estas raras aunque posibles localizaciones de linfomas para evitar que se puedan confundir con lesiones inflamatorias u otros tipos de tumores que nos lleven a un fracaso terapéutico. Abstract in english Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas rarely involve the female genital tract (2% of primary extranodal lym-phomas). The ovaries followed by the cervix are the most common affected sites while the involvement of the endometrium and vagina is extremely rare. We report the case of a 44 year old woman with a p [...] rimary lymphoma of the vagina, stage IE A, with complete remission after combined chemotherapy and surgical treatment. These rare but possible locations must be kept in mind to avoid misdiagnosis with inflammatory lesions or other types of tumors which may lead us to a therapeutic failure.

  8. Primary leiomyosarcoma of vagina: case report; Leiomiossarcoma primario de vagina: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Leonardo Jose [Hospital ASCONCER Associacao Feminina de Prevencao e Combate ao Cancer, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia; Freitas, Rosyane Rena de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Oliveira, Alexandre Ferreira de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Cirurgia Gastroenterologica; Assis, Raimunda Violante Campos de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Cugola, Elaine Aline; Costa, Sandra Marcia Carvalho Ribeiro

    2004-07-01

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent about 1% of all gynecological malignancies. Most of these neoplasms are carcinomas. Sarcomas comprise less than 2% of all malignant vaginal tumours. In this present article, we describe a primary vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a 40-years-old woman. (author)

  9. vagina artificial, utilizando como estímulo objetos inanimados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginio Aguirre Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fi n de desarrollar una metodología para entrenar carneros en la recolección de semen con vagina artifi cial (VA, montando un objeto inanimado, se utilizaron nueve animales que se sometieron a cuatro etapas de preparación. La primera con el propósito de lograr la manifestación del repertorio sexual natural, y el resto para llevar a cabo un programa de condicionamiento operante: cuando la respuesta correcta (monta sucedía, en un inicio provocada por un estado de motivación sexual, se daba un refuerzo positivo o estímulo incondicionado (eyaculación, con lo que eventualmente y mediante un proceso de generalización la respuesta condicionada (primero montar a una hembra que no estaba en celo y luego a un objeto inanimado se aprendió como la respuesta correcta. Al inicio de cada fase 33%-55% de los carneros no eyacularon; sin embargo, al fi nal de las fases 1-3, todos eyacularon al menos una vez, al fi nal del entrenamiento fue imposible recolectar semen de un macho. Se concluye que mediante la metodología propuesta 90% de los machos jóvenes pueden ser entrenados para montar objetos inanimados con el fi n de recolectar semen mediante VA.

  10. Rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Dhorepatil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of vagina treated successfully with wide local excision and post-operative radiotherapy. There was no recurrence even after four years.

  11. [Atopobium vaginae: characterization and association with pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Ma?gorzata; Friedek, Daniela; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Martirosian, Gayane

    2006-05-01

    Atopobium vaginae was described in 1999 by Rodriguez et al. It is a Gram-positive bacterium producing organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid) as a results of glucose fermentation. It was first found in vaginal swab taken from a healthy woman using 16S rRNA analysis. A. vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis and its consequences in upper part of women reproductive organs. PMID:16958231

  12. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vagina: a case report / Angiomiosarcoma agressivo da vagina: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cátia, Lourenço; Nuno, Oliveira; Filomena, Ramos; Isabel, Ferreira; Mário, Oliveira.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O angiomixoma agressivo é tumor raro de tecidos moles, de lento crescimento e que geralmente ocorre na pelve e nas regiões perineais de mulheres em idade reprodutiva, com forte tendência à recorrência local. Devido à sua raridade, ele é frequentemente mal diagnosticado. A exerese cirúrgica é a modal [...] idade principal para o tratamento do angiomixoma agressivo. Descrevemos aqui um caso de angiomixoma vaginal agressivo em mulher de 47 anos de idade, que foi diagnosticado apenas após exame histológico. Descrevemos também a etiologia e apresentação, bem como o diagnóstico e tratamento desse raro tumor. O angiomixoma da vulva e vagina constitui doença rara. Devido à raridade desse tumor e à ausência de elementos diagnósticos, o diagnóstico pré-operatório é difícil, mas deveria ser considerado na presença de qualquer massa na região genital, perianal e pélvica de mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Portanto, esses casos deveriam ser submetidos a propedêutica radiológica completa antes da exerese, uma vez que um pré-diagnóstico pode modificar a modalidade de tratamento e o prognóstico do paciente. Abstract in english Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, slow-growing soft tissue tumor that usually arises in the pelvis and perineal regions of women in reproductive age, with a marked tendency to local recurrence. Because of its rarity, it is often initially misdiagnosed. Surgical resection is the main treatment modali [...] ty of aggressive angiomyxoma. We describe a case of a vaginal aggressive angiomyxoma in a 47-year-old woman in which the diagnosis was only made after histological examination. The etiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of this rare tumor are outlined. Angiomyxoma of vulva and vagina refers to a rare disease. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult due to rarity and absence of diagnostic features, but it should be considered in every mass in genital, perianal and pelvic region in a woman in the reproductive age. Thus, these cases should have complete radiological workup before excision, as pre-diagnosis can change the treatment modality and patient prognosis'.

  13. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  14. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in the human vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    RACCA, Silvia Annamaria; DI CARLO, Francesco; CONTI, Giuseppe

    1985-01-01

    Estrogen (E) and progesterone (Pg) receptor (R) levels were determined in the human vagina in relation to menopausal status, day of ovarian cycle and pregnancy. The results obtained confirmed that the human vagina contains ER and, in addition, demonstrated for the first time the presence of PgR in this organ in humans. In cycling women, ER and PgR did not vary significantly during the ovarian cycle; however low (less than or equal to 10 fmoles/mg cytosol protein) concentrations of PgR were mo...

  15. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE VAGINA OF THE Myocastor coypus (COYPU) ESTUDIO MORFOLOGICO DE LA VAGINA DE Myocastor coypus (COIPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio E. Felipe; Alejandra Castro; Santiago S. Callejas; Jorge A. Cabodevila

    2000-01-01

    The Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a medium size rodent internationally considered as a species of economic interest because its fur. The aims of this work was realized the morphological study of the vagina of coypu. The vagina of sexually mature coypus appeared as a tubular organ, 10.25±1.40 cm long. The vaginal wall was very thin. It was composed by four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia or serosa (according to the region). The lining epithelium of the mucosa was squamous s...

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE VAGINA OF THE Myocastor coypus (COYPU) / ESTUDIO MORFOLOGICO DE LA VAGINA DE Myocastor coypus (COIPO)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio E., Felipe; Alejandra, Castro; Santiago S., Callejas; Jorge A., Cabodevila.

    Full Text Available Myocastor coypus es un roedor de tamaño mediano, considerado internacionalmente como una especie de interés económico por sus cualidades peleteras. El estudio morfológico de su vagina reviste importancia en el marco de investigaciones de su fisiología reproductiva. La vagina de coipos sexualmente ma [...] duros se presentó como un órgano tubular, de 10,25 ± 1,40 cm de longitud. La pared vaginal fue muy delgada, distinguiéndose en ella cuatro túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y adventicia o serosa (según la región). Su epitelio de revestimiento era de tipo escamoso estratificado y aglandular. En la túnica muscular se diferenciaron dos capas de tejido muscular liso con abundancia de tejido conectivo. La serosa, conformada por tejido conectivo de aspecto denso, presentó numerosos y grandes vasos sanguíneos Abstract in english The Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a medium size rodent internationally considered as a species of economic interest because its fur. The aims of this work was realized the morphological study of the vagina of coypu. The vagina of sexually mature coypus appeared as a tubular organ, 10.25±1.40 cm long. [...] The vaginal wall was very thin. It was composed by four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia or serosa (according to the region). The lining epithelium of the mucosa was squamous stratified and without glands. Two layers of smooth muscular tissue with abundance of connective tissue were differentiated in the muscularis. The tunica serosa, formed by connective tissue of dense aspect, had numerous big blood vessels

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE VAGINA OF THE Myocastor coypus (COYPU ESTUDIO MORFOLOGICO DE LA VAGINA DE Myocastor coypus (COIPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Myocastor coypus (coypu is a medium size rodent internationally considered as a species of economic interest because its fur. The aims of this work was realized the morphological study of the vagina of coypu. The vagina of sexually mature coypus appeared as a tubular organ, 10.25±1.40 cm long. The vaginal wall was very thin. It was composed by four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia or serosa (according to the region. The lining epithelium of the mucosa was squamous stratified and without glands. Two layers of smooth muscular tissue with abundance of connective tissue were differentiated in the muscularis. The tunica serosa, formed by connective tissue of dense aspect, had numerous big blood vesselsMyocastor coypus es un roedor de tamaño mediano, considerado internacionalmente como una especie de interés económico por sus cualidades peleteras. El estudio morfológico de su vagina reviste importancia en el marco de investigaciones de su fisiología reproductiva. La vagina de coipos sexualmente maduros se presentó como un órgano tubular, de 10,25 ± 1,40 cm de longitud. La pared vaginal fue muy delgada, distinguiéndose en ella cuatro túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y adventicia o serosa (según la región. Su epitelio de revestimiento era de tipo escamoso estratificado y aglandular. En la túnica muscular se diferenciaron dos capas de tejido muscular liso con abundancia de tejido conectivo. La serosa, conformada por tejido conectivo de aspecto denso, presentó numerosos y grandes vasos sanguíneos

  18. Radiosterilisation of the vagina in therapeutic doses - does it exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endogenous genital flora is a major source of infections of the female genital tract, especially in patients with cervical or endometrial cancer. Until recently the 'radiosterilisation of the vagina', respectively a prophylactic and/or therapeutic effect of irradiation (external highvoltage as well as intracavitary-radium) concerning infections was postulated in the literature. This theory was disproved in a prospective clinical and bacteriological study covering 48 patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing primary intracavitary radium-irradiation and 38 patients with inoperable endometrical cancer, undergoing primary iridium-192-afterloading. Following intracavitary radium for cervical cancer some typical nosocomial pathogens like Streptococcus faecalis, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas were isolated significantly more frequently than before treatment. Likewise, the mean number of aerobic bacterial species increased significantly after irradiation. Also primary Ir-192 (afterloading) irradiation did not alter the frequency of isolation of the resident flora in endometrial cancer patients. Therefore, 'radiosterilisation' of the vagina as result of radiotherapy does not exist. (orig.)

  19. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically

  20. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.

  1. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) usually develop in major nerve trunks, giving rise to tumors in the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and trunk. The MPNSTs primarily occurring in the female genital tract are quite rare. We describe a case of MPNST of the vagina and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. This patient was treated definitively with radical local excision and is well with no signs of recurrence 2 years postoperatively. (author)

  2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Zhang; Yang Sun; Zhi-lan Peng

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) usually develop in major nerve trunks, giving rise to tumors in the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and trunk. The MPNSTs primarily occurring in the female genital tract are quite rare. We describe a case of MPNST of the vagina and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. This patient was treated definitively with radical local excision and is well with no signs of recurrence 2 years postoperatively.

  3. Yolk sac tumor of vagina: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Alhumidi, Ahmed; Shaikh, Safa Al; Alhammadi, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) are rare tumors of childhood accounting for less than 3% of pediatric malignancies. Yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor is one of the malignant germ cell tumor that usually involves the gonads (ovaries and testes). Its occurrence in the vagina is extremely rare. We report a 6-months old girl presented with a vaginal mass diagnosed as a yolk sac tumor. This diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologic examination, immunehistochemical studies as well as elevated ser...

  4. KANDIDIASIS VAGINA YANG MENDAPAT TERAPI SISTEMIK DAN TOPIKAL: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa Made Rendy Sanjaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Kandidiasis vulvovaginitis ialah penyakit jamur candida yang mengenai mukosa vagina danvulva.Penyebabnya yang tersering biasanya adalah candida albicans.Gejala klinis KandidiasisVulvovaginitis ialah gatal didaerah vulva, dan pada yang berat terdapat rasa panas,dispaneuria.lesi eritema, hiperemis dilabia mayora, dan vagina 1/3 bawah. Dilaporkan satu  kasusseorang wanita. berumur 26 tahun dengan keluhan keputihan pada daerah vagina sertamengalami kegatalan dan rasa nyeri terjadi sejak 2 minggu yang lalu. Pada gambaran klinis tampak dinding vagina eritema, erosi dengan secret putih kental. Pada pengecatan gram darisecret mukosa vagina didapatkan leukosit blastopsora dan pseudohifa. Pemerikaan KOH 10%dari sekret vagina didapatkan blastopore dan pesudohifa.Penanganan yang diberikan adalah obatsistemik dengan flukonazol 1x150 mg dosis tunggal dan topical diberikan ketokenazol cream.Prognosis kasus tersebut adalah baik..

  5. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraunholz, I.B.; Schopohl, B.; Boettcher, H.D. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Akute und spaete Reaktionen an Vulva und Vagina sind haeufige und zum Teil schwerwiegende Nebenwirkungen der Strahlentherapie von gynaekologischen Tumoren, auf die in der Literatur kaum eingegangen wird. Methoden: Basierend auf einer umfangreichen Literaturrecherche, werden die Massnahmen, die zur Prophylaxe oder Therapie dieser Strahlenreaktionen zur Verfuegung stehen, systematisch zusammengestellt und, soweit verfuegbar, mit Ergebnissen aus Studien diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Hygienemassnahmen und die auf klinischen Erfahrungswerten basierende lokale Anwendung einer Vielzahl von mehr oder weniger antimikrobiell wirkenden oder granulationsfoerdernden Substanzen lassen sich als Grundprinzipien der Behandlung von akuten Reaktionen an Vulva und Vagina erkennen. Der Einsatz von lokalen Oestrogenapplikationen, die die hormonabhaengige Proliferation des Epithels ausnutzen, wird ueberwiegend im Zusammenhang mit Therapie und Prophylaxe von radiogenen Spaetfolgen beschrieben. Als eine Art der Prophylaxe von Spaetreaktionen in Form der Vaginalstenose hat sich die Empfehlung der vaginalen Dilatation etabliert. Schlussfolgerungen: Mit Ausnahme von einigen Arbeiten zu Oestrogen gibt es keine Daten ueber die Wirksamkeit der eingesetzten Substanzen. Die lokale Oestrogenapplikation zur Prophylaxe der akuten Strahlenreaktionen wird daher in einer prospektiven Studie untersucht werden. (orig.)

  6. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.)

  7. Inseminación artificial de alpacas con semen colectado por aspiración vaginal y vagina artificial / Artificial insemination of alpacas with semen collected by vaginal aspiration and by artificial vagina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Virgilio, Alarcón B; Wilber, García V; P. Walter, Bravo.

    Full Text Available Semen de alpaca fue colectado por dos métodos: por aspiración de la vagina de la hembra después de la monta natural y con vagina artificial. El semen colectado fue evaluado y diluido con Tris tamponado, y luego usado en inseminacion artificial. Se trabajó con 160 alpacas hembras adultas de capacidad [...] reproductiva comprobada y 5 alpacas machos. Se colectó semen post cópula de los cinco machos en 10 hembras, y se hicieron 50 colecciones de semen con vagina artificial de estos machos, dos veces por semana. Se determinó volumen, motilidad, concentración espermática, porcentaje de espermatozoides vivos, viscosidad y color. Los resultados para semen colectado por aspiración de la vagina y con vaginal artificial fueron: volumen (3.6 y 1.5 mL), motilidad (73.4 y 69.0%), concentración espermática (75.2 y 80.3 millones/mL), espermatozoides vivos (75.3 y 70.8%), respectivamente, con diferencia entre métodos (p Abstract in english Semen from alpacas was collected by two methods: by aspiration from the female’s vagina following mating and with an artificial vagina. Semen was collected, evaluated and extended with Tris buffer, and then used in artificial insemination. Altogether 160 female alpacas with proven reproductive histo [...] ry and five males were used. Semen was collected by vaginal aspiration from 10 females using five males as semen donors; likewise, semen from the same males was collected with an artificial vagina twice a week 50 times. Volume, motility, spermatic concentration, live spermatozoa, viscosity and color was evaluated. Seminal characteristics of semen collected by aspiration and with an artificial vagina were: volume (3.6 and 1.5 mL), motility (73.4 and 69.0%), sperm concentration (75.2 and 80.3 million/mL), live spermatozoa (75.3 and 70.8%) respectively, with statistical difference between methods (p

  8. Almacenamiento de espermatozoides en la vagina de la lagartija vivípara Sceloporus torquatus (Sauria: Prhynosomatidae) / Sperm storage in the vagina of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus torquatus (Sauria: Prhynosomatidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martín, MARTÍNEZ-TORRES.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las hembras de muchas especies de lagartijas tienen la capacidad de almacenar espermatozoides en un sistema de túbulos especiales presentes en la vagina. Sin embargo, en otras especies los espermatozoides se almacenan en el infundíbulo. Se utilizó una técnica sencilla y rápida para determinar sí la [...] vagina de Sceloporus torquatus tiene la capacidad de almacenar espermatozoides. En las hembras de esta especie, los espermatozoides son retenidos al menos 167 días en un sistema de túbulos especiales localizados en la vagina. La cantidad de espermatozoides presentes en los lavados vaginales disminuyó gradualmente a partir de diciembre y su desaparición ocurrió en la preñez tardía. Los espermatozoides ascienden al útero e infundíbulo antes de que ocurra la ovulación, sin embargo, en estos órganos no existen estructuras especiales para almacenar espermatozoides. Abstract in english Females of many lizard species are able to store sperm in a special system of tubules present in the vagina. However, in other species sperm storage occurs in the infundibulum. A quick and simple technique to determine if the vagina of Sceloporus torquatus has the capacity to store sperm was used. I [...] n this species the spermatozoa are retained at least during 167 days after mating in a special system of tubules located in the vagina. The amount of spermatozoa observed through vaginal flushing was reduced gradually from December on and the spermatozoa disappeared in late pregnancy. The spermatozoa reached the uterus and infundibulum before ovulation started; however, in these organs there are no special structures for sperm storage.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Young Yeon; Cho, Chi Heum; Choi, Tae Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy.

  10. Radiation-induced morphological changes in the vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Fidarova, E.; Schmid, M.P.; Sturdza, A.; Kranz, A.; Poetter, R. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Nout, R.A. [University Medical Center Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Oncology; Wiebe, E. [Alberta Univ., Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Polterauer, S. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of General Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology; Doerr, W. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-15

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced chronic vaginal changes after definitive radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer patients are reported as one of the most distressing consequences of treatment, with major impact on quality of life. Although these vaginal changes are regularly documented during gynecological follow-up examinations, the classic radiation morbidity grading scales are not concise in their reporting. The aim of the study was therefore to identify and qualitatively describe, on the basis of vaginoscopies, morphological changes in the vagina after definitive radio(chemo)therapy and to establish a classification system for their detailed and reproducible documentation. Patients and methods: Vaginoscopy with photodocumentation was performed prospectively in 22 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer after definitive radio(chemo)therapy at 3-24 months after end of treatment. All patients were in complete remission and without severe grade 3/4 morbidity outside the vagina. Results: Five morphological parameters, which occurred consistently after treatment, were identified: mucosal pallor, telangiectasia, fragility of the vaginal wall, ulceration, and adhesions/occlusion. The symptoms in general were observed at different time points in individual patients; their quality was independent of the time of assessment. Based on the morphological findings, a comprehensive descriptive and semiquantitative scoring system was developed, which allows for classification of vaginal changes. A photographic atlas to illustrate the morphology of the alterations is presented. Conclusion: Vaginoscopy is an easily applicable, informative, and well-tolerated procedure for the objective assessment of morphological vaginal changes after radio(chemo)therapy and provides comprehensive and detailed information. This allows for precise classification of the severity of individual changes. (orig.)

  11. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma patients with narrow vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito; Kawase, Takatugu [National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Dokiya, Takushi [Saitama Medical Coll., Moroyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed cervical cancer patients with narrow vagina treated by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy followed by external beam irradiation. Fifty patients were treated with radical radiotherapy between 1992 and 1999 at the National Tokyo Medical Center. All patients received 30 Gy of external whole pelvic irradiation and 20 Gy of pelvic irradiation with a central shield. After 30 Gy of whole pelvic irradiation, 24 Gy of fractionated brachytherapy was applied with a tandem and ovoids, non-rigid type developed in the Cancer Institute, according to the Manchester method. Nineteen patients with a narrow vagina of less than 40 mm in width were compared with 31 other patients (control group). The 5-year cumulative survival rates were 56% in the patients with a narrow vagina and 53% in the control group (P=0.6008). The control rate in the pelvis was not significantly different between the two groups. The cumulative rate of rectal complications of the patients with a narrow vagina was more frequent than the control group (58% vs 29%) (P=0.0924). Severe rectal bleeding was also more frequent in the patients with a narrow vagina. The estimated maximal dose of the rectal wall was significantly higher in patients with a narrow vagina. This result suggests that a lower brachytherapy dose is necessary for patients with narrow vagina considering the rectal sequelae in the case of using our methods. (author)

  12. Incarcerated foreign body in the vagina – a metal bangle used as a pessary

    OpenAIRE

    Dasari, Papa; Sagili, Haritha

    2012-01-01

    Long-forgotten vaginal pessaries get incarcerated in the vagina and their removal poses problems. A 60-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with foul smelling purulent discharge per vaginum and stress incontinence. Speculum examination revealed foul smelling white discharge per vaginum and a friable vaginal wall which bled on touch. The anterior portion of a metal ring deeply embedded in the vagina was seen. The cervix appeared normal. Attempts of removal by traction under local infiltrati...

  13. LASER EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA NEOPLASIA INTRAEPITELIAL DE VAGINA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Yazigi I; Tulio, Rodríguez A; Luis, Contreras M.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia en el tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial de vagina (VAIN) utilizando el láser de CO2. Método: 19 pacientes con el diagnóstico histológico de VAIN fueron tratadas con esta técnica. Se utilizó un diámetro del punto de helio-neón de 1,5 a 2 mm y un poder de de [...] nsidad de 400 a 500 W/cm². Toda la lesión detectable más un margen de al menos 5 mm de tejido circundante aparentemente normal fueron vaporizados a una profundidad de 2 mm. Resultados: 12 de las 14 pacientes evaluables lograron una respuesta completa inicial (86%), de éstas 12 hubo 2 recidivas posteriores (17%), obteniendo una curación en 10 de las 14 evaluables (71%). No hubo complicaciones y se preservó una función vaginal normal. Conclusión: La vaporización con láser es una buena modalidad terapéutica en VAIN, particularmente en mujeres jóvenes en que se ha descartado razonablemente la coexistencia de cáncer invasor Abstract in english Objective: To describe our experience in the treatment of vaginal intra-epithelial neoplasia (VAIN) with the use of CO2 laser. Method: Nineteen patients with the diagnosis of VAIN were treated by this technique. We used a spot size of 1.5 to 2 mm and a power density of 400 to 500 W/cm². The entire l [...] esion in addition to at least a 5 mm margin of adjacent tissue were vaporized to a depth of 2 mm. Results: 12 of 14 evaluable patients had an initial complete response (86%), of these 12, there were 2 recurrences (17%), obtaining a 71% cure rate (10/14). There were no complications and preservation of normal vaginal function. Conclusion: Laser vaporization is a very good treatment modality, particularly in young women in whom the co-existence of invasive malignancy has been ruled out

  14. Longitud de vagina, hiato genital y cuerpo perineal en mujeres nulíparas / Lengh of vagina, genital hiatus and perineal body in nulliparae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Méndez.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar la longitud promedio de vagina, del hiato genital y cuerpo perineal en mujeres nulíparas. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal con muestreo por conveniencia. Institución: Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Mu [...] jeres nulíparas. Métodos: En 85 mujeres nulíparas atendidas en el Hospital entre enero y marzo 2014, en edad fértil, que habían iniciado relaciones coitales vaginales y que requerían evaluación ginecológica, se realizó medición del peso y talla. En posición de litotomía, se midió con un hisopo milimetrado la longitud total de la vagina, hiato genital y el cuerpo perineal. Las mediciones fueron realizadas por un solo examinador. La participación fue completamente voluntaria y con firma de consentimiento informado. Principales medidas de resultados: Longitud total de la vagina, hiato genital y el cuerpo perineal. Resultados: La media de la longitud total de vagina fue 8,1 ± 1,4 cm (DE), del hiato genital 2,2 ± 0,5 cm (DE) y del cuerpo perineal 2,3 ± 0,5 cm (DE). Conclusiones: Las medidas estimadas no difieren con resultados de estudios internacionales. Se requiere estudiar una mayor muestra de pacientes de las diferentes regiones para tener un estimado más representativo de estas medidas en pacientes nulíparas del Perú. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine vaginal, genital hiatus and perineal body length in nulliparous women. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study with convenience sample. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. Participants: Nulliparous women. Method [...] s: From January through March 2014 in 85 nulliparous women in childbearing age who had coital sex and required gynecological evaluation, weight and height were obtained and length of vagina, genital hiatus and perineal body were measured with a graph swab in lithotomy position. Measurements were obtained by one single examiner. Participation was voluntary with signed informed consent. Main outcome measures: Length of vagina, genital hiatus and perineal body. Results: Average length of patients’ vagina was 8.1 ± 1.4 cm (SD), genital hiatus 2.2 ± 0.5 cm (SD), and perineal body 2.3 ± 0.5 cm (SD). Conclusions: Measures obtained did not differ from international studies. A broad population study is suggested to better estimate these measures in nulliparous Peruvian women.

  15. Committee Opinion No. 571: Solutions for surgical preparation of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Currently, only povidone-iodine preparations are approved for vaginal surgical-site antisepsis. However, there are compelling reasons to consider chlorhexidine gluconate solutions for off-label use in surgical preparation of the vagina, especially in women with allergies to iodine. Although chlorhexidine gluconate solutions with high concentrations of alcohol are contraindicated for surgical preparation of the vagina, solutions with low concentrations of alcohol (eg, 4%) are both safe and effective for off-label use as vaginal surgical preparations and may be used as an alternative to iodine-based preparations in cases of allergy or when preferred by the surgeon. PMID:23963423

  16. Pathomorphologic Investigations on the Genital System of Ewes II.Uterus, Cervix and Vagina

    OpenAIRE

    KARADA?, Erkan; T?MURKAAN, Necati

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the pathomorphologic changes and the incidence of these changes in the uterus, cervix, vagina and related ligaments of ewes slaughtered at Elaz?? abattoirs. For this purpose,the genital organs of 6100 ewes from different breeds and ages were examined.There were pathomorphologic changes in 274 cases (4.49%)in the uterus,70 cases (1.14%)in the cervix,and 61 cases (1.00%)in the vagina.Inflammatory changes were primarily lesions (2.68%)observed in the u...

  17. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author)

  18. Imaging of the vagina and vulva; Aspectos de imagem das lesoes vulvo-vaginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Borges, Leonardo Romualdo; Rosalen Junior, Roberto Antonio [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Signorini Filho, Roney Cesar; Marques, Renato Moretti; Nicolau, Sergio Mancini [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Oncoginecologia; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2006-10-15

    In gynecological daily practices, the vulva and vagina are examined during physical examination, however there are situations where this is not possible or it is needed to determine the extension of an injury through imaging methods. The magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent cross-sectional modality for evaluation the alterations of vulva and vagina due its multiplanar evaluation and high tecidual contrast. Other cross-sectional modalities are ultrasound and enhanced computed tomography. This paper intends to give an overview of vaginal and vulvar pathology that can be identified by the radiologist. (author)

  19. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Kakehi, Masae; Ono, Ryosuke; Watai, Kiichi; Yanagawa, Shigeo; Kasamatsu, Tatsuhiro

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author).

  20. Melanoma amelanótico primario de vagina: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina: a case report and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Paula, Houghton-Martínez; Jairo, Amaya-Guío; Luz Amparo, Díaz-Cruz.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar el diagnóstico clínico, histológico e inmunohistoquímico; las alternativas terapéuticas y los factores que influyen en el pronóstico del melanoma amelanocítico de vagina. Materiales y métodos: se presenta el caso de una paciente de 49 años que consultó por masa vaginal de 8 cm en p [...] ared anterior de vagina, nacarada y con fondo necrótico a la Unidad de Patología Cervical y Colposcopia del Hospital de Engativá, institución de segundo nivel de complejidad que atiende pacientes de nivel socioeconómico bajo afiliados al régimen de seguridad pública. Se realizó resección amplia de la lesión. La patología quirúrgica informó melanoma fusocelular y epiteloide maligno. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: melanoma primario y vagina en las bases de datos Medline vía PubMed, Cochrane y Ebsco. Resultados: se encontraron 489 artículos de los cuales 31 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron diez que correspondieron a nueve reportes de caso y a una revisión del tema. El diagnóstico clínico no es fácil. Las proteínas HMB45 y S100 son de gran utilidad en su identificación. La respuesta al tratamiento quirúrgico, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia es pobre. El pronóstico depende de la ploidía, la amelanosis y el índice mitótico. Conclusiones: el melanoma primario de vagina es una neoplasia rara y de mal pronóstico. Hace parte del grupo de melanomas de mucosa que tienen un origen y comportamiento biológico diferente al cutáneo. Tiene tendencia a la diseminación hematógena rápida y a recaídas locales. El tratamiento se basa en cirugía conservadora, radioterapia, quimioterapia y terapia biológica; sin embargo, su eficacia es limitada. Abstract in english Objective: reviewing clinical, histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis, therapeutic alternatives and factors influencing prognosis for amelanotic melanoma of the vagina. Materials and methods: this article presents the case of a 49yearold patient who consulted the Engativá Hospital’s Cervical [...] Pathology and Colposcopy Unit due to an 8 cm diameter necrotic pearlywhite vaginal mass on the anterior vaginal wall. The hospital is a secondary level complexity institution dealing with low socioeconomic level patients affiliated to the public (subsidized) social security (health) system. A broad resection was made of the lesion. Surgical pathology revealed epithelioid fusocellular malignant melanoma. A systematic literature search was made using the following key words: primary melanoma and vagina in Medline databases via Pub Med, Cochrane and Ebsco. Results: 31 of the 489 articles found were directly related to the topic; 10 new case reports and a review were selected. Clinical diagnosis is not easy; HMB45 and S100 proteins are extremely useful in identifying it.Response to surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is poor. Prognosis depends on ploidy, amelanosis and mitotic index. Conclusions: Primary melanoma of the vagina is a rare neoplasm and has a poor prognosis. It forms part of a group of mucosal melanoma having an origin and biological behavior different to that of cutaneous melanoma. It tends to have rapid hematogenous dissemination and local relapses. Treatment is based on conservative surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biological therapy; however, its effectiveness is limited.

  1. Morphology of the turkey vagina with and without an egg mass in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, M R; Akuffo, V

    2009-03-01

    In this study we examined the gross anatomy of the uterus and vagina in turkeys in egg production. With no uterine egg mass, removal of the tunica serosa that enclosed the uterus revealed deep periodic in-folding of the muscularis transversely circumscribing the sac-like segment. When the connective tissue embracing the neutral buffered formalin fixed vagina was completely teased free, the exposed tubular segment was shaped as a counter-clockwise spiral or as a series of angular, random bends. The uterovaginal junction was flush with the uterine mucosa or projected slightly into the uterine lumen. With a uterine egg mass, the deep in-foldings of the uterus were abolished. The only alteration to the morphology of the vagina was that the uterovaginal junction appeared dilated and pressed into its juncture with the uterus. Whether an egg mass was present or not, uterovaginal junction folds that projected into the uterus possessed sperm storage tubules. An egg mass in the uterus compressed the uterovaginal junction folds, and its mucosa became contiguous with the uterine mucosa. Finally, from an evolutionary perspective, in the turkey and possibly other species possessing a nonintromittent phallus, vaginal pleomorphism may have been driven primarily by the need to accommodate the overall length of the vagina in a limited abdominal space and to a lesser extent on sexual selection. PMID:19211535

  2. Mioepitelioma de vagina: neoplasia poco frecuente en esta localización, reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Romero R; Mario, Melo U; Paula, Barajas S; Juvenal, Baena A; Luz Mery, Vargas L.

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Los mioepiteliomas, son tumores poco frecuentes originados a partir de la proliferación de células mioepiteliales. La mayor parte localizados en las extremidades inferiores y en glándulas salivales. Existen ocasionales informes previos de MEP que involucren la vagina. Objetivo: Describ [...] ir un caso de mioepitelioma localizado en vagina. Caso clínico: Embarazada de 29 años edad, quien presenta una masa vaginal de un año de evolución, localizada en el himen. El examen histopatológico muestra una lesión compuesta por células fusiformes con positividad inmunohistoquímica para vimentina, citoqueratinas (CK) AE1/ AE3, S100, CD10, receptores de estrógenos y progesterona, Bcl2 y calponina y negatividad para desmina, actina muscular especifica, actina de músculo liso y p63. Con los anteriores hallazgos se interpreta la lesión como un mioepitelioma primario vaginal. Conclusión: Los mioepiteliomas son tumores que requieren para su diagnostico, análisis con técnicas de inmunohistoquímica o ultraestructurales que permitan diferenciarlos de otros tumores. Abstract in english Background: The myoepitheliomas are rare tumors arising from the proliferation of myoepithelial cells. Most tumors are located in the lower extremity and salivary glands. There have been only occasional myoepithelial neoplasms previously reported involving the vagina. Objective: Describe a case of m [...] yoepithelioma located in the vagina of a pregnant woman. Case report: A 29 years old pregnant female, who about 1 year prior has a vaginal mass, located in the hymen. At histopathological examination shows a mass composed of spindle cells with positivity immunohistochemical studies for vimentin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, S100, CD10 and calponin and negative for desmin, actinmuscle specific (HHF35), smooth muscle actin and p63. With these findings it was established the diagnosis of myoepithelioma in the vagina. Conclusion: Myoepitheliomas are tumors requiring for diagnostic of immunohistochemistry or ultrastructural techniques that allow its differentiation from other tumors.

  3. Mioepitelioma de vagina: neoplasia poco frecuente en esta localización, reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Romero R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Los mioepiteliomas, son tumores poco frecuentes originados a partir de la proliferación de células mioepiteliales. La mayor parte localizados en las extremidades inferiores y en glándulas salivales. Existen ocasionales informes previos de MEP que involucren la vagina. Objetivo: Describir un caso de mioepitelioma localizado en vagina. Caso clínico: Embarazada de 29 años edad, quien presenta una masa vaginal de un año de evolución, localizada en el himen. El examen histopatológico muestra una lesión compuesta por células fusiformes con positividad inmunohistoquímica para vimentina, citoqueratinas (CK AE1/ AE3, S100, CD10, receptores de estrógenos y progesterona, Bcl2 y calponina y negatividad para desmina, actina muscular especifica, actina de músculo liso y p63. Con los anteriores hallazgos se interpreta la lesión como un mioepitelioma primario vaginal. Conclusión: Los mioepiteliomas son tumores que requieren para su diagnostico, análisis con técnicas de inmunohistoquímica o ultraestructurales que permitan diferenciarlos de otros tumores.Background: The myoepitheliomas are rare tumors arising from the proliferation of myoepithelial cells. Most tumors are located in the lower extremity and salivary glands. There have been only occasional myoepithelial neoplasms previously reported involving the vagina. Objective: Describe a case of myoepithelioma located in the vagina of a pregnant woman. Case report: A 29 years old pregnant female, who about 1 year prior has a vaginal mass, located in the hymen. At histopathological examination shows a mass composed of spindle cells with positivity immunohistochemical studies for vimentin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, S100, CD10 and calponin and negative for desmin, actinmuscle specific (HHF35, smooth muscle actin and p63. With these findings it was established the diagnosis of myoepithelioma in the vagina. Conclusion: Myoepitheliomas are tumors requiring for diagnostic of immunohistochemistry or ultrastructural techniques that allow its differentiation from other tumors.

  4. Morphological Studies on the Vagina and Vestibule of Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius) / Estudios Morfológicos de la Vagina y Vestíbulo del Camello (Camelus dromedarius)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ahmed, Sayed-Ahmed; Anwer, Elshafey; Ahmed, Abd-Elmaksoud.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El camello (Camelus dromedarius) es una importante especie de ganado de usos múltiples y el consumo de su carne corresponde al 10% aproximadamente del consumo de carne roja en Egipto. La eficiencia reproductiva del camello, bajo condiciones naturales, se considera generalmente baja. El conocimiento [...] adecuado sobre los órganos genitales tubulares de esta especie podría facilitar la aplicación de una nueva metodología de reproducción. Por lo tanto, se llevó a cabo este estudio para investigar la morfología de la superficie de la mucosa de la vagina y el vestíbulo en camellos, utilizando luz, escaneado y microscopía electrónica de transmisión. La superficie de la mucosa de la vagina está formado por epitelio columnar estratificado con células secretoras mucosas (células en copa). La microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) de la vagina reveló la presencia de pliegues primarios y secundarios longitudinales y pequeños pliegues transversales. El epitelio columnar mostró un límite celular marcado y su superficie apical se evidenció salpicado por una gran cantidad de microvellosidades. La microscopía electrónica por transmisión (TEM) confirmó la presencia de microvellosidades en las superficies apicales y mostró algunos gránulos secretores en la región supranuclear del epitelio columnar. El vestíbulo del dromedario está revestido por epitelio estratificado queratinizado, de tipo escamoso. La lámina basal y el estrato granuloso de este epitelio mostraron una fuerte reacción PAS positiva. La microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM) del vestíbulo reveló la presencia de pequeños pliegues transversales longitudinales y finos, con gran cantidad de restos de mucosidad. Sin embargo, la microscopía electrónica por transmisión (TEM) del vestíbuloreveló un epitelio queratinizado escamoso estratificado, con una capa basal de células cúbicas y capas superficiales de células escamosas. Abstract in english The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is an important multipurpose livestock species and its meat represents about 10% of the red meat consumption in Egypt. The reproductive efficiency of camel under natural condition is generally considered to be low. Sound knowledge about the tubular genital organs of t [...] his species might facilitate the application of new reproductive methodology. Our study was therefore conducted to investigate the morphology of mucosal surface of vagina and vestibule on camels using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The mucosal surface of vagina consisted of stratified columnar epithelium with mucous secreting cells (goblet-like cells). SEM of vagina revealed the presence of longitudinal primary and secondary folds and small transverse folds. The columnar epithelium showed marked cell boundary and its apical surface was studded by a lot of microvilli. TEM confirmed the presence of microvilli at apical surfaces and showed some secretory granules in the supranuclear region of the columnar epithelium. The vestibule of dromedary camel was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium. Basal lamina and stratum granulosum of this epithelium showed strong PAS positive reaction. SEM of vestibule revealed the presence of small longitudinal and fine transverse folds with a lot of mucous debris. However TEM of vestibule showed the stratified squamous keratinized epithelium with basal layer of cuboidal cells and superficial layers of squamous cells.

  5. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito da ooforectomia no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratos fêmeas

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito; Rita de Kássia Vidigal Carvalho; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil Matos; Rodolfo Costa Lobato; Rosângela Baía Brito

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Verify the effect of oophorectomy on the evolution of the Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and cervix of female rats. METHODS: Ten Wistar, female rats were used, distributed into two groups with 05 animals each: Tumor group (TG): Rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor; Oophorectomy group (OG): oophorectomized rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor. The day before the tumor vaginal inoculation, acetic acid was inoculated into the vaginas of both groups of rats; the following ...

  6. Melanoma amelanótico primario de vagina: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Houghton-Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar el diagnóstico clínico, histológico e inmunohistoquímico; las alternativas terapéuticas y los factores que influyen en el pronóstico del melanoma amelanocítico de vagina. Materiales y métodos: se presenta el caso de una paciente de 49 años que consultó por masa vaginal de 8 cm en pared anterior de vagina, nacarada y con fondo necrótico a la Unidad de Patología Cervical y Colposcopia del Hospital de Engativá, institución de segundo nivel de complejidad que atiende pacientes de nivel socioeconómico bajo afiliados al régimen de seguridad pública. Se realizó resección amplia de la lesión. La patología quirúrgica informó melanoma fusocelular y epiteloide maligno. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: melanoma primario y vagina en las bases de datos Medline vía PubMed, Cochrane y Ebsco. Resultados: se encontraron 489 artículos de los cuales 31 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron diez que correspondieron a nueve reportes de caso y a una revisión del tema. El diagnóstico clínico no es fácil. Las proteínas HMB45 y S100 son de gran utilidad en su identificación. La respuesta al tratamiento quirúrgico, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia es pobre. El pronóstico depende de la ploidía, la amelanosis y el índice mitótico. Conclusiones: el melanoma primario de vagina es una neoplasia rara y de mal pronóstico. Hace parte del grupo de melanomas de mucosa que tienen un origen y comportamiento biológico diferente al cutáneo. Tiene tendencia a la diseminación hematógena rápida y a recaídas locales. El tratamiento se basa en cirugía conservadora, radioterapia, quimioterapia y terapia biológica; sin embargo, su eficacia es limitada.

  7. Entrenamiento de carneros para recolección de semen mediante vagina artificial, utilizando como estímulo objetos inanimados

    OpenAIRE

    Virginio Aguirre Flores; Reyes V\\u00E1zquez Rosales; Agust\\u00EDn Orihuela Trujillo

    2005-01-01

    Con el fi n de desarrollar una metodología para entrenar carneros en la recolección de semen con vagina artifi cial (VA), montando un objeto inanimado, se utilizaron nueve animales que se sometieron a cuatro etapas de preparación. La primera con el propósito de lograr la manifestación del repertorio sexual natural, y el resto para llevar a cabo un programa de condicionamiento operante: cuando la respuesta correcta (monta) sucedía, en un inicio provocada por un estado de motivac...

  8. CT and MR imaging findings of primary leiomyosarcoma of the vagina : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Hee; Rha, Sung Eun; Cho, Song Mee; Byun, Jae Young [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent approximately 1-2% of all gynecologic malignancies. About 2% of all malignant vaginal lesions are primary sarcomas, the most common of these being leiomyosarcoma. We report the CT and MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman with vaginal leiomyosarcoma presenting as a bulky solid mass which caused expansion of the vaginal canal.

  9. Hematocolpos in double vagina associated with uterus didelphus: US and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesio, L.; Andreoli, C.; De Cicco, M.L.; Angeli, M.L.; Manganaro, L

    2003-02-01

    The malformative syndrome of double vagina in association with uterus didelphus and kidney agenesis is a rare condition, often asymptomatic: if this condition is accompanied by imperforated obstructed hemivagina, the clinical manifestations depend on the presence of hematocolpos. MRI plays an important role for diagnosis because it allows to characterize the nature of the lesion and to evaluate the anatomical details of the uterine malformation. The authors describe this complex genital malformation and discuss the main US and MRI features.

  10. Long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegemann, Stefan; Willich, Normann [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Schaefer, Ulrich [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Lelle, Ralph [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology; Micke, Oliver [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Background: The long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina are not well defined. Patients and Methods: The treatment results of 41 patients with primary malignancies of the vagina were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 77.3 months (2.3-404 months). The predominant histology was squamous cell carcinoma, FIGO stages I: n = 7 (17.1%), II: n = 13 (31.7%), III: n = 13 (31.7%), and IVa: n = 8 (19.5%). Radiotherapy was the primary treatment for all patients. None of the patients had undergone prior surgery for vaginal carcinoma. The majority of patients received pelvic irradiation, including treatment of the inguinal lymphatics (median dose: 50 Gy). 26 patients received additional intravaginal brachytherapy. Results: Overall, 21 patients (51.2%) achieved complete remission, 17 patients (41.5%) had partial responses, and three patients (7.3%) had no change or progressive disease. The total median survival of the analyzed patients was 41.3 months. The 1-year survival probability was 85.4%, the 5-year survival probability 40.6%, and the 10-year survival probability 27.2%. Univariate analysis revealed a survival advantage for earlier tumor stages (FIGO I and II) compared to advanced stages (FIGO III and IV), with a median survival of 58.1 months compared to 26.8 months. Treatment side effects were tolerable and easily managed. Conclusion: Definite radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for primary carcinomas of the vagina. Considering that primary malignancies of the vagina are typically diseases of the elderly, it should be noted that radiotherapy is especially well tolerated in this population. (orig.)

  11. A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Takuya; Murakami, Takashi; Kameoka, Jun-Ichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-09-01

    We report the first case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the vagina, the diagnosis of which is supported by genetic and immunophenotypic studies. A 65-year-old, para 2 woman presented to our hospital in July 1997 with a history of prolonged vaginal discharge. Although cytologic examination suggested possible malignancy, a biopsy of the vaginal wall was diagnosed as chronic inflammation. In June 2000, she underwent gynecologic examination because of anuria. Excisional biopsy revealed subepithelial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells that stained for CD20, CD79a, and BCL-2; stained weakly for IgM; and did not stain for CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD56, CD23, and IgD, suggesting marginal zone B-cell lineage. Monoclonality was detected by Southern blot analysis, and this patient was finally diagnosed as having primary MALT lymphoma of the vagina. She received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (THP-COP) and concurrent radiation to the whole pelvis. The patient is alive and well 40 months after treatment. Because the vagina is one of the mucosa-associated tissues, MALT lymphoma, though rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of the vaginal neoplasms. PMID:15343521

  12. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  13. Association of Atopobium vaginae, a recently described metronidazole resistant anaerobe, with bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortenberry J Dennis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a polymicrobial syndrome characterized by a change in vaginal flora away from predominantly Lactobacillus species. The cause of BV is unknown, but the condition has been implicated in diverse medical outcomes. The bacterium Atopobium vaginae has been recognized only recently. It is not readily identified by commercial diagnostic kits. Its clinical significance is unknown but it has recently been isolated from a tuboovarian abcess. Methods Nucleotide sequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene segments, that were separated into bands within lanes on polyacrylamide gels by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, was used to examine bacterial vaginal flora in 46 patients clinically described as having normal (Lactobacillus spp. predominant; Nugent score ? 3 and abnormal flora (Nugent score ? 4. These women ranged in age from 14 to 48 and 82% were African American. Results The DGGE banding patterns of normal and BV-positive patients were recognizably distinct. Those of normal patients contained 1 to 4 bands that were focused in the centre region of the gel lane, while those of BV positive patients contained bands that were not all focused in the center region of the gel lane. More detailed analysis of patterns revealed that bands identified as Atopobium vaginae were present in a majority (12/22 of BV positive patients, while corresponding bands were rare (2/24 in normal patients. (P A. vaginae isolates were cultivated from two patients whose DGGE analyses indicated the presence of this organism. Two A. vaginae 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified among the clinical isolates. The same two sequences were obtained from DGGE bands of the corresponding vaginal flora. The sequences differed by one nucleotide over the short (~300 bp segment used for DGGE analysis and migrated to slightly different points in denaturing gradient gels. Both isolates were strict anaerobes and highly metronidazole resistant. Conclusion The results suggest that A. vaginae may be an important component of the complex bacterial ecology that constitutes abnormal vaginal flora. This organism could play a role in treatment failure if further studies confirm it is consistently metronidozole resistant.

  14. The relative efficacy of HDR and LDR interstitial brachytherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Beginning in 1982 we performed low dose rate (LDR) interstitial template brachytherapy (ISTB) for carcinoma of the vagina. High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading has been used exclusively since 1991. We compare the results LDR and HDR brachytherapy. Material and Methods: Between 1982 and 1994, 30 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of vagina received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy. The AJCC stage distribution was 3 stage I, 25 stage II, and 2 stage III. The average central pelvic EBRT dose was 35 Gy. Pelvic side wall EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 50.4 Gy. Nineteen patients had LDR treatment; 3 intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) and 16 ISTB. Eleven patients had HDR treatment; 2 ICB and 9 ISB. The average dose delivered by LDR was 41.2 Gy usually in 2 fractions, and by HDR 32.5 Gy in 6 fractions of 500-550 cGy. Local failures were confirmed pathologically. The absolute survival (AS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank statistics. Results: The mean follow-up was 77 months for LDR and 23 months for HDR. Local and regional control was achieved in 90% (27/30) of the patients. Three year AS was 84% and RFS was 87%. There was no significant difference between LDR and HDR in AS, RFS or local-regional control, (log rank p=0.85, p=0.12 and p=0.35 respectively). The single HDR local failure presented in a patient with extensive stage II disease who declined ISTB. There were fewer complications following HDR. The 1 case of extensive vaginal necrosis and the 3 cases of rectovaginal fistula that required surgery occurred only with LDR brachytherapy. Discussion: Excellent local and regional control of carcinoma of the vagina can be achieved by administering limited doses of external radiation and brachytherapy. Interstitial template implants are the best means of encompassing paravaginal disease while sparing the adjacent uninvolved normal tissues from high doses of radiation. HDR technology is an effective means of administering high uniform tumor doses, maximizes dose control to the bladder and rectum and improves radiation safety. Conclusion: Optimal tumor control and less morbidity at 2 years after treatment can be achieved with HDR-ISTB in squamous carcinoma of the vagina compared to alternative treatments

  15. Melanosis of the vagina and human papillomavirus infection, an uncommon pathology: Case Report / Melanosis de la vagina e infección por virus del papiloma humano, una patología poco común: Reporte de un Caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Núñez-Troconis; Mariela, Delgado; Gerardo, González; Airiaudis, Rivas; Katherine, Molero.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones melanóticas de la vagina son infrecuentes. y Solo pocos casos han sido reportados. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 34 años quien es referida con diagnóstico de una Neoplasia Intraepitelial Vaginal 1. Al examen ginecológico, se encontraron dos áreas hiperpigmentadas en la vagina. La [...] exploración colposcópica del cuello uterino y vagina reveló la presencia de una lesión aceto-blanca en la pared lateral derecha del tercio superior de la vagina. Muestras de biopsias fueron tomadas en dichas áreas. El estudio histológico reportó una melanosis de la vagina y una infección por el virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH). Se realizó un panel de estudio inmunohistoquímico de marcadores epiteliales en las muestras vaginales: tales como citoqueratina AE1/AE3 y antígeno epitelial de membrana; marcador mesenquimal: vimentin; marcadores melanóticos: proteina S-100 y HMB45 (Human Melanoma Black); marcadores de proliferación celular: antígeno de proliferación nuclear (PCNA), y la oncoproteína P-53. Se realizó Hibridización In Situ para establecer los tipos de alto (16, 18, 31, 45) y bajo (6, 11) riesgo de VPH en las muestras vaginales. Los marcadores CK, EMA y Vimentin fueron 2+. Los marcadores melanótico, el HMB45 y el S100, y el PCNA fueron 1+ en la capa basal. P-53 fue negativo. El tejido melanótico y la lesión acetoblanca fueron positivos al VPH 6,11. En conclusión, la melanosis vaginal es una patología poco frecuente. Usualmente, se ha reportado en mujeres mayores de 40 años. Presentamos un caso de una melanosis de la vagina infectada con un tipo de VPH de bajo riesgo en una mujer joven y una revisión de la literatura. Abstract in english Benign melanotic lesions of the vagina are uncommon and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. A 34-year-old woman was referred because of a Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia 1 biopsy result. On the gynecological examination, two different hyperpigmented areas were noted in the vagin [...] a. The colposcopic visualization of the cervix and vagina found an aceto-white lesion at the right lateral wall of the upper third of the vagina. Biopsies from three areas were taken. Histological study reported a melanosis of the vagina and HPV infection. An immunohistochemical panel of epithelial markers was performed in vaginal samples, such as Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen, mesenchymal marker: vimentin; melanocytic makers: protein S-100 and HMB45 (Human Melanoma Black); proliferating cell marker: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and P-53 oncoprotein. High Risk (16, 18, 31, 45) and Low Risk (6, 11) HPV types were studied by In Situ Hybridization using the same vaginal samples. CK, EMA and Vimentin were 2+. Melanocytic markers, HMB45 and S100, and PCNA were 1+ in basal cell layer. P-53 was negative. The melanotic tissue and acetowhite lesion were positives to HPV Types 6,11. In conclusion, melanosis of the vagina is a uncommon benign pathology. Usually, melanosis is present in women over 40 years old. We present a case of melanosis of the vagina in a young woman infected with low-risk HPV types and review the literature.

  16. Antibiogram of Group B Streptococci Isolated from the Vagina of Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Hajare, *L.H. Madhavi, **H.K.G. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcal (GBS prevalence varies from place to place; this organism is responsible for serious infections in newborns, such as septicemia and meningitis. The present study was aimed to find out the antibiogram of Group B Streptococci isolated from the vagina of pregnant women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and toidentify the risk factors for its colonization in vagina. The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, M. R. Medical College & Hospital, Gulbarga during a period from January 2007 to December 2007. Two hundred pregnant women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and attending the antenatal clinics were included in the study. Two low vaginal swabs were taken from each women included in the study and were immediately transported to the laboratory for processing. Direct gram staining was done from one swab and the other swab was inoculated into sheep blood agar plate and incubated at 37ºC for 24-48 hours. Identification of organism was based on gram staining, colony morphology, catalase reaction,Christie Atkins Munch Petersen (CAMP and Hippurate hydrolysis test.Of the 200 pregnant women screened, 7.5% were colonized by GBS. Incidence of GBS colonization was higher among pregnant women in the third trimester who were 25 years of age and primigravida. All the isolates were sensitive to Ampicillin, Erythromycin and Penicillin but were resistant to Gentamicin and Kanamycin.

  17. Microbiologic characteristics of Lactobacillus products used for colonization of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, V L; Hillier, S L

    1990-02-01

    Lactobacilli have long been considered to be the protective flora in the vagina. Women with vaginal infections have used various non-prescription products in an attempt to restore their normal vaginal flora. Products that contain lactobacilli include dairy products (yogurt, acidophilus milk) and commercially available Lactobacillus powders and tablets. Recently, Lactobacillus species that produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been associated with normal vaginal flora. In this study, we compared 16 non-prescription products containing lactobacilli for H2O2 production, purity, and identifiable contaminants. All 16 products contained lactobacilli, of which ten (62%) produced H2O2. At least one contaminant was detected in 11 of 16 (69%) of the products: Enterococcus faecium (ten), Clostridium sporogenes (one), Streptococcus mitis (one), and Pseudomonas species (one). Although all of the products tested contained lactobacilli, only four of the products contained Lactobacillus acidophilus. Most of the lactobacilli-containing products currently available either do not contain the Lactobacillus species advertised and/or contain other bacteria of questionable benefit. We conclude that commercially available products may not be appropriate for recolonization of the vagina. PMID:2300352

  18. Epithelial estrogen receptor 1 intrinsically mediates squamous differentiation in the mouse vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-10-20

    Estrogen-mediated actions in female reproductive organs are tightly regulated, mainly through estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing the homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. To address the role of ESR1-mediated tissue events during homeostasis, we analyzed mice with a vaginal epithelium-specific knockout of Esr1 driven by keratin 5-Cre (K5-Esr1KO). We show here that loss of epithelial ESR1 in the vagina resulted in aberrant epithelial cell proliferation in the suprabasal cell layers and led to failure of keratinized differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that several known estrogen target genes, including erbB growth factor ligands, were not induced by estrogen in the K5-Esr1KO mouse vagina. Organ culture experiments revealed that the addition of erbB growth factor ligands, such as amphiregulin, could activate keratinized differentiation in the absence of epithelial ESR1. Thus, epithelial ESR1 integrates estrogen and growth factor signaling to mediate regulation of cell proliferation in squamous differentiation, and our results provide new insights into estrogen-mediated homeostasis in female reproductive organs. PMID:26438838

  19. A longitudinal study of Staphylococcus hyicus colonization of vagina of gilts and transmission to piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Skov Jensen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    High Staphylococcus hyicus colonization rates were found in vaginal samples of healthy breeding sows and in skin samples of their offspring. Twenty-two different phage types were identified among the 720 isolates of S. hyicus examined. Two to 13 different phage types were isolated per herd. Phage typing, as well as characterization of about 10 % of the isolates by plasmid profiles and antibiogram patterns, showed that, several different clones of S. hyicus could be present simultaneously in vagina of gilts and also on skin of piglets. Generally isolates from the vagina of one animal were identical as regards to phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiogram patterns during the entire investigation period. Isolates from the skin of piglets were of the same type as their mothers, indicating that vertical transmission had taken place. S. hyicus strains isolated from the skin of piglets within 24 h after birth were identical to strains isolated 3 weeks after birth from the same litter, indicating that the vaginalstrains became part of a stable skin flora.

  20. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (Ptransferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P<0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. PMID:26282524

  1. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito da ooforectomia no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratos fêmeas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Verify the effect of oophorectomy on the evolution of the Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and cervix of female rats. METHODS: Ten Wistar, female rats were used, distributed into two groups with 05 animals each: Tumor group (TG: Rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor; Oophorectomy group (OG: oophorectomized rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor. The day before the tumor vaginal inoculation, acetic acid was inoculated into the vaginas of both groups of rats; the following day, the vaginal walls were scarified with an endocervix brush, and then Walker 256 tumor was inoculated. After 12 days, the tumor was removed together with the vagina and uterine horns for macro and microscopic analyses. The data were submitted to statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two groups; however it was observed that the behavior of tumor growth on the OG group presented greater invasion, compromising the uterine horns. CONCLUSION: The results of the study on the GO group presented a macroscopic behavior different from the TG group, however, both of them presented similar development in terms of tumor mass.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da ooforectomia à inoculação do tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 10 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, virgens, adultas, distribuídas em dois grupos de estudo com 05 animais cada: grupo tumor (GT: ratas inoculadas com tumor de Walker 256, e grupo Ooforectomia (GO: ratas ooforectomizadas e inoculadas com tumor de Walker 256. No dia anterior à inoculação vaginal do tumor, foram inoculados 0,3ml de ácido acético na vagina das ratas de ambos os grupos; no dia seguinte, foi realizada a escarificação da parede vaginal com uma escova de endocérvice e inoculado tumor de Walker 256. Após 12 dias, foi removido o tumor em bloco com vagina e cornos uterinos para análise macro e microscópica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos; no entanto, notou-se que o comportamento de crescimento do tumor no grupo GO apresentou maior invasividade em extensão, comprometendo cornos uterinos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o grupo GO apresentou comportamento macroscópico diferente ao grupo GT, no entanto, em termos totais de massa tumoral ambos apresentam desenvolvimento similar.

  2. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats / Efeito da ooforectomia no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratos fêmeas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nara Macedo Botelho, Brito; Rita de Kássia Vidigal, Carvalho; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil, Matos; Rodolfo Costa, Lobato; Rosângela Baía, Brito.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da ooforectomia à inoculação do tumor de Walker 256 em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 10 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, virgens, adultas, distribuídas em dois grupos de estudo com 05 animais cada: grupo tumor (GT): ratas inoculadas com tumor de Walker [...] 256, e grupo Ooforectomia (GO): ratas ooforectomizadas e inoculadas com tumor de Walker 256. No dia anterior à inoculação vaginal do tumor, foram inoculados 0,3ml de ácido acético na vagina das ratas de ambos os grupos; no dia seguinte, foi realizada a escarificação da parede vaginal com uma escova de endocérvice e inoculado tumor de Walker 256. Após 12 dias, foi removido o tumor em bloco com vagina e cornos uterinos para análise macro e microscópica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos; no entanto, notou-se que o comportamento de crescimento do tumor no grupo GO apresentou maior invasividade em extensão, comprometendo cornos uterinos. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que o grupo GO apresentou comportamento macroscópico diferente ao grupo GT, no entanto, em termos totais de massa tumoral ambos apresentam desenvolvimento similar. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Verify the effect of oophorectomy on the evolution of the Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and cervix of female rats. METHODS: Ten Wistar, female rats were used, distributed into two groups with 05 animals each: Tumor group (TG): Rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor; Oophorectom [...] y group (OG): oophorectomized rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor. The day before the tumor vaginal inoculation, acetic acid was inoculated into the vaginas of both groups of rats; the following day, the vaginal walls were scarified with an endocervix brush, and then Walker 256 tumor was inoculated. After 12 days, the tumor was removed together with the vagina and uterine horns for macro and microscopic analyses. The data were submitted to statistical analyses. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the two groups; however it was observed that the behavior of tumor growth on the OG group presented greater invasion, compromising the uterine horns. CONCLUSION: The results of the study on the GO group presented a macroscopic behavior different from the TG group, however, both of them presented similar development in terms of tumor mass.

  3. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  4. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán / The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oswaldo, Chinchilla Mazariegos.

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemal [...] a sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos. Abstract in english The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for th [...] e examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  5. Mannose binding lectin and C3 act as recognition molecules for infectious agents in the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, V; De Seta, F; Crovella, S; Bossi, F; Bulla, R; Guaschino, S; Radillo, O; Garred, P; Tedesco, F

    2005-01-01

    In our study we examined the early complement components in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and in healthy controls. The levels of C1q, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and C3 were measured by ELISA in the cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from gynaecological patients and controls. No significant differences were observed in the levels of these proteins in the three study groups. Immunofluorescence analysis of the clue cells and Candida hyphae from BV and VVC patients for surface-bound complement components showed the presence of C3, while C1q was undetectable. MBL was revealed on clue cells but not on Candida. Binding of MBL to Candida, grown or cytocentrifuged from the CVL of VVC patients, was found to be pH dependent and occurred between pH 4.5 and pH 5.5. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MBL and C3 present in the vaginal cavity act as recognition molecules for infectious agents that colonize the cervicovaginal mucosa. Our finding that MBL, but not C1q, binds to bacteria and fungi in vagina suggests that the lectin and classical pathways of complement activation may play a different role in immune defence in the female genital tract. PMID:15606621

  6. Efecto del sistema de crianza (extensivo vssemiintensivo) del macho cabrío, sobre la obtención de semen mediante vagina artificial

    OpenAIRE

    V\\u00EDctor Manuel Prado; Agust\\u00EDn Orihuela Trujillo; Salvador Lozano Trejo; Mar\\u00EDa Isabel P\\u00E9rez Le\\u00F3n

    2001-01-01

    Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto del sistema de crianza (extensivo vs semiintensivo) del macho cabrío, en el entrenamiento para colecta de semen mediante vagina artificial, se utilizaron ocho animales criollos, de dos años de edad, con experiencia sexual; cuatro habían sido criados bajo condiciones extensivas, y los restantes bajo un manejo semiintensivo. Todos recibieron ocho sesiones de entrenamiento, exponiéndoles en forma individual, dos veces por semana, ante una hembra ...

  7. Tubulo-squamous polyp of the vagina with sebaceous glands: novel features in an uncommon recently described entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anshuman; Padel, Adam

    2010-09-01

    Tubulo-squamous polyp of the vagina is a recently described histopathologic entity. This case report describes an as yet unreported morphologic feature of sebaceous glands in an example of this lesion. Further knowledge of the morphologic spectrum of this lesion should be of aid to histopathologists in its recognition. A brief review of currently available literature on this topic is also given. PMID:20736779

  8. Delivery of double singleton pregnancies in a woman with a double uterus, double cervix, and complete septate vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Jie; Tseng, Jen-Yu; Chen, Chih-Yao; Li, Hsin-Yang

    2015-12-01

    Uterine anomalies involving a double uterus, double cervix, also known as didelphys uterus, and complete septate vagina are rarely seen and have an associated fertility problem. However, artificial reproductive technology with embryo transfers can help solve this fertility challenge. Conception in the uterus in just one side is commonly seen for embryos, which are always transferred through the usually used (dilated) vagina. We here present a patient with the above uterine anomaly who conceived with the aid of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer to both uterine cavities under general anesthesia, which resulted in successful double singleton pregnancies with one fetus in each uterus. With intensive prenatal care, the pregnancy course for each fetus was rather uneventful. Although both fetuses were in cephalic presentation, cesarean section was performed at the 39(th) week of gestation with good outcomes in order to preclude anticipated difficulties if the baby had been delivered through the rarely dilated vagina. However, order of birth between the two fetuses was a crucial decision during the operation. PMID:26462956

  9. Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococci isolated from the vaginas of captive female Leontopithecus (Callitrichidae-Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilenbaum, Walter; Moraes, Ismar A; Cardoso, Verônica S; Varges, Renato G; Ferreira, Ana Maria R; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide current data on Staphylococcus species from the vaginas of clinically normal captive lion tamarins and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. Samples were collected from 25 adult lion tamarins, processed to isolate Staphylococcus species, and tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, and rifampicin. Isolates with the typical characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus were recovered from all 25 samples. Coagulase-negative species were the most common (68% of the isolates), and the most frequently isolated species (10 samples) was S. simulans. Other coagulase-negative species, including S. saprophyticus (n=5), S. epidermidis (n=1), and S. arlettae (n=1), were also recovered. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci were obtained from eight animals (six of from the S. aureus species and two from S. intermedius). Resistance to antibiotics was frequently observed, and 88% of the isolates (23 samples) showed resistance to at least one drug. Resistance to penicillin G was a common finding, and the most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Coagulase-positive strains were more frequently resistant to antibiotics (79.7%, average=6.4 drugs) than coagulase-negative strains (38.2%, average=3.0 drugs). The high frequency of resistance observed in those isolates is surprising and very alarming. A detailed history of the use of antimicrobial drugs in these subjects did not reveal any previous exposure to any of the tested antibiotics that could justify the observed resistance rate. PMID:16847975

  10. VIP, vagina, clitoral and periurethral glans--an update on human female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R J

    1991-01-01

    The sexually quiescent human vagina is a just moist, potential space with a minimal blood flow and very low luminal oxygen tension. The first measurable sign of sexual arousal is an increase in the blood flow. This creates the engorged condition, elevates the luminal oxygen tension and stimulates the production of surface vaginal fluid by an increased plasma transudation that saturates the fluid reabsorptive capacity of the epithelium. The vaginal lubrication created allows painless penile penetration and coital movements. The mechanisms underlying the changes appear to be mediated by Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP). VIP is present in nerves closely applied to blood vessels in the vaginal wall. Administration of VIP either intravenously, or by subepithelial injection in the vaginal wall, increases vaginal blood flow and induces vaginal fluid production. Increases in vaginal blood flow by sexual arousal are not blocked by atropine injection indicating that cholinergic mechanisms are unimportant. All the present evidence suggests that the local vaginal release of VIP induces the vaginal changes of arousal. Discourse on vaginal and pudendal anatomy (Sevely, 1987) has proposed that the female glans of the clitoris is not the true homologue of the penile glans because it has no urethral opening. The speculative suggestion is that the true female glans is the area surrounding the urethral opening (which has no specific anatomical name). Preliminary studies indicate that the area of this tissue (periurethral glans) decreases on vaginal penile insertion and reappears on withdrawal indicating that it is moved during coitus. How important such movement is to stimulate erotic sensation and how sensitive this area is to erotic stimulation are unanswered questions. PMID:1778234

  11. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjernquist Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years, in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years. Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036. Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071. There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels.

  12. xpression of estrogen and progesterone receptor genes in endometrium, myometrium and vagina of postmenopausal women treated with estriol / Expresión de los genes receptores de estrógeno y progesterona en el endometrio, miometrio y vagina en mujeres posmenopáusicas tratadas con estriol

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magdalena, Bry& #347; ; Krzysztof, Szytto; Hanna, Romanowicz-Makowska; Zbigniew, Dobrowolski; Izabela, Mastowska; Wanda, Krajewska.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO Y OBJETIVO: El estriol es un estrógeno con un efecto estimulatorio bastante más débil sobre la proliferación endometrial que el estradiol. Se realizó un estudio para determinar los efectos de una terapia vaginal de 14 días con estriol, sobre el nivel de receptores de estrógeno (ER) y recept [...] ores de progesterona (PR), comparado con mujeres sin esa terapia. La expresión de los genes de ER y PR se analizó en el endometrio, miometrio y vagina de mujeres posmenopáusicas tratadas con estriol. DISEÑO Y UBICACIÓN: Estudio Transversal analítico, en el Instituto de Investigación del Hospital de la Madre Polaca en Lodz, Polonia. MÉTODOS: Se incluyeron veintisiete mujeres posmenopáusicas (de 57 a 74 años) en el estudio. Todas ellas estaban en espera de una histerectomía per vaginam o de cirugía plástica de la vagina y del perineo debido a un prolapso del útero. La expresión de genes de los receptores ER y PR se estableció por la técnica de RT-PCR. RESULTS: En las pacientes tratadas con estriol en comparación con el grupo de control, se observó un aumento significativo de la expresión del gen de ER en el endometrio y la vagina, mientras que un aumento de la expresión del gen de PR se encontró en el endometrio. De todas formas, en el examen histológico del endometrio, se diagnosticó estimulación estrogénica de bajo y medio grado en el 21.4% y en el 14.3% de las mujeres tratadas con estriol, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que un tratamiento de 14 días con estriol en pacientes, aunque aumentan el nivel de ER y de PR mRNA, tiene muy poco o ningún efecto sobre la proliferación endometrial. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Estriol is an estrogen with considerably weaker stimulatory effects on endometrial proliferation than estradiol. A study was conducted to determine the level of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in women who received 14-day vaginal estriol therapy, comp [...] ared with those who did not receive this therapy. ER and PR gene expression was analyzed in the endometrium, myometrium and vagina of postmenopausal women treated with estriol. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at the Research Institute of the Polish Mothers' Memorial Hospital, Lodz, Poland. METHODS: Twenty-seven postmenopausal women (57-74 years of age) were included in the study. All of them were waiting for per vaginam hysterectomy or plastic surgery on the vagina and perineum because of uterine prolapse. ER and PR gene expression was determined by means of the technique of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In the estriol-treated patients, in comparison with the control group, a significant increase in ER gene expression was observed in the endometrium and vagina, while enhanced PR gene expression was found in the endometrium. However, under histological examination of the endometrium, estrogen stimulation of low and medium degree was diagnosed for 21.4% and 14.3% of the estriol-treated women, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results obtained suggest that the women who received 14 days of treatment with vaginal estriol had higher ER and PR mRNA levels. No difference between these groups regarding endometrial proliferation was observed.

  13. The effect of copaiba balsam on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito do óleo de copaíba no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas fêmeas

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito; Rita de Kássia Vidigal Carvalho; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil Matos; Rodolfo Costa Lobato; Suelen Costa Correa; Rosângela Baía Brito

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To verify the copaiba balsam (Copaifera officinalis) effect on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into vagina and uterine cervix of rats. METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used, distributed into 2 groups (GCop, GC). On the 1st day of the experiment, 0.3 ml of Walker 256 carcinoma (2x10(6) concentration) was inoculated in both groups; on the 3rd day of the experiment, it was given 4.8 ml/kg of distilled water to the GC group, and 4.8 ml/kg of copaiba bal...

  14. Avaliação dosimétrica de uma combinação de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porção distal da vagina Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Guilherme Rodrigues Guimarães

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar uma alternativa de braquiterapia para tumores do colo uterino acometendo a porção distal da vagina, sem aumentar os riscos de toxicidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo teórico comparando três diferentes aplicadores de braquiterapia intracavitária de alta taxa de dose: sonda intrauterina e cilindro vaginal (SC; sonda e anel associado ao cilindro vaginal (SA+C e um aplicador virtual com sonda, anel e cilindro vaginal em um único conjunto (SAC. Foram prescritas doses de 7 Gy no ponto A e 5 Gy na superfície ou a 5 mm de profundidade na mucosa vaginal, mantendo as doses nos pontos de reto, bexiga e sigmoide abaixo dos limites de tolerância. Foram comparados os volumes englobados pelas isodoses de 50% (V50, 100% (V100, 150% (V150 e 200% (V200, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Tanto SA+C quanto SAC apresentaram melhor distribuição de dose quando comparados ao aplicador SC. A distribuição de dose obtida com SA+C foi semelhante à do aplicador SAC, sendo V150 e V200 cerca de 50% maiores para SA+C, todavia, dentro do cilindro. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de SA+C em uma única aplicação em dois tempos pode ser uma alternativa de tratamento para pacientes que apresentam tumores de colo uterino com acometimento distal da vagina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC; tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C; and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC. Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50, 100% (V100, 150% (V150 and 200% (V200 were compared. RESULTS: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder. CONCLUSION: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  16. Induction of specific immunoglobulin A in the small intestine, colon-rectum, and vagina measured by a new method for collection of secretions from local mucosal surfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Haneberg, B; Kendall, D.; Amerongen, H M; Apter, F M; Kraehenbuhl, J. P.; Neutra, M R

    1994-01-01

    In order study patterns of local antibody responses following mucosal immunization of mice via different routes, a method for collection of secretions directly from mucosal surfaces was developed. Mice were immunized on days 0, 10, 17, and 24 by administration of cholera toxin into the oral cavity, stomach, colon-rectum, or vagina. At sacrifice on day 32, absorbent wicks were placed in the oral cavity and, via an applicator tube, into the vagina and distal colon-rectum and along the entire sm...

  17. The effect of copaiba balsam on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats / Efeito do óleo de copaíba no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas fêmeas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nara Macedo Botelho, Brito; Marcus Vinicius Henriques, Brito; Rita de Kássia Vidigal, Carvalho; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil, Matos; Rodolfo Costa, Lobato; Suelen Costa, Correa; Rosângela Baía, Brito.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do óleo de copaíba da espécie Copaifera officinalis no carcinoma de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 18 ratas da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 180-250g, distribuídas em dois grupos (CCop, GC). No 1º dia de experimento, e [...] m ambos os grupos foi inoculado 0,3ml de tumor de Walker 256 na concentração de 2x10(6); no 3º dia após essa inoculação, foi iniciada a administração de água destilada na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GC, e copaíba na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GCop. No 12º dia foi realizada a eutanásia das ratas e ressecado o tumor, sendo este pesado e averiguado seu volume. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística pelo método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o óleo de copaíba apresentou um potencial inibitório negativo de 70%. CONCLUSÃO: O óleo de copaíba estimulou o crescimento tumoral. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the copaiba balsam (Copaifera officinalis) effect on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into vagina and uterine cervix of rats. METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used, distributed into 2 groups (GCop, GC). On the 1st day of the experiment, 0.3 ml of [...] Walker 256 carcinoma (2x10(6) concentration) was inoculated in both groups; on the 3rd day of the experiment, it was given 4.8 ml/kg of distilled water to the GC group, and 4.8 ml/kg of copaiba balsam to the GCop group. On the 12th day, euthanasia was performed and the tumor was grafted, being weighted and verified its volume. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA test. RESULTS: It was observed that copaiba balsam presented a negative inhibitory potential of 70%. CONCLUSION: The copaiba balsam stimulated the tumor growth.

  18. The effect of copaiba balsam on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito do óleo de copaíba no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas fêmeas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the copaiba balsam (Copaifera officinalis effect on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into vagina and uterine cervix of rats. METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used, distributed into 2 groups (GCop, GC. On the 1st day of the experiment, 0.3 ml of Walker 256 carcinoma (2x10(6 concentration was inoculated in both groups; on the 3rd day of the experiment, it was given 4.8 ml/kg of distilled water to the GC group, and 4.8 ml/kg of copaiba balsam to the GCop group. On the 12th day, euthanasia was performed and the tumor was grafted, being weighted and verified its volume. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA test. RESULTS: It was observed that copaiba balsam presented a negative inhibitory potential of 70%. CONCLUSION: The copaiba balsam stimulated the tumor growth.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do óleo de copaíba da espécie Copaifera officinalis no carcinoma de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 18 ratas da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 180-250g, distribuídas em dois grupos (CCop, GC. No 1º dia de experimento, em ambos os grupos foi inoculado 0,3ml de tumor de Walker 256 na concentração de 2x10(6; no 3º dia após essa inoculação, foi iniciada a administração de água destilada na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GC, e copaíba na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GCop. No 12º dia foi realizada a eutanásia das ratas e ressecado o tumor, sendo este pesado e averiguado seu volume. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística pelo método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o óleo de copaíba apresentou um potencial inibitório negativo de 70%. CONCLUSÃO: O óleo de copaíba estimulou o crescimento tumoral.

  19. Synchronous Superficial Myofibroblastoma and Stromal polyp of the Vagina: Report of A Case Supporting Common Histogenesis of Both Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zamecnik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare simultaneous occurrence of vaginal superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma and vaginal stromal polyp is described. The lesions were found in a 90-years-old patient, in the anterior wall of the vagina. The diameter of the lesions was 6cm and 2cm, respectively. Between them, a 3cm part of normal appearing vaginal wall was present. Both lesions showed similar myoid appearing morphology and myofibroblastic desmin+/actin-/h-caldesmon-/CD34- immunophenotype, with positivity for CD10, CD99, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor. Larger lesion was diagnosed as benign cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma, and the smaller one had typical features of vaginal stromal polyp. This case of simultaneous occurrence of cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma and vaginal stromal polyp supports previously suggested histogenetic relationship between these lesions. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(2.000: 63-67

  20. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  1. The Mayer-von Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (uterus bipartitus solidus rudimentarius cum vagina solida): the development of gynecology through the history of a name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardini, G; Popp, L W

    1995-01-01

    A summary of the original descriptions of the Authors who gave the name to the syndrome characterized by absence of uterus and vagina is presented. Through these original descriptions a complete view of the development in gynecology over the last 150 years is offered. PMID:7736648

  2. Nonoxynol-9 berberine plural gel has little effect on expression of SLPI, SP-D and lactoferrin in mice’s vagina

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    Huang Guangying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9 in the clinic alters the vaginal flora, which will result in an increased risk of opportunistic infection. So development of a novel spermicidal and microbicidal drug appears to be inevitable. Vaginal local immune is an important part of vaginal flora. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI, surfactant proteins D (SP-D, and lactoferrin (LF are anti-microbial molecules with important roles in immune system of female vaginas. Objective: To observe effect of a vaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9 berberine plural gel on the expression of SLPI SP-D and LF in mice’s vaginas. Materials and Methods: Female BABL/C mice were randomly divided into following 5 groups: normal control group, blank gel group, berberine gel group, 12% N-9 gel group and N-9 berberine plural gel group. Estradiol benzoate at physiological dose was done by hypodermic injection to every group’s mice. After 72h, drug gels were separately injected into the mice’s vaginas, while immunohistochemistry and Western blot were taken to detect the expression of the 3 indexes in mice’s vaginas respectively after 24h and 72h of gel injection. Results: The differences in the three indexes between normal control group and blank gel group were not significant statistically (p>0.05. The expression of the three indexes in 12% N-9 gel group was decreased compared to that in blank gel group (p0.05. Also, the three index's level of 24h and 72h in sub observation groups after treatment were without statistical significance (p>0.05. Conclusion: Application of N-9 berberine plural gel had little impact on antimicrobial peptides in normal mice’s vaginas.

  3. Genetic investigations of CFTR mutations in congenital absence of vas deferens, uterus, and vagina as a cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radpour, Ramin; Gourabi, Hamid; Dizaj, Ahmad Vosough; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative diagnosis of infertility requires attention to male and female physical abnormalities including endocrine anomalies and genetic conditions that interfere with reproduction. Many genes are likely to be involved in the complex process of reproduction. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) is a genital form of cystic fibrosis (CF) that is responsible for 2%-6% of male infertility. The incidence of CF varies in different populations; therefore, the incidence of CBAVD will also vary in different populations. The spectrum and distribution of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations differ between CBAVD and CF patients and are comparable to control individuals. Combinations of particular alleles at several polymorphic loci yield insufficient functional CFTR protein. CFTR mutations are also associated with congenital absence of the uterus and vagina (CAUV). Females with CF are found to be less fertile than normal healthy women. Because of techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), CBAVD patients are now able to father children. Such couples, however, have an increased risk of having a child with cystic fibrosis, and therefore genetic testing and counseling should be provided. Around 10% of obstructive azoospermia is congenital and due to mutations in the CF gene. This review highlights the relationship of mutations in the CFTR gene with CBAVD and CAUV. PMID:18567645

  4. Diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and vagina of healthy women and potential role in the colonization of the infant gut

    OpenAIRE

    de Martin, R; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Smidt, H.; Rodriguez, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches. Methods and Results: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptically collected from five mothers whose neonates were born by vaginal delivery and another five that had their babies by caesarean section. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using L...

  5. Effects of age, egg-laying activity, and Salmonella-inoculation on the expressions of gallinacin mRNA in the vagina of the hen oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukinori; Ohashi, Hiroki; Subedi, Kalpana; Nishibori, Masahide; Isobe, Naoki

    2006-04-01

    Gallinacins (Gal) are antimicrobial peptides that play significant roles in innate immunity in chickens. The aim of this study was to examine whether age of birds and egg-laying activity (laying and non-laying caused by feed-regulation) affect the mRNA expression of Gal-1, -2, and -3 in the vagina of hens, and whether their expressions are changed in response to the stimulation with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). White Leghorn hens were divided into groups of young and old laying hens, and groups of laying and non-laying hens after feed-regulation. Vaginal cells were cultured and stimulated with SE or LPS. Expressions of Gal-1, -2, and -3 mRNA in their vaginal mucosa and cultured cells were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expressions of Gal-1, -2, and -3 of the vaginal mucosa were significantly greater in old birds than in young birds. Expression of these Gals in the vagina were decreased in the regressed oviduct of non-laying birds compared with laying birds. The expressions of Gal-1, -2, and -3 in the cultured vaginal cells were increased by stimulation with SE or LPS within 24 h. These results suggest that the mRNA expressions of Gal-1, -2 and -3 in the vagina of laying hens increased with age, whereas they decreased in the regressed oviduct during the non-laying phase. Also, synthesis of these antimicrobial peptides in the vagina may increase in response to SE and LPS to eliminate SE bacteria. PMID:16394622

  6. Hypoxic conditions and iron restriction affect the cell-wall proteome of Candida albicans grown under vagina-simulative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinska, Grazyna J; de Groot, Piet W J; Teixeira de Mattos, M Joost; Dekker, Henk L; de Koster, Chris G; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; Klis, Frans M

    2008-02-01

    Proteins that are covalently linked to the skeletal polysaccharides of the cell wall of Candida albicans play a major role in the colonization of the vaginal mucosal surface, which may result in vaginitis. Here we report on the variability of the cell-wall proteome of C. albicans as a function of the ambient O(2) concentration and iron availability. For these studies, cells were cultured at 37 degrees C in vagina-simulative medium and aerated with a gas mixture consisting of 6 % (v/v) CO(2), 0.01-7 % (v/v) O(2) and N(2), reflecting the gas composition in the vaginal environment. Under these conditions, the cells grew exclusively in the non-hyphal form, with the relative growth rate being halved at approximately 0.02 % (v/v) O(2). Using tandem MS and immunoblot analysis, we identified 15 covalently linked glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins in isolated walls (Als1, Als3, Cht2, Crh11, Ecm33, Hwp1, Pga4, Pga10, Phr2, Rbt5, Rhd3, Sod4, Ssr1, Ywp1, Utr2) and 4 covalently linked non-GPI proteins (MP65, Pir1, Sim1/Sun42, Tos1). Five of them (Als3, Hwp1, Sim1, Tos1, Utr2) were absent in cells grown in rich medium. Immunoblot analysis revealed that restricted O(2) availability resulted in higher levels of the non-GPI protein Pir1, a putative beta-1,3-glucan cross-linking protein, and of the GPI-proteins Hwp1, an adhesion protein, and Pga10 and Rbt5, which are involved in iron acquisition. Addition of the iron chelator ferrozine at saturating levels of O(2) resulted in higher cell wall levels of Hwp1 and Rbt5, suggesting that the responses to hypoxic conditions and iron restriction are related. PMID:18227255

  7. Non-leukemic myeloid sarcoma involving the vulva, vagina, and cervix: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Qin, Xuemei; Yan, Shuxin; Wang, Wenxia; Sun, Yanlin; Zhang, Maohong

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is defined as a tumor mass consisting of myeloid blast with or without maturation occurring at an anatomical site other than bone marrow with normal architectural effacement. It can also precede the onset of leukemia which is called non-leukemic MS. Non-leukemic MS is a kind of rare disease and easy to be misdiagnosed as other common malignancies due to the rarity and nonspecific manifestation. We herein report an unusual case of non-leukemic MS involving the vulva, vagina, and cervix in a female patient. The bone marrow aspiration and biopsy of the patient revealed no hematological abnormality. Immunohistochemical staining of the biopsies was strongly positive for myeloperoxidase, CD68, leukocyte common antigen (LCA), CD117, CD34, CD38, CD79a, and negative for cytokeratin (CK), epithelial memberane antigen (EMA), CD2, CD3, CD20, CD5, CD138. Then a diagnosis of non-leukemic MS was made. Unfortunately, our patient received only one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin, then refused any further treatment and died 4 months after diagnosis. Although systemic chemotherapy is widely accepted to be a promising strategy, its benefit still needs to be further assessed. Certain questions still need to be answered for this disease: 1) Why can approximately 20% of the patients with non-leukemic MS remain disease-free after local therapy alone? 2) How many cycles of chemotherapy are needed for these patients after achievement of complete remission? 3) What are the prognostic or risk factors in these patients who have no abnormality of karyotype, fusion genes, or gene mutation to predict responsiveness to chemotherapy and outcome? 4) What is the risk factor for relapse? The rarity of non-leukemic MS makes it almost impossible to conduct large-scale randomized trials, but judicious study for each patient with MS is helpful for a further understanding of the nature of the disease. PMID:26677338

  8. Il Linguaggio della Vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Menicocci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La cultura delle masse è oggi una cultura prevalentemente visuale. Tra i segni visuali da tempo in crescita è quello, caratteristico, della depilazione pubica femminile. Originata all'interno della cultura porno come segno di passività, questa pratica si è incontrata con i simboli della pulizia, dell'igiene, del rispetto, trasformando così il proprio significato in quello di autonomia e libertà. Così le donne possono depilarsi per scopi erotici minimizzando però la valenza sessuale del gesto tramite la tendenza alla super-igiene.

  9. Il Linguaggio della Vagina

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Menicocci

    2011-01-01

    La cultura delle masse è oggi una cultura prevalentemente visuale. Tra i segni visuali da tempo in crescita è quello, caratteristico, della depilazione pubica femminile. Originata all'interno della cultura porno come segno di passività, questa pratica si è incontrata con i simboli della pulizia, dell'igiene, del rispetto, trasformando così il proprio significato in quello di autonomia e libertà. Così le donne possono depilarsi per scopi erotici minimizzando però la valenza sessuale del gesto ...

  10. Cloning of 16S rRNA genes amplified from normal and disturbed vaginal microflora suggests a strong association between Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Ganck Catharine

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis remains largely elusive, although some microorganisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis, are suspected of playing a role in the etiology of this disorder. Recently culture-independent analysis of microbial ecosystems has proven its efficacy in characterizing the diversity of bacterial populations. Here, we report on the results obtained by combining culture and PCR-based methods to characterize the normal and disturbed vaginal microflora. Results A total of 150 vaginal swab samples from healthy women (115 pregnant and 35 non-pregnant were categorized on the basis of Gram stain of direct smear as grade I (n = 112, grade II (n = 26, grade III (n = 9 or grade IV (n = 3. The composition of the vaginal microbial community of eight of these vaginal swabs (three grade I, two grade II and three grade III, all from non-pregnant women, were studied by culture and by cloning of the 16S rRNA genes obtained after direct amplification. Forty-six cultured isolates were identified by tDNA-PCR, 854 cloned 16S rRNA gene fragments were analysed of which 156 by sequencing, yielding a total of 38 species, including 9 presumptively novel species with at least five species that have not been isolated previously from vaginal samples. Interestingly, cloning revealed that Atopobium vaginae was abundant in four out of the five non-grade I specimens. Finally, species specific PCR for A. vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis pointed to a statistically significant co-occurrence of both species in the bacterial vaginosis samples. Conclusions Although historically the literature regarding bacterial vaginosis has largely focused on G. vaginalis in particular, several findings of this study – like the abundance of A. vaginae in disturbed vaginal microflora and the presence of several novel species – indicate that much is to be learned about the composition of the vaginal microflora and its relation to the etiology of BV.

  11. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The vagina; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: le vagin Normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 42 - Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France); Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital de Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Haie-Meder, C. [Service de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vagina is a virtual cavity involved in sexual reproduction field. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy of the pelvic region. This review aims to describe the vaginal acute and late side effects due to radiation, probably inadequately reported in the literature. Medline and PubMed literature searches were performed using the keywords -vaginal - radiotherapy - toxicity. The acute and late functional changes after external beam radiation consist mainly of drought. Their incidences are poorly described in the literature and the delivered doses even less. Recommendations are non-existent as the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Brachytherapy delivers high and heterogeneous doses, making it difficult to estimate the dose. The concomitant administration of chemotherapy appears to be a factor increasing the risk of toxicity. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity appear to have little impact on this body. Only a maximum dose on each third of the vagina appears to be currently proposed to avoid the risk of side effects. (authors)

  12. Conceptual knowledge of vesico-vagina fistula among parents, teachers and counsellors of senior secondary students in Warri South local government area of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoukhede M.O

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: VVF is leakages of urine and faeces through the vagina. It is rampant in the North and the Eastern parts of Nigeria due to the forced marriage of girls at about the age of eleven. This may be attributed to their small pelvises which have resulted in harmful reproductive health practice. The disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Aim: This study seeks to explore the conceptual knowledge of vesico-vagina fistula (VVF among parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school students in Warri South local government area of Delta state. Methods: A survey design was used. Random sampling method was used to select a total number of six hundred respondents including parents, teachers and counselors that participated in the study, but only five hundred and eleven questionnaires were retrieved. The questionnaire was divided into two sections containing information on demography and selected variables for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of Anova and t-tests. Result: the study revealed that there is no significant difference in the conceptual knowledge of VVF among parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school students either by educational status or location. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school have very little knowledge about VVF. There is need for educational programmes on VVF to enlighten them about VVF and the danger it poses.

  13. Histologia e morfometria das glândulas das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina de codorna doméstica Histology and morphometry of the infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vaginal junctions of spotted quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carime Moraes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina do oviduto da codorna Nothura maculosa foi realizada durante a fase reprodutiva. As aves foram eutanasiadas por inalação com éter etílico, após a pesagem. Após a laparotomia e o deslocamento cranial do esterno, foram coletadas amostras de dois centímetros da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina. Os fragmentos foram fixados em solução de Bouin por 24 horas e, posteriormente, banhos sucessivos de álcool 70% foram aplicados sobre as amostras. Em seguida, as amostras foram desidratadas em uma série de concentração crescente de alcoóis (80, 90, 95 e 3x100%, diafanizadas em xilol e incluídas em parafina. Cortes histológicos de sete micrômetros de espessura foram obtidos e corados pela técnica da Hematoxilina-eosina (HE, que foram analisados e fotomicrografados em um fotomicroscópio Olympus BX-50. Para a análise morfométrica, foram capturadas imagens das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina mediante o programa computacional "Image Pro Plus 4.1" da Cibernetics do Brasil, tornando-se possível a quantificação das mesmas. A mucosa da junção infundíbulo-magno apresentou pregas estreitas no infundíbulo e largas no magno, enquanto na junção útero-vagina mostrou-se amplamente pregueada na vagina e mais lisa na porção uterina. O número médio de glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides na junção infundíbulo-magno foi maior (11,7 glândulas (PThe comparative analysis of sperm-host glands of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions of Nothura maculosa quail oviduct was done during the reproductive phase. The birds were euthanized with ethyl ether after weight data were taken. After abdominal laparotomy and cranial displacement of the breastbone, two centimeters samples of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions were collected. The samples were fixed in Bouin's solution for twenty four hours and later, successive baths of alcohol 70% were applied on samples and soon afterwards dehydrated in a series of grow concentration alcohols (80, 90, 95 and 3x100%, diaphanized in xylol and included on paraffin. Histological sections with seven micrometers thickness were obtained and stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE technique, then they were analyzed and photomicrographed in a photomicroscope Olympus BX-50. For the morphometry analysis, infundibulum-magnum junctions and uterus-vagina sperm host gland images were captured through a computacional program Image Pro Plus 4.1", Cibernetics Brazil, making it possible to quantify them. The mucosa of the infundibulum-magnum junction presented very narrow folds in the infundibulum and too large in the magnum, while in the uterus-vagina junction was observed widely folds mucous in the vagina and smoother in the uterine portion. The average of sperm host gland in the infundibulum-magnum junction was higher (11.7 glands (P<0.01 compared to the uterus-vagina junction (7.5 glands. It is supposed that the abundance number of sperm host glands in infundibulum-magnum junction allows faster access of the oocyte, after the ovulation of the host spermatozoid ensuring the fertilization.

  14. Radiation therapy of cancer of the cervix, corpus uteri and vagina at the 1st University Clinic of Gynaecology in Vienna from 1950 to 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the department of radiotherapy of th 1st University-Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Vienna, the results obtained in the treatment of gynaecologic malignancy are presented. During this period, more than 10 000 malignant tumors of the female genital tract were treated, including 3605 cases of cancer of the cervix, 1412 endometrial carcinomas and 397 cases of cancer of the vagina. The principal method of irradiation was local application of radium. Dosage was established empirically after measurements on a model. In addition conventional percutaneous roentgen therapy was used until 1972, when telecobalt irradiation equipment was put into use. Five-year survival rates for cervical, endometrial and vaginal cancer are presented for the years from 1950 through 1972. These results are attributed primarily to intracavitary radium application. Of 2687 cases with cervical cancer 1222 (45.5%) were alive after five years, in stage III cervical cancer 535 out of 1321 (40.5%). The latest international tables published in the Annual Report give a five-year survival rate of 31.7% for stage-III cancer of the cervix. Of 994 cases of endometrial cancer 473 were alive after five years (49.8%), while the Annual Report gives a five-year survival rate of 39.0% for primary irradiation in endometrial cancer. For cancer of the vagina, our five-year survival rate was 42.8% (127 patients out of a total of 297), while the Annual Report gives 37.3%. This demonstrates, that the results obtained at the department of radiotherapy of the 1st University Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Vienna are better than the international average. Apart from the different methods of treatment the importance of primary radiation therapy in gynaecologic oncology is pointed out, and the side effects and complications are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agenor, Storti-Filho; Edilson, Damke; Márcia Aparecida, Carrara; Marcia Regina, Batista; Lucélia, Donatti; Cinthia Gandolfi, Boer; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svizdinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP) no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN), que receberam injeções de salina estéril [...] ; grupos controle positivos (GCP), que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP), nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG), which received injections of sterile saline; [...] positive control groups (PCG), which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG), which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (P

  16. Histologia e morfometria das glândulas das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina de codorna doméstica / Histology and morphometry of the infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vaginal junctions of spotted quails

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carime, Moraes; Silvana Martinez, Baraldi-Artoni; Maria Rita, Pacheco; Daniela, Oliveira; Lizandra, Amoroso; Alex Luís, Sagula.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise comparativa das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina do oviduto da codorna Nothura maculosa foi realizada durante a fase reprodutiva. As aves foram eutanasiadas por inalação com éter etílico, após a pesagem. Após a laparotomia e o deslocam [...] ento cranial do esterno, foram coletadas amostras de dois centímetros da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina. Os fragmentos foram fixados em solução de Bouin por 24 horas e, posteriormente, banhos sucessivos de álcool 70% foram aplicados sobre as amostras. Em seguida, as amostras foram desidratadas em uma série de concentração crescente de alcoóis (80, 90, 95 e 3x100%), diafanizadas em xilol e incluídas em parafina. Cortes histológicos de sete micrômetros de espessura foram obtidos e corados pela técnica da Hematoxilina-eosina (HE), que foram analisados e fotomicrografados em um fotomicroscópio Olympus BX-50. Para a análise morfométrica, foram capturadas imagens das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina mediante o programa computacional "Image Pro Plus 4.1" da Cibernetics do Brasil, tornando-se possível a quantificação das mesmas. A mucosa da junção infundíbulo-magno apresentou pregas estreitas no infundíbulo e largas no magno, enquanto na junção útero-vagina mostrou-se amplamente pregueada na vagina e mais lisa na porção uterina. O número médio de glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides na junção infundíbulo-magno foi maior (11,7 glândulas) (P Abstract in english The comparative analysis of sperm-host glands of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions of Nothura maculosa quail oviduct was done during the reproductive phase. The birds were euthanized with ethyl ether after weight data were taken. After abdominal laparotomy and cranial displacement of t [...] he breastbone, two centimeters samples of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions were collected. The samples were fixed in Bouin's solution for twenty four hours and later, successive baths of alcohol 70% were applied on samples and soon afterwards dehydrated in a series of grow concentration alcohols (80, 90, 95 and 3x100%), diaphanized in xylol and included on paraffin. Histological sections with seven micrometers thickness were obtained and stained on Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE) technique, then they were analyzed and photomicrographed in a photomicroscope Olympus BX-50. For the morphometry analysis, infundibulum-magnum junctions and uterus-vagina sperm host gland images were captured through a computacional program Image Pro Plus 4.1", Cibernetics Brazil, making it possible to quantify them. The mucosa of the infundibulum-magnum junction presented very narrow folds in the infundibulum and too large in the magnum, while in the uterus-vagina junction was observed widely folds mucous in the vagina and smoother in the uterine portion. The average of sperm host gland in the infundibulum-magnum junction was higher (11.7 glands) (P

  17. Histometric Parameters of Uterus and Vagina in Breeder Female Rabbits on the Day After Weaning According to the Ordinal Number of Parturitions / Parámetros Histométricos en Útero y Vagina de Conejas Reproductoras en el día Posterior al Destete Según el Número Ordinal de Partos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Alfonso, Banda-Herrera; Jesús, Aragón Hernández; Reyes, López Ordaz; Jorge, Hernández Espinosa; Mario, Pérez-Martínez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar en conejas Nueva Zelanda el efecto del número ordinal de partos sobre algunos parámetros histológicos, en el día posterior al destete. A partir de hembras de primero, segundo y tercer parto se obtuvieron fragmentos de tejido uterino y vaginal los que s [...] e procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina para efectuar cortes histológicos. En ocho campos microscópicos capturados con una cámara conectada a un microscopio óptico se midió la altura del epitelio luminal y glandular del endometrio; el grosor del epitelio de la vagina y del miometrio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se concluye que existen diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to establish in New Zealand female rabbits, the effect of ordinal number of parturitions on some histological parameters on the day after weaning. Tissue fragments of uterus and vagina were obtained from females of first, second and third parturitions and were process [...] ed imbedding them in paraffin in order to do histological cuts. In eight microscope fields captured by a camera connected to an optic microscope, the lumen and glandular endometrial epithelium height, as well as the thickness of vaginal and myometrium epithelium thickness were measured. From the results that were obtained it was concluded that there are significant differences (p

  18. Effect of semen collection by transrectal massage of accessory sexual glands or artificial vagina on the outcome of breeding soundness examinations of Italian yearling beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Lakamy; Palombi, Claudio; Stradaioli, Giuseppe; Vagniluca, Antonio; Monaci, Maurizio

    2015-03-15

    Although semen quality is one of the major traits that influence breeding soundness examination outcomes in bulls, field conditions occasionally do not allow for the collection of semen samples by means of an artificial vagina. The aims of the present study were to report the results of a large number of semen collections that were performed via the transrectal massage (TRM) of the accessory sexual glands of Italian yearling beef bulls and compare this semen collection method to the artificial vagina (AV) method in term of breeding soundness examination outcomes; furthermore, we determined whether the breed affected the semen characteristics. In the TRM group (n = 475), the semen samples were collected via TRM of the accessory sexual glands, and in the AV group (n = 502), the AV method was used. In the TRM group, semen samples were obtained from 81.3% of the bulls and penile protrusion was observed in 87.6% of the animals during semen collection. The sperm concentrations (920.5 ± 439.0 vs. 281.0 ± 259.8 × 10(6)/mL) and the percentages of total abnormal spermatozoa (22.8 ± 15.0 vs. 18.8 ± 12.9) were significantly higher in the AV group than those in the TRM group. The percentage of bulls that did not meet the minimum requirement for normal cells (?70%) was 6.2% higher in the AV group than that in the TRM group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the samples collected from Chianina bulls by TRM exhibited a lower percentage of motile sperm and a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa when compared with the other two breeds. The major drawbacks of the TRM technique were the inability to conduct complete evaluation of the libido and mating ability of the yearling bulls, a significant reduction of the number of spermatozoa collected, and an increase in the variability of the semen characteristics due to breed. In conclusion, despite the drawbacks, TRM guarantees that semen evaluation can be conducted in cases in which the semen samples cannot be collected with the AV method. PMID:25488791

  19. HUBUNGAN AKTIVITAS SEKSUAL PADA USIA DINI, PROMISKUITAS DAN BILAS VAGINA DENGAN KEJADIAN KANKER LEHER RAHIM PADA PASIEN ONKOLOGY DI RSUD Dr.MOEWARDI SURAKARTA

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    . Ridhaningsih

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer ranks the top cause of cancer deaths in developing countries. At Dr. Moewardi Hospital Surakarta cervical cancer was found in most cancers. Risk factors associated with health and cleanliness of the female reproductive tract can increase the incidence of cervical cancer. Purpose this study aims to determine factors associated with female reproductive health tract and the occurrence of cervical cancer. Method: The study was a quantitative analytical research used cross sectional design. Data used primary data from interviews and secondary data from medical records. Bivariate analysis using chi square test used to prove the hypothesis. Results: Statistical analysis by chi square test for sex at an early age got p value=0,382 and the prevalence ratio= 1,375, for promiscuity with incidence cervical cancer got p value=0,481 and prevalence ratio=1,314, for vaginal douching with incidence cervical cancer got p value=0,121 and prevalence ratio=0,571. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between sex on early age with incidence of cervical cancer, there was no significant correlation between promiscuity with incidence of cervical cancer, there was no significant correlation between vaginal douching with incidence of cervical cancer at Dr. Moewardi Hospital Surakarta on Mey until Juny 2010. Key words: sex at an early age, promiscuity, rinse the vagina, cervix cancer

  20. A multi-platform metabolomics approach identifies highly specific biomarkers of bacterial diversity in the vagina of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Amy; Rulisa, Stephen; Sumarah, Mark; Macklaim, Jean M; Renaud, Justin; Bisanz, Jordan E; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) increases transmission of HIV, enhances the risk of preterm labour, and is associated with malodour. Clinical diagnosis often relies on microscopy, which may not reflect the microbiota composition accurately. We use an untargeted metabolomics approach, whereby we normalize the weight of samples prior to analysis, to obtained precise measurements of metabolites in vaginal fluid. We identify biomarkers for BV with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC?=?0.99) in a cohort of 131 pregnant and non-pregnant Rwandan women, and demonstrate that the vaginal metabolome is strongly associated with bacterial diversity. Metabolites associated with high diversity and clinical BV include 2-hydroxyisovalerate and ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), but not succinate, which is produced by both Lactobacillus crispatus and BV-associated anaerobes in vitro. Biomarkers associated with high diversity and clinical BV are independent of pregnancy status, and were validated in a blinded replication cohort from Tanzania (n?=?45), where we predicted clinical BV with 91% accuracy. Correlations between the metabolome and microbiota identified Gardnerella vaginalis as a putative producer of GHB, and we demonstrate production by this species in vitro. This work illustrates how changes in community structure alter the chemical composition of the vagina, and identifies highly specific biomarkers for a common condition. PMID:26387596

  1. Citologia Hormonal do Trato Urinário Baixo e da Vagina de Mulheres na Pós-menopausa, antes e durante Estrogenioterapia Oral e Transdérmica Urinary and Vaginal Cytology of Postmenopausal Women with Oral and Transdermal Estrogen Replacement

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    Áurea Belas Lustosa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a ação dos estrogênios por via oral ou transdérmica nas células do trato urinário baixo e da vagina, em mulheres menopausadas. Métodos: foram incluídas 25 mulheres na pós-menopausa, nas quais se estudaram os efeitos citológicos da terapia de reposição hormonal estrogênica, por via oral e por via transdérmica, sobre as células da vagina e do sedimento urinário. As pacientes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 2 grupos: Grupo I, constituído por 14 mulheres que receberam 0,625 mg de estrogênio conjugado eqüino associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, por via oral, diariamente sem intervalo por três meses, e Grupo II, formado por 11 mulheres que fizeram uso de 17-beta-estradiol matricial na dose de 50 mig, por via transdérmica, semanalmente, associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona diariamente por três meses. As amostras urinárias foram obtidas do jato inicial da primeira urina da manhã, após asseio dos genitais, em frascos estéreis fornecidos pelo laboratório. A urina foi centrifugada e o esfregaço realizado a partir do sedimento urinário. Os esfregaços da vagina e do sedimento urinário foram imediatamente fixados em álcool absoluto e corados pelo método de Shorr. Resultados: observou-se que nas pacientes que utilizaram a via oral, houve maturação das células da vagina (o índice se elevou de 45,4 a 65,5 com dois meses de tratamento, permanecendo praticamente constante (62,0 a seguir. Quanto às células urinárias, não houve variação do valor de maturação (56,4 antes da medicação e 60,4 no final do período. Ao examinarmos tanto as células da urina quanto da vagina de pacientes que utilizaram a via transdérmica, notou-se que houve resposta satisfatória. Conclusão: com estes resultados podemos sugerir que os estrogênios, quando administrados por via transdérmica, estão associados à resposta satisfatória quanto ao trofismo tanto na vagina quanto na uretra. No entanto, quando se utiliza a via oral, nem sempre este resultado pode ser observado.Objective: to study the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen replacement on the lower urinary tract and vagina in postmenopausal women. Methods: we studied 25 postmenopausal women evaluating the oral or transdermic estrogen replacement effects on the vaginal cells and urinary sediment during 3 months. The patients were randomly distributed into 2 groups: Group I, n = 14, treated orally with 0.625 mg equine conjugated estrogen plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate, daily for 3 months; Group II, n = 11, treated transdermally with 50 mug 17-ß-estradiol, once a week, plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone. Daily, for 3 months, urinary samples were collected from the first miction in the morning after urogenital antisepsis into sterile tubes. The sample was centrifuged and the sediment was smeared. Vaginal and urinary smears were then fixed in absoluted alcohol and stained by the method of Shorr. Results: the patients who used the oral route presented maturation of the vaginal cells (from 45.4 to 65.5% after 2 months of treatment, maintaing 62% afterwards but this did not occur with urinary cells (56.4 before treatment versus 60.4% at the end of the period. The transdermal route promoted maturation of vaginal and urinary cells. Conclusion: we have concluded that transdermal estrogens have satisfactory effects both on vaginal and urethral sites. However, with the oral route we did not find the expected results in the urinary tract in all cases.

  2. Citologia Hormonal do Trato Urinário Baixo e da Vagina de Mulheres na Pós-menopausa, antes e durante Estrogenioterapia Oral e Transdérmica / Urinary and Vaginal Cytology of Postmenopausal Women with Oral and Transdermal Estrogen Replacement

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Áurea Belas, Lustosa; Manoel João Batista Castello, Girão; Marair Gracio Ferreira, Sartori; Edmund Chada, Baracat; Geraldo Rodrigues de, Lima.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a ação dos estrogênios por via oral ou transdérmica nas células do trato urinário baixo e da vagina, em mulheres menopausadas. Métodos: foram incluídas 25 mulheres na pós-menopausa, nas quais se estudaram os efeitos citológicos da terapia de reposição hormonal estrogênica, por via [...] oral e por via transdérmica, sobre as células da vagina e do sedimento urinário. As pacientes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 2 grupos: Grupo I, constituído por 14 mulheres que receberam 0,625 mg de estrogênio conjugado eqüino associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, por via oral, diariamente sem intervalo por três meses, e Grupo II, formado por 11 mulheres que fizeram uso de 17-beta-estradiol matricial na dose de 50 mig, por via transdérmica, semanalmente, associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona diariamente por três meses. As amostras urinárias foram obtidas do jato inicial da primeira urina da manhã, após asseio dos genitais, em frascos estéreis fornecidos pelo laboratório. A urina foi centrifugada e o esfregaço realizado a partir do sedimento urinário. Os esfregaços da vagina e do sedimento urinário foram imediatamente fixados em álcool absoluto e corados pelo método de Shorr. Resultados: observou-se que nas pacientes que utilizaram a via oral, houve maturação das células da vagina (o índice se elevou de 45,4 a 65,5 com dois meses de tratamento, permanecendo praticamente constante (62,0) a seguir. Quanto às células urinárias, não houve variação do valor de maturação (56,4 antes da medicação e 60,4 no final do período). Ao examinarmos tanto as células da urina quanto da vagina de pacientes que utilizaram a via transdérmica, notou-se que houve resposta satisfatória. Conclusão: com estes resultados podemos sugerir que os estrogênios, quando administrados por via transdérmica, estão associados à resposta satisfatória quanto ao trofismo tanto na vagina quanto na uretra. No entanto, quando se utiliza a via oral, nem sempre este resultado pode ser observado. Abstract in english Objective: to study the effects of oral or transdermal estrogen replacement on the lower urinary tract and vagina in postmenopausal women. Methods: we studied 25 postmenopausal women evaluating the oral or transdermic estrogen replacement effects on the vaginal cells and urinary sediment during 3 mo [...] nths. The patients were randomly distributed into 2 groups: Group I, n = 14, treated orally with 0.625 mg equine conjugated estrogen plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate, daily for 3 months; Group II, n = 11, treated transdermally with 50 mug 17-ß-estradiol, once a week, plus 5 mg medroxyprogesterone. Daily, for 3 months, urinary samples were collected from the first miction in the morning after urogenital antisepsis into sterile tubes. The sample was centrifuged and the sediment was smeared. Vaginal and urinary smears were then fixed in absoluted alcohol and stained by the method of Shorr. Results: the patients who used the oral route presented maturation of the vaginal cells (from 45.4 to 65.5% after 2 months of treatment, maintaing 62% afterwards) but this did not occur with urinary cells (56.4 before treatment versus 60.4% at the end of the period). The transdermal route promoted maturation of vaginal and urinary cells. Conclusion: we have concluded that transdermal estrogens have satisfactory effects both on vaginal and urethral sites. However, with the oral route we did not find the expected results in the urinary tract in all cases.

  3. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

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    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  4. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

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    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained by gynecologic examination were also recorded. Results: yeast belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from 18 (25% patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans (77,8% and therefore, 22.2% were non-albicans species. The most prevalent among the non-albicans species was C. glabrata (16.7% followed by C. parapsilosis (5.6%. The symptoms most directly associated with Candida were itching and burning. Different from the symptoms directly associated with C. albicans infection, we observed that C. glabrata does not cause vaginal discharge. There was no positive association between predisponent factors such as age, education and contraceptive method used and the presence or absence of Candida. Conclusions: our results suggest: (i that there is a high prevalence of Candida species among women; (ii that non-albicans species play an important role in the vaginal medium; (iii that itching and burning are the most common symptoms in women with Candida, and (iv C. glabrata usually does not cause vaginal discharge. Finally, it is important to emphasize that our results are consistent with the present worldwide findings.

  5. Citología y Análisis Morfométrico de las Células del Epitelio Vaginal Durante el Ciclo Estral en Ovejas de Pelo (Ovis aries) / Citology and Morphometric Analysis of Epithelial Cells from the Vagina of Hair Sheep Ewes (Ovis aries) During their Estrous Cycle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Neftali, Clemente Ovando; Agustín, Orihuela Trujillo; Fernando Iván, Flores Pérez; Virginio, Aguirre Flores.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La citología vaginal puede usarse para caracterizar estados del ciclo reproductivo de la hembra. Sin embargo, no ha sido validada en ovinos de pelo, y ofrece resultados inexactos debido a interpretaciones subjetivas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es tipificar las características morfológicas y mo [...] rfométricas de las células epiteliales de la vagina durante el ciclo estral en ovinos de pelo. Cinco borregas Santa Cruz se sincronizaron con esponjas intravaginales. Desde el día del 1er celo posterior al retiro de la esponja y hasta el siguiente celo, se obtuvieron muestras diarias del epitelio vaginal de cada oveja, y se cuantificó el número de células parabasales, intermedias y superficiales, y se midió la longitud, perímetro y área de citoplasma y núcleo de cada una. Los resultados muestran que las células superficiales incrementan (P Abstract in english Vaginal cytology can be used to characterize stages of the reproductive cycle of the female. However, it has not been validated in hair sheep, and generates inaccurate results due to subjective interpretations. Thus, the purpose of the present work is to typify morphologic and morphometric character [...] istics of the epithelial cells from the vagina during the estrous cycle of hair sheep. Five Saint Croix ewes were synchronized with intravaginal sponges. Day zero of the cycle was considered the day of first estrus after sponge withdrawal. From this day until next estrus, samples from the vaginal epithelium were obtained daily from each ewe. The number of basal, intermediate and superficial cells was quantified, and length, perimeter, and area from cytoplasm and nucleus were obtained. The results show that the number of superficial cells increase (P

  6. Impacts of You Gui Wan on the expression of estrogen receptors and angiogenic factors in OVX?rat vagina: a possible mechanism for the trophic effect of the formula on OVX?induced vaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiao-Zhi; Lu, Hua; Li, Li-Min; Yie, Shang-Mian; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Zheng, Xiao; Cao, Sheng; Yao, Zou-Ying

    2013-11-01

    The administration of You Gui Wan (YGW) decoction has been observed to improve vaginal atrophy induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats. The aim of the current study was to explore the possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Following OVX, 37 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups which were orally administered with YGW decoction, saline or estrogen for 11 weeks. In parallel with this, 19 normal and 17 rats with sham-surgery were used as controls. The effects of these treatments on estrogen receptors (ER) and various angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), angiopoietin (Ang)1 and 2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the vagina were compared using immunohistochemistry or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). OVX was found to induce significant vaginal atrophy and decrease the expression of ER and various angiogenic factors when compared with the normal and sham-surgery animals (all Pvaginal atrophic process. The hormonal replacement and YGW treatment recovered the protein expression of ER-? and -?, VEGF and VEGFR-1 and the mRNA levels of ER-?, VEGF, VEGFR-1, Ang1 and 2, and bFGF when compared with OVX-rats with saline, normal and sham-surgery treatments (all Pvaginal atrophy may be the upregulated expression of ER and various angiogenic factors in the vaginal tissue. PMID:24009028

  7. MRI of the uterus, uterine cervix, and vagina: diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced fast multiplanar gradient-echo imaging in comparison with fast spin-echo T2-weighted pulse imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced fast multiplanar gradient-echo (GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image sets in the assessment of uterus, cervix, and vagina. Fast (up to 20 contiguous sections in 23 s) multiplanar GRE and FSE images of 45 patients referred for imaging of the female pelvis were evaluated retrospectively with regard to overall image quality and the ability to detect normal anatomic structures, as well as lesion conspicuity. Results were compared with histologic findings (n = 29) or clinical follow-up. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of contrast-to-noise ratios among normal uterine and cervical structures as well as uterine lesions was performed for both sequences. On GRE images, uterine and cervical differentiation was best seen on the image sets acquired 15 and 60 s following contrast enhancement and results were significantly better compared with delayed images (p 2 test, the difference in diagnostic performance between FSE and GRE revealed no significant difference, whereas the combination of both techniques performed better than FSE imaging alone (p < 0.05). The presented data suggest that dynamic contrast-enhanced GRE imaging should be part of an MR examination of the female pelvis. Combined GRE and FSE imaging provide an excellent sensitivity in the assessment of uterine and vaginal pathologies. (orig.) (orig.)

  8. Caracterización de la microbiota levaduriforme residente en la vagina de perras en diferentes fases del ciclo estral / Characterization of vaginal microbiotic yeasts of bitches in distinct stages of the oestrous cycle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M B, Cleff; M O, Xavier; A A, Martins; R, Santin; M C A, Meireles.

    Full Text Available Hongos levaduriformes son aislados frecuentemente de los animales domésticos y silvestres, siendo algunos comensales del tegumento y mucosas. Las levaduras son frecuentes en la mucosa vaginal de las mujeres, pero en perras son escasos los estudios referentes a la microbiota fúngica vaginal, sin cono [...] cerse su relación con el ciclo reproductivo. En este estudio se buscó aislar e identificar levaduras de la microbiota vaginal de perras, y establecer si hay alteración de la microbiota levaduriforme en las fases del ciclo reproductivo. Se analizaron 75 muestras de la vagina de 75 perras de los caniles particulares (Grupo I) y 224 muestras de 14 perras experimentales (Grupo II). El ciclo estral fue determinado por citología vaginal y se registraron observaciones clínicas como sangrado, edema y pliegues de vulva. Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen directo y cultivos en Agar-Sabouraud dextrosa con cloranfenicol, a 37 ºC por 10 días. Las levaduras fueron clasificadas por macro y micromorfología, pruebas bioquímicas, tubo germinativo y microcultivo. De las 75 muestras del grupo I, el aislamiento fue 33,3% (n = 25); las muestras fueron obtenidas en las fases de proestro 56,3%, estro 16,7%, diestro 66,7% y anestro 20,5%, respectivamente. De las 224 muestras del grupo II se aislaron levaduras en 147 (65,6%): en proestro 61,9%, estro 71,9%, diestro 82,7% y anestro 57,1%, respectivamente. Las levaduras fueron identificadas como Candida spp, Malassezia pachydermatis y Rhodoturola spp. Los resultados sugieren que estas levaduras forman parte de la microbiota vaginal de perras sanas y sus frecuencias se alteran en las fases del ciclo reproductivo. Abstract in english Yeasts are commensal organisms frequently isolated from the skin and mucous membranes of domestic and wild mammals. Although yeasts are frequently isolated from women’s vaginal mucus, similar studies in canine are rare, therefore their behaviour during the canine oestrous cycle is unknown. The purpo [...] se of this study was to isolate yeasts from the vaginal microbiota of bitches and to evaluate their behaviour in different stages of the oestrous cycle. We examined 75 samples of mucus from the vaginal cavity of 75 domestic bitches and 224 samples from 14 experimental bitches. The stages of the oestrous cycle were characterized through vaginal cytology and clinical observation of bleeding, vulvar oedema and pucker. Samples were examined visually, and also cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloranphenicol, at 37 ºC for 10 days. The yeasts were classified according to their macro and micro morphology, biochemical tests, germination tube and micro culture. Yeasts were isolated from 25 (33.3%) samples from domestic females. Among the samples collected during proestrous, oestrous, diestrous and anestrous, 56.3% 16.7% 66.7% and 20.5% were positive, respectively. Yeasts were isolated from 147 (65.6%) samples from experimental bitches. Among the samples collected during proestrous, oestrous, diestrous and anestrous, positive samples represented 61.9%, 71.9%, 82.7%, and 57.1%, respectively. The identified species were Candida spp, M. pachydermatis and Rhodotorula spp, which are commonly present in the vaginal mucus microbiota of healthy bitches and their frequency changes with the different stages of the oestrous cycle.

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happens too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Placenta previa . This is when the placenta lies very low ... happens too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Placenta previa . This is when the placenta lies very low ...

  10. Radiotherapeutic management of carcinomas of the vagina and vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review important basic information regarding vaginal and vulvar carcinomas, including etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, pathology, spread patterns, presentation and work-up and staging. In addition, treatment concepts strategies, and radiotherapeutic techniques will be reviewed and discussed. Discussion: Vaginal carcinoma is rare, making up only 1-2% of gynecologic malignancies. However, the predominant role of radiotherapy (RT) is its management results in a significant number of patients referred to radiation oncology. Treatment and outcomes vary substantially according to stage. Important issues for consideration include the respective roles of external beam RT, brachytherapy, and surgery, intracavitary vs. interstitial brachytherapy, dose rate considerations, combined modality therapy, and management of non-squamous cell histologies. Vulvar carcinoma is similarly uncommon, comprising only 3-5% of gynecologic malignancies. Radiotherapy has a number of established roles in the management of this disease including adjuvant therapy, as part of combined modality treatment for advanced disease, salvage therapy, palliative treatment, and less often, as primary management. These issues will be discussed along with technical factors important in radiotherapeutic management. Finally, relevant literature will be reviewed with an emphasis of completed Gynecologic Oncology Group Trials

  11. Late effects of ionizing radiations on vulva, vagina and uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reporting and scoring complications after radiotherapy of gynaecological cancers is difficult because of the variety of treatment techniques involved. Use of an international classification is necessary to compare results obtained in series of patients treated in different institutions. An international group of experts designed in the early nineties the so-called French-Italian glossary. This classification of late effects is now completed with the new LENT SOMA scales. This paper contains details of these late changes, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  12. Malla de polipropileno multifilamento con autofijación de silicona exteriorizada a vagina / Multifilament polypropylene mesh with exteriorization of the silicone anchorage to the vagina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vicente, Solà Dalenz; Jack, Pardo Schanz; Paolo, Ricci Arriola; Enrique, Guiloff Fische.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir un caso de falla de en una cirugía de cinta suburetral para corrección de la incontinencia de orina de esfuerzo con sistema Safyre VS (vaginal-suprapubic approach) multifilamento, a los 34 meses de buena evolución. Método: Descripción del caso y su resolución. Resultado: Se prese [...] ntó con descenso del sistema de sujeción lateral y erosión de la mucosa vaginal con exposición de la cinta e infección. Se retiró con gran facilidad el sistema de anclaje de silicona que se encontraba suelto y se colocó una nueva cinta suburetral con sistema TVT-O, recuperando la continencia antes lograda. Conclusiones: La malla sintéticas de los sistemas de corrección con cinta suburetral para la incontinencia de orina de esfuerzo, deben ser de polipropileno, macroporo y monofilamento. Estas características permiten una mejor biointegración, reduciendo teóricamente el número de complicaciones (erosión de pared vaginal, exposición y sobreinfección). Respecto a la falla del sistema de sujeción de silicona, ya que no se han informado otros casos en los estudios de seguimiento entre 12 y 36 meses (media 14 y 18 meses), sólo los estudios que contemplen seguimientos a largo plazo permitirán decir si se trata de un caso aislado o aparecerán otros. Abstract in english Objectives: To describe the failure of one case of suburethral tape for the correction of the stress urinary incontinence with the multifilament Sapphire VS (vaginal-suprapubic approach) system after 34 months of good outcome. Methods: Description of the case and its resolution. Results: The patient [...] presented with a descent of the lateral fixation and erosion of the vaginal mucosa with exposure of the mesh and infection. The silicone fixation system, which was loose, was retrieved very easily and a new suburethral mesh with the system TVT-O was inserted; the patient recovered continence as before. Conclusions: Synthetic mesh in the suburethral tape systems for stress urinary incontinence correction should be polypropylene, macropore and monofilament. These characteristics enable better bio integration, theoretically reducing the number of complications (vaginal wall erosion, exposition and over infection). In relation with the failure of the silicone fixation system, no other casers have been reported in follow-up studies between 12 and 36 months (mean follow-up 14 and 18 months), so hat studies with long-term follow-up will be able to determine if this is an isolated case or there will be others.

  13. Candida colonization of the vagina in elderly residents of a long-term-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Segal, R; Marder, V; Leibovitz, A

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of vaginal colonization by Candida spp in elderly residents of a long-term-care hospital and to examine the determinants of vaginal candidiasis. Vaginal swabs for Gram stain and culture were obtained from 106 bedridden residents of a long-term-care hospital (study group; mean age, 83+/-7 years) and a control group of 50 similarly aged women admitted to an acute-care hospital for non-genital problems (mean age, 81+/-8 years). The characteristics of patients who tested positive for Candida spp were compared with those who tested negative. Candida spp were isolated from 34 (32%) patients in the study group and from four (8%) control patients (p=0.001). In the study group, Candida glabrata was by far the most common species isolated (51.2%). The warm and moist environment in the perineal area created by diaper use in incontinent individuals, together with decubitus ulcers and immobilization, which are common in elderly patients receiving long-term care, might be responsible for the high occurrence of vaginal colonization with Candida in these women. PMID:16767488

  14. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina. Immunocytochemical and cytofluorometric analysis of prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecharz, P. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Gynecological Oncology; Reinfuss, M.; Jakubowicz, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rys, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Tumor Pathology Oncology; Skotnicki, P.; Wysocki, W. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Oncological Surgery

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the potential prognostic factors in patients with primary invasive vaginal carcinoma (PIVC) treated with radical irradiation. Patients and methods: The analysis was performed on 77 patients with PIVC treated between 1985 and 2005 in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Krakow. A total of 36 patients (46.8 %) survived 5 years with no evidence of disease (NED). The following groups of factors were assessed for potential prognostic value: population-based (age), clinical (Karnofsky Performance Score [KPS], hemoglobin level, primary location of the vaginal lesion, macroscopic type, length of the involved vaginal wall, FIGO stage), microscopic (microscopic type, grade, mitotic index, presence of atypical mitoses, lymphatic vessels invasion, lymphocytes/plasmocytes infiltration, focal necrosis, VAIN-3), immunohistochemical (protein p53 expression, MIB-1 index), cytofluorometric (ploidity, index DI, S-phase fraction, proliferation index SG2M) factors. Results: Significantly better 5-year NED was observed in patients: < 60 years, KPS {<=} 80, FIGO stage I and II, grade G1-2, MIB-1 index < 70, S-phase fraction < 10, and proliferation index < 25. Independent factors for better prognosis in the multivariate Cox analysis were age < 60 years, FIGO stage I or II, and MIB-1 index < 70. Conclusion: Independent prognostic factors in the radically irradiated PIVC patients were as follows: age, FIGO stage, MIB-1 index. (orig.)

  15. Unusual foreign body insertion in rectum and vagina in schizophrenic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheel Mushtaq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of foreign body in to the body is rare in medical literature. Here we report a case of 21 year old female who presented to emergency with acute abdomen and on detailed evaluation turned out to be schizophrenia. Our patient had history of insertion of ball pen in rectum following command hallucination. The foreign body was later removed through laparotomy. The cause of insertion of foreign body are multiple from command hallucination, suicidal attempt, erotism to somatic delusions. Thus the clinician should always be vigilant while dealing with psychiatric patients as sometimes impacted foreign body can present as acute emergency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 367-369

  16. Impact of Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery on the Passive and Active Mechanics of the Rat Vagina

    OpenAIRE

    Feola, Andrew; Moalli, Pamela; Alperin, Marianna; Duerr, Robbie; Gandley, Robin E.; Bramowitch, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Remodeling of vaginal extracellular matrix and smooth muscle likely plays a critical role in reducing the risk of maternal injury during vaginal delivery by altering the mechanical properties to increase distension and reduce stress. Long-Evans rats were divided into five groups to examine the passive mechanical and active contractile properties throughout pregnancy and postpartum: virgin (n = 17), mid-pregnant (Day 14–16, n = 12), late-pregnant (Day 20–22, n = 14), immediate postpartum (0–2 ...

  17. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  18. Fine structure of the male reproductive ducts, vagina and seminal receptacle of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; dezfuli, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 3 (2005), s. 241-250. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA206/03/1317 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-0448250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ultrastructure * reproductive organs * Cestoda Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  19. Laparoscopic management of fallopian tube prolapse masquerading as adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a hysterectomized woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucuk Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fallopian tube prolapse as a complication of abdominal hysterectomy is a rare occurrence. A case with fallopian tube prolapse was managed by a combined vaginal and laparoscopic approach and description of the operative technique is presented. Case presentation A 39-year-old woman with vaginal prolapse of the fallopian tube after total abdominal hysterectomy presented with an incorrect diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the vaginal apex. The prolapsed tube and cystic ovary were removed by vaginal and laparoscopic approach. The postoperative course went well. Conclusions Early or late fallopian tube prolapse can occur after total abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms consist of persistent blood loss or leukorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Vaginal removal of prolapsed tube with laparoscopic surgery may be a suitable treatment. The abdominal or vaginal approach used in surgical correction of prolapsed tubes must be decided in each case according to the patient's individual characteristics.

  20. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.

  1. Cistectomía radical laparoscópica con extracción de pieza por vagina: Caso clínico / Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with vaginal specimen extraction: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Vitagliano; Nicolas, Villasante; Juan, Paterlini; Carlos, Ameri; Osvaldo, Mazza.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentar la utilidad de una técnica minimamente invasiva como herramienta terapéutica en el tratamiento de un paciente de edad avanzada portador de cáncer de vejiga musculoinvasor. Método: Paciente femenina de 78 años con cáncer de vejiga avanzado que debuta con hematuria. Se realiza cist [...] ectomía radical con linfadenectomía pelviana por vía laparoscópica con extracción de pieza quirúrgica por vía vaginal. Resultados: El tiempo operatorio fue de 240 minutos con un sangrado de 200 ml y una estadía hospitalaria de 8 días. La paciente evolucionó favorablemente y tras un seguimiento de 6 meses se encuentra sin evidencia de recidiva tumoral. Conclusión: El bajo impacto quirúrgico permite que este abordaje pueda ser utilizado en casos seleccionados para evitar la severa morbilidad indefectiblemente asociada a la progresión local del cáncer de vejiga avanzado. Abstract in english Objective: To report a case of laparoscopic radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with vaginal extraction of the surgical specimen in an elderly patient with muscle invasive bladder tumor. Method: A 78 year old patient with history of hematuria was diagnosed of muscle invasive bladder cancer [...] . Lapa-roscopic radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy with vaginal extraction of the surgical specimen was performed without incident. Results: Operative time was 240 minutes, surgical bleeding was 200 ml and hospital stay 8 days. The patient evolved uneventfully and remains disease free after 9 months of follow-up. Conclusion: Laparoscopic radical cystectomy provides adequate oncologic results with decreased morbidity, making this surgery an attractive alternative for the management of patients in a delicate condition.

  2. Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate Direct Intralesional Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformations of the Vulva and Vagina: Report of Five Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report five cases of female patients affected by symptomatic focal external genital venous malformations treated with percutaneous direct intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS). All patients were referred because of discomfort and pain when sexual intercourse was attempted. Direct sclerotherapy with 3% STS was performed on a day-hospital basis with the patient under local anesthesia. Complete resolution of the symptoms was achieved in all cases. No major adverse effects were reported. Direct intralesional sclerotherapy with STS may be considered a safe and effective method for the treatment of female external genital malformation without the necessity of general anesthesia for pain control.

  3. Carcinoma epidermoide no queratinizante de células grandes y pequeñas en vagina / Large and small cells non-keratinizing epidermoid vaginal carcinoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ofelia, Masó Anaya; María Elena, Morales Larramendi; Dolores, Díaz Pérez; Esperanza, Dager Dager; Gloria Adelaida, Bolaños Diego.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 5 casos clínicos de pacientes atendidas en la consulta de patología de cuello del Hospital Provincial Ginecoobstétrico "Mariana Grajales Coello" de Santiago de Cuba por presentar sangrado vaginal, dolor en bajo vientre, leucorrea y lesiones vaginales. El estudio anatomopatológico confir [...] mó el diagnóstico de carcinoma de células escamosas o epidermoide. Abstract in english Five case reports of patients who were assisted at the cervix Pathology Department from "Mariana Grajales Coello" Provincial Gynecological Obstetrical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba due to vaginal bleeding, low abdominal pain, leukorrhea and vaginal injuries are presented. The pathological study confi [...] rmed the diagnosis of squamous or epidermoid cells carcinoma.

  4. SU-E-T-579: Impact of Cylinder Size in High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDRBT) for Primary Cancer in the Vagina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Gopalakrishnan, M; Lee, P; Sathiaseelan, V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high dose rate Brachytherapy for primary vaginal cancers. Methods: Patients treated with HDR vaginal vault radiation in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm increment were analyzed. All patients’ doses were prescribed at the 0.5 cm from the vaginal surface with different treatment lengths. A series of reference points were created to optimize the dose distribution. The fraction dose was 5.5 Gy, the treatment was repeated for 4 times in two weeks. A cylinder volume was contoured in each case according to the prescribed treatment length, and then expanded to 5 mm to get a volume Cylinder-5mm-exp. A volume of PTV-Eval was obtained by subtracting the cylinder volume from the Cylinder-5mm-exp. The shell volume, PTV-Eval serves as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation. Results: DVH curves and average doses of PTV-Eval were obtained. Our results indicated that the DVH curves shifted toward higher dose side when larger cylinder was used instead of smaller ones. When 3.0 cm cylinder was used instead of 2.5 cm, for 3.0 cm treatment length, the average dose only increased 1%, from 790 to 799 cGy. However, the average doses for 3.5 and 4 cm cylinders respectively are 932 and 1137 cGy at the same treatment length. For 5.0 cm treatment length, the average dose is 741 cGy for 2.5 cm cylinder, and 859 cGy for 3 cm cylinder. Conclusion: Our data analysis suggests that for the vaginal intracavitary HDRBT, the average dose is at least 35% larger than the prescribed dose in the studied cases; the size of the cylinder will impact the dose delivered to the target volume. The cylinder with bigger diameter tends to deliver larger average dose to the PTV-Eval.

  5. Late effects of ionizing radiations on vulva, vagina and uterus; Effets tardifs des radiations ionisantes sur la vulve, le vagin et l`uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeron, J.J. [Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Gerbaulet, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    1997-12-01

    Reporting and scoring complications after radiotherapy of gynaecological cancers is difficult because of the variety of treatment techniques involved. Use of an international classification is necessary to compare results obtained in series of patients treated in different institutions. An international group of experts designed in the early nineties the so-called French-Italian glossary. This classification of late effects is now completed with the new LENT SOMA scales. This paper contains details of these late changes, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  6. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from the walls of the vagina. The vaginal muscles relax, causing the vagina to lengthen and widen. ... causing it to rise and stiffen. The smooth muscles of the scrotum contract, the skin of the ...

  7. Calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Thinning of the wall of the vagina (vaginal atrophy). Early research suggests that applying a specific gel ( ... the vagina for 4 weeks reduces symptoms of vaginal atrophy such as vaginal itching, burning, dryness, and pain ...

  8. General Information about Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove the urethra, the bladder, and the vagina . Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the vagina. Partial ... penis surrounding the urethra where cancer has spread. Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the penis. Radical ...

  9. Treatment Options for Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove the urethra, the bladder, and the vagina . Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the vagina. Partial ... penis surrounding the urethra where cancer has spread. Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the penis. Radical ...

  10. Stages of Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove the urethra, the bladder, and the vagina . Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the vagina. Partial ... penis surrounding the urethra where cancer has spread. Plastic surgery may be done to rebuild the penis. Radical ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... called a Pap smear. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  12. Stages of Gestational Trophoblastic Tumors and Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix , uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... Enlarge Dilatation and curettage (D and C). A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  14. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... called a Pap smear. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  15. General Information about Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix , uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... Enlarge Dilatation and curettage (D and C). A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it ...

  16. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix , uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... Enlarge Dilatation and curettage (D and C). A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it ...

  17. Pap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female reproductive anatomy during a Pap test. A speculum is shown widening the opening of the vagina. ... and her feet in stirrups. Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  19. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... on the Pap test. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  20. Your First Pelvic Exam: A Guide for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vagina (clitoris, labia, vaginal opening, and anus). The Speculum Exam (Part 2): The speculum is an instrument made of metal or plastic. Your HCP will gently place the speculum into your vagina. After it’s inserted, it will ...

  1. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes , ovaries , and rectum . A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor ... called a Pap smear. Enlarge Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. ...

  2. Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... led to advances in knowledge about the normal microflora of the vagina, reproductive behavior of yeast, and ... association between certain lactobacilli species in the normal microflora in the vagina and protection from bacterial vaginosis ( ...

  3. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Her vagina is lubricated by secretions from the walls of the vagina. The vaginal muscles relax, causing ... to its unaroused stated, called resolution. “Normal” sexual function has been described in many ways by different ...

  4. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth. In the United States, HIV is ... by Oral sexâ??putting the mouth on the penis (fellatio), vagina (cunnilingus), or anus (rimming). In general, ...

  5. Gonorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread. Touching infected fluids from the vagina or penis and then touching your eyes can cause an ... spread. Touching infected fluids from the vagina or penis and then touching your eyes can cause an ...

  6. Especially for Teens: You and Your Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own genitals ( clitoris and vagina in girls and penis in boys) can give you pleasure. This is ... intercourse, or vaginal sex, the boy’s hard (erect) penis goes into the girl’s vagina and moves in ...

  7. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body include the cervix, anus, penis, vagina, vulva, and oropharynx (back of the throat, including the ... and many cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, vulva, and oropharynx. CDC studies 3 4 5 used ...

  8. Vaginitis - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginitis is a swelling or infection of the vulva and vagina. It may also be called vulvovaginitis. ... Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract: vulva, vagina, cervix, toxic shock syndrome,endometritis, and salpingitis. ...

  9. Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix and then spread to the vagina and vulva. It can be very hard to avoid being ... cancer or cancer of the cervix , vagina, or vulva . See our document called Cervical Cancer: Prevention and ...

  10. Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. In women this can include the vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, rectum, tongue, lips, or other ... your body. In women this can include the vulva, vagina, cervix, anus, rectum, tongue, lips, or other ...

  11. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the uterus) to open up at the vulva (the external female genitals). The vagina is lined ... cancer. Likewise, if the cancer involves both the vulva and the vagina, it’s considered a vulvar cancer. ...

  12. Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sites for growths can include the vagina, cervix, vulva, bowel, bladder, or rectum. Rarely, endometriosis appears in ... sites for growths can include the vagina, cervix, vulva, bowel, bladder, or rectum. Rarely, endometriosis appears in ...

  13. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin of the vagina and the surrounding area (vulva) may be present along with vaginal discharge. It ... blisters or other sores on your vagina or vulva. Have burning with urination or other urinary symptoms. ...

  14. Serotonin Localization in the Turkey Vaginal but not Sperm Storage Tubule Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our knowledge regarding the mechanism of sperm selection and transport in the hen’s vagina is meager. Preliminary observations indicate the presence of non-neuron endocrine cells in the epithelia lining the lumina of the turkey hen vagina and uterovaginal junction. While no cells in the vagina or U...

  15. Comparative study vagina mould/ fletcher applicator in MRI guided pulsed rate brachytherapy in patients reached by an uterine cervix carcinoma; Etude comparative moule vaginal/applicateur de fletcher en curietherapie de debit pulse guide par IRM chez les patientes atteintes d'un cancer du col uterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, G.; Dumas, I.; Mazeron, R.; Verezesan, O.; Monnier, L.; Vieillot, S.; Gensse, M.C.; Haie-Meder, C. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    This study began in february 2009 and included until today ten patients. twenty patients are planned. The analysis of preliminary results show a much higher tolerance for the vaginal cast device. The dosimetry data were the object of a preliminary study that seems demonstrate an equivalence of the both modalities, with differences concerning the doses to critical organs; The definitive result swill be presented with the data including the twenty planned patients. (N.C.)

  16. Vaginal applicator with variable tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new vaginal applicator with variable tips for intracavitary radiotherapy for cancer of the uterine cervix was devised. Both TAO and Henschke Type can be attached to it. With this applicator, injury of the vagina is avoided and tumor recurrence at the vagina will be reduced. (author)

  17. Vaginal applicator with variable tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Furukawa, Shigeo; Nakamura, Yuzuru (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Sekiya, Toru; Shirakawa, Takako; Endo, Hisashi; Oda, Kurahiro; Akisada, Masayoshi

    1991-12-01

    A new vaginal applicator with variable tips for intracavitary radiotherapy for cancer of the uterine cervix was devised. Both TAO and Henschke Type can be attached to it. With this applicator, injury of the vagina is avoided and tumor recurrence at the vagina will be reduced. (author).

  18. Hysterosalpingography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during a pelvic exam. A tool called a speculum is placed into the vagina . After the cervix ... You may have some discomfort when the speculum is inserted into the vagina. This is similar to a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Some women have cramps during or after ...

  19. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the skin just outside of the vagina (vulva) ... Swelling and redness of the skin of the vulva , in the vagina , and on the cervix Dry, ... vaginal wall Cracks in the skin of the vulva. A small amount of the vaginal discharge is ...

  20. Wnt family genes and their modulation in the ovary-independent and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation and keratinization induced by neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferation and differentiation of cells in female reproductive organs, the oviduct, uterus and vagina, are regulated by endogenous estrogen. In utero exposure to a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), induces vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma in humans. In mice, perinatal exposure to DES results in abnormalities such as polyovular follicles, uterine circular muscle disorganization and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation. We reported the persistent gene expression change such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) related genes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its downstream signaling in the mouse vagina exposed neonatally to DES. In this study, we found persistent up-regulation of Wnt4 and persistent down-regulation of Wnt11 in the vagina of mice exposed neonatally to DES and estrogen receptor ? specific ligand. Also Wnt4 expression in vagina is correlated to the stratification of epithelial cells with the superficial keratinization of vagina, but not epithelial cell stratification only.

  1. Progesterone receptors in the female lower urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When female estrogenized rabbits were injected i.v. with 3H-progesterone, the tritium concentration determined after one hour was about two to three times higher in urethra, urinary bladder and vagina than in the heart. High affinity progesterone receptors (KD = 1-2 nM) could be demonstrated in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions prepared from estrogenized rabbit urethra, bladder and vagina. The cytosolic receptor concentration in both urethra and bladder was about half of that in the vagina. The concentration of nuclear receptors in urethra was not significantly different from that in the vagina, but in the bladder the concentration was only about one fourth of that in the vagina or urethra. The mean KD of cytosolic receptors from bladder was significantly higher than the corresponding values in urethra and vagina. Progesterone binding sites in the bladder had a broader hormonal specificity than those in the urethra or vagina. The present demonstration of specific progesterone receptors in the female urethra might provide a possible link between estrogen progesterone interaction and the appearance of urinary incontinence during pregnancy in women

  2. Candidiasis (Thrush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 19, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 501 Candidiasis (Thrush) WHAT IS THRUSH? CAN IT BE PREVENTED? ... chelitis. In the vagina, the infection is called yeast infection or vaginitis . This is a common vaginal infection. ...

  3. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resupporting the vagina to the sacrum using a polypropylene mesh. Dr. Jennifer Wu, Assistant Professor of Obstetrics ... mesh, I would use, personally, a wide-weave polypropylene. I wouldn't use Gore-tex mesh. It's ...

  4. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the genitals can cause pain during sex. Some conditions affect the skin around the vagina. ... types of birth control) does not fit correctly, sex may also be painful. Vaginismus (say: "vag-in- ...

  5. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  6. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that we will see less prolapse or less relaxation and…and dropping of the pelvic organs if ... cervix or the cervix started to prolapse or relax out through the opening of the vagina, there ...

  7. Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... beginning of the surgeon's learning curve. Ultimately the goal is to have this be if it's something ... ll be able to get that safely. My goal is to not enter the vagina here, it's ...

  8. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... paramount. But if we -- you know, my career goal is to do away with open surgery. I ... deliver that through the vagina without too much difficulty. The uterus is kind of big -- and it's ...

  9. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to you by Intuitive Surgical. During the program, it’s easy for you to learn about the procedure. ... of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters ...

  10. Cytology exam of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology ... time, the sample is collected as clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care ...

  11. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...

  12. Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... monopolar cautery on my scissor tips. Other energy sources certainly can be used. Some people staple. Some ... gas, but you also don't want to cause problems by stitching too far into the vagina. ...

  13. Endometriosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal endometrium can grow on or into other organs causing an inflammatory response that can lead to ... In severe cases, endometriosis can grow into other organs including the intestines, bladder, vagina and ureters, which ...

  14. Nonsurgical Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incontinence occurs more often when a woman is pregnant; has had trauma to the vagina during the delivery of a child, removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), or urinary tract infections; or is menopausal. Urinary incontinence also occurs more ...

  15. Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site (LESS) Procedure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are working in the lab in helping develop NOTES. Here we do it with a single incision through the umbilicus; and we have such great results that having to go through the vagina or ...

  16. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in more endometrial cancers. So for example, early start of your period, late menopause, you've had ... against the cap. So we are going to start a colpotomy, which is opening the vagina, separating ...

  17. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vagina, the cervix and surrounding tissues as well last the uterus and both tubes and ovaries. In ... the instrumentation and of our vision as well last our ability to minimize bleeding for the same ...

  18. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are tightening the right muscles, keep in mind that all of the muscles of the pelvic floor relax and contract at the same time. Because these muscles control the bladder, rectum, and vagina, the following tips ...

  19. Expanding Patient Options: Minilaparotomy for Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specimen below the uterine artery. Again, for better visualization, I have removed the cervix on all but ... the Impact LigaSure, but, again, you have full visualization of the vagina. There have been a few ...

  20. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the art procedure to surgically correct vaginal vault prolapse by resupporting the vagina to the sacrum ... is a 60-year-old patient with vaginal vault prolapse, and despite our diligent attempt at obtaining ...

  1. Robot-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I didn’t go far enough – oh, I did go far enough over, good. So again, we’ ... vagina. They’re essentially still attached because we did this in an interfacial fashion. What I’m ...

  2. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... occur with entry into the vagina or as deep pain. Both psychological and physical factors can contribute ... oil-based products. Water-based lubricants have the advantage of being nonstaining. Silicone-based lubricants stay slippery ...

  3. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiologist or sonographer will apply a warm water-based gel to the area of the body ... into the vagina. The images are obtained from different orientations to get the best views of the ...

  4. Sonohysterography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transvaginal ultrasound exam, the transducer is removed. A speculum is placed in the vagina. It holds the ... as that lining the inside of the uterus. Speculum: An instrument used to hold open the walls ...

  5. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The health care provider gently inserts an instrument (speculum) into the vagina to hold it open so ... take a sample of discharge. The swab and speculum are removed. The discharge is sent to a ...

  6. Dilation and Curettage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs will be placed in stirrups. A speculum will be inserted into your vagina. The cervix ... cervix to widen it. Miscarriage: Early pregnancy loss. Speculum: An instrument used to hold open the walls ...

  7. Hysteroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervix , or special dilators may be used. A speculum is first inserted into the vagina. The hysteroscope ... part of the body. Miscarriage: Early pregnancy loss. Speculum: An instrument used to open the walls of ...

  8. Endocervical gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will insert an instrument called a speculum into the vagina. This instrument is used during ... a dry, sterile swab is inserted through the speculum to the cervical canal and gently turned. It ...

  9. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abnormalities. The health care professional then places a speculum inside the vagina. A speculum is a metal or plastic instrument that keeps ... to the body of the uterus). Then, the speculum is removed. The doctor then will check the ...

  10. Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The health care provider then will insert a speculum into your vagina in the same way as ... HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]). Speculum: An instrument used to hold apart the walls ...

  11. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be due to many factors, including physical, psychological, medical conditions, or medications. Men with male orgasmic ... into the vagina or as deep pain. Both psychological and physical factors can contribute to the condition. ...

  12. Vaginal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most cancerous vaginal tumors occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Primary vaginal ...

  13. Locally aggressive colonic and rectal cancer ,clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Radu, V; Ion, D; ?erban, MB; Ciurea, M.

    2010-01-01

    This clinical trial studies local invasions from primary colonic and rectal cancers (urinary bladder, abdominal wall, small bowls, uterus, vagina, stomach, bile tract, spleen, duodenum, pancreas, ureters, kidneys), with or without undiscovered metastasis.

  14. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... part of the vagina, the cervix and surrounding tissues as well last the uterus and both tubes ... sac. We see some radiation fibrosis, the mottled tissue from fibrosis. And that will become an issue ...

  15. Fístula vesicovaginal continente / Continent vesicovaginal fistula

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís Gustavo Morato de, Toledo; Victor Espinheira, Santos; Paulo Eduardo Gourlat, Maron; Bruno César, Vedovato; Moacyr, Fucs; Marjo Deninson Cardenuto, Perez.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A fístula vesicovaginal é uma comunicação anormal entre a bexiga e a vagina, sendo o tipo mais comum de fístula do trato urinário. A causa mais frequente no Brasil é a iatrogênica, secundária à histerectomia. Classicamente, as mulheres nessa condição, apresentam perda urinária contínua pela vagina e [...] ausência de micção, com forte impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. Apresentamos um caso de fístula vesicovaginal totalmente continente, com seguimento de 11 anos, sem complicações. Abstract in english Vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal communication between the bladder and vagina and represents the most frequent type of fistula in the urinary tract. The most common cause in Brazil is iatrogenic fistula, secondary to histerectomia. Classically these women present continuous urinary leakage from [...] the vagina and absence of micturition, with strong negative impact on their quality of life. We present a case of totally continent vesicovaginal fistula, with a follow-up of 11 years with no complications.

  16. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the vasculature. Middle sacral vessels line the space as well as a number of venous plexuses, ... reasons. One would be difficulty dissecting the presacral space, difficulty suturing the mesh to the vagina and ...

  17. Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Koh ring. This Koh ring diffuses the heat so there is no worry about cautery damage to the vagina. There isn’t significant heat within the vaginal tissues, so again, this is ...

  18. Epispadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a congenital condition called epispadias can produce a penis or vagina that not only performs inefficiently, but ... a small dimple on the tip of the penis above the normal opening or with girls, it ...

  19. Bartholin cyst or abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and swollen. Activity that puts pressure on the vulva , and walking and sitting, may cause severe pain. ... Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract: vulva, vagina, cervix, toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. ...

  20. Dealing with Sexual Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cystectomy Abdominoperineal resection Surgery for cancer of the vulva (vulvectomy) Pelvic exenteration Sex and pelvic radiation therapy ... for intercourse has changed. If your vagina or vulva has been affected by surgery, you will need ...

  1. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the nerves that carry feeling to the vagina , vulva , and perineum . The drugs are given just before ... the uterus to the outside of the body. Vulva: The external female genital area. If you have ...

  2. Endometrial Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a risk of burns to the vagina, vulva , and bowel. Rarely, the fluid used to expand ... contains and nourishes the developing fetus during pregnancy. Vulva: The external female genital area. If you have ...

  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lymph nodes in the groin Swelling of the vulva or labia in women Swollen lymph nodes in ... Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract: vulva, vagina, cervix, toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. ...

  4. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seiden MV, et al. Cancers of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow ... Intraepithelial neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): Etiology, screening, diagnostic techniques, management. In: Katz VL, ...

  5. Vaginal Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cheese-like discharge Swelling and pain around the vulva Intense itching Painful sexual intercourse Signs of bacterial ... Slight redness and swelling of the vagina or vulva Signs of trichomoniasis A watery, yellowish or greenish ...

  6. Pediatric Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young girls mainly involves the skin of the vulva (the area surrounding the opening of the vagina) ... actually a commonly diagnosed skin condition of the vulva in young girls. It is also common to ...

  7. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chancre . Because this sore commonly occurs on the vulva , vagina, anus, or penis, syphilis most often is ... hands. Flat warts may be seen on the vulva. During this stage, there may be flu-like ...

  8. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread i...

  9. Bladder and kidney function after cure of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, C. K.; Ward, H.C.; Ransley, P G; Duffy, P.G.; Pritchard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eleven survivors of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma underwent bladder function studies and upper urinary tract evaluation at a mean of 6.6 years after completion of therapy, which included a conservative, bladder-sparing surgical policy. Primary tumour sites were: bladder base/prostate, 6; bladder dome, 1; vagina, 2; and pelvic side wall, 2. Seven children (five bladder base/prostate, one vagina and one pelvic side wall tumours) had received irradiation to the pelvis with external beam alone, brachyt...

  10. Sobre a anatomia do sistema genital de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae ocorrentes em Porto Alegre, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Picoral

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base em material coletado em Porto Alegre, apresenta-se um estudo anatômico detalhado do sistema genital de Bradybena similaris (Férussac, 1821, comparado com trabalhos anteriores, propondo-se uma padronização da nomenclatura dos diversos órgãos e regiões, destacando-se a estrutura da região da encruzilhada ("carrefour", do ovispermioducto até a vagina e do pênis e assinalando-se a independência das aberturas do pênis, vagina e saco do dardo num átrio genital.

  11. Histología uretral y vaginal en algunas hembras de mamíferos / Urethral and vaginal histology in some female mammals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Rodríguez-Antolín; E, Cuevas; L, Nicolás; V, Fajardo; F, Castelán; M, Martínez-Gómez.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las características histológicas de la uretra y la vagina en hembras de mamíferos es útil para entender la fisiología y la patología de procesos como la continencia urinaria, la cópula y el parto. En este contexto, las especies más estudiadas en cuanto a la organización tisular de la [...] uretra y vagina son la rata y la coneja. Es necesario estudiar con más detalle la organización tisular de la vagina y uretra en diferentes especies con fines de comparación. Tal información permitiría entender la diversidad funcional y conductual asociada a estos órganos. El presente documento reúne, compara y discute la información existente sobre las características histológicas de la uretra y la vagina en algunas hembras de mamíferos destacando aquellas de la coneja, modelo utilizado por nuestro grupo de investigación para estudiar la fisiología reproductiva y urinaria femenina. Abstract in english The analysis of the histological characteristics of the urethra and the vagina in female mammals is useful in understanding the physiology and pathology of processes such as urinary continence, copulation and delivery. In this regard, the species most studied with respect to the histological organis [...] ation of the urethra and vagina, are the rat and the rabbit. For comparative purposes, it is necessary to study in greater detail the histological organisation of the urethra and vagina in different species. The information gathered could help understand the functional and behavioural diversity associated with these organs. This study gathers, compares and discusses the existing information on the histological characteristics of the urethra and vagina in some mammal females, with emphasis on those of the rabbit, a model used by our research group to study female reproductive and urinary physiology.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of conditions affecting the vagina and vulva that can be optimally assessed with the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper gives a suggested protocol for MRI technique and sequences for imaging the pelvis and perineum and reviews the MRI appearances of many of the common pathologies affecting the vagina and vulva. Congenital anomalies, inflammatory and neoplastic entities such as vaginal and vulval carcinoma are discussed, with rarer malignancies also reviewed. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, N.; Grant, L.A.; Sala, E. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    There are a number of conditions affecting the vagina and vulva that can be optimally assessed with the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper gives a suggested protocol for MRI technique and sequences for imaging the pelvis and perineum and reviews the MRI appearances of many of the common pathologies affecting the vagina and vulva. Congenital anomalies, inflammatory and neoplastic entities such as vaginal and vulval carcinoma are discussed, with rarer malignancies also reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to determine if the vagina might be a suitable site for the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry in the bitch, The position of the cranial vagina and vaginal length were measured radiographically and the effects of spaying and urinary Incontinence on these variables were evaluated in 30 continent and 30 incontinent bitches. The study used retrograde vaginourethrograms which had been obtained from animals used in a previous study, The cranial vagina was intra-abdominal on 36 of the vaginourethrograms, being least commonly intra-abdominal in incontinent bitches (11/30), Vaginal position was related linearly to vaginal length and continence status (P<0.01), while its length was related to bodyweight(P<0.01). Allowing for bodyweight, neutered animals had significantly shorter vaginas than entire bitches (P<0.01). Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure is essential if accurate assessment of detrusor pressure is to be determined during cystometry, The vagina is unlikely to be a useful location from which to measure intra-abdominal pressure since any pressure-measuring catheter inserted into it may fall outside the abdominal pressure zone. This is particularly true of neutered and/or incontinent bitches, the groups in which urodynamic investigations of urinary incontinence are most frequently indicated

  15. A rare case of Turner?s syndrome presenting with Mullerian agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Vaddadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner?s syndrome also called as Ullrich Turner?s syndrome, is a disease of unclear pathogenesis characterized by complete or partial absence of one sex chromosome, with or without cell line mosaicism in a phenotypic female with short stature. Various anomalies result in a constellation of features, of which the most disturbing is primary amenorrhea due to gonadal dysgenesis. Hormone therapy in these patients can often result in successful menstruation, and scope for subsequent pregnancy because of anatomically normal uterus and vagina. Coexisting Mullerian agenesis in these patients can jeopardize the chances of future pregnancy as they have associated structural abnormalities of the uterus and vagina. We report a rare case of middle-aged female with Turner?s syndrome and Mullerian agenesis having absent secondary sexual characters and missing uterus with incompletely formed vagina.

  16. Posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Samal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of vagina are relatively uncommon and an incidental finding during routine gynaecological examination. Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, usually reported during childbearing age group. These cysts mostly arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly in relation to bladder, but very rarely they may also extend posteriorly. This is a rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. A 36-year-old multi para (P2L2 both SVD, presented with a mass descending through vagina since 2-3 months. Pelvic examination revealed a 5x5 cm cystic mass arising from the posterior vaginal wall. Complete excision of the cyst was done. The cyst was filled with chocolate coloured material and histopathology confirmed a Mullerian cyst. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 245-246

  17. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the subsequent recruitment of immunocompetent cells in the oviduct of laying and molting hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, T; Sonoda, Y; Isobe, N; Yoshimura, Y

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and recruits T cells in the lower part of the oviduct, and whether that response to LPS is different between the laying and molting phase. White Leghorn laying and molting hens were intravenously injected with saline (control) or LPS. The uterus and vagina of oviducts were collected 3 or 6 h after injection, and used for reverse transcription PCR analysis of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCLi2), and lymphotactin (Lptn), and for immunohistochemical analysis for the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The expressions of IL-1?, IL-6, and CXCLi2 in the uterus and that of IL-1? in the vagina were upregulated in response to LPS 3 or 6 h after injection in both laying and molting hens. The CXCLi2 expression in the vagina was upregulated by LPS in laying hens, whereas those effects of LPS were not significant in molting hens. Expression of Lptn showed a tendency to be downregulated after 3 h, with recovery by 6 h after LPS injection. The frequency of CD4+ T cells tended to increase in response to LPS after 6 h in the lamina propria of the uterus and vagina in both laying and molting hens. The CD8+ T cell frequencies in the lamina propria of the uterus and vagina of laying hens increased in response to LPS after 6 h. However, in the molting hens, LPS stimulation resulted in CD8+ T cell increase in the vagina only and not in the uterus. These results suggest that expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and CXCLi2 chemokine are upregulated in association with T cell recruitment in response to LPS in the lower part of the oviduct, although CD8+ T cells in the uterus may be depressed during the molting phase. These immunoresponses may play roles in the defense against infection of the oviduct. PMID:21934017

  18. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  19. Síndrome de Morris / Morris Syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio Aurelio, Borrego López; Joel Alejandro, Varona Sánchez; Georgina, Areces Delgado; Luis Ernesto, Formoso Martín.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el síndrome de resistencia completa a los andrógenos, feminización testicular o síndrome de Morris, puede presentarse en uno de cada 20 000 a 64 000 recién nacidos varones. Objetivo: presentar un caso con genotipo masculino y fenotipo femenino dado por desarrollo mamario, con genitales [...] externos femeninos con hipoplasia de los labios mayores y menores y la vagina muy corta que termina en un fondo de saco ciego. Métodos: se valora en la consulta a una paciente adolescente de 19 años de edad con amenorrea primaria y contacto sexual insatisfactorio (imposibilidad de penetración). Resultados: se comprueba al examen vagina rudimentaria de unos dos centímetros y escaso desarrollo de genitales externos. En los exámenes complementarios se comprueban cifras de testosterona y LH aumentadas, así como el estradiol disminuido y un cariotipo 46 XY por lo que se sospecha síndrome de Morris y se planifica intervención quirúrgica combinada en un tiempo (vaginal y abdominal) donde se realiza anexectomía total derecha por video laparoscopia y reconstrucción de vagina por técnica de Williams. Posoperatorio satisfactorio y seguimiento ulterior por consulta donde se comprueba vagina funcional y estabilidad emocional de la paciente. Conclusiones: el estudio anatomo-patológico comprueba la existencia de ovario y testículo en la muestra quirúrgica lo que confirma el diagnóstico de síndrome de Morris o de resistencia completa a los andrógenos. Abstract in english Introduction:the syndrome of complete androgen resistance, testicular feminization or Morris syndrome may occur in one in 20 000 to 64 000 of male newborns. Objective: to present a case with male genotype and female phenotype given by breast development, female external genitalia with hypoplasia of [...] the labia and very short vagina ending in a blind pouch Methods: a 19 year- old female patient is assisted in consultation due primary amenorrhea and unsatisfactory sexual contact (impossibility of penetration). Results: at examination, we found a rudimentary vagina of about two inches and underdeveloped external genitalia. The exams confirmed increased LH and testosterone levels and decreased estradiol. It is also found a 46 XY karyotype, so Morris syndrome is suspected. Combined surgery is planned for the vagina and abdomen. Total videolaparoscopy right adnexectomy and vaginal reconstruction by technique of Williams are performed. We had satisfactory postoperative and subsequent follow-up consultation where functional vagina and emotional stability of the patient were checked. Conclusions: the pathological study verifies the existence of ovary and testis in the surgical specimen confirming the diagnosis of Morris syndrome or complete androgen resistance.

  20. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical physiotherapy promotes disruption of bacterial slimes, oestrogen elevation, immune reconstruction and vaginal biocenosis, which has positive effect on patients’ fertility level, frequency of obstetrical and perinatal pathologies.

  1. Acesso sagital transretal anterior (ASTRA) para vaginoplastia após complicação de anoretoplastia sagital posterior / Anterior sagittal transrectal approach (ASTRA) for vaginoplasty after complications of posterior sagittal anorectoplasty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lisieux Eyer de, Jesus; Laura, Helman; Samuel, Dekermacher; Raquel L., Bernardo; Cruz Delia M., Martinez.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A exposição transperineal de altas vaginas é limitada. Essas limitações podem ser contornadas usando ASTRA (anterior sagital transrectal approach). Relatamos o uso desta estratégia cirúrgica para o tratamento de um caso de atresia vaginal adquirida, após anorretoplastia posterior, em caso de malform [...] ação anorretal. Abstract in english Transperineal exposure of the high portion of the vagina is limited. These limitations can be circumvented using ASTRA (anterior sagittal transrectal approach). We report the use of this surgical strategy for the treatment of a case of acquired vaginal atresia after posterior anorectoplasty due to a [...] norectal malformation.

  2. Clear Cell Carcinoma Presented as a Large Polypoid Mass Expanding the Vaginal Fornix: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Primary clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or uterine cervix is a very rare tumor. We report radiologic findings of two cases of clear cell carcinoma, arising in the vagina and uterine cervix in a 16-year-old and a 26-year-old female. These were presented as a large polypoid mass with a stalk and expanding the vaginal fornix. One case with ultrasonography showed relatively homogeneous echoic solid mass; the other case with a CT showed heterogeneously and strongly enhancing mass. All of the two cases showed non-specific signal intensity with heterogeneous and strong enhancement on MRI.

  3. Catheterization of the urethra in female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, G C; Zwierzchoniewska, M; He, B

    2015-10-01

    Female pigs are commonly utilized as an animal model for biomedical research and require urethral catheterization. Sixteen pigs were anaesthetized for research purposes and required the placement of a urethral catheter. Post-mortem examination of the vaginas revealed the urethral opening to be consistently halfway from the mucocutaneous junction of the vulva to the cervix. A shallow diverticulum was also observed on the ventral floor of the urethral opening. To optimize conditions for success the pig should be carefully positioned supine, a vaginal speculum and light source should be used, the pig should be adequately anaesthetized, and the anatomy of the vagina should be reviewed. PMID:25977261

  4. Douching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to wash or soak. Douching is washing or cleaning out the inside of the vagina with water or other mixtures of fluids. Most douches are sold in stores as prepackaged mixes of water and vinegar, baking soda, or iodine. The mixtures usually come ...

  5. An unusual case of long standing vaginal foreign body removed with obstetric forceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of retained foreign body in vagina for 10 years, a wood apple which was inserted to reduce uterine prolapse. It was retained without any symptoms for 10 years. The foreign body was removed using obstetric forceps after other methods were failed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 502-504

  6. Vaginal and cervical dilatation intrapartum is associated with eosinophilic infiltration in the cow but not in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, A; Gümbel, B; Leiser, R; Failing, K; Bostedt, H

    2004-12-01

    During parturition maximal dilatation of the vagina and cervix is necessary for expulsion of the neonate. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cell infiltration of the vagina and cervix that is associated with this event in cows and sheep. For this purpose, vaginal and cervical tissue were removed from four pluriparous cows and four sheep immediately after delivery of the neonate by biopsy under visual control (group 1), and the eosinophilic granulocytes were stained selectively. Four cows that were in interoestrus were used for control (group 2). In a third group of cows (n=10), blood samples were taken to determine the concentration of eosinophilic granulocytes from the fifth day antepartum up to the sixth day postpartum (group 3). A high degree of infiltration with eosinophilic granulocytes was detected in the bovine vagina and cervix intrapartum but not during interoestrus and in the ovine tissue intrapartum (p eosinopenia. In conclusion, this investigation demonstrates eosinophilic infiltration in the bovine vagina and cervix intrapartum, which differs from the situation in sheep. We suggest that this difference can be explained by the fact that cows deliver at high oestrogen and low progesterone values, but sheep show relatively high intrapartal P4 levels, which might suppress tissue infiltration with eosinophilic granulocytes. PMID:15598236

  7. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suppositories. They are inserted into the vagina before sex. You can buy spermicides in most drug and grocery stores. Spermicides alone do not work very well. About 15 pregnancies occur out of every 100 women who correctly use this method alone over 1 ...

  8. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 04 CHRISTOPHER STANLEY, MD: I think specifically endometrial cancer, if the patient's a surgical candidate, which means if the disease is limited to the uterus and not extended to the pelvic sidewalls, to the bladder, to the lower vagina. If you can with ...

  9. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus. (author)

  10. Pyelonephritis and Bacteremia from Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin M. DuPrey; Leon McCrea; Rabinowitch, Bonnie L.; Azad, Kamran N.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacilli are normal colonizers of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina. Infection is rare, but has been reported in individuals with predisposing conditions. Here we describe the case of a woman with pyelonephritis and bacteremia in which Lactobacillus delbrueckii was determined to be the causative agent.

  11. Healthy Sexuality

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina ... changes occur; a woman’s nipples become erect, her blood pressure and heart rate increase, and a “sex ...

  12. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not where it fails. It's going to fail at the vagina. That can happen for a number of reasons. I think potentially it can happen if there are too few sutures placed at the apex, if the ...

  13. The strange case of the misplaced suppository.

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond, C.

    1995-01-01

    In a controversial decision, the General Medical Council has found a consultant anesthetist guilty of serious professional misconduct for giving a painkilling suppository without forewarning the patient and obtaining consent. Even though the suppository was misplaced in the patient's vagina, this was accepted as a mistake, at issue was whether a specific separate consent was required for insertion of the suppository.

  14. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...

  15. Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli Isolated From Female Reproductive Tract Infections and Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Richard A.; Hammill, Hunter A.; Cook, Susan W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The presence of enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli in the vagina of normal women is not synonymous with infection. However, vaginal E. coli may also cause symptomatic infections. We examined bacterial virulenceproperties that may promote symptomatic female reproductive tract infections (RTI) and neonatal sepsis.

  16. Sexual Problems

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the vagina or as deep pain. Both psychological and physical factors can contribute to the condition. Current thinking is that dyspareunia is a pain disorder that interferes with sexuality, as ... to note that psychological problems such as sexual abuse can be involved ...

  17. Estrogen Vaginal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rectum, bladder, or uterus has bulged or dropped into the vagina.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using vaginal estrogen, call your doctor immediately.you should know that the ...

  18. Scrotal perforation of peritoneal catheter: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidi Borojeni, Hamid Reza; Fakheri, Taravat; Saeidi Borojeni, Sepehr

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment for the hydrocephalus is ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) operation that diverts the excess accumulated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ventricles or other CSF containing spaces to another area. The VPS operation has been reportedly associated with risk factor for different organs due to peritoneal catheter migration including umbilicus, anus, vagina, mouth, intestine, internal jugular vein, chest, liver.

  19. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  20. All about Menstruation (For Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the menstrual (say: MEN-strul) cycle, they usually mean the days when blood and tissue (menstrual fluid) leaves the body through the vagina. That's the most visible part of the process, and the part that girls and women need to manage. But the monthly ...

  1. Identification of and Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Fecal and Vaginal Lactobacilli Isolated from Japanese Women and Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yu-Li; Kato, Naoki; Matsumiya, Yoshiko; Liu, Cheng-Xu; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    1999-01-01

    We identified Lactobacillus isolates from Japanese women and newborn infants by a DNA-DNA hybridization method. The predominating lactobacilli were Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus gasseri in the women’s vaginas and the newborns’ intestines and L. gasseri and Lactobacillus fermentum in the women’s intestines. All L. crispatus strains were exclusively strong H2O2 producers.

  2. Your Body After Baby: The First 6 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other changes are emotional, such as feeling extra stress. Here's what you can expect. What is perineum soreness? The perineum is the area between your vagina and rectum. It stretches during labor and vaginal birth, and it may even tear. It often is ...

  3. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... via the vagina, right? And that’s that little space there. That’s correct. That’s called a colpotomy, and ... the pelvis. This is not normally an empty space, it looks kind of like it because we ...

  4. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will place an instrument (called a speculum) into your vagina . This allows your doctor or ... You may have some discomfort when the speculum is placed inside the ... a regular Pap smear . Some women feel a slight sting from the ...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...insufflator is a device used to treat vaginitis by introducing medicated powder from a hand-held bulb into the vagina through an open speculum. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of...

  6. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly. What Happens? The doctor will use a speculum to gently widen the vagina. A speculum is a thin piece of plastic or metal ... allows it to open and close. If the speculum is metal, the doctor or nurse will warm ...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4520 - Obstetric-gynecologic general manual instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...for obstetrical purposes. (2) A fiberoptic metal vaginal speculum is a metal instrument, with fiberoptic light, used to expose...illuminate the interior of the vagina. (3) A metal vaginal speculum is a metal instrument used to expose the interior of the...

  8. Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vagina we’re using just a traditional suture material. There’s no special type of suture or needle ... No, you can sort of feel. And the visual cues are so strong. There’s the ring there. ...

  9. Limnomermis subtropicalis n. sp. (Nematoda:Mermithidae) a Parasite of Larvae of Simulium orbitale Lutz (Diptera:Simuliidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    L. Cristina De Villalobos; Nora B Camino

    1997-01-01

    Limnomermis subtropicalis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) a parasite of Simulium orbitale Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae) found in Argentina is described and illustrated. This species is characterized by having medium sized amphids, pocket-shaped, medium sized vagina, sculptured spicule, and by having 9 preanal, 7 postanal papillae in the ventral row, and 12 papillae in the lateral rows

  10. Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Sacrocolpopexy for Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I think they can be fixed robotically as well. By extending the peritoneum all the way down to the vagina along the posterior vaginal wall, we really get a good placement of the - of the mesh and the ability ...

  11. Covered exstrophy with anorectal malformation and vaginal duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawa Monika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Covered exstrophy is a rare variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex. We report a female newborn with covered exstrophy, absent anal opening and duplication of the introitus and the lower vagina. This rare, previously unreported, combination of anomalies highlights the complexity of the embryological events in the caudal area during separation of the hindgut and allantois.

  12. Multikulturní dialog v Monologu o vaginach.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhde, Zuzana

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 6, ?. 1 (2005), s. 39-40. ISSN 1213-0028 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS700280503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Vagina Monologues * gender justice * multiculturalism Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography www.genderonline.cz

  13. Childhood lichen sclerosus is a rare but important diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Soldbro; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic skin disorder with a predilection for the anogenital area. The disease is mostly seen in prepubertal and postmenopausal females. The lesions present as sharply demarcated white plaques encircling the vagina and anus. The atrophic form can lead to scarring of the affected area.

  14. Antimicrobial factors in the cervical mucus plug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, Merete; Valore, Erika V

    2002-01-01

    The cervical mucus plug is positioned between the microbe-rich vagina and the normally sterile uterine cavity, which suggests a host defense function, but few relevant data are available. We analyzed the composition and antimicrobial activity of cervical mucus plugs.

  15. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  16. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  17. Genital injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first aid. Control bleeding by using direct pressure. Place a clean cloth or sterile dressing on any open wounds. ... vagina is bleeding severely, put sterile gauze or clean cloths on ... sling made from towels. Place them on a padded cloth such as a ...

  18. Pregnancies from imipramine and xylazine-induced ex copula ejaculation in a disabled stallion.

    OpenAIRE

    Card, C E; Manning, S T; Bowman, P.; Leibel, T

    1997-01-01

    Breeding or semen collection was attempted using: natural cover, manual stimulation, artificial vagina, pharmacologic induction of ejaculation, and electroejaculation. Sperm cells were recovered from the ductus deferens and epididymides post mortem. Only semen collected ex copula by imipramine and xylazine treatment resulted in conceptions (4/5). This is the first report of pregnancies in horses from ex copula semen collection.

  19. Ovulation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org • URL www.asrm.org PATIENT’S FACT SHEET Ovulation Detection Ovulation, the release of an egg from its follicle ... into the woman’s vagina near the time of ovulation. The man’s sperm must be capable of swimming ...

  20. CUERPO EXTRAÑO INTRAVAGINAL SECUNDARIO A MIGRACIÓN DE AGUJA DE OSTEOSÍNTESIS DE CADERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Perucca P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta caso clínico de migración de aguja de fijación de artroplastia de cadera a vagina en mujer embarazadaWe report a case of an intravaginal foreign body due to migration of needle hip fixation from hip arthroplasty in a pregnant woman

  1. Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you'll see is you'll see a blue ring. There it is. And that blue ring is placed again through the vagina adjacent ... on the right and left. And then that blue ring, which you'll see in a second, ...

  2. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E

    2009-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB.

  3. Your First Gynecologic Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In this exam, the doctor looks at the vulva . He or she may give you a mirror so that you can look at the vulva as well. This exam is a good way ... exam has three parts: 1. Looking at the vulva 2. Looking at the vagina and cervix with ...

  4. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Uterus) • Cervix (see the FAQ Cervical Cancer) • Vulva and vagina (see the FAQ Disorders of the Vulva) What are the warning signs of cancer? Most ... is shown in the FAQ Disorders of the Vulva. •Skin self-exam—Check your skin regularly to ...

  5. Syndrome in question

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yinhua, Wu; Jianjun, Qiao; Hong, Fang.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were reliev [...] ed after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  6. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G. (Institut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Milchwirtschaft der TU Muenchen); Leidl, W. (Gynaekologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik der Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus.

  7. Induction of mucin expression by estrogen and lipopolysaccharide in the lower oviductal segments in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyadi, B; Isobe, N; Yoshimura, Y

    2013-12-01

    Mucins play an essential role as mucosal barrier to prevent invasion of pathogens in the oviductal tissue of hens. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of estradiol and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mucin expression in the lower oviductal segments (vagina and uterus) of hens. The mucosal tissues of the vagina and uterus were collected from White Leghorn laying and molting hens, and molting hens with or without intramuscular injection with 1 mg of estradiol-benzoate (EB) daily for 7 d. Part of these tissues was cultured in TCM-199 culture medium with or without LPS (10, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL) for 1.5 or 3 h. Mucin expression in the mucosa of laying, molting, and EB-treated molting hens (EB-group) and in those tissues cultured with or without LPS was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Cultured tissues were also processed for paraffin sections and stained with Alcian blue (AB). In both the vagina and uterus, mucin expression and density of AB-positive mucopolysaccharide were reduced in molting hens compared with laying hens, and upregulated by EB. Mucin expression in the cultured vagina and uterus tissues of laying and molting hens was upregulated by LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, there was no response to LPS for induction of mucin in the tissues of EB-group hens. The mucin expression level in the vagina and uterus tissues stimulated by LPS was lower in the EB-group hens than in laying and molting hens, and that in the uterus was lower in the molting hens than in laying hens. These results suggest that mucin expression is stimulated by LPS in the vagina and uterus of laying and molting hens. Estrogen may upregulate mucin expression in those tissues in association with epithelial development, whereas it may suppress the response to LPS for mucin induction. The mucin expression caused by LPS may enhance mucosal barrier function and play a role in preventing infections by bacteria in the vagina and uterus. PMID:24235231

  8. Diplectanids (Monogenea) parasitic on the gills of the coralgroupers Plectropomus laevis and P. leopardus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of five new species and the erection of Echinoplectanum n. g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Euzet, Louis

    2006-07-01

    Echinoplectanum n. g. is erected for diplectanids which have a male copulatory organ comprising a tubular sclerotised penis with a muscular reservoir at its proximal extremity and an protrusible cirrus, often with spiny ridges, at its distal extremity, and a female copulatory organ comprising a sclerotised vaginal sac, often with two thin tubes. All species have similar squamodiscs made of rows of rodlets, with the central rows forming closed circles, and haptoral parts with a similar shape but different measurements; they are distinguished on the basis of the size and morphology of the male copulatory organ and sclerotised vagina. Five new species are included in Echinoplectanum and are all parasites of coralgroupers, Plectropomus spp., off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Two are from P. laevis (Lacépède): E. laeve n. sp. (type-species) has a large elongate penis, 53[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with spiny ridges and a spherical vagina with two long thin tubes; and E. chauvetorum n. sp. has a large elongate penis, 51[Formula: see text]m in length, a cirrus with thin spiny ridges, and a pear-shaped vagina with two short thin tubes. Three species are from P. leopardus (Lacépède): E. leopardi n. sp. has an elongate penis, 36[Formula: see text]m in length, an unspiny cirrus and a triangular vagina; E. pudicum n. sp. has a very small elongate penis 14[Formula: see text]m in length and no visible vagina; and E. rarum n. sp. has a short thick penis 18[Formula: see text]m in length and a ring-shaped vagina with two thin tubes. In addition, Diplectanum plectropomi Young, 1969, from P. maculatus off Western Australia, and D. echinophallus Euzet & Oliver, 1965 from Epinephelus marginatus in the Mediterranean Sea and Senegal, West Africa, both herein redescribed from the type-specimens, are transferred to Echinoplectanum, as E. plectropomi n. comb. and E. echinophallus n. comb., respectively. Six of the seven species of Echinoplectanum are parasitic in members of Plectropomus from the South West Pacific, but one (E. echinophallus) is a parasite of Epinephelus marginatus and has been recorded only from the Mediterranean and East Atlantic; it is suggested that Echinoplectanum is associated with Plectropomus, a basal genus among the epinephelines, and that host-switching to Epinephelus marginatus occurred, whose distribution extends from Europe to the Indian Ocean. Morphological characteristics of the copulatory organs suggest that a "chastity belt versus spiny penis" sperm competition pattern prevails in Echinoplectanum spp. PMID:16786281

  9. Morfologia e histologia do oviduto de marrecas Ana boschas / Morphology and histology of Ana Boschasfemale ducks oviduct

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Moraes; S.M., Baraldi-Artoni; M.R., Pacheco; M., Nishizawa; L.S.O., Nakaghi.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o comprimento do infundíbulo, do magno, do istmo, do útero e da vagina e o número de pregas do magno e do istmo do oviduto de 20 marrecas Ana boschas na fase reprodutiva. O infundíbulo apresenta mucosa com pregas longitudinais e baixas, revestidas por epitélio pseudoestratificado cilínd [...] rico ciliado, com células caliciformes. O magno, compartimento mais longo do oviduto, 25,38cm±3,20, encontra-se constituído por uma camada mucosa com pregas altas e espessas revestidas por células cilíndricas ciliadas e abundantes células caliciformes. O istmo é formado por uma mucosa com pregas estreitas e curtas e numerosas glândulas tubulares que se estendem para o interior da lâmina própria. O útero, região curta do oviduto, 5,25cm±1,26, apresenta parede com pregas e cristas baixas e numerosas glândulas tubulares enoveladas, dirigidas para o interior da lâmina própria. A vagina, um estreito tubo muscular, está constituído por oito anéis circulares, em média, e uma camada muscular altamente desenvolvida e espessa. A morfologia do oviduto da marreca apresenta características morfológicas e histológicas distintas dos galiniformes, observando-se que a vagina e a porção cranial do infundíbulo apresentam pregas e células caliciformes, respectivamente, sendo estas últimas estruturas ausentes nos galiniformes. Abstract in english The length of infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, vagina, and the number of oviduct, magnum, and isthmus folds were evaluated in 20 Ana boschas female ducks in the reproductive phase. The infundibulum presented mucous membrane with longitudinal and short folds, covered by ciliated columnar pseudo [...] stratified epithelium, with goblet cells. Magnum, the longest oviduct compartment, 25.38cm±3.20, is constituted by mucous membrane with high and thick folds that are covered by ciliated columnar cells and many goblet cells. Isthmus is formed by mucous membrane with narrow and short folds, and many tubular glands that extend inside lamina propria. Uterus, an oviduct short region, 5.25cm±1.26, presented surface with short folds and crests, and numerous reeled tubular glands, that are directed inside lamina propria. Vagina, a strait muscular tube, is constituted by, approximately, eight circular rings, and a very developed and thick muscular layer. The oviduct morphology of female ducks presented different morphological and histological characteristics from Galliformes, because vagina and infundibulum cranial portion present folds and goblet cells, respectively, and the last cited structures are absent in Galliformes.

  10. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Dhaher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects of the semen collection method on ability of dilution and storage of buck semen, and using of artificial vagina and 10% of egg yolk is recommended for buck semen dilution and storage.

  11. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: The transvaginal route moving forward from cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Targarona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of minimally invasive surgery and the advances in endoluminal flexible endoscopy have converged to generate a new concept in digestive surgery, whose acronym natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, has become a familiar term in the surgical community. NOTES has been performed through the mouth, the bladder, the rectum and the vagina. Of these four approaches, the vagina has gained most popularity for several reasons. It is not only readily accessible and easy to decontaminate but it also provides safe entry and simple closure. The transvaginal approach has been described in the experimental and the clinical setting as an option for cholecystectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, segmental gastrectomy, retroperitoneal exploration and bariatric surgery. However, larger series are needed to delineate the exact risks of this approach, and to transcend cultural barriers that impede its wider introduction. Prospective randomized trials will shed light on the definitive role of the vaginal approach in minimal invasive surgery of the future.

  12. A complex malformation in a pig: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Hecht, W; Burkhardt, S; Köhler, K; Haushahn, P; Reinacher, M; Erhardt, G

    2008-05-01

    Congenital defects like myofibrillar dysplasia (splayleg), umbilical and inguinal hernias, cryptorchism, intersexes, and anal atresia occur relatively frequently in swine. On the other hand, some developmental anomalies like double monsters are very rare. The present paper reports a rare case of a congenital complex malformation including polymelia, duplicitas coli partialis et recti, atresia ani et fistula rectogenitalis, duplicitas corpori uteri, cervicis, vaginae et vulvae and duplicitas vesicae, urethrae et renalis. A plausible interpretation concerning the etiology is that the anomalies arose from unequal partial twinning. The pig has been healthy and inconspicuous. Although no anus was formed defecation took place via a fistula to one of the vaginas. Posture and behaviour of the pig were normal. Cytogenetic analysis of blood lymphocytes revealed no numerical or gross structural anomalies. There have been no further piglets with developmental disorders in the same litter, in a second litter of the same parents and in other twelve litters by the same boar. PMID:18547020

  13. Effect of certain yogic asanas on the pelvic congestion and it's anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S P; Singh, R H

    1984-10-01

    20 patient including 6 females and 14 males, between 20 years to 30 years of age, with complaints of chronic constipation refractory to various treatments by medicines, belching, sense of heaviness in the lower abdomen or pelvic region, offensive discharge from vagina (leucorrhoea) and bleeding per rectum with discomfort in the region of perineum were observed under instructions and supervision to practice certain yogic exercises for a period of three years. Viparitakarani, Goraksa asana, Uddyana Bandha and Mula Bandha (Nauli, Perineal Shrug) when practiced, relieved these patients were asked not to take any purgatives or laxatives. It was concluded from the present study that these complaints which can be ascribed to poor hemodynamics in the region of pelvis and perineum disappeared and patients showed obvious improvement after practicing these Asanas which reduced pelvic congestion and increased blood flow to the pelvic viscera i.e rectum, anal canal, prostate, uterus, vagina and levator ani and perineal muscles. PMID:22557465

  14. AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: findings on thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No simple, noninvasive method is available for evaluating extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients or for following the tumor's response to treatment. We report our preliminary experience with thallium-201 scintigraphy in nine AIDS patients with proved Kaposi sarcoma. Eight of the nine had abnormal uptake of the radionuclide in skin, lymph nodes, oral cavity, vagina, and lungs. Only four of the nine had cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma at the time of scanning. All cutaneous and mucosal lesions were thallium avid. Two of the six patients with thallium-avid nodes underwent nodal biopsy. Both biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma. Cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma developed later in one of these patients, showing the efficacy of thallium scintigraphy for the early detection of extracutaneous lesions. These preliminary results show thallium avidity in Kaposi sarcoma involving the skin and various extracutaneous sites (lymph nodes, lung, mucosa, and vagina). Thallium scintigraphy is a potentially useful procedure for detecting extracutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in AIDS patients

  15. Morphological and Morphometric Description of Female Reproductive Tract of Sapajus apella (Capuchin monkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A R; Guimarães, S B; Branco, É; Giese, E G; Muniz, J A P C; Pereira, W L A; da Cunha, P K F; Ricci, R E; Miglino, M A

    2015-08-01

    Forest destruction has progressively hampered the survival of many species, and this is why it is so important to study of the lives of primates in captivity. This study aimed to describe the morphological aspects of the female reproductive tract of Sapajus apella. We used five animals obtained from the National Primate Center, Ananindeua - PA. The ovaries were paired, compact and symmetrical and had a smooth surface. The uterine tubes were bilateral and convoluted in adult animals and straight in young individuals. The uterus was simple and located in the pelvic region. The vagina was a long structure due to the position of the uterus. The external genitalia were located in the urogenital perineum and consisted of dark pigmented labia majora and labia minora, a vaginal vestibule as long as the vagina and a well-developed clitoris. The results showed that the genitals of S. apella resemble those of other Neotropical primates. PMID:25091087

  16. Successful Delivery of Twin Pregnancy in Class U3b/C2/V1 Uterus by Bilateral Caesarean Section after Spontaneous Conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Yasmine; Ossman, Ahmed M. E.; El-Namoury, Mohammed; Sarsik, Sameh

    2015-01-01

    A case of a 19-year-old female with class U3b/C2/V1 uterus conceived a twin pregnancy with a fetus in each horn after spontaneous conception. She referred to our department with presentation of premature rupture of membranes, with a history of cesarean delivery of a single full term living fetus a year and a half before this delivery. Examination revealed two completely separate uterine horns with a fetus in each horn, two distinct externally rounded cervices, and a single vagina with a short nonobstructing vaginal septum in the upper part of the vagina. And as the appropriate mode of delivery is still unclear, each case should be managed as the condition requires, and in our case urgent bilateral caesarean sections were performed. PMID:26557398

  17. The McKusick-Kaufman hydrometrocolpos-polydactyly syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil P Yewalkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of hydrometrocolpos, polydactyly, and cardiac anomlies is the cardinal feature of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. Neonatal hydrometrocolpos is rare Mullerian duct anomaly caused by obstruction of the vagina. There is an accumulation of mucus secretions proximal to the obstruction. The secretions are secondary to intrauterine and postnatal stimulation of uterine and cervical glands by maternal estrogens. Here, we report a case of 1-day-old neonate who presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography findings revealed a large abdominopelvic cystic mass posterior to the urinary bladder. Other associated findings were polydactyly and bilateral hydronephosis. Laparotomy confirmed the findings of hydrometrocolpos caused by stenosis/atresia of lower vagina.

  18. Complete imperforate tranverse vaginal septum with septate uterus: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated, complete, transverse vaginal septum is one of the most infrequent anomalies of the female genital tract, and when it coexists with a septate uterus, it is even rarer. This report describes a case of transverse vaginal septum with septate uterus. A 12-year-old girl sought medical assessment because of severe cyclic lower abdominal cramping and pelvic pain. Local examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch of 2 cm and on rectal examination a tender pelvic mass was noted. Radiological examination showed transverse vaginal septum in the lower vagina with bicornuate uterus. Surgical resection of the vaginal septum was done under laparoscopic guidance. Hysteroscopy revealed presence of uterine septum which was resected by a resectoscope. Post-operative dilatation of vagina was done to prevent restenosis. Laparoscopic guided abdominoperineal approach is better in such a case as multiple mullerian anomalies may coexist with each other.

  19. MR-colpocystorectography. A new dynamic method for assessing pelvic floor descent and prolapse in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction of a new method for the dynamic evaluation of genital prolapse by using fast magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic fast magnetic resonance imaging with pelvic floor contraction, relaxation and straining manoeuvres were performed with volunteers and patients presenting with pelvic descent. The urethra, bladder, vagina and rectum were opacified by using a water of MagnevistR enteral solution. Delineation and movement of the urethra, bladder, uterus, vagina, rectum and small bowel can be shown in a reliable manner. In comparison to dynamic fluoroscopy an equal or superior diagnosis has been achieved in all cases. In comparison to dynamic fluoroscopy MR-Colpocystorectography is a promising new method in assessing pelvic floor descent and prolapse in women. Further studies will have to focus on standardisation and clinical implication. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence, Spectrum and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacterial and Candida Colonization between the 21st and 33rd Week of Gestation in Women with PPROM – 5 Years? Experience in 1 Perinatal Center

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, J; Sänger, N.; Hanker, L. C.; Peiffer, S; Yuan, J; Kempf, V. A. J.; Louwen, F

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial and Candida colonization of the vagina between the 21st and the 33rd week of gestation in women who had preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Study design: High vaginal swabs from 245 subjects with PPROM were analyzed in a retrospective cohort study using cultivation-dependent methods. Patients were additionally divided into two groups: women with PP...

  1. Vaginal Versus Sublingual Misoprostol for Labor Induction at Term and Post Term: a Randomized Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ayati, Sedigheh; Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Farshidi, Farnoosh; Shahabian, Masoud; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar

    2014-01-01

    We want to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal versus sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labor. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 140 women with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol. In first group, 25 µg misoprostol was placed in the posterior fornix of the vagina and second group received 25 µg misoprostol sublingually, eve...

  2. Nueva especie de Cephalobium (Rhabditida, Diplogasteridae) parasito de ninfas de Gryllodes Laplatae (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) en la Argentina New species of Cephalobium (Rhabditida, Diplogasteridae) parasite of nymphs of Gryllodes laplatae (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nora B Camino; Guillermo R Reboredo

    2000-01-01

    Cephalobium bidentatum sp. nov., parasitizing nymphs of Gryllodes laplatae Sauss (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) from Argentina, is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from other members of the genus Cephalobium COBB, 1920, by having the buccal cavity very sclerotized with two hook-shaped teeth, vagina short and muscular, male has two spicules with hook-shaped tips, and by the distribution pattern of the postanal papillae: one pair under the anus, three pairs between the anus and the tail,...

  3. Longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microflora in pregnancy suggests that L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora and that L. gasseri and/or L. iners are more conducive to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Temmerman Marleen; De Backer Ellen; Claeys Geert; Verhelst Rita; Verstraelen Hans; Vaneechoutte Mario

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive however to what extent interindividual differences in vaginal Lactobacillus community composition determine the stability of this microflora. In a prospective cohort of pregnant women we studied the stability of the normal vaginal microflora (assessed on Gram stain) as a...

  4. Colonization Rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in Pregnant Women Using GBS Agar Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemi F; Chamani L; Pakzad P; Zeraati H; Rabbani H; Asgari S

    2009-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae are members of the normal flora of the female genital tract. GBS normally colonizes the vagina in many women asymptomatically. During labor this organism may infect the newborn, leading to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group B streptococcus in pregnant women by a rapid and easy culture method. It seems that in cases in which GBS carriage is not suspected until the time of labor, using su...

  5. Amputação abdômino-perineal mais colostomia para-vaginal no tratamento do câncer reto-anal Abdomino-perineal amputation plus para-vaginal colostomy in the treatment of reto-anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva

    2009-01-01

    O apresenta uma proposta e as tentativas iniciais para evitar a colostomia abdominal quando esta tem que ser definitiva. Na mulher foi possível a sua execução, desde que se aproveitou o tono da musculatura esfincteral vulvovaginal quando ela pode ser preservada na amputação de reto-ânus. O colo, preparado com as válvulas, desce posteriormente à vagina, por dentro do conjunto esfincteral vulvovaginal. As observações iniciais mostram que esta tentativa poderia ser incrementada para melhores est...

  6. Large functional benign endometroid cystadenofibroma of the ovary leading to endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia and postmenopausal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nilanchali; Tripathi, Reva; Mala, Yedla Manikya; Khurana, Neeta; Khan, Mumtaz

    2013-01-01

    Benign endometroid cystadenofibroma of the ovary is a rare tumour with few reported cases. The association of endometroid cystadenofibroma with endometrial cystic glandular hyperplasia has not been previously reported to authors’ knowledge. We are reporting a 75-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with a large abdominopelvic mass corresponding to 30?weeks size gravid uterus and postmenopausal bleeding. She has a well-oestrogenised vagina. Ultrasound pelvis revealed a large cystic mass...

  7. Cuando los cuerpos engañan: un acercamiento crítico a la categoría de la intersexualidad

    OpenAIRE

    Aracelis Escab\\u00ED-Montalvo; Jos\\u00E9 Toro-Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Tradicionalmente se considera a los genitales como la marca que determinará el género de las personas. Sin embargo, en el caso de la intersexualidad se rompe con las dicotomías del sexo/género, específicamente con la de hombre = pene y vagina = mujer. El término intersexualidad se utiliza para representar aquellos cuerpos que poseen genitales que no corresponde a la representación típica fisiológica de los genitales de una mujer ni la de un hombre. Tradicionalmente, desde la Me...

  8. Dynamics of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in women during and after pregnancy and in their infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Mose; Uldbjerg, Niels; Kilian, Mogens; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov

    2004-01-01

    The population dynamics of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) colonization of the vagina and anorectal area was investigated in a cohort of 77 Danish women during and after their pregnancy by a new sensitive method. The mean carriage rate among individual observations was 36%, and the cumulative carriage rate over the entire observation period was 54%. Examination of more than 1500 GBS isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the GBS population was remark...

  9. Other Gynecologic Cancers: endometrial, ovarian, vulvar and vaginal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Eduardo L; Duarte-Franco Eliane

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health issue In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from vulvar and vaginal cancers are very low, endometrium and ovarian cancer are important public health problems. Key findings In Canada, there has been no appreciable improvement in survival for women with advanced endometrial (EC) or ovarian cancer (OC) over the past ...

  10. Effect of post-insemination progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rate in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Wendy J.; Holle, Andrew J.; Bauer, Marc L.; Kirsch, James D.; Schimek, Daniel E.; Odde, Kenneth G.; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in maintenance of pregnancy. It is hypothesized that insufficient progesterone early in pregnancy may result in embryonic loss, and that supplemental progesterone would decrease pregnancy loss in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 84 cows and 16 heifers from a single dairy operation were selected randomly. Within each age category, controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices were inserted into the vagina of every other female on Day 4 post-insemination and r...

  11. Oral Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tindara La Galia; Antonio Micali; Domenico Puzzolo; Francesco Cancellieri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid oral tablets for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. 12 women with atrophic vaginitis were recruited for this double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) oral tablets or placebo for three months. Vaginal biopsies were taken at baseline and after three months of treatment, and vagina...

  12. Vaginal Atrophy following Long-Term Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Christie Walker; Badawy, Shawky Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA.

  13. Obstetric and gynaecological profile in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Skopouli, F N; S. Papanikolaou; Malamou-Mitsi, V.; Papanikolaou, N.; Moutsopoulos, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the effects of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) on the fertility, parity and sexual activity as well as investigating the aetiopathology of dyspareunia in female patients. METHODS--Fifty one female patients with primary SS (pSS) and 57 healthy controls were interviewed concerning their past gynaecological, obstetric and sexual history and underwent a complete gynaecological examination. Punch biopsy of the vagina was performed in six patients and one healthy individual. In addit...

  14. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  15. Cesarean section and right femur fracture: a rare but possible complication for breech presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Giampiero Capobianco; Giuseppe Virdis; Pietro Lisai; Claudio Cherchi; Ornella Biasetti; Francesco Dessole; Giovanni Battista Meloni

    2013-01-01

    Background. The breech extraction of the fetus through the vagina has a greater risk of hip fracture compared with the extraction by abdominal route. Case. A 2390 g female infant was delivered at 39 weeks by elective cesarean section for breech presentation. The newborn sustained a fracture of the right femur. A simple immobilization of the limb in extension led to a complete healing of the fracture without sequelae. Conclusion. Caesarean delivery reduces the risk of causing a traumatic injur...

  16. Is breech still being delivered vaginally? A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Saira Dars; Safia Malik; Aijaz Bhurgri

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to find out the frequency of singleton term breech presentation and to complete the fetomaternal outcome between spontaneous vaginal and caesarean delivery. We conducted an observational prospective study to describe neonatal outcome of vagina verses cesarean delivery for term breech presentation. Methods: The study was conducted in department of Gynae and Obs. Unit-1, LUMHS, Jamshoro from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2012. All those pregnant women who wer...

  17. An Overview of Neovaginal Reconstruction Options in Male to Female Transsexuals

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Bizic; Vladimir Kojovic; Dragana Duisin; Dusan Stanojevic; Svetlana Vujovic; Aleksandar Milosevic; Gradimir Korac; Djordjevic, Miroslav L.

    2014-01-01

    Transsexualism is a complex condition in which the person experiences the inconsistency between the desired gender and their biological gender. Absence of the vagina is devastating in male to female transsexuals. Creation of the neovagina is the main surgical problem in these patients. Historically, beginnings of the neovaginal creation have their roots in the treatment of Mayer-Rokitansky syndrome and conditions such as cloacal anomalies, certain intersex disorders, vaginal malignancies, or ...

  18. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B.; Parratte, Bernard M.; Delancey, John O.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouteri...

  19. Understanding vaginal microbiome complexity from an ecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, Roxana J; Xia ZHOU; Pierson, Jacob D.; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    The various microbiota normally associated with the human body have an important influence on human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition. This is certainly true for the vagina wherein communities of mutualistic bacteria constitute the first line of defense for the host by excluding invasive, nonindigenous organisms that may cause disease. In recent years much has been learned about the bacterial species composition of these communities and how they differ between individuals of di...

  20. Pulmonary Aplasia with Unusual Associations in a Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Bachh, Arshad Altaf; Pulluri, Sridhar; Beigh, Aadil; Raju, Chippa; Deshpande, Ranganath

    2014-01-01

    Failure of development of the primitive lung bud leads to an extremely rare congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 34 per 10 lac live births termed pulmonary aplasia. In half of such cases, associated congenital malformations of the cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary systems are present. The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is defined as the congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper two thirds of the vagina with normal secondary sexual characteris...

  1. O efeito do tempo de equilíbrio sobre a qualidade do sêmen caprino criopreservado

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo Emanuel Biscarde; Marta Freitas Vasconcelos; Sidney Gonçalves Gonzalez Alves; Antonio de Lisboa Ribeiro Filho; Rodrigo Freitas Bittencourt; Eunice Oba

    2006-01-01

    Sete amostras de sêmen de um caprino adulto, colhidas com a utilização de vagina artificial, foram submetidas a criopreservação, com o objetivo de verificar a influência do tempo de equilíbrio sobre a congelabilidade do sêmen caprino. O tempo de equilíbrio foi considerado o tempo total em que os espermatozóides forma mantidos em contato com o glicerol e com os demais componentes do diluidor, previamente a congelação. Logo depois da colheita e avaliação, o sêmen foi diluído e envasado em palhe...

  2. Social and health reasons for lime juice vaginal douching among female sex workers in Borno State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kullima, Abubakar A.; Abdulkarim G. Mairiga; Mohammed B. Kawuwa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vaginal douching with lime juice and other agents has been perceived to enhance sexual excitement through sensations of vaginal dryness, tightness or warmth, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections and restore and tighten the vagina after delivery. Its effectiveness as a contraceptive has also been reported. However, the social and health reasons/consequences of such a practice have not been adequately documented in the communities of Borno ...

  3. Evaluation of degradation kinetics and physicochemical stability of tenofovir

    OpenAIRE

    Agrahari, Vivek; Putty, Sandeep; Mathes, Christiane; Murowchick, James B; Youan, Bi-Botti C.

    2014-01-01

    Tenofovir (TFV) has been proven to prevent the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through the vagina. But, there is little information available about its stability under various storage and stress conditions. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the degradation behavior and physicochemical stability of TFV using liquid chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and solid state X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The LC-MS analysis was performed on a QTrap mass spect...

  4. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  5. Innate Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract: Role of Sex Hormones in Regulating Uterine Epithelial Cell Protection Against Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiel, Daniel O.; FAHEY, John V.; GHOSH, Mimi; Haddad, Severina N.; Wira, Charles R

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immune system in the upper female reproductive tract is uniquely prepared to maintain a balance between the presence of commensal bacteria, sexually transmitted bacterial and viral pathogens, allogeneic spermatozoa, and an immunologically distinct fetus. At the center of this dynamic system are the epithelial cells that line the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina. Epithelial cells provide a first line of defense that confers continuous protection, by providing a physical b...

  6. Vaginal cancer with multiple liver and pulmonary metastases that achieved long-term survival

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-young; Lee, Kyoung-A; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Primary vaginal cancer represents only 1% to 2% of malignant neoplasm of the female genital tract. Here, we report a 68-year-old woman who showed a vaginal tumor extending to urethra and clitoris, a 10 cm-sized mass in left adnexa and multiple metastases in lung and liver. Vaginal biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma of vagina and she was diagnosed as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IVB vaginal cancer. Palliative surgery including left salpingectomy, tumorectomy, ...

  7. A Case of Vaginal Cancer with Uterine Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwi-Gon; Song, Yong Jung; Na, Yong Jin; Choi, Ook-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Primary vaginal cancer combined with uterine prolapse is very rare. We present a case of 80-year-old postmenopausal women complaints of something coming out per vagina for the past 20 years, along with blood stained discharge, foul odor leukorrhea, and severe pelvic pain for the last 3 months. A 4 × 5 cm ulcer was present on middle third of vaginal wall with marked edema and ulceration of surrounding tissue. The prolapse was reduced under intravenous sedation in operating room. On gynecologic...

  8. Vaginoplasty for disorders of sex development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiacintoA.Marrocco

    2013-03-01

    Treatment options: Treatment of these patients is under discussion and may consist, basically, in non-operative dilation methods or surgical creation of a neo-vagina. Consensus is far to be reached among the various surgical subspecialties regarding the optimal method of vaginal replacement. Adequate number of long term follow up patients are still non available so that most conclusions are based on small number series. The authors describe the different treatment options in detail.

  9. Waiting for attention and care: birthing accounts of women in rural Tanzania who developed obstetric fistula as an outcome of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Mselle Lilian T; Kohi Thecla W; Mvungi Abu; Evjen-Olsen Bjørg; Moland Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obstetric fistula is a physically and socially disabling obstetric complication that affects about 3,000 women in Tanzania every year. The fistula, an opening that forms between the vagina and the bladder and/or the rectum, is most frequently caused by unattended prolonged labour, often associated with delays in seeking and receiving appropriate and adequate birth care. Using the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of care (AAAQ) concept and the three de...

  10. Vesico-vaginal fistula and psycho-social well-being of Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Fasakin, Gbola Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The problem of vesico-vagina fistula still remains a ravaging scourge in resource-poor countries of which Nigeria is visibly prominent. A majority of the cases are attributed to prolonged complicated labour due to inaccessibility of adequate and immediate obstetric health care. Complicated labour arises as a result of narrow pelvis bones of victims due to suffering from poor nutrition. While the above factors are noted as the direct cause to the prevalent of VVF, there are other socio-cultura...

  11. Vaginal Langerhans Cells Nonproductively Transporting HIV-1 Mediate Infection of T Cells ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballweber, Lamar; Robinson, Barry; Kreger, Allison; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Although implied by other models, proof that Langerhans cells (LCs) in the human vagina participate in dissemination of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been lacking. Here, we show that LCs migrate from HIV-1-exposed vaginal epithelia and pass infectious virus to CD4+ T cells without being productively infected themselves, and we point to a pathway that might enable HIV-1 to avoid degradation in vaginal LCs. Transport by migratory LCs to local lymphatics in a nonprod...

  12. Revised Terminology for Cervical Histopathology and Its Implications for Management of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Waxman, Alan G.; Chelmow, David; Teresa M. Darragh; Lawson, Herschel; MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianu...

  13. On two nematodes from Brazilian birds and description of a new species (Acuarioidea, Schistorophinae parasitizing Laterallus viridis (Müller, 1776 (Gruiformes, Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Roberto Magalhães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports acuarioid nematodes recovered from avian hosts. A new species of the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 is proposed based mainly on findings referring to ptilina, spicules and vagina. Ancyracanthopsis coronata (Molin, 1860 Chabaud & Petter, 1959 is referred again in Brazil since its proposition in 1860, from specimens recovered from a Brazilian bird. A revised key to the species of the genus Schistorophus is also presented.

  14. On two nematodes from Brazilian birds and description of a new species (Acuarioidea, Schistorophinae) parasitizing Laterallus viridis (Müller, 1776) (Gruiformes, Rallidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto; Joaquim Júlio Vicente; Luís C Muniz-Pereira; Dely Noronha

    1999-01-01

    The present paper reports acuarioid nematodes recovered from avian hosts. A new species of the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 is proposed based mainly on findings referring to ptilina, spicules and vagina. Ancyracanthopsis coronata (Molin, 1860) Chabaud & Petter, 1959 is referred again in Brazil since its proposition in 1860, from specimens recovered from a Brazilian bird. A revised key to the species of the genus Schistorophus is also presented.

  15. On two nematodes from Brazilian birds and description of a new species (Acuarioidea, Schistorophinae) parasitizing Laterallus viridis (Müller, 1776) (Gruiformes, Rallidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Magalhães, Pinto; Joaquim Júlio, Vicente; Luís C, Muniz-Pereira; Dely, Noronha.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports acuarioid nematodes recovered from avian hosts. A new species of the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 is proposed based mainly on findings referring to ptilina, spicules and vagina. Ancyracanthopsis coronata (Molin, 1860) Chabaud & Petter, 1959 is referred again in Brazil [...] since its proposition in 1860, from specimens recovered from a Brazilian bird. A revised key to the species of the genus Schistorophus is also presented.

  16. On two nematodes from Brazilian birds and description of a new species (Acuarioidea, Schistorophinae) parasitizing Laterallus viridis (Müller, 1776) (Gruiformes, Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R M; Vicente, J J; Muniz-Pereira, L C; Noronha, D

    1999-01-01

    The present paper reports acuarioid nematodes recovered from avian hosts. A new species of the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 is proposed based mainly on findings referring to ptilina, spicules and vagina. Ancyracanthopsis coronata (Molin, 1860) Chabaud & Petter, 1959 is referred again in Brazil since its proposition in 1860, from specimens recovered from a Brazilian bird. A revised key to the species of the genus Schistorophus is also presented. PMID:10585650

  17. Evaluation of the rapid Patho Dx Latex Strep Grouping Kit.

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, R.; Etzion, R; Sandler, S.; Kohn, L.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of clinical specimens from throat, nose, ear, eye, wounds, urine, and vagina were collected, cultured, and screened for beta-hemolytic streptococci. The Patho Dx Latex Strep Grouping Kit (Diagnostic Product Corp., Los Angeles, Calif.) technique was applied to colonies taken right from the primary cultures. Isolated strains were sent to the reference laboratory where they were grouped by standard techniques. The kappa coefficient of agreement between the Patho Dx Kit and the standard...

  18. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S B; Walter, S

    1996-01-01

    Biofeedback is a method of pelvic floor rehabilitation using a surface electrode inserted into the vagina and a catheter in the rectum. Forty women with genuine urinary stress incontinence were randomized to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy and physiotherapy in combination with biofeedback. The effect of the treatment was determined by a standardized pad-weighing test. Long-term status was determined using a questionnaire after 2-3 years. Thirty-four women completed the treatment. The study...

  19. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Nicolosi; Gianna Tempera; Carlo Genovese; Furneri, Pio M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused...

  20. Case of Urethral Foreign Body: IUD Perforation of the Bladder with Calculus Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Gillis, Erin; Chhiv, Nak; Kang, Sacha; Sayegh, Rocky; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2006-01-01

    A 28-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with a chief complaint of strings protruding from her vagina. The patient also complained of recurrent symptoms of cystitis and occasional hematuria over the past five months without resolution after treatment. The patient underwent ED evaluation and was noted to have strings coated in calculus protruding from her urethral meatus. On AP abdominal film a T-shaped intrauterine device (IUD) with calculus was noted in the pelvis. By ...

  1. A study on congenital vaginal malformations in rural population of north Maharashtra region

    OpenAIRE

    Sarita Ajit Deshpande, Ajit Balkrishna Deshpande

    2013-01-01

    To find out types of vaginal malformations in rural population of North Maharashtra, to study various operative procedures designed for vaginal malformations and to evaluate the use of rubber mould for McIndoe operation. Method: Eighteen cases of congenital vaginal malformations were screened in OPD. We found seventeen patients of primary amenorrhea were having congenital vaginal malformation. One patient of stricture of upper vagina was having normal menstruation. They were investigated acco...

  2. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron; Blomqvist, Susanne; Dahlén, Gunnar; Twetman, Svante

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim. To investigate and compare the oral microbial profile between infants delivered vaginally and by C-section. Design. This is a cross-sectional case-control study. Eighty-four infants delivered either vagina...

  3. Adherence of group B streptococci to cultured epithelial cells: roles of environmental factors and bacterial surface components.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, G S; Kuypers, J M; Smith, S.; Raff, H.; Rubens, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Steps considered to be important in the pathogenesis of this infection include colonization of the rectum and vagina of the mother, aspiration of GBS into the fetal lung during or just prior to delivery, and invasion of GBS into pulmonary epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that GBS can invade pulmonary epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Adherence of GBS to epithelial cells may...

  4. 148?HPV, HIV, and Cancer: A Global Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The seminal discovery that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer provides an opportunity for prevention by vaccination and new screening approaches. Approximately 600,000 new cancer cases per year are attributable to HPV worldwide of which about half million in less developed countries (de Martel et al, Lancet Oncology, 2012). These cancers include all cervical cancers, the vast majority of anal cancers and approximately half of cancers of the vulva, vagina, and penis. I...

  5. Multiplex Detection of Bacteria Associated with Normal Microbiota and with Bacterial Vaginosis in Vaginal Swabs by Use of Oligonucleotide-Coupled Fluorescent Microspheres? †

    OpenAIRE

    Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Schellenberg, John; Goleski, Vanessa; Hill, Janet E.; Jaoko, Walter; Kimani, Joshua; Money, Deborah; Ball, T Blake; Plummer, Francis A.; Severini, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a recurrent condition that is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases, preterm births, and pelvic inflammatory disease. In contrast to the Lactobacillus-dominated normal vaginal microbiota, BV is characterized by a lack of lactobacilli and an abundance of anaerobic and gram-negative organisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. To date, the la...

  6. Group B streptococcal colonization patterns in mothers and their infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. E.; Kanarek, K S; Lim, D V

    1984-01-01

    Maternity patients and their newborn infants were cultured for group B streptococci (GBS) at Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, Fla., from September 1982 to May 1983. Culture swabs were placed into Lim Group B Strep Broth (GIBCO Laboratories, Madison, Wis.) and quantitated for GBS. A strong correlation was found between the numbers of GBS in the maternal vagina and the infant rectum. Infants symptomatic for early-onset GBS disease were delivered by mothers heavily colonized (greater than or equal...

  7. Ear acupuncture or local anaesthetics as pain relief during postpartum surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Klünder, L; Strøm, J; Henriksen, T B

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate two methods of pain relief during postpartum surgical repair in regard to effectiveness, wound healing and patient evaluation. Design A randomised controlled trial testing a pragmatic set-up of brief training of clinicians. Setting Delivery ward at a Danish district hospital with approximately 1600 annual deliveries. Population Primiparous women with a vaginal delivery at term who needed surgical repair of lacerations to the labia or the vagina, perineal lacerations of firs...

  8. Ear acupuncture or local anaesthetics as pain relief during postpartum surgical repair: a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, S; Klünder, L; Strøm, J; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate two methods of pain relief during postpartum surgical repair in regard to effectiveness, wound healing and patient evaluation. Design A randomised controlled trial testing a pragmatic set-up of brief training of clinicians. Setting Delivery ward at a Danish district hospital with approximately 1600 annual deliveries. Population Primiparous women with a vaginal delivery at term who needed surgical repair of lacerations to the labia or the vagina, perineal lacerations of firs...

  9. Advances in labor analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia A Wong

    2009-01-01

    Cynthia A WongDepartment of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina...

  10. The consequences of yield stress on deployment of a non-Newtonian anti-HIV microbicide gel

    OpenAIRE

    Tasoglu, Savas; Park, Su Chan; Peters, Jennifer J.; Katz, David F.; Szeri, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    A recent study in South Africa has confirmed, for the first time, that a vaginal gel formulation of the antiretroviral drug Tenofovir, when applied topically, significantly inhibits sexual HIV transmission to women [10]. However the gel for this drug, and anti-HIV microbicide gels in general, have not been designed using full understanding of how gel spreading and retention in the vagina govern successful drug delivery. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory can be applied to model such spread...

  11. The effects of inhomogeneous boundary dilution on the coating flow of an anti-HIV microbicide vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Tasoglu, Savas; Peters, Jennifer J.; Park, Su Chan; Verguet, Stéphane; Katz, David F.; Szeri, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    A recent study in South Africa has confirmed, for the first time, that a vaginal gel formulation of the antiretroviral drug Tenofovir, when topically applied, significantly inhibits sexual HIV transmission to women [Karim et al., Science 329, 1168 (2010)]. However, the gel for this drug and anti-HIV microbicide gels in general have not been designed using an understanding of how gel spreading and retention in the vagina govern successful drug delivery. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory ca...

  12. EFFECT OF CERTAIN YOGIC ASANAS ON THE PELVIC CONGESTION AND IT'S ANATOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Singh, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    20 patient including 6 females and 14 males, between 20 years to 30 years of age, with complaints of chronic constipation refractory to various treatments by medicines, belching, sense of heaviness in the lower abdomen or pelvic region, offensive discharge from vagina (leucorrhoea) and bleeding per rectum with discomfort in the region of perineum were observed under instructions and supervision to practice certain yogic exercises for a period of three years. Viparitakarani, Goraksa asana, Udd...

  13. Frequency Distribution Candidal Vaginitis in Women Referred to Health Centers in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fattahi Bafghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vaginal flora is a dynamic ecosystem that can be easily altered. Although, there are four causes of vaginal discharges which cover almost 95% of vaginaitis. Candidal Vaginaitis is an infection of the vagina’s mucous membranes by Candida albicans (CA. Present study attempted to Candidal Vaginitis in women referred to health centers in Yazd and the role of innate & cell-mediated immunity against Candidal Vaginitis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2011 to September 2012 in Yazd city. A total of 360 women were recruited. The collection of material for diagnosis is ideally performed during a comprehensive pelvic examination using a speculum for diagnosis of CA with identify vaginal pH; smear preparing and staining and culturing. Results: Finally all of 360 women that observed and tested, 120 (33.33% of them have involved and 240 (66.67% have not involved. from 120 infected women, 55paitents had Bacterial vaginosis (15.6% 40 patients had Ca (10.8% and 25 patients had Trichomonas vaginalis (5.9%. Despite the role for cell-mediated immunity in host protection against the majority of mucosal CA infections, studied has been in women with recurrent vaginitis, in HIV-infected women. Thus, current investigations have been focused specifically on innate and acquired immune responses against CA at the vaginal mucosa instead of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis being caused by defective or dysfunctional CD4+ T helper 1-type cell-mediated immune reactivity. Conclusion: Strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4_ T cells probably playing a major role.

  14. Malformations in a cohort of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppelt Patricia G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the spectrum of genital and associated malformations in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome using evaluated diagnostic procedures and the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system (VCUAM. Methods 290 women with MRKH syndrome were clinically evaluated with using clinical examinations, abdominal and perineal/rectal ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy. Results Classification of female genital malformation according to the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system was possible in 284 women (97.9%. Complete atresia of Vagina (V5b and bilateral atresia of Cervix (C2b were found in 284 patients (100%. Uterus: bilateral rudimentary or a plastic uterine horns were found in 239 women (84.2%. Adnexa: normal Adnexa were found in 248 women (87.3%. Malformations: associated malformations were found in 126 of 282 evaluable women (44.7%, 84 women (29.6% had malformations of the renal system. Of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome 212 women (74.7% could be classified as V5bC2bU4bA0. The most frequent classification was V5bC2bU4bA0M0 (46.8% diagnosed in 133 of 284 women. Conclusions Complete atresia of vagina and cervix were found in all patients, variable malformations were found with uterus and adnexa. A variety of associated malformations were present, predominantly of the renal system. It is therefore recommended that all patients with genital malformations should be evaluated for renal abnormalities.

  15. Vaginal Vault Prolapse

    OpenAIRE

    K. A. Farag; Azubuike Uzoma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Vaginal vault prolapse is a common complication following vaginal hysterectomy with negative impact on women's quality of life due to associated urinary, anorectal and sexual dysfunction. A clear understanding of the supporting mechanism for the uterus and vagina is important in making the right choice of corrective procedure. Management should be individualised, taking into consideration the surgeon's experience, patients age, comorbidities, previous surgery and sex life. Resul...

  16. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in the Urinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Midstream urine samples from 106 patients presenting to the Casualty Department of The Royal Melbourne Hospital with frequency or dysuria were cultured for Gardnerella vaginalis and conventional uropathogens. Urine samples collected via an open-end catheter from 70 healthy pregnant women were examined similarly. Midstream urine and other samples, including the seminal fluids and swabs of the mouths, throats, rectums, and vaginas of 33 healthy subjects, were cultured for G. vaginalis. Another ...

  17. Variables seminales en llama (Lama glama) * Semen variables in llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    L. VON BAER; C. HELLEMANN

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue el ensayo de una técnica de colección de semen de llamas (Lama glama) con vagina artificial y el registro de variables seminales, tendiente a estudiar parámetros indicadores de la fertilidad potencial del macho. De 18 machos en edad reproductiva de un criadero se seleccionaron 11, de los cuales se obtuvieron 72 eyaculados. Descartados 31 eyaculados por azoospermia o akinozoospermia y 15 en que no se obtuvieron todos los registros, quedaron 26 eyaculados cuyas varia...

  18. Clinic diagnosis of anaerobic vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis). A practical guide.

    OpenAIRE

    Blackwell, A; Barlow, D.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic vaginosis (non-specific vaginitis) can be readily diagnosed at the time of first attendance without recourse to expensive and time-consuming laboratory investigations. Diagnosis is based on careful history-taking, clinical examination, and simple investigations in the clinic. Although the presence of a malodorous vaginal discharge and the finding of clue cells on microscopy (in the absence of Trichomonas vaginalis) are sufficient for the diagnosis, a positive amine test and a vagina...

  19. ADVANTAGES OF INTRA-VAGINAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Lalit Kumar,

    2010-01-01

    Vagina is one of the best routes for drugs administration like contraceptive steroids, metronidazole, anti-retroviral, etc. An intra-vaginal controlled-release drug delivery system is an effective means for achieving a continuous delivery of therapeutic agents, not only the systemically active drugs, such as contraceptive steroids, but also the locally active drugs, such as metronidazole and other drugs like Zidovudine, Lamivudine, etc. This continuous “infusion” of drugs through the vaginal ...

  20. Anterior vaginal wall repair using local anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Karl Møller; Axelsen, Susanne Maigaard

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to describe the possibility of surgical repair of anterior vaginal prolapse including amputation of the cervix using local anaesthesia. The description was made according to postoperative complication, recurrence rate, influence on urinary incontinence, and satisfaction of the patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-three women were consecutively operated in the anterior wall of the vagina using local anaesthesia and intravenously supplemented with ...

  1. Description of Paktylenchus tuberosus gen. n., sp. n. (Nematoda: Tylenchinae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Maqbool

    1983-01-01

    Paktylenchus tuberosus gen.n., sp.n. is described and illustrated from soil around Solanum tuberosum from Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Paktylenchus gen.n, can be distinguished from the most closely related genus, Agelenchus Andrassy, 1954, by the distinct longitudinal striae, three incisures in the lateral field, and absence of males. Paktylenchus tuberosus shows affinities to Coslenchus Siddiqi, 1978 but differs in having an oblique vagina-to-body axis and a prominent sunken vulva with vulval fl...

  2. Investigation of vaginal microbiota in sexually active women using hormonal contraceptives in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Yasmeen; Saleem Sobia; Kazi Nasreen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies report association of contraceptives with moderate increase in urinary tract infection among sexually active premenopausal women. The aim of our study was to find out whether the use of hormonal contraceptives has any effect on microbiota of the vagina in the contraceptives users in Khairpur Sindh Pakistan. Methods A prospective study in woman population of Khairpur Sindh Pakistan aged 20–30 years and 31–40 years, using Hormonal contraceptives was carried ...

  3. REPAIR OF POSTERIOR VAGINAL WALL DEFECTS WITH PELVICOL™ IMPLANT ANCHORED TO ILIOCOCCYGEUS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ripoli; P. Liguori

    2010-01-01

    Pelvic floor prolapse is a frequent condition in the female population, inevitably deemed to increase with the population average age increase. If quality of life of women suffering from pelvic prolapse is investigated, the impact of symptoms may result dramatic, causing psychological, relational, sexual, working problems. Posterior vaginal wall defects are classified as rectocele and enterocele. Rectocele means hernia or protrusion of the anterior wall of rectum in vagina, such condition bei...

  4. Uncommon manifestations of Endocervical Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor with Incidental Bilateral Fallopian Tube Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kishan H. L.; Makannavar, J H; Shetty, Jayaprakash; Vinutha; Patil, Channappa; Permi, Harish S

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old perimenopausal lady presented with bleeding per vagina and lower abdominal pain. On evaluation, she had cervical polyp, which expelled spontaneously during the per speculum examination. Histopathology revealed malignant mixed Mullerian tumor. Extended hysterectomy with salphingo oophorectomy was carried out, which showed bilateral fallopian tube carcinoma and leiomyoma uterus. The patient was treated with carboplatin regime and found to be disease-free for 1 year. This case pres...

  5. AN UNCONSUMMATED MARRIAGE: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin Akp?nar; Esra Saatç?

    2007-01-01

    Vaginismus is described as “recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of the perineal muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted with penis, finger, tampon, or speculum. The purpose of this case report is to investigate the treatment model of a patient with vaginismus who benefited from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in a couple (woman 21, man 23 years old) admitting to family practice for treatment of vaginismus. The duration of marriage...

  6. An Unusual Case of Cervical Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant. S. Joshi; Vijay Shankar S; Pushpee Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the cervix is a rare disease and accounts to 0.1 – 0.65% of all cases of tuberculosis and 5 – 24 % of genital tract tuberculosis. We present an unusual case of 40 years old lady who presented with irregular bleeding per vagina and foul smelling white discharge for 1 year. Per speculum examination revealed an unhealthy looking cervix which bled on touch. A clinical diagnosis of carcinoma cervix was made. However, cervix biopsy revealed granulomatous lesion suggestive of tubercu...

  7. Incomplete androgen insensitivity (Reifenstein syndrome) - a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Volkan Turan; Özgür Yeniel; Mete Ergeno?lu; Co?an Terek; Murat Uluku?

    2010-01-01

    We report a 20 year old case of partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, referred to our clinic with complaints concerning external genital organs and left undescended testicle. The phenotypically male case was first evaluated for secondary sex development. Axillary hair was scanty and no pubic hair was found. There was no breast development. In the gynecological examination, the clitoris was hypertrophic (4.6 cm) and a blind vagina with intact hymen was seen. Abdominopelvic ultrasonograph...

  8. [Study of vaginal and intestinal microflora of women in the prenatal period and its correction in dysbacteriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski?, V S; Liaskovski?, T M; Kovalenko, N K; Oleshchenko, L T

    2006-01-01

    A comparative research of the structure of vaginal and intestinal microflora in norm and at kidney pathologies in women in the prenatal period was carried out. At physiologically normal course of pregnancy microbiocenosis of vagina and intestine does not contain pathogenic and conditional-pathogenic microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria are fixed within the limits of 10(5)-10(8) CFU/1 ml in the vagina secretion and 10(7)-10(8) CFU/1 g in the intestine content. The spore microorganisms have completely disappeared in vaginal biocenosis of women with pyelonephritis after pharmacotherapy; and colibacterias has disappeared in 62% of women. Quantity of lactic acid bacteria has also decreased. Quantity of E. coli (10(8)- 10(9)) CFU/g, sporous microorganisms (10(3)-10(4)) CFU/g and yeast (10(4)-10(5)) CFU/g has considerably increased in the content of intestine. Lactic acid bacteria in content of the vagina are presented by: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. vaginalis; in content of the intestine--L. plantarum and L. fermentum. All the isolated strains of lactobacilli are resistant to metrogyl and amphotericin, 87%--to cephoxitine, cypropfloxacine. Twenty three of 24 strains of lactic acid bacteria--antagonists of pathogenic microflora have shown adhesion to vaginal epthelium. The degree of adhesive activity depends on the strain and genus specificity of cultures. The highest index of adhesiveness in indicated in Enterococcus faecium (5.82 - 7.62) and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (2.74 - 6.40) strains. The screening of strains has been performed, which suppress growth of gas-producing microflora. The strain of Lactobacillus plantarum 200D proved to be the most active one. A complex of cultures of the lactic bacteria providing normalization of microbial cenosis of the vagina in women in the prenatal period has been selected as based on the data obtained. The biotechnology of production of vaginal suppositories is developed. PMID:16786633

  9. Palmar dermatoglyphics as diagnostic tool: Mayer-rokintansky-kuster-hauser syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar A; Manou S

    2003-01-01

    The congential anomalies involving Mullerian duct dysgenesis, the MRKH (Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser) syndrome overlaps a ?community of syndromes? which share, apart from a complete absence of uterus and vagina, associated presentations that include developmental abnormalities of skeletal, renal, dental and other dysmorphias. First described more than 400 years ago, this complement of anomalies now rechristened, the MRKH syndrome has been extensively studied. Found to occur on...

  10. A 20-Year-Old Contraceptive Device Transformed into a Calcified Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Awatuf Elshirif; Seema Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Case: A 52-year-old female who was presented to accident and emergency felt unwell; she reported that she had an IUCD inserted over 20 years ago. On examination she had a large calcified mass occupying the vagina. CT scan confirmed a calcified IUCD. Conclusion: Serious complication secondary to IUCD is rare but well recorded, extensive calcification as in this case is very rare and has not been previously reported.

  11. Pharmacomicrobiomics: The Impact of Human Microbiome Variations on Systems Pharmacology and Personalized Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    ElRakaiby, Marwa; Dutilh, Bas E.; Rizkallah, Mariam R; Boleij, Annemarie; Cole, Jason N.; Aziz, Ramy K

    2014-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome influence human health, immunity, and different disease states. In this review article, we summarize the key findings and applications of the HMP that may impact pharmacology and personalized thera...

  12. DISORDER OF SEX DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF 2 CASES OF MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. "Genetic errors" with malformations and hormonal alterations result in a broad spectrum of disorders of sexual identity difficult to classify for etiopathogenesis and anatomy. Male pseudohermaphroditism (PEM is the result of defects in masculinisation, persistence of mullerian ducts or genital malformations. In these patients, there is always a 46 XY karyotype, male gonads with the external genitalia and phenotype completely or partially female. The authors describe 2 cases of PEM. Patients and Methods. RS and HNA, 9 and 15 years old. Both had 46 XY karyotype and female phenotype with the presence of penile clitoris and small vagina. The urethral meatus was positioned at the base of the penile clitoris and upper vagina and testicles, were located at the proximal portion of the inguinal canal.Patients were subjected to MRI showing absence of uterus and ovaries. The endoscopy described a small vagina dead-end about 4-5 cm long. Complete resection of the vagina, bilateral orchiopexy, correction of perineal hypospadias with urethral tubulization, reconstruction of the scrotum, with the results of penoscrotal hypospadias were performed. Discussion. Sexual differentiation is the process between VII and XII weeks of gestational age leading to formation of male or female fetus from embryo potentially bisexual. Brain Code gender is bipolar: male or female. In the sexual disorders there is a discrepancy between anatomical sex and the brain code. Genital malformation with a direct mechanism (external genitalia and indirect (prenatal pathological imprinting on all the receptors of target organs may exacerbate the brain deterioration of the code resulting in disease patterns difficult to manage according psychological and surgical aspects. Conclusions. Pediatric Surgeon plays a key role in the treatment of genital anomalies. Valutation of pelvic-perineal anatomy is important for the choice of sexual phenotype and related surgical strategy. Early correction of genital abnormality may effectively prevent the child present psychological, behavioral onsequences and problems in family and society.

  13. La découverte de l'amour par Hidi Xinu. Récit caxinaua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La littérature concernant la cosmologie caxinaua est assez connue, on propose néanmoins un récit jubilatoire qui raconte la découverte de l?amour par le personnage Xidi Xinu. Ce récit évoque le désespoir des Caxinaua qui prenaient le ?vagin? pour une méchante plaie. Malgré la connaissance de leur pharmacopée, ils n?arrivaient pas à la guérir. Cependant, un jour, l?un des Caxinaua, Hidi Xinu, a vu un couple de singes copuler et a compris la fonction du vagin : le réceptacle de l?amour, cutati. EL DESCUBRIMIENTO DEL AMOR POR HIDI SHINU. UNA NARRACIÓN CASHINAHUA. Aunque la literatura sobre la cosmología cashinahua es bastante conocida, proponemos aquí una alegre narración que cuenta el descubrimiento del amor por parte del personage Hidi Shinu. Esta narración evoca el desespero de los Cashinahua, quienes tomaban la vagina por una mala herida. A pesar de sus conocimientos farmacológicos, no lograban sanarla. Sin embargo, un día, uno de los Cashinahua vio copular a una pareja de micos y comprendió la función de la vagina: el receptáculo del amor, chutati. THE DISCOVERY OF LOVE BY HIDI SHINU. A CASHINAHUA TALE. The literature of the Cashinahua mythology is quite well known, thus I present an amusing tale about the discovery of love by the character Hidi Xinu. This tale reminds us of the despair of the Cashinahua who thought the vagina to be a very severe flesh wound. Regardless of their knowledge of pharmacopoeia, they could not heal her. However, one day, Hidi Xinu saw a couple of monkeys copulate and only then did he understand the function of the vagina: the chamber of love, chutati.

  14. Robotic repair of vesicovaginal fistulae with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach: A case series

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano A. Nunez, Bragayrac; Raed A., Azhar; Golena, Fernandez; Marino, Cabrera; Eric, Saenz; Victor, Machuca; Robert de, Andrade; Oswaldo, Carmona; Rene, Sotelo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe a novel technique of repairing the VVF using the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Materials and Methods From June 2011 to October 2013, four patients with symptoms of urine leakage in the vagina underwent robotic repair of VVF [...] with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Cystoscopy revealed the fistula opening on the bladder. A ureteral stent was placed through the fistulous tract. After trocar placement, the omental flap was prepared and mobilized robotically. The vagina was identified and incised. The fistulous tract was excised. Cystorrhaphy was performed in two layers in an interrupted fashion. The vaginal opening was closed with running stitches. The omentum was interposed and anchored between the bladder and vagina. Finally, the ureteral catheters were removed in case they have been placed, and an 18 Fr urethral catheter was removed on the 14th postoperative day. Results The mean age was 46 years (range: 41 to 52 years). The mean fistula diameter was 1.5 cm (range 0.3 to 2 cm). The mean operative time was 117.5 min (range: 100 to 150 min). The estimated blood loss was 100 mL (range: 50 to 150 mL). The mean hospital stay was 1.75 days (range: 1 to 3 days). The mean Foley catheter duration was 15.75 days (range: 10 to 25 days). There was no evidence of recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusions The robot-assisted laparoscopic transperitoneal transvaginal approach for VVF is a feasible procedure when the fistula tract is identified by first intentionally opening the vagina, thereby minimizing the bladder incision and with low morbidity.

  15. Scrotal and penile reconstruction using the vacuum-assisted closure device

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Ned; Gould, Lisa J

    2005-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene is a necrotizing, soft tissue infection that spreads along the deep external fascial planes of the perineum, scrotum (or vagina), penis, thighs and lower abdomen. Due to the rapid progression of the disease, patients are frequently left with a large integumentary deficit. Treatment of the skin defect has been described in a multitude of ways including split-thickness skin grafting, burying the testes in the thighs, thigh flaps and a variety of myocutaneous and fasciocutane...

  16. Transvaginal-laparoscopic anterior rectum resection in a hysterectomized woman with deep-infiltrating endometriosis: Description of a gynecologic natural orifice transendoluminal surgery approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, A. D.; BURKHARDT, T; Parlayan, S; Riediger, H; Papadopoulos, T.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-infiltrating endometriosis may affect the vagina, the rectum, and the cervicoisthmic part of the uterus, resulting in severe pain, particularly dyschezia, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and diminished quality of life. Advanced surgical techniques, such as laparoscopic-assisted anterior rectum resection, are recognized as safe and effective therapeutic approaches. In some cases, a laparotomy or minilaparotomy has to be performed for technical reasons. This can be avoided in some cases by tran...

  17. HPV-Related Cancers after Solid Organ Transplantation in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine, M.M.; Finch, J L; Lynch, C F; Goodman, M.T.; Engels, E A

    2013-01-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk including risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the cervix, anus, penis, vagina, vulva, and oropharynx. We examined the incidence of HPV-related cancers in 187,649 U.S. recipients in the Transplant Cancer Match Study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared incidence rates to the general population, and incidence rate ratios (IRR) compared rates across transplant subgroups. We observed elevated incidence of HPV-related c...

  18. Selected Background Findings and Interpretation of Common Lesions in the Female Reproductive System in Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Cline, J Mark; Wood, Charles E; Vidal, Justin D.; Tarara, Ross P; Buse, Eberhard; Weinbauer, Gerhard F.; de Rijk, Eveline P. C. T.; Esch, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a selection of normal findings and common naturally occurring lesions in the reproductive system of female macaques, including changes in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary glands. Normal features of immature ovaries, uteri, and mammary glands are described. Common non-neoplastic lesions in the ovaries include cortical mineralization, polyovular follicles, cysts, ovarian surface epithelial hyperplasia, and ectopic ovarian tissue. Ovarian neoplasms include gr...

  19. [The bacterial vaginosis--treatment problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Ma?gorzata K; Ekiel, Alicja M; Tomana, Lidia; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-01-01

    The changes in vaginal ecosystem (decreasing number of H2O2 producing Lactobacillus spp. and increasing number of Mobiluncus spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Mycoplasma hominis, Peptostreptococcus spp.) appears to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial vaginosis is associated with infectious complications in pregnant and non-pregnant women and increasing risk of STI. The preventive role of natural vaginal microflora and problems of BV treatment are discussed in the light of the recent publications. PMID:17607971

  20. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840) Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840) Primates-Callitrichidae

    OpenAIRE

    L. Pissinatti; R. Tortelly; M. Porto; C.H.F. Burity; Pissinatti, A

    2008-01-01

    Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840), cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vag...

  1. Characterization of biofilm-forming microorganisms isolated from vaginal exudate in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, P.; Castro, J.de; Cereija, Tatiana Barros Reis; Henriques, Ana Filipa Frutuoso Mendes; Cerca, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynaecological conditions affecting women in the reproductive age, and can lead to increase risk gynaecological infections and pre-term labour. The aetiology of this pathology is still poorly understood, but recent reports referring to the presence of anaerobic biofilms both in the healthy and BV vagina (with different microbial compositions) have led to the theory that the microorganisms that form biofilms may be relevant for the aetiology o...

  2. Monogeneans of the malabar grouper Epinephelus malabaricus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with a description of six new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Sigura, Aude

    2007-01-01

    Eleven species were differentiated among more than 300 monogeneans collected on the gills of two wild malabar groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus, caught in the lagoon of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Diplectanids included seven species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958, which were differentiated mainly on the basis of morphology of the sclerotised vagina. P. manifestus n. sp. was the most abundant species (65–80% of the diplectanids); all other species were rare. It is characterised by mo...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections in Female Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, S. Elmer

    1989-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common problem in female patients. Twenty-five per cent of patients with an initial infection will develop recurrent infections, with reinfection of the urine some time after the urine has been sterilized being the most common situation. Most adult patients have no urinary tract abnormality, with the infecting organism coming from the rectum and colonizing the vagina before colonizing the bladder. In children with urinary tract infections, there is a higher inci...

  4. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  5. A Giant Gartner Duct Cyst Originating from the Uterine Cervix and Adjacent Myometrium: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hui; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Gartner duct cysts are relatively common congenital cysts in the anterolateral wall of the vagina. Most are small (less than 2 cm) and asymptomatic, but larger cysts may cause problems. We report a rare case of a giant Gartner duct cyst (7 cm) originating from the right lateral portion of the uterine cervix and adjacent myometrium. It appeared as an exophytic multiseptated cystic mass containing different density fluids on CT

  6. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  7. Mioma vaginal: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mantellini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentar un caso de mioma vaginal en una mujer de 52 años. Caso. Paciente asintomática, que acude a la consulta para control ginecológico. Se detecta una lesión en cara posterior de vaginal, sobre elevada e hiperpigmentada de aproximadamente 1 cm de diámetro, la cual fue extirpada con asa diatérmica; se envió el material para estudio histopatológico y el resultado fue leiomioma en vagina con hiperpigmentación melánica en la capa basal del epitelio. La paciente evolucionó bien.

  8. VALIDEZ DE LA PRUEBA DE HISTERECTOMÍA VAGINAL EN PACIENTES CON INDICACIÓN DE VÍA ABDOMINAL MANDATORIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Riquelme P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la histerectomía vaginal en la resolución de patología uterina benigna, en casos que habitualmente se resuelven por histerectomía abdominal. Método: Estudio prospectivo en 68 pacientes sometidas a histerectomía vaginal en el Servicio de Ginecología del Hospital Claudio Vicuña, de San Antonio, entre junio de 2003 a junio de 2009. Son pacientes sin partos vaginales, algunas nuligestas, la mayoría con cicatrices de cesárea o historia de cirugía pélvica previa. Se separan en dos grupos, uno de dificultad moderada (DM (útero móvil, vagina >2 dedos de diámetro, fondos de saco bien conformados y otro de dificultad severa (DS (útero fijo, vagina Objective: To assess vaginal hysterectomy in benign uterine pathology resolution in cases who are usually resolved by abdominal hysterectomy. Method: We studied, prospectively, 68 patients that were operated by vaginal hysterectomy between june 2003 to june 2009 in the Gynecology Service at Claudio Vicuña Hospital, San Antonio. Most of the patients have history of prior cesarean section or pelvic surgery, but no one has had vaginal deliveries, inclusive, some of them, have no history of previous pregnancies. The patients were separated into two groups, moderate difficulty (MD: composed by patients with uterus conserved motility, vagina >2 fingers diameter, well conserved cul de sac, and severe difficulty (SD: composed by patients with none uterine motility, vagina <2 fingers diameter or fat cul de sac. Results: We did not observed statistically signifcant differences in age, number of prior cesarean sections or pelvic surgeries, estimated uterine size, bladder injury, nor abdominal conversion, but there was significant differences in operative time and need of morcelation, being greater in SD patients. It is important to notice the absent of major and minor complications in 93% of the patients. Conclusion: Our results are meant to demystify the objections for vaginal route, including the patients with extreme difficulty.

  9. Dystopic dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter: improved localization by fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA SPECT datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreissl, Michael C.; Lorenz, Reinhard [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Clinic and Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ohnheiser, Gerd [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Zentrum Operative Medizin, Clinic and Polyclinic of Urology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Darge, Kassa [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiodiagnosis, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    We report a 12-year-old girl with a long history of constant urinary dribbling and apparently only a left kidney. Using a multimodality approach involving the fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) SPECT datasets, it was finally possible to exactly localize the very small dystopic, dysplastic right kidney and its ectopic ureter draining into the vagina. (orig.)

  10. Identification and H2O2 Production of Vaginal Lactobacilli from Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preterm Birth and Relation with Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Mark; Wiggins, Rebecca; Whiley, Angela; Hennessy, Enid; Warwick, Simon; Porter, Helen; Corfield, Anthony; Millar, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacilli, principally the strains that are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing, may have a protective effect against vaginal colonization by pathogenic species such as those that cause bacterial vaginosis. Previous reports have also suggested that H2O2-producing lactobacilli in the vagina may protect pregnant women against ascending infection of the chorioamniotic membranes and uterine cavity. We report the identification and H2O2 production of lactobacilli isolated from vaginal swabs coll...

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LUMINAL OVIDUCTAL EPITHELIUM OF THE LAYING AND NONLAYING MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata, LINNEAUS, 1758) ASPECTOS MORFOLOGICOS E HISTOQUIMICOS DEL EPITELIO LUMINAL DEL OVIDUCTO DE LA PATA SILVESTRE (Cairina moschata, LINNAEUS, 1785) DURANTE LOS PERIODOS DE POSTURA Y NO POSTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Evêncio-Neto; Liriane Baratella Evêncio; Walter Kenji Fukumoto; Manuel Jesus Simões

    1997-01-01

    The authors have used three laying and three non-laying muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata, Linneaus, 1758), in order to study morphological and histochemical aspects of the luminal oviductal epithelium. The results showed that the oviduct of the muscovy duck is well-developed at the left side, atrophied at the right side and consists of six different regions: fimbria, infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell-gland and vagina. The oviduct is more evident and developed in the laying phase of the repr...

  12. Meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of married adolescents in northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olunloyo, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nigeria has one of the largest numbers of married adolescents in the world. In the predominantly Muslim Northern region of the country, about 70% of girls get married and start childbearing by the age of 18. Early marriage limits the social and development opportunities of married adolescents as well as exposes them to sexual and reproductive health problems which often result in grave consequences such as vesico vagina fistula, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and deat...

  13. Culling practices of Ontario cow-calf producers.

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of herd culling rates for 123 Ontario cow-calf herds maintaining individual animal records. Associations between culling and factors at both the individual and herd level were examined. In addition, the relative importance of individual animal and herd level influences on culling were investigated. The following individual cow culling risk factors: nonpregnancy, age, weaning weight index, calf outcome, abortion, prolapsed vagina, prolapsed uterus, calving...

  14. Human cervicovaginal fluid biomarkers to predict term and preterm labor

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Yujing J.; Liong, Stella; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Gregory E; Di Quinzio, Megan K. W.; Georgiou, Harry M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB; birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The current generation of biomarkers predictive of PTB have limited utility. In pregnancy, the human cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) proteome is a reflection of the local biochemical milieu and is influenced by the physical changes occurring in the vagina, cervix and adjacent overlying fetal membranes. Term and preterm labor (PTL) share common pathways of cervical ripening...

  15. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The commensal flora consists of non-pathogenic microbiota found on all body surfaces maintaining a well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic state. The vaginal microbiota represents a microbial ecosystem. A low pH level is maintained by acid producing bacteria, most often dominated by Lactobacillus. The low pH level is together with the host immunity responsible for protection of the vagina. A vast number of other bacterial species are represented in the vaginal commensal microbiota and among these...

  16. Trachelectomy for cancer of the cervix: dargent's operation. Vaginal hysterectomy for early cancer of the cervix stage IA1 and CIN III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Radical vaginal trachelectomy is today an established method of treating selected women with cervical cancer stage IA2 and IB1, with tumour size less than 2cm without precluding future childbearing. This technique has been used for more than 20 years with reassuring oncological safety and excellent obstetrical outcomes. The procedure is a combination of laparoscopy for pelvic lymphadenectomy and challenging classic vaginal surgery to resect the tumour, part of the parametrium and upper vagina. C...

  17. Cervicovaginal HPV Infection Before and After Hysterectomy: Evidence of Different Tissue Tropism for Oncogenic and Non-Oncogenic HPV Types in a Cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    D'souza, Gypsyamber; BURK, Robert D.; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L Stewart; Xue, Xiaonan; Watts, D Heather; ANASTOS, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M.; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; COLIE, Christine; Castle, Philip E.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in nearly all cervical cancers and approximately half of vaginal cancers. However, vaginal cancer is an order of magnitude less common than cervical cancer, not only in the general population but also among women with HIV/AIDS. It is interesting therefore that recent studies found that HPV was common in both normal vaginal and cervical tissue, with higher prevalence of non-oncogenic HPV types in the vagina. In the current investigation, we prospectively ...

  18. Bilateral abscessed orchiepididymitis associated with sepsis caused by Veillonella parvula and Clostridium perfringens: case report and review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Arrosagaray, P M; Salas, C.; M Morales; Correas, M; Barros, J M; Cordon, M L

    1987-01-01

    Veillonella species is a gram-negative coccus which is part of the anaerobic normal flora in the oral cavity, small intestine, upper respiratory tract, vagina, and urinary tract. The role that this organism plays in infection is not well known, and it is generally associated with other bacteria. We present a case of bilateral abscessed orchiepididymitis associated with septicemia due to Veillonella parvula and, later, to Clostridium perfringens, with the development of severe renal insufficie...

  19. Diagnosis of Ovarian Metastasis from Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia by 3D Power Doppler Ultrasound and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Júnior, E. Araujo; Sun, S.Y.; Campanharo, F.F.; Nacaratto, D.C.; Nardozza, L.M.M.; Mattar, R.; Habib, V.V.; Moron, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant disease of trophoblastic cells, which affects young women in the reproductive years. The main sites of metastasis from choriocarcinoma are lung, vagina, liver, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, and the involvement of the ovaries is extremely rare. The diagnosis of ovarian metastasis is made mainly by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) with color Doppler, which shows a large vessel in the center of the mass. The three-dimensional power Doppler ultras...

  20. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a pedunculated swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Shramana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that has high propensity for local recurrence. It involves mainly the pelvis, vulva, perineum, vagina and urinary bladder in adult women in the reproductive age. Considering its locally aggressive nature, appropriate management and long-term follow-up is necessary. We describe a case of a 22-year-old young pregnant patient presenting with a large pedunculated swelling on the left labia majora.

  1. Tumor de la vulva, vulvectomía radical / Vulvar tumor, total vulvectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asbel Alfredo, Vicente de la Cruz; Maribel Lissette, Vicente Medina; Ada Hilda, de la Concepción de la Peña.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores de la vulva no son una rareza entre los cánceres que afectan a las féminas, pero tampoco son de los más frecuentes. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años, que en el año 2000 se le diagnostica carcinoma epidermoide del clítoris, en 2004 se vuelve a intervenir por recidiva tumoral, y [...] en 2009 acude a nuestra consulta nuevamente y es cuando se decide realizarle vulvectomía y resección de vagina y todo el sistema ginecológico. Concluyó la intervención con una talla vesical extraperitoneal. El tumor se extiende hasta la porción inicial de la vagina y uretra. Se trata de un tumor maligno, bien diferenciado, que se ha comportado en una forma no habitual, con recidivas locales, cuando en apariencia el tumor había sido resecado en toda su extensión, y en esta última oportunidad, a pesar de ser un estadio avanzado, no hemos encontrado metástasis ni multicentricidad del tumor. La evolución posoperatoria fue sin complicaciones y se dio de alta al quinto día. Abstract in english The vulvar tumors are not uncommon among the different types of cancer involving females, but neither are the more frequent ones. This is the case of a female aged 59 that in 2000 is diagnosed with epidermoid carcinoma of clitoris, in 2004 is re-operated on by tumor relapse, and in 2009 she came aga [...] in to our consultation and a vulvectomy, vagina resection and all gynecological system are carried out. Intervention concluded with an extraperitoneal vesical cutting. The tumor extends up to the initial portion of vagina and urethra. It is a malignant and well-differentiated tumor behaved in non habitual way with local relapses, when apparently the tumor was resected in all its extent, and in this last change, despite and advanced stage, there were neither tumor metastases nor multi-centralization. The postoperative course was free of complications receiving the discharge at fifth day.

  2. Perineal template techniques for interstitial implantation of gynecological cancers using the Paris system of dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, S. (Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne Victoria (Australia))

    1990-09-01

    Since 1984, perineal template/needle techniques for interstitial implantation of gynecologic cancer-cervix, vagina, vulva-have been developed at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute. The Paris System of dosimetry has been used resulting in greater dose homogeneity, fewer needles and radioactive sources and considerable simplification and ease of implantation compared with comparable techniques developed in the United States. Principles and techniques of implantation are described in detail.

  3. Macroscopic Morphometric Analysis of Genital Organs of Rabbit does with Differing Parturitions at 24 Hours Post-weaning / Análisis Morfométrico Macroscópico de Órganos Genitales de Conejas con Diferentes Partos a las 24 Horas Post-destete

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jesús, Aragón-Hernández; Fernando Iván, Flores-Pérez; Claudia, Hallal-Calleros; Mario, Pérez-Martínez.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la morfometría macroscópica de los ovarios, útero y vagina en conejas de primero, segundo y tercer parto a las 24 horas post-destete con el propósito de determinar si existen diferencias entre los partos. El destete de la camada se realizó a los 30 días desp [...] ués del parto y 24 horas después fueron eutanasiadas. De cada animal se removieron los ovarios derecho e izquierdo, cuernos-cuello uterinos derecho e izquierdo y la vagina y se midió la longitud de cada uno de los órganos genitales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la longitud del ovario derecho entre el grupo de primer parto con respecto al de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,05 y P 0,01). Además, la longitud media de ovario izquierdo fue significativamente diferente entre el grupo de primero y segundo parto con respecto al de tercer parto (P Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the macroscopic morphometry of the ovaries, uterus and vagina in rabbit does in the first, second and third parturition at 24 hours post-weaning in order to determine if there are differences between parturitions. Weaning of the litter was performed at 30 day [...] s post-partum and 24 hours later the does were euthanized. Right and left ovaries, uterine horns-cervix and vagina were removed, and the length of each one was measured. Significant differences were found in the average of the right ovary length between the first group with respect to second and third parturition group (P 0.05 and P 0.01). Also, left ovary length was different between the first and second with respect to third parturition group (P

  4. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  5. WOMEN FACING HEAVY VAGINAL DISCHARGE (LEUCORRHEA) BY VIRTUE OF UNHEALTHY LIFE STYLE

    OpenAIRE

    Somia Gul; Hina Qamar; Wardha Jawaid; Urooj Bukhari; Yumna Javed

    2013-01-01

    Leucorrhea also spelled leucorrhoea, flow of a whitish, yellowish, or greenish discharge from the vagina of the female that may be normal or that may be a sign of infection. It is mucous discharge which represents desquamation of vaginal epithelial cells because of the effects of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to distinguish leucorrhea from pathologic discharge. Leucorrhea usually does not cause irritation but some adolescents worry that it may represent an infection. A total...

  6. Características anatómicas y fisiológicas de los músculos pélvicos en la coneja doméstica (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En mamíferos, la musculatura estriada pélvica se ha relacionado con la regulación de funciones urinarias y poco se sabe de su participación en funciones reproductivas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar las características anatómicas y la inervación de los músculos iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo de la coneja adulta, y caracterizar la actividad electromiográfica (EMG refleja en respuesta a la estimulación genital. Para ello se utilizaron técnicas quirúrgicas y electrofisiológicas. Los resultados muestran que el iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo son músculos bilaterales que se originan en el hueso iliaco; están inervados por ramas que emergen de S3 y S4; sus fibras musculares no se adhieren a las vísceras pélvicas, sino que discurren lateral a la vagina y al recto y se insertan en las vértebras sacras. Durante la estimulación de la piel del orificio vaginal y la vagina pélvica y perineal se presentó actividad EMG refleja en ambos músculos. La estimulación de la vagina abdominal no indujo respuesta EMG. La estimulación cervical produjo inhibición temporal en la actividad del iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo. Estos resultados contribuyen a las escasas descripciones anatómicas de la musculatura pélvica de la coneja que se encuentran en libros de texto y atlas; también sugieren que los músculos pélvicos iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo podrían activarse reflejamente durante procesos reproductivos, como la cópula y el parto.

  7. Aplicación de los colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales en cirugía pediátrica: a propósito de un caso Application of vulvoperineal fasciocutaneous flaps in pediatric surgery: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pérez Bertólez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de agenesia de vagina es de 1/4000- 10000 recién nacidas vivas. La causa más frecuente es el síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Presentamos un caso de reconstrucción vaginal con colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales de Málaga en una paciente pediátrica afecta de este síndrome, describiendo los pasos del procedimiento y las bases anatómicas en las que se fundamenta. Esta técnica permite la creación de una neovagina sensible, con una cobertura de excelente calidad, con un ángulo de inclinación fisiológico y natural y un axis anatómico correcto para la relación sexual; se realiza en un solo tiempo quirúrgico y con mínima morbilidad para la paciente. Su principal inconveniente es el crecimiento de pelo dentro de la vagina, aunque se atenúa con el tiempo debido a un fenómeno de atrofia folicular y metaplasia cutánea.The incidence of vaginal agenesis is 1/4000-10000 female alive newborns. The most frequent cause is Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. A technique for vaginal reconstruction using the vulvoperineal fasciocutaneous flaps (Malaga flaps in a pediatric patient affected of this syndrome is presented, describing the steps of the procedure and its anatomic basis. This technique allows the reconstruction of an excellent quality and sensible neovagina, with a physiologic inclination angle which allows the sexual intercourse, in one single stage operation and with minimal morbidity. The main inconvenient of this procedure is the hair growth inside the vagina, although it diminishes with the passage of time due to follicular atrophy and cutaneous metaplasy.

  8. Localization of 3H-estradiol in the reproductive organs of male and female baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and retention of radiolabeled estradiol by both the male and female reproductive organs were examined in the baboon. Two male and two female baboons were injected intracardially with 1 microgram/kg body weight of 3H-estradiol and two animals, one male and one female, were injected with both labeled and 100 micrograms/kg body weight of unlabeled estradiol. One and a half hours after the injections, the animals were sacrificed and the uterus, cervix, vagina, oviduct, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland were removed and processed for autoradiography. The stratified squamous epithelia of the cervix and vagina demonstrated a light uptake of the label in the germinative, but not in the superficial cell layers. The columnar cells lining the oviduct and uterine glands were labeled, whereas the luminal epithelium of the uterus and the glandular epithelia of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland did not sequester the tritiated steroid. The interstitial cells of all the organs studied demonstrated a moderate to heavy uptake of the radioactivity, whereas the smooth muscle cells were lightly labeled except in the vagina, in which these cells displayed a moderate number of silver grains

  9. Patología vaginal: utilidad de la citología y la colposcopia como métodos diagnósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyn Betzabe Uzcátegui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la citología y la colposcopia como métodos diagnósticos de patología vaginal. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo y descriptivo que incluyó 100 pacientes. Se realizó citología, colposcopia y biopsia dirigida o del tercio superior de vagina, cuando no había lesiones. Resultados: La edad media de las pacientes fue 37,7 años. Hubo patología vaginal en 81 pacientes: 19 (23,4.% neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales I y 62 (76,5 % lesiones no neoplásicas, entre ellas 47 (75,8.% con infección por virus de papiloma humano y 15 (24,2 % con otras lesiones. Entre las 37 pacientes con cambios colposcópicos, 56,8 % tenían epitelio acetoblanco fino, 45,9 % de los cambios estaban en el tercio superior. Hubo 5 casos de lesiones multifocales. Dos citologías presentaron cambios por virus de papiloma humano. En 66 pacientes hubo cambios histológicos compatibles con infección por este virus, 19 con neoplasia. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la citología para lesiones neoplásicas intraepiteliales fue 0 % y 100 %, de la colposcopia 47 % y 78 % y de ambos 75 % y 16 %, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo significativos para infección por virus de papiloma humano y neoplasia intraepitelial fueron: edad, patología cervical y vulvar previa, uso de anticonceptivos orales y tabaquismo. Existe asociación significativa entre patología cervical o vulvar y el diagnóstico de infección por virus de papiloma humano en vagina. Conclusiones: La citología no debe ser usada aisladamente como método de pesquisa de lesiones neoplásicas de la vagina; se recomienda asociarla a la colposcopia vaginal.

  10. Pre-operative, post-operative and exclusive irradiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Surgery is the golden standard of treatment of endometrial carcinoma. The risk of central or vaginal recurrences justifies adjuvant treatment. Methods: Brachytherapy for endometrial adenocarcinoma is given commonly as pre- or post-operative treatment. In case of medical contro-indications for surgery brachytherapy can be applied as the only tratment. Experience of the anticancer center Alexis Vautrin in Nancy of the years 1975 to 1988 is evaluated. Iridium-192 low-dose-rate (LDR) wires were used. Results: Pre-operative brachytherapy was given with a vaginal mould applicator to 580 patients. The dose was 50 Gy at 0.5 cm below the surface of the vagina. The locoregional control rate was 93% after 5 years and the 5-year survival 82%. 139 patients received radiotherapy alone and no surgery. LDR-brachytherapy was given the upper third of the vagina and endometrium with an 'umbrella' applicator. The locoregional control rate was 83% after 5 years and the survival rate 55%. 117 patients received a post-operative brachytherapy of the vagina. The locoregional control rate was 93% after 10 years and the survival rate 65%. Conclusion: A pre- and post-operative radiotherapy results in a reduction of the vaginal relapse rate. The LDR afterloading technique with primary radiotherapy of endometrial adenocarcinoma leads to a locoregional control slightly interior. The treatment results compare favourably with the best of the literature. (orig.)

  11. Excretory urography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in a foal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-week-old Appaloosa filly was admitted for persistent urinary incontinence since birth. Vaginal speculum examination revealed urine flowing from an opening in the right vaginal wall. Cytoscopy demonstrated that the ureters did not terminate at the bladder. The endoscope passed easily from the vagina directly into a dilated right ureter. An excretory urogram confirmed the vaginal termination of at least one ureter, based upon extensive filling of the vagina with contrast media in the absence of bladder filling. Bilateral hydroureter and dilated renal pelves were demonstrated both by excretory urography and by urtrasonography. Euthanasia was required by the owner in lieu of attempted surgical correction. At necroscopy, it was confirmed that the right ureter entered the vagina and the left ureter terminated at the urethra. The diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureter in this foal was suggested by this history and clinical signs, supported by endoscopy and ultrasonography, and confirmed by excretory urography and necropsy. This case establishes the value of diagnostic imaging techniques in the antemortem diagnosis of ectopic ureter

  12. Important differences in nitric oxide synthase activity and predominant isoform in reproductive tissues from human and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hijji J

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the extrapolation of data obtained from experimental animals to the human situation, it is important to know the similarities and differences between human and animal species. Some important characteristics of nitric oxide synthase (NOS in myometrium and vagina from human and rat were compared. NOS-activity was measured by the formation of 14C-citrulline from 14C-arginine and the expression of NOS isoforms was examined by Western blotting. NOS activity in human uterus and vagina was significantly lower than in the tissues from rat. In contrast to the rat where NOS activity was predominantly found in the cytosolic fractions, NOS activity in particulate and cytosolic fractions from both human myometrium and vagina was similar. Data from Western blots confirmed that eNOS and nNOS isoforms were concentrated in the particulate and cytosolic fractions, respectively. Estrogen treatment of rats resulted in a down regulation of uterine cytosolic NOS activity. A down regulation of NOS in the cytosolic fraction was also seen in the human pregnant myometrium as compared with the nonpregnant myometrium. The vaginal NOS activity was considerably higher than the uterus in both species. In spite of some clear-cut qualitative and other differences between human and rat tissues, there are some interesting similarities. Downregulation in pregnancy of human uterine NOS is probably due to, at least in part, the influence of estrogen and progesterone.

  13. Populations of Salmonella enteritidis in the Tissues of Reproductive Organs in Laying Hens After Oral Challenge: A Real-Time PCR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xuan Deng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the populations of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis in reproductive organs of laying hens after oral challenge. Researchers conducted serovar-specific Real-time PCR for S. enteritidis to detect the genomic DNA of S. enteritidis from laying hens at different time points. To validate these results, the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA technique was employed too. The results showed that S. enteritidis was consistently detected in all the samples. Vagina and uterus were positive at 20 h PI and the last organ to show a positive result was the largest and third largest preovulatory follicle at 32 h PI. The copy numbers of S. enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 36-60 h PI with the vagina and uterus containing higher concentrations than other tissues. However, the number of bacteria started decreasing by 3-4 days and by 6 days, the concentration of S. enteritidis DNA was below the detection limits of the PCR assay except the vagina. In conclusion, the results provided insights into the S. enteritidis populations in the reproductive organs. This study will help in understanding the pathogenesis of S. enteritidis infection in vivo.

  14. Utility of vaginal and rectal contrast medium in MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassang, M.; Novellas, S.; Bloch-Marcotte, C.; Chevallier, P. [Hopital Archet 2, Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Delotte, J.; Bongain, A. [Hopital Archet 2, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Toullalan, O. [Hopital de Cannes, Service de Gynecologie, 15 avenue des Broussailles, B.P. 264, Cannes Cedex (France)

    2010-04-15

    To study the sensitivity of MRI performed utilising vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel in the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis. This was a prospective monocentric study. All patients evaluated by the gynaecologist for pelvic pain, endometriosis or infertility were included. Axial and sagittal T2-weighted images were performed both with and without vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel. Three radiologists, all blinded, interpreted the images with a minimum of 15 days between the two readings. MRI performance with and without vaginal and rectal opacification was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity and both positive and negative predictive values. Seventy-eight patients were included. Among these, 31 patients had deep pelvic endometriosis of which 24 were confirmed by laparoscopy. Seventy-six locations of deep pelvic endometriosis were discovered on MRI. For the three reviewers there was a significant improvement in sensitivity between pre- and post-contrast MRI (p < 0.0002). Opacification of the vagina and rectum significantly improved the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis by expanding the vagina and rectum, thus allowing better delineation of the pelvic organs. This was especially apparent for lesions localised to the vagina and rectovaginal septum. (orig.)

  15. Recurrent endometrial cancer: patterns of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Houghton, S.L. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Meroni, R. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Rockall, A.G. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Blake, P. [Department of Gynaecological Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Department of Academic Radiology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate patterns of disease and identify factors predicting outcome in patients presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Materials and methods: A retrospective review was performed of the imaging and clinical data in 86 patients (median age 66 years, range 42-88 years) presenting with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma following primary surgery. Results: Following primary surgery recurrent disease occurred within 2 years in 64% and within 3 years in 87%. Relapse was seen within lymph nodes in 41 (46%), the vagina in 36 (42%) the peritoneum in 24 (28%) and the lung in 21 (24%). Unusual sites of disease included spleen, pancreas, rectum, muscle and brain. Univariate survival analysis showed the factors significant for poor outcome were: multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic disease, haematogenous, peritoneal and nodal spread, poorly differentiated tumour, and early relapse. The presence of disease within the vagina, bladder or lung was not associated with poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis identified multiple sites of disease, liver and splenic metastases to be independent predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion: The most frequently observed sites of relapse are: lymph nodes, vagina, peritoneum and lung. Significant predictors of poor outcome in recurrent disease are multiple sites of disease and liver and splenic metastases.

  16. Our experience of the use of Martius method to eliminate the vesicovaginal fistula

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    Stanojevi? Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes after delivery, gynecological or other surgeries, radiological therapy, or destructions of vesico-vaginal septum due to the tumor or trauma, the unnatural communication between the bladder and vagina occurs. Those are fistulas that occur after the delivery (tocogenic caused by the prolonged delivery or some obstetrics operations 1,2. Some fistulas are high, coming from the fundus of the bladder, medium, if they come just behind the trigonum of the bladder, and low, if they are in the level of trigonum and the neck of the bladder3. The purpose of this paper is to show the operative technique of elimination of medium and low vesicovaginal fistula and the results of the treatment. Material and method The elimination of the vesicovaginal fistula by original Martius technique is done through vagina4. The catheter is inserted through the fistula(figure 1. Than the mucosis of the vagina is cut around the fistula and the vaginal wall is separated from the bladder. The catheter is pulled out and the fistula on the bladder is sown with resorptive stitches. Than the labia maiora nearer to the fistula is cut along from Mons Veneris to the middle and the lipoid tissue is taken with vascular pedicle Than the catheter is inserted in the bladder that should stay there for four weeks. This is the method we used to make surgery in twenty patients with vesicovaginal fistula. The first one had the fistula as the result of the Caesarean section. She was operated twice through the bladder without success. The second patient was a fourteen years old girl that cut herself on the glass and damaged anal sfincter, rectum, vagina and the bladder. The fistula appeared later in the level of trigonum of the bladder. The other eighteen patients got fistula after hysterectomy. All patients were treated as described above and fistulas disappeared. The first patient had another baby a year after the operation by Caesarean section. The other patients have regular miction (figure 4 and 5. Discussion and the conclusion Vesicovaginal fistula are serous complications, for the patients and for the doctors. The only treatment of the vesicovaginal fistula is surgical5,6,7. If any damage of the bladder occurs during any operation it should be treated immediately, otherwise the fistula will appear. The treatment depends of the localization of the fistula. Low fistulas and some medium and urethrovaginal fistulas should be approached through vagina and according to our experience Martius,s method is very efficient. The only important thing is when the fistula is detected to wait at least for two or three months for the fistula to "consolidate" and also to cure the infection.

  17. Genotyping of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci isolated from vaginal and rectal swabs of women at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhelst Rita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group B streptococci (GBS, or Streptococcus agalactiae, are the leading bacterial cause of meningitis and bacterial sepsis in newborns. Here we compared different culture media for GBS detection and we compared the occurrence of different genotypes and serotypes of GBS isolates from the vagina and rectum. Methods Streptococcus agalactiae was cultured separately from both rectum and vagina, for a total of 150 pregnant women, i directly onto Columbia CNA agar, or indirectly onto ii Granada agar resp. iii Columbia CNA agar, after overnight incubation in Lim broth. Results Thirty six women (24% were colonized by GBS. Of these, 19 harbored GBS in both rectum and vagina, 9 only in the vagina and 8 exclusively in the rectum. The combination of Lim broth and subculture on Granada agar was the only culture method that detected all GBS positive women. Using RAPD-analysis, a total of 66 genotypes could be established among the 118 isolates from 32 women for which fingerprinting was carried out. Up to 4 different genotypes in total (rectal + vaginal were found for 4 women, one woman carried 3 different genotypes vaginally and 14 women carried two 2 different genotypes vaginally. Only two subjects were found to carry strains with the same genotype, although the serotype of both of these strains was different. Eighteen of the 19 subjects with GBS at both sites had at least one vaginal and one rectal isolate with the same genotype. We report the presence of two to four different genotypes in 22 (61% of the 36 GBS positive women and the presence of identical genotypes in both sites for all women but one. Conclusion The combination of Lim broth and subculture on Granada medium provide high sensitivity for GBS detection from vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women. We established a higher genotypic diversity per individual than other studies, with up to four different genotypes among a maximum of 6 isolates per individual picked. Still, 18 of the 19 women with GBS from both rectum and vagina had at least one isolate from each sampling site with the same genotype.

  18. Características anatómicas y fisiológicas de los músculos pélvicos en la coneja doméstica (Oryctolagus cuniculus) / Anatomical and physiological characteristics of pelvic muscles in the female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolanda, Cruz; Dora Luz, Corona-Quintanilla; Margarita, Juárez; Margarita, Martínez-Gómez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En mamíferos, la musculatura estriada pélvica se ha relacionado con la regulación de funciones urinarias y poco se sabe de su participación en funciones reproductivas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar las características anatómicas y la inervación de los músculos iliococcígeo y p [...] ubococcígeo de la coneja adulta, y caracterizar la actividad electromiográfica (EMG) refleja en respuesta a la estimulación genital. Para ello se utilizaron técnicas quirúrgicas y electrofisiológicas. Los resultados muestran que el iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo son músculos bilaterales que se originan en el hueso iliaco; están inervados por ramas que emergen de S3 y S4; sus fibras musculares no se adhieren a las vísceras pélvicas, sino que discurren lateral a la vagina y al recto y se insertan en las vértebras sacras. Durante la estimulación de la piel del orificio vaginal y la vagina pélvica y perineal se presentó actividad EMG refleja en ambos músculos. La estimulación de la vagina abdominal no indujo respuesta EMG. La estimulación cervical produjo inhibición temporal en la actividad del iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo. Estos resultados contribuyen a las escasas descripciones anatómicas de la musculatura pélvica de la coneja que se encuentran en libros de texto y atlas; también sugieren que los músculos pélvicos iliococcígeo y pubococcígeo podrían activarse reflejamente durante procesos reproductivos, como la cópula y el parto. Abstract in english In mammals, the pelvic striated muscles have been linked to the regulation of urinary functions and little is known about the involvement of this muscle in reproductive functions. The objective of this study was to use surgical and electrophysiological techniques to determine the anatomical features [...] and innervation of iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus muscles in adult female rabbits and characterize the reflex electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to genital stimulation. Results show that the iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus are long bilateral muscles with fibers attached to the ilium bone. The muscle fibers are not attached to the pelvic viscera but they run adjacent to the vagina and rectum to be inserted into the sacral vertebrae. The iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus muscles are innervated by branches arising from S3 and S4. The reflex EMG activity was obtained during stimulation of the vaginal orifice skin and the perineal and pelvic vagina. Abdominal vaginal stimulation did not cause an EMG response. Cervical stimulation produced a temporary inhibition in the activity of the iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus. These findings extend the poor descriptions of innervation and anatomy of the striated pelvic musculature shown in the textbooks and atlas of rabbits. They also suggest that the iliococcygeus and pubococcygeous muscles can be activated by reflex action during reproductive processes such as mating and parturition.

  19. Prevención del prolapso genital en histerectomía abdominal utilizando los ligamentos redondos: Experiencia personal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farith Atías

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Prevenir el prolapso de la cúpula vaginal, empleando una técnica peroperatoria que consiste en fijar la cúpula vaginal a los ligamentos redondos, en el momento de realizar la intervención. Métodos: Realizada la histerectomía, se procedió al cierre de la cúpula vaginal con puntos separados en número de 6 a 8 con material no absorbible, dependiendo de la amplitud de la vagina. Los cabos distales son utilizados para anudar horizontalmente los ligamentos redondos. La fijación de las dos paredes del extremo superior de la vagina, garantiza mayor estabilidad de la vagina y menor posibilidad de producir el prolapso de la cúpula y/o de las paredes anterior y posterior de la vagina. Ambiente: Servicio de Ginecología, Hospital Universitario de Caracas Resultados: Las 124 pacientes histerectomizadas y controladas anualmente en un lapso entre 2 y 27 años, con un promedio de 7 años, ninguna de ellas presentó prolapso de cúpula vaginal. Las histerectomías se realizaron en el ejercicio privado. En centros asistenciales públicos, es muy difícil hacer seguimiento y evaluar las pacientes, por razones múltiples. Conclusiones: La histerectomía ocupa el primer lugar de las intervenciones ginecológicas, esto obliga a realizar la suspensión y fijación de la cúpula vaginal y simultáneamente corregir la patología asociada del aparato genital. El procedimiento que hemos empleado tuvo resultados muy favorables. La calidad de vida de las mujeres intervenidas quirúrgicamente no se desmejoró, como suele suceder cuando se produce el prolapso de la cúpula vaginal.Objective: To prevent vaginal vault prolapse, using a preoperative technique to fix the vaginal vault to the round ligaments in total abdominal hysterectomy, and identify associated pathology in the genital area. Methods: After hysterectomy, we proceed to the closure of the vaginal vault with interrupted sutures with non-absorbable material, in number of 6-8, depending of the amplitude of the vagina, the distal ends are used to tie horizontally bilateral round ligaments. The setting of the two upper walls of the vagina, ensures greater stability of the vagina and lower possibility of occurrence of prolapse of the dome and/or the anterior and posterior vaginal walls. Setting: Servicio de Ginecologia, Hospital Universitario de Caracas Results: The 124 patients undergoing hysterectomy, checked annually over a period of time between 2 and 27 years, with an average of 7 years, neither had vaginal prolapse. Conclusion: Histerectomy is the firstone gynecological operation. It requires making the suspension and fixation of the vaginal vault and simultaneously correct the genital tract associated pathology. The procedure we used had very favorable results. We can not compare our results with other techniques, do to scarse national an international references. The quality of life of women surgically intervened did not deteriorated, as usually happens when there is prolapse of the vaginal vault.

  20. Prevención del prolapso genital en histerectomía abdominal utilizando los ligamentos redondos: Experiencia personal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Farith, Atías.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Prevenir el prolapso de la cúpula vaginal, empleando una técnica peroperatoria que consiste en fijar la cúpula vaginal a los ligamentos redondos, en el momento de realizar la intervención. Métodos: Realizada la histerectomía, se procedió al cierre de la cúpula vaginal con puntos separados [...] en número de 6 a 8 con material no absorbible, dependiendo de la amplitud de la vagina. Los cabos distales son utilizados para anudar horizontalmente los ligamentos redondos. La fijación de las dos paredes del extremo superior de la vagina, garantiza mayor estabilidad de la vagina y menor posibilidad de producir el prolapso de la cúpula y/o de las paredes anterior y posterior de la vagina. Ambiente: Servicio de Ginecología, Hospital Universitario de Caracas Resultados: Las 124 pacientes histerectomizadas y controladas anualmente en un lapso entre 2 y 27 años, con un promedio de 7 años, ninguna de ellas presentó prolapso de cúpula vaginal. Las histerectomías se realizaron en el ejercicio privado. En centros asistenciales públicos, es muy difícil hacer seguimiento y evaluar las pacientes, por razones múltiples. Conclusiones: La histerectomía ocupa el primer lugar de las intervenciones ginecológicas, esto obliga a realizar la suspensión y fijación de la cúpula vaginal y simultáneamente corregir la patología asociada del aparato genital. El procedimiento que hemos empleado tuvo resultados muy favorables. La calidad de vida de las mujeres intervenidas quirúrgicamente no se desmejoró, como suele suceder cuando se produce el prolapso de la cúpula vaginal. Abstract in english Objective: To prevent vaginal vault prolapse, using a preoperative technique to fix the vaginal vault to the round ligaments in total abdominal hysterectomy, and identify associated pathology in the genital area. Methods: After hysterectomy, we proceed to the closure of the vaginal vault with interr [...] upted sutures with non-absorbable material, in number of 6-8, depending of the amplitude of the vagina, the distal ends are used to tie horizontally bilateral round ligaments. The setting of the two upper walls of the vagina, ensures greater stability of the vagina and lower possibility of occurrence of prolapse of the dome and/or the anterior and posterior vaginal walls. Setting: Servicio de Ginecologia, Hospital Universitario de Caracas Results: The 124 patients undergoing hysterectomy, checked annually over a period of time between 2 and 27 years, with an average of 7 years, neither had vaginal prolapse. Conclusion: Histerectomy is the firstone gynecological operation. It requires making the suspension and fixation of the vaginal vault and simultaneously correct the genital tract associated pathology. The procedure we used had very favorable results. We can not compare our results with other techniques, do to scarse national an international references. The quality of life of women surgically intervened did not deteriorated, as usually happens when there is prolapse of the vaginal vault.

  1. Inverse planning and class solutions for brachytherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy or interventional radiooncology is a method of radiation therapy. It is a method, where a small encapsulated radioactive source is placed near to / in the tumour and therefore delivers high doses directly to the target volume. Organs at risk (OARs) are spared due to the inverse square dose fall-off. In the past years there was a slight stagnation in the development of techniques for brachytherapy treatment. While external beam radiotherapy became more and more sophisticated, in brachytherapy traditional methods have been still used. Recently, 3D imaging was considered also as the modality for brachytherapy and more precise brachytherapy could expand. Nowadays, an image guided brachytherapy is state-of-art in many centres. Integration of imaging methods lead to the dose distribution individually tailored for each patient. Treatment plan optimization is mostly performed manually as an adaptation of a standard loading pattern. Recently, inverse planning approaches have been introduced into brachytherapy. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to analyze inverse planning and to develop concepts how to integrate inverse planning into cervical cancer brachytherapy. First part of the thesis analyzes the Hybrid Inverse treatment Planning and Optimization (HIPO) algorithm and proposes a workflow how to safely work with this algorithm. The problem of inverse planning generally is that only the dose and volume parameters are taken into account and spatial dose distribution is neglected. This fact can lead to unwanted high dose regions in a normal tissue. A unique implementation of HIPO into the treatment planning system using additional features enabled to create treatment plans similar to the plans resulting from manual optimization and to shape the high dose regions inside the CTV. In the second part the HIPO algorithm is compared to the Inverse Planning Simulated Annealing (IPSA) algorithm. IPSA is implemented into the commercial treatment planning system. It has no additional features how to control spatial distribution of high dose regions. It is possible to create a dosimetrically acceptable treatment plans with IPSA. Nevertheless, the size of high dose regions is not acceptable. In comparison to manual treatment planning as well as to HIPO optimization, IPSA lead to the conflicting results concerning high dose regions. To be able to use IPSA for inverse treatment planning in cervical cancer brachytherapy additional tools have to be developed. The last part of the thesis is engaged with vaginal wall dosimetry. Dose volume constraints for target volume as well as for organs OARs are an input for inverse planning optimization calculation. A dose tolerance of each OAR has to be known to be able to create appropriate constraints. Until now only bladder, rectum and sigmoid were considered as OARs. The dose limits for vagina don't exist yet because of several uncertainties during assessing of dose to the vagina and vaginal morbidity. To overcome contouring uncertainties a simplified vagina contour was proposed and tested. The analysis showed that this contour is able to detect differences between different applicators as well as between different treatment plans. A prospective study comparing dosimetric results of this model and side effects in the vagina has to be done to prove whether this contour is working or not. In conclusion, this thesis proved that inverse planning can be used for cervical cancer brachytherapy. An appropriate implementation of the inverse planning algorithm has to be considered to avoid high dose regions. Prior including of a dose volume constrains of vagina as another input parameter for the inverse planning calculation vaginal dose reporting has to be solved. The feasibility of the proposed simplified vagina contour for dose reporting has to be proven with a prospective study. (author)

  2. Patología vaginal: utilidad de la citología y la colposcopia como métodos diagnósticos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yanyn Betzabe, Uzcátegui; María Carolina, Tovar; Coromoto Jacqueline, Lorenzo; Mireya, González.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la citología y la colposcopia como métodos diagnósticos de patología vaginal. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo y descriptivo que incluyó 100 pacientes. Se realizó citología, colposcopia y biopsia dirigida o del tercio superior de vagina, cuando no había lesiones. Resultados: La edad me [...] dia de las pacientes fue 37,7 años. Hubo patología vaginal en 81 pacientes: 19 (23,4.%) neoplasias intraepiteliales vaginales I y 62 (76,5 %) lesiones no neoplásicas, entre ellas 47 (75,8.%) con infección por virus de papiloma humano y 15 (24,2 %) con otras lesiones. Entre las 37 pacientes con cambios colposcópicos, 56,8 % tenían epitelio acetoblanco fino, 45,9 % de los cambios estaban en el tercio superior. Hubo 5 casos de lesiones multifocales. Dos citologías presentaron cambios por virus de papiloma humano. En 66 pacientes hubo cambios histológicos compatibles con infección por este virus, 19 con neoplasia. La sensibilidad y especificidad de la citología para lesiones neoplásicas intraepiteliales fue 0 % y 100 %, de la colposcopia 47 % y 78 % y de ambos 75 % y 16 %, respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo significativos para infección por virus de papiloma humano y neoplasia intraepitelial fueron: edad, patología cervical y vulvar previa, uso de anticonceptivos orales y tabaquismo. Existe asociación significativa entre patología cervical o vulvar y el diagnóstico de infección por virus de papiloma humano en vagina. Conclusiones: La citología no debe ser usada aisladamente como método de pesquisa de lesiones neoplásicas de la vagina; se recomienda asociarla a la colposcopia vaginal. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the colposcopy and cytology as vaginal pathology diagnostic methods. Methods: prospective and descriptive study involving 100 patients. Cytology, colposcopy and directed biopsy, or in the upper vagina third when there was no injuries, was conducted. Results: The average age of [...] the patients was 37.7 years. There was vaginal pathology in 81 patients: 19 (23.4 %) vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia I and 62 (76.5 %) injuries non neoplastic, including 47 (75.8.%) with infection by human papillomavirus and 15 (24.2 %) with other injuries. Among the 37 patients with colposcopy changes, 56.8 % had fine acetoblanco epithelium, 45.9 % of the changes were in the upper third. There were 5 cases of multifocal lesions. Two PAP submitted changes for human papillomavirus. In 66 patients there were histological changes consistent with infection by this virus, 19 with neoplasia. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology for intraepithelial neoplastic lesions was 0 % and 100 %, for the colposcopy 47 per cent and 78 per cent, and for both methods, 75 % and 16 %, respectively. Significant risk factors for infection of human papillomavirus and intraepithelial neoplasia were: age, prior cervical and vulvar disease, use of oral contraceptives and smoking. There is significant association between cervical or vulvar pathology and the diagnosis of infection of human papillomavirus in vagina. Conclusions: Cytology should not be used alone as a method of investigation of neoplastic lesions of the vagina; It is recommended to associate it with the vaginal colposcopy.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LUMINAL OVIDUCTAL EPITHELIUM OF THE LAYING AND NONLAYING MUSCOVY DUCK (Cairina moschata, LINNEAUS, 1758) / ASPECTOS MORFOLOGICOS E HISTOQUIMICOS DEL EPITELIO LUMINAL DEL OVIDUCTO DE LA PATA SILVESTRE (Cairina moschata, LINNAEUS, 1785) DURANTE LOS PERIODOS DE POSTURA Y NO POSTURA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joaquim, Evêncio-Neto; Liriane Baratella, Evêncio; Walter Kenji, Fukumoto; Manuel de Jesus, Simões.

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiadas la morfología y la histoquímica del epitelio luminal del oviducto de la pata silvestre (Cairina moschata, Linnaeus, 1785)durante los períodos de postura y no postura. Se utilizaron 6 ejemplares, 3 en postura y 3 en no-postura. Los resultados mostraron que el oviducto está desarroll [...] ado en el lado izquierdo y atrofiado en el lado derecho y que está constituido por seis regiones: fimbrias, infundíbulo, magno, itsmo, glándula de la cáscara y vagina. El oviducto es más evidente y desarrollado en la fase de postura. El epitelio de revestimiento es simple cilíndrico ciliado, excepto en la región de la vagina donde se presentó pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado. En todas las porciones del oviducto se observaron células ciliadas y no ciliadas. En la fase de postura predominaban las células no ciliadas y en la fase de no postura, las ciliadas. En la región de las fimbrias y en la glándula de la cáscara se observa equilibrio entre los dos tipos celulares. Por histoquímica se comprobó que el epitelio superficial muestra reactividad positiva al PAS en infundíbulo, magno e itsmo (excepto en la fase de postura) y vagina. En fimbrias y cáscara no fueron observadas células mucosasen ninguna de las dos fases Abstract in english The authors have used three laying and three non-laying muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata, Linneaus, 1758), in order to study morphological and histochemical aspects of the luminal oviductal epithelium. The results showed that the oviduct of the muscovy duck is well-developed at the left side, atrophi [...] ed at the right side and consists of six different regions: fimbria, infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell-gland and vagina. The oviduct is more evident and developed in the laying phase of the reproductive period. The lining epithelium is of single cylindric ciliated type, with the exception of the region of the vagina, where it is of pseudo-stratified cylindric ciliated type. In all portions of the oviduct it was observed that the epithelium presents ciliated and non-ciliated cells. It was verified a predominance of non-ciliated cells in the laying period and of ciliated cells in the nonlaying period, with the exception of the regions of the fimbriae and shell-gland, where an equilibrium of these two cell-types is observed. With regard to the detection of mucous substances, it was noted that the surface oviductal epithelium showed positive reactivity to PAS in the infundibulum, magnum and isthmus, and to A.B. pH 2.5 and 0.5 in the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus (with the exception of the laying period) and vagina. It was not observed the presence of mucous cells in the fimbriae and shell-gland in both phases of the reproductive period

  4. Evaluación de la toxicidad vaginal de Croton lechleri en conejas / Assessment of Croton lechleri vaginal toxicity in rabbits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salomón, Ayala; Juan, Rojas; David, Díaz; José, Juárez; Carlos, Delgado.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la toxicidad vaginal de una preparación en gel de Croton lechleri en conejas. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón, Instituto de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto de Patología de la Facultad de Medicina [...] , y Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Resina de Croton lechleri y conejos hembras, blancos, Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Los animales fueron distribuidos en tres grupos (n=5): I. Control, vehículo; II, C. lechleri 1%; y III, C. lechleri 5%; los conejos recibieron estas muestras en un volumen de 1 mL por vía intravaginal, una vez/día, durante 10 días consecutivos. Se observó el estado clínico general, así como la apariencia física de la vagina y el perineo por signos de flujo, eritema y edema. Al final del experimento se realizó la exéresis quirúrgica de la vagina de cada coneja y se evaluó macroscópicamente, buscando signos de irritación, sangrado o daño de la mucosa. Luego, se fijó en formol tamponado al 10% y posteriormente se tomó tres muestras representativas de las regiones cérvico-vaginal, media-vaginal, y urovaginal, para el estudio histopatológico. Principales medidas de resultados: Irritación vaginal. Resultados: El examen macroscópico de la vagina en el grupo control mostró aspecto congestivo leve en forma difusa, en todos los casos, y de aspecto similar en las muestras del grupo Croton lechleri al 1%. En la formulación al 5%, en dos casos se observó congestión petequial parcial leve. El estudio histopatológico reveló un puntaje promedio de irritación vaginal de 3,4 a 6 y 3,6 a 8 para las preparaciones al 1% y 5%, respectivamente. Conclusión: En nuestras condiciones experimentales, las preparaciones de gel de C. lechleri evaluadas fueron no irritantes para la mucosa vaginal y resultaron aceptables. Abstract in english Objective: To determine a Croton lechleri vaginal gel preparation toxicity in rabbits. Design: Experimental study. Setting: Alberto Guzman Barron Biochemistry and Nutrition Research Center, Clinical Research Institute, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy Faculty, Universidad Nac [...] ional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Biological material: Croton lechleri resin and female white New Zealand rabbits. Methods: The animals were divided into three groups (n=5): I. Control, vehicle; II, C. lechleri 1%, and III, C. lechleri 5%; they received samples of 1 mL volume intravaginally 1 time/day for 10 consecutive days. The general clinical condition and physical appearance of the vagina and the perineum for signs of flow, erythema and edema were observed. At the end of the experiment surgical resection of the vagina of each rabbit was performed and signs of irritation, bleeding or mucosal damage were determined macroscopically. Specimens were placed in 10% buffered formalin and cervico-vaginal, mid-vaginal, and uro-vaginal samples underwent histopathology study. Main outcome measures: Vaginal irritation. Results: Gross examination of the vagina in both the control and the Croton lechleri 1% groups showed mild diffuse congestion. Two cases of Croton lechleri 5% formulation showed mild petechial congestion. Histopathology study revealed a vaginal irritation average score of respectively 3.4 to 6, and 3.6 to 8 for the 1% and 5% preparations. Conclusions: In our experimental conditions, gel preparations of C. lechleri evaluated were acceptable and not irritating to the vaginal mucosa.

  5. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Betsi, Gregoria I; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2006-08-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infection affecting the quality of life of many women. Probiotics have been investigated as possible agents for the prevention of recurrences of VVC. We reviewed the available literature. In some studies the development of VVC was associated with either a low number of lactobacilli in the vagina or with the presence of H2O2-non-producing vaginal lactobacilli, although there are a few studies not supporting these statements. In addition, in vitro studies have shown that lactobacilli can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and/or its adherence on the vaginal epithelium. The results of some clinical trials support the effectiveness of lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14, administered either orally or intravaginally in colonizing the vagina and/or preventing the colonization and infection of the vagina by C. albicans, while the results of a small number of clinical trials do not corroborate these findings. Nevertheless, most of the relevant clinical trials had methodological problems such as small sample size, no control group (placebo) and included women without confirmed recurrent VVC, and thus they are not reliable for drawing definitive conclusions. Thus, the available evidence for the use of probiotics for prevention of recurrent VVC is limited. However, the empirical use of probiotics may be considered in women with frequent recurrence of VVC (more than three episodes per year), especially for those who have adverse effects from or contraindications for the use of antifungal agents, since adverse effects of probiotics are very rare. In any case women should be clearly informed about the unproven usefulness of probiotics for this purpose. In conclusion, despite the promising results of some studies, further research is needed to prove the effectiveness of probiotics in preventing the recurrences of VVC and to allow their wide use for this indication. PMID:16790461

  6. Comparison of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in the Pregnant Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaghi Farideh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available - To Compare colonization of group B streptococcus (GBS in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnant women. In this prospective study 50 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus (both pregestational and gestational and 43 pregnant women without diabetes between 33 and 37 weeks' gestation were evaluated. Three samples for Group B streptococcal culture detection were obtained from each subject in the following order: perinea sample, vaginal sample, and an anorectic sample. All had singleton gestations, negative tests for human immunodeficiency virus, and intact membranes at enrollment. Pearson chi-square and fisher, Exact test were used when appropriate. Most common site of GBS colonization in all women was vagina (11.8%. Colonization of group B streptococcus in control group included vagina (7% perineum (0.3% and rectum 0.3% and in diabetic group included vagina (16% perineum (16% and rectum (16%. Although comparison was shown higher vaginal colonization rate in diabetic group (16% versus 7% but difference was not significant (P=0.154.The prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization in gestational diabetes was 20% and higher than pregestational diabetic women. Among women with pregestational diabetes, the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization was 15% in non-insulin dependent diabetic women and 10% in insulin dependent diabetic women (P> 0.05. Comparison between two groups showed high rectal colonization in diabetic group and difference was significant (P= 0.027. Pregnant diabetic patients have higher carriage rates of group B streptococcus (GBS in rectum than non-diabetic pregnant women and diabetes is a risk factor for group B streptococcus colonization during pregnancy.

  7. High Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinomas With Lower Vaginal Infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This report presents the clinical applications of an automated treatment-planning program of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for advanced uterine cervical cancer infiltrating the parametrium and the lower vagina. Methods and Materials: We adopted HDR-ICBT under optimized dose distribution for 22 cervical cancer patients with tumor infiltration of the lower half of the vagina. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages IIB-IVA. After whole pelvic external beam irradiation with a median dose of 30.6 Gy, a conventional ICBT was applied as 'pear-shaped' isodose curve. Then 3-4 more sessions per week of this new method of ICBT were performed. With a simple determination of the treatment volume, the cervix-parametrium, and the lower vagina were covered automatically and simultaneously by this program, that was designated as 'utero-vaginal brachytherapy'. The mean follow-up period was 87.4 months (range, 51.8-147.9 months). Results: Isodose curve for this program was 'galaxy-shaped'. Five-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 90.7% and 81.8%, respectively. Among those patients with late complications higher than Grade 2 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity score, only one (4.5%) developed severe proctitis. Conclusions: Because of the favorable treatment outcomes, this treatment-planning program with a simplified target-volume based dosimetry was proposed for cervical cancer with lower vaginal infiltration

  8. Aplicación de los colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales en cirugía pediátrica: a propósito de un caso / Application of vulvoperineal fasciocutaneous flaps in pediatric surgery: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Pérez Bertólez; N., García Soldevilla; O., Maderna Graciano; F., Camacho González; A., Primelles Díaz.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de agenesia de vagina es de 1/4000- 10000 recién nacidas vivas. La causa más frecuente es el síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Presentamos un caso de reconstrucción vaginal con colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales de Málaga en una paciente pediátrica afecta de este síndrom [...] e, describiendo los pasos del procedimiento y las bases anatómicas en las que se fundamenta. Esta técnica permite la creación de una neovagina sensible, con una cobertura de excelente calidad, con un ángulo de inclinación fisiológico y natural y un axis anatómico correcto para la relación sexual; se realiza en un solo tiempo quirúrgico y con mínima morbilidad para la paciente. Su principal inconveniente es el crecimiento de pelo dentro de la vagina, aunque se atenúa con el tiempo debido a un fenómeno de atrofia folicular y metaplasia cutánea. Abstract in english The incidence of vaginal agenesis is 1/4000-10000 female alive newborns. The most frequent cause is Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. A technique for vaginal reconstruction using the vulvoperineal fasciocutaneous flaps (Malaga flaps) in a pediatric patient affected of this syndrome is present [...] ed, describing the steps of the procedure and its anatomic basis. This technique allows the reconstruction of an excellent quality and sensible neovagina, with a physiologic inclination angle which allows the sexual intercourse, in one single stage operation and with minimal morbidity. The main inconvenient of this procedure is the hair growth inside the vagina, although it diminishes with the passage of time due to follicular atrophy and cutaneous metaplasy.

  9. Dor abdominal e retenção urinária aguda em adolescente apresentação clínica de hematocolpos e revisão da literatura / Adolescent with abdominal pain and acute urinary retention: clinical presentation of hematocolpos and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena, Sousa; Helena, Fonseca; Lurdes, Sampaio.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O hematocolpos é uma patologia rara resultante da acumulação vaginal de sangue menstrual nas jovens com hímen imperfurado. Caso clínico: Adolescente de 13 anos e 11 meses, sexo feminino, previamente saudável, que recorreu ao serviço de urgência por dor abdominal e lombar, tenesmo e reten [...] ção urinária aguda. Ausência de menarca. Ao exame objectivo: estádio pubertário IV de Tanner, distensão abdominal e massa pélvica. O exame ginecológico revelou membrana himeneal azulada e proeminente. A ecogra?a pélvica evidenciou globo vesical muito exuberante, acumulação de ?uido ecogénico na vagina e hímen imperfurado. A himenectomia de urgência, efectuada poucas horas depois, decorreu sem intercorrências. Clinicamente bem na reavaliação um mês pós-operatório. Conclusão: Numa adolescente com amenorreia primária e dor abdominal ou retenção urinária aguda, o hematocolpos é um diagnóstico a colocar. A avaliação do estádio pubertário e história menstrual deve ser incluída nas consultas de rotina. Abstract in english Introduction: Hematocolpos in adolescents with imperforate hymen resulting from vaginal blood accumulation is a quite rare pathology. Case report: A previously healthy almost 14-year-old girl, was admitted to the emergency department with lower abdominal pain and acute urinary retention. No previous [...] menstruation. Objective examination with pubertal Tanner stage IV, abdominal distension and pelvic mass. Gynecological examination revealed a blue imperforate hymen bulging from the vagina introitus outwards. Ultrasonography showed exuberant vesical globe and echogenic ?uid accumulation in the vagina. Cruciate hymenotomy was un­eventful. Asymptomatic in the follow-up, one month later. Conclusion: The diagnosis of imperforate hymen and hematocolpos is probable in an adolescent girl with primary amenorrhea, abdominal pain or acute urinary retention. Evaluation of the pubertal stage and menses should be included in routine practice.

  10. Traumatismo encefalocraneano fetal por vía penetrante transvaginal / Transvaginal penetrating fetal head injury

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Rafael, Moscote Salazar; Gabriel, Alcalá-Cerra; Sandra Milena, Castellar Leones; Juan José, Gutiérrez Paternina.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Los traumatismos encefalocraneanos in útero son extremadamente raros y suelen ser consecuencia de lesiones penetrantes a través de la pared torácica o abdominal, que alcanzan la cavidad uterina. Los originados a través de la vagina se han comunicado excepcionalmente. Se presenta el caso de un feto q [...] ue padeció traumatismo encefalocraneano penetrante, con fractura de la bóveda craneal y hemorragia intraventricular tras la introducción violenta de un objeto contundente a través de la vagina por parte de su madre. La ruptura traumática de las membranas ovulares desencadenó el trabajo de parto pretérmino. Tras el nacimiento, se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico de la fractura deprimida y desbridamiento de la herida; sin embargo, el paciente falleció cuatro semanas más tarde a causa de sepsis neonatal. El tratamiento de estos casos no solo deber ser dirigido a la corrección de las lesiones traumáticas primarias sino también a la prevención de las complicaciones infecciosas. Abstract in english In utero head traumas are extremely rare and are usually caused by penetrating injuries in the thoracic or abdominal wall that affect the uterine cavity. Transvaginal fetal head injuries have been reported in exceptional cases. This is a case-report of a fetus affected by penetrating head trauma wit [...] h skull fracture and intra-ventricular hemorrhage after his mother's self-insertion of a blunt object, violently through the vagina. Trauma disrupted the integrity of intrauterine membranes and precipitated preterm labor. After birth, there was a debridement of the scalp and surgical management of the fracture was performed; nevertheless, the patient died four weeks later, due to neonatal sepsis. Management of these wounds must not only be focused on repairing the primary wound, but on preventing the infectious complications.

  11. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) - 2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor ?. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1?1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2

  12. Induction of avian ?-defensins by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and proinflammatory cytokines in hen vaginal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Yuka; Abdel Mageed, Ahmad M; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori

    2013-06-01

    Immune function in the vagina of hen oviduct is essential to prevent infection by microorganisms colonizing in the cloaca. The aim of this study was to determine whether CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) stimulate the expression of avian ?-defensins (AvBDs) in hen vaginal cells. Specific questions were whether CpG-ODN affects the expression of AvBDs and proinflammatory cytokines and whether the cytokines affect AvBDs expression in vaginal cells. The dispersed vaginal cells of White Leghorn laying hens were cultured and stimulated by different doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG-ODN, interleukin 1? (IL1B), or IL6. The cultured cell population contained epithelial cells, fibroblast-like cells, and CD45-positive leukocytes. The immunoreactive AvBD3, -10, and -12 were localized in the mucosal epithelium in the section of the vagina. The expression of AvBDs, IL1B, and IL6 was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of AvBD1, -3, -4, -5, -10, and -12 in the cultured vaginal cells without stimulation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 21, which recognize LPS and CpG-ODN respectively and IL1 and IL6 receptors (IL1R1 and IL6R) were also expressed in them. The expression of IL1B, IL6, and AvBD10 and -12 was upregulated by LPS, whereas only IL1B and IL6 were upregulated by CpG-ODN. IL1B stimulation upregulated AvBD1 and -3 expression, whereas IL6 stimulation did not cause changes in AvBDs expression. These results suggest that CpG-ODN derived from microbes upregulates the expression of IL1B and IL6 by interaction with TLR21 and then IL1B induces AvBD1 and -3 to prevent infection in the vagina. PMID:23625580

  13. Vicisitudes de un sencillo inventor / Vicissitudes of a humble inventor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, García López.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Procedimiento mecanizado para el tratamiento de la Incontinencia Urinaria de Esfuerzo en la mujer. Fijación retropúbica de la vagina con una grapa disparada con grapadora diseñada con la forma apropiada, que utiliza la sínfisis del pubis como lugar de anclaje. Se pretende demostrar la razón fisiopat [...] ológica para devolver la continencia, por medio del anclaje de la uretra. En nuestras condiciones elementales de investigación y desarrollo no se pudo llegar a diseñar el procedimiento idóneo, aunque se presentó la idea mecanizada a Empresas de ámbito internacional. Se relata resumidamente el desarrollo del instrumento hasta conseguir hacerlo operativo, filmándose una intervención que se presentó al Congreso Hispanoamericano que se realizó en Madrid en 1992. El instrumento se patentó en la Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas en julio de 1992 con categoría de Patente de Invención, al no existir antecedentes de procedimientos mecanizados para la fijación de la uretra a través de la vagina. Abstract in english Mechanized procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Retropubic fixation of the vagina with a stapler specifically designed, using the pubis’ symphysis as the site for anchoring. We intend to demonstrate the physiopathologic rationale to achieve continence by anchoring the u [...] rethra. In our elementary conditions for research and development we could not design the suitable procedure, although the idea was presented to international companies. We summarize the development of the instrument until it was operative, filming one operation which was presented to the Hispanic-American Congress in Madrid 1992. The instrument was patented in the Spanish Office of Patents and Trademarks in July 1992 with the category of invention patent because there were no previous mechanized procedures for vaginal fixation.

  14. Reproducibility and genital sparing with a vaginal dilator used for female anal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Acute vulvitis, acute urethritis, and permanent sexual dysfunction are common among patients treated with chemoradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Avoidance of the genitalia may reduce sexual dysfunction. A vaginal dilator may help delineate and displace the vulva and lower vagina away from the primary tumor. The goal of this study was to evaluate the positional reproducibility and vaginal sparing with the use of a vaginal dilator. Materials and methods: Ten female patients treated with IMRT for anal cancer were included in this study. A silicone vaginal dilator measuring 29 mm in diameter and 114 mm in length was inserted into the vagina before simulation and each treatment. The reproducibility of dilator placement was investigated with antero-posterior and lateral images acquired daily. Weekly cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging was used to confirm coverage of the GTV, which was typically posterior and inferior to the dilator apex. Finally, a planning study was performed to compare the vaginal doses for these 10 patients to a comparable group of 10 female patients who were treated for anal cancer with IMRT without vaginal dilators. Results: The absolute values of the location of the dilator apex were 7.0 ± 7.8 mm in the supero-inferior direction, 7.5 ± 5.5 mm in the antero-posterior, and 3.8 ± 3.1 mm in the lateral direction. Coverage of the GTV and CTV was confirmed from CBCT images. The mean dose to the vagina was lower by 5.5 Gy, on average, for the vaginal dilator patients, compared to patients treated without vaginal dilators. Conclusion: The vaginal dilator tended to be inserted more inferiorly during treatment than during simulation. For these ten patients, this did not compromise tumor coverage. Combined with IMRT treatment planning, use of a vaginal dilator could allow for maximum sparing of female genitalia for patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancer.

  15. A Pilot Study Measuring the Distribution and Permeability of a Vaginal HIV Microbicide Gel Vehicle Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography, and a Radiolabeled Small Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Edward J; Schwartz, Jill L; Friend, David R; Coleman, Jenell S; Hendrix, Craig W

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal microbicide gels containing tenofovir have proven effective in HIV prevention, offering the advantage of reduced systemic toxicity. We studied the vaginal distribution and effect on mucosal permeability of a gel vehicle. Six premenopausal women were enrolled. In Phase 1, a spreading gel containing (99m)technetium-DTPA ((99m)Tc) radiolabel and gadolinium contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was dosed intravaginally. MRI was obtained at 0.5, 4, and 24?h, and single photon emission computed tomography with conventional computed tomography (SPECT/CT) at 1.5, 5, and 25?h postdosing. Pads and tissues were measured for activity to determine gel loss. In Phase 2, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), containing (99m)Tc-DTPA, was dosed as a permeability control; permeability was measured in blood and urine for both phases. SPECT/CT showed the distribution of spreading gel throughout the vagina with the highest concentration of radiosignal in the fornices and ectocervix; signal intensity diminished over 25?h. MRI showed the greatest signal accumulation in the fornices, most notably 1-4?h postdosing. The median (interquartile range) isotope signal loss from the vagina through 6?h was 29.1% (15.8-39.9%). Mucosal permeability to (99m)Tc-DTPA following spreading gel was negligible, in contrast to N-9, with detectable radiosignal in plasma, peaking at 8?h (5-12). Following spreading gel dosing, 0.004% (0.001-2.04%) of the radiosignal accumulated in urine over 12?h compared to 8.31% (7.07-11.01%) with N-9, (p=0.043). Spreading gel distributed variably throughout the vagina, persisting for 24?h, with signal concentrating in the fornices and ectocervix. The spreading gel had no significant effect on vaginal mucosal permeability. PMID:26077739

  16. In vivo dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in L-alanine in gynecological low dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present the results of in vivo dosimetry performed on 15 patients treated for gynecological cancer with the aim of optimizing the detector design and its application in body cavities and comparing the doses measured in vivo with those calculated by the Plato (Nucletron) system of brachytherapy treatment planning. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is, as a dosimetric method, based on the detection of free radicals generated by ionizing radiation in L-alanine. The concentration of free radicals is proportional to the absorbed dose and is determined by the EPR technique. The detectors appear as small cellulose capsules (outer diameter 5 mm, length 15 mm), tightly filled with crystalline L-alanine powder. The doses from 137Cs brachytherapy sources were measured in selected points inside the rectum and vagina. The relative deviations of measured doses from those calculated by the treatment planning system ranged from -28% to +40%. The mean deviations from the prescribed doses were relatively low (+1% for detectors placed in the rectum, - 10% for detectors placed in the vagina). However, due to a low number of samples and large standard deviations of the mean values (±23% and ±11% for detectors placed in the rectum and the vagina, respectively), the deviations of the mean values are of low statistical significance. The accuracy of the measurements was analyzed and is hereby discussed. The main sources of the differences between the measured and calculated dose should, generally, be attributed to uncertainties in the determination of the detector position inside the body as ascertained from the radiographs and to uncontrollable motion of detectors during treatment. (author)

  17. Study on proliferative activity of female genital tract cells during postnatal development after being affected by 500-rad exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female albino rats were given, at the age of 8 or 19 days, a signle whole-body exposure to 500 rad on a ''Rocus-M'' apparatus. Mitotic activity of epithelium cells from uterus, cervix, and vagina were examined at 2, 6, 12, 26, 50, and 74 hr postradiation. At 8 days of age (period of active growth), uterine, cervical, and vaginal epithelia had high mitotic indices (28.4%, 21.2%, and 23.0%, respectively). At 2 hr postradiation, mitotic index was found to drop to 3.0%; at 6 hr it began to rise, to attain a maximum at 12 hr (39.8%, 37.0%, 42.9%). A second maximum, of virtually similar extent, was noted at 74 hr postradiation. Over the period from 26 hr to 50 hr, mitotic activity was below maximum. At 19 days of age (period of prefunctional differentiation), mitotic indices of epithelium cells from uterus, cervix, and vagina were 2.9%, 7.1%, and 14.4%, respectively. The radiation induced suppression of mitotic activity in epithelia from the organs studied, as observed at 2 hr postradiation, was succeeded by a gradual rise with a maximum level between 12 hr and 50 hr; this peak rate exceeded control figures by a factor of 5 for uterus and a factor of 2.5 for cervix and vagina. At 74 hr postradiation, cervical and vaginal epithelia had recovered a normal mitotic rate, while uterine epithelium had a mitotic rate still twice the initial figure. The results of the study indicate that recovery of mitotic activity is more rapid and of a higher level for uterine epithelium from animals irradiated at 19 days of age. This is likely to be accounted for by a longer mitotic cycle - 203.4 hr - in uterine epithelium cells, with relatively more extended radiation sensitive phases of the cycle. (author)

  18. Actualización sobre vaginosis bacteriana / Update on bacterial vaginosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilmer, Martínez Martínez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana es una enfermedad polibacteriana que afecta a muchas mujeres en todo el mundo. La mayor prevalencia se observa en países subdesarrollados y en poblaciones con factores de riesgo como la promiscuidad. La enfermedad se produce cuando los lactobacilos, presentes en la microbiota [...] normal de la vagina de mujeres sanas son reemplazados o superados en número por bacterias Gram negativas o Gram variables, anaerobias estrictas o facultativas presentes en pequeñas cantidades en la vagina sana y en el tracto gastrointestinal. La enfermedad puede cursar de forma asintomática o con leucorrea y ardor vulvar, en algunas pacientes puede ocasionar complicaciones obstétricas y ginecológicas importantes. El diagnóstico de la vaginosis bacteriana ha sido un tema controversial. Aunque existen algunos métodos diagnósticos clínicos y microbiológicos, todavía no se cuenta con un método potente para el diagnóstico eficaz de la vaginosis bacteriana. Abstract in english Bacterial vaginosis is a polybacterial disease affecting many women all over the world. The highest prevalence occurs in underdeveloped countries and in population with risky factors such as promiscuity. The disease takes place when lactobacilli from vaginal microbiota are replaced or outweighed in [...] number by Gram negative or Gram variable, strict or facultative anaerobes bacteria that can be found in the gastrointestinal tract and in few concentrations in healthy vagina. The disease may be asymptomatic or presents with leucorrhea and vulvar burning, and in some patients it can cause major obstetric and gynecological complications. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis has been a controversial issue. Although some clinical and microbiological diagnostic methods exist, a powerful method for the effective diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis does not exist yet.

  19. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840) Primates-Callitrichidae / Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840) Primates-Callitrichidae

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Pissinatti; R., Tortelly; M., Porto; C.H.F., Burity; A., Pissinatti.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840), cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilare [...] s mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa. Abstract in english It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous [...] clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  20. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  1. X-ray morphology of Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on the X-ray morphology in 52 patients with Crohn's disease (part of a multicenter study for the purpose of therapy control). The most frequent morphological sign was the so-called 'string sign', also known as Kantor's sign (55%). Changes in the mucosal relief were also very frequent (45%). Chief localisation was the terminal ileum (64%), exclusive affection of the colon geing rare (8%). The formation of a fistula is described as the most important complication; a rare one occurred between rectum and vagina. In two cases pseudopolypous changes were seen. The article also discusses the various aspects after surgery for Crohn's disease. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous rupture of urinary bladder associated with massive fecal impaction (fecaloma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Dennis J; Cox, John; Archer, Michael E; Bready, Robert J; Reiber, Kari

    2009-09-01

    We report a case of sudden death due to a catastrophic spontaneous rupture of a urinary bladder associated with megacolon due to a fecal impaction (fecaloma). The massively distended rectum and sigmoid colon filled the pelvic cavity and pressed up against the posterior aspects of the uterus, vagina, and urinary bladder. This produced bladder outlet obstruction, followed by massive dilatation and rupture of the urinary bladder, bilateral hydronephrosis, and a 3.5 liter collection of urinary fluid within the abdominal cavity. Complications of chronic constipation, fecalomas, and rupture of the urinary bladder are reviewed. PMID:19696587

  3. Excretion rate of progesterone in milk and faeces in lactating dairy cows with two levels of milk yield

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiee, Ahmad; Macmillan, Keith; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to measure the effect of the level of daily milk yield on the excretion rate of progesterone (P4) in milk and faeces in high-producing (HP) and low-producing (LP) lactating dairy cows. A GnRH-agonist was implanted to block endogenous production of P4. A CIDR device was inserted into the vagina and left in place for 11 days. The average and peak milk yields were greater in HP cows ($P < 0.0001$). Mean plasma concentrations of P4 were also similar in both groups ($P = 0...

  4. The long-term management and outcomes of cloacal anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, M. Ashani; Creighton, Sarah M.; Wood, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Cloacal anomalies occur when failure of the urogenital septum to separate the cloacal membrane results in the urethra, vagina, rectum and anus opening into a single common channel. The reported incidence is 1:50,000 live births. Short-term paediatric outcomes of surgery are well reported and survival into adulthood is now usual, but long-term outcome data are less comprehensive. Chronic renal failure is reported to occur in 50 % of patients with cloacal anomalies, and 26–72 % (dependant on th...

  5. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Cassone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophi...

  6. Wulwodynia – problem interdyscyplinarny dotycz?cy tak?e kobiet pomenopauzalnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Baszak-Radoma?ska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wulwodynia is defined as a discomfort or pain in the entrance to the vagina, urethra, perineum or anuswithout perceptible pathological changes. Postmenopausal women often experience vaginal dryness (45%,and burning (10%, whereas pain during sexual intercourse feels 1/3 of women after menopause (provokedwulwodynia. Differences in the management of patient with post-menopausal wulwodynia is getting a biopsyof the vulva in justified cases, which is obviously not necessary in the vulvar pain patients of childbearing age.Another difference is that the most effective treatment consisting of local estrogenotherapy. The article presentsthe spectrum of therapeutic intervention.

  7. Evaluación de dos formas de colección de semen en Alpacas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa, Dávalos R; Juan, Olazábal L.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Semen was collected from 10 alpaca males aged 3-6 years, 3 times weekly for 3 weeks, followed by a week of rest, over a 3 month period. A heated artificial vagina was used together with a dummy model and a female in heat. Semen was collected from all 10 animals utilizing both procedures. Average cop [...] ulation time was 15.9 ± 0.6 and 16.8 ± 0.7 minutes using the dummy and the receptive female (p0.05). Sperm volume averaged 1.03 ± 0.04 and 1.73 ± 0.09 ml, (p

  8. Tumor mucinoso gigante de ovario de bajo grado de malignidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Barrios Viera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores de ovario de bajo grado de malignidad o "borderline", se originan del epitelio de este órgano y tienen un comportamiento biológico intermedio entre las lesiones malignas y benignas del ovario. El estudio se realizó con el objetivo de profundizar en el diagnóstico y la conducta terapéutica de esta infrecuente afección nosológica. Se presenta un caso clínico atendido en el servicio de Cirugía General del Hospital General Docente "Leopoldito Martínez", en San José de las Lajas, provincia Mayabeque. No se identificaron signos patológicos. Se identificó vulva y vagina sin alteraciones. El diagnóstico se estableció por el examen histopatológico y el tratamiento quirúrgico fue radical.

  9. Sex reassignment surgery for male to female transsexuals: initial experience in Okayama university hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Atsushi; Tokuyama,Eijirou; Nanba,Yuzaburo; Tsutsui,Tetsuya; Kimata,Yoshihiro; Nakatsuka,Mikiya; Koshima, Isao; Saika,Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; KUMON, HIROMI

    2005-01-01

    The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and ...

  10. Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Natalie H; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex

    2012-09-01

    A rescued female manatee was observed expelling a fetal bone from the vulva. The manatee was anesthetized and diagnosed with uterine retention of a fetal skeleton by ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Episiotomy was performed to gain manual access to the vagina and uterus for removal of the skeleton. Second intention healing of the episiotomy site produced excellent results. Rescued female manatees should receive a thorough reproductive tract evaluation since presence of retained fetal tissues might not be evident in blood or hormone analyses. Retention of a whole or partial dead fetus can be life-threatening to manatees, and retained tissues should be removed as early as possible. PMID:23082540

  11. Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Epinephelus spp. in Brazilian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C P; Buchmann, K; Gibson, D I

    2000-02-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus n. sp. from the gills of Epinephelus niveatus has a reniform proximal region of the cirrus-bulb which is divided in four chambers and contains a large, round reservoir of the male accessory glands, a partly sclerotised vagina which is enclosed in a muscular funnel cap and squamodiscs with 15-16 open concentric rows of elements. P. beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) is redescribed from E. marginatus with additional morphological data. These are the first reports of Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. in South American Atlantic waters, where the potentiality for the mariculture of Epinephelus spp. is currently being evaluated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hargisi (Oliver & Paperna, 1984) n. comb. is proposed for Diplectanum hargisi. PMID:10743859

  12. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secaf, E. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Hricak, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Urology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gooding, C.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Ho, V.W. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gorczyca, D.P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ringertz, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Conte, F.A. (Dept. of Pediatr

    1994-08-01

    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  13. Indirect evaluation of estrogenic activity post heterotopic ovarian autograft in rats Avaliação indireta da atividade estrogênica após transplante heterotópico de ovário em ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Lamarão Damous; Sônia Maria da Silva; Ricardo dos Santos Simões; Célia Regina Souza Bezerra Sakano; Manuel Jesus Simões; Edna Frasson Souza Montero

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To morphologically evaluate the estrogenic effect on the uterus and vagina of rats submitted to ovarian autografts. METHODS: Twenty Wistar EPM-1 adult rats were bilaterally ovariectomized, followed by ovarian transplants in retroperitoneal regions. The animals were divided in four groups of five animals, according to the day of euthanasia: G4, G7, G14 and G21, corresponding to the 4th, 7th, 14th and 21st day after surgery, respectively. Vaginal smears were collected from the first da...

  14. Sex reassignment surgery for male to female transsexuals: initial experience in Okayama university hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai,Atsushi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and wound dehiscence. Although ours is only an initial experience, we describe our surgical technique herein.

  15. Pathogenicity of different strains of Histophilus somni in the experimental induction of ovine epididymitis

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Tenorio-Gutiérrez, Víctor R.; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Enríquez-Verdugo, Idalia; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine any differences in pathogenicity when sheep are experimentally infected with different Histophilus somni isolates: a) 2336 bovine origin strain; b) an isolate from ram orchitis and epididymitis; c) an isolate from the brain of a sheep with neurological signs; d) an isolate from the vagina of a clinically healthy ewe. A total of 20 rams divided in groups of 5 animals each were inoculated in the epididymis with 1 × 107 CFU/mL of H. somni; a negative co...

  16. Evisceración intestinal transvaginal después de histerectomía / Transvaginal intestinal evisceration after hysterectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Lobato Miguelez; Amparo, Villasante Moran; Carlos, Pérez Sanjose; María, Marques Melon; Miguel, López Valverde.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La evisceración intestinal a través de la vagina después de una histerectomía es una complicación rara. Se presenta el caso de mujer posmenopáusica que presentó una evisceración transvaginal del intestino delgado después de que se le realizara una histerectomía abdominal. Se revisa la epidemiología, [...] causas, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Abstract in english Transvaginal intestinal evisceration after hysterectomy is a uncommon complication. This is the case of a postmenopausal women presenting with transvaginal evisceration of the small intestine after a abdominal hysterectomy. Epidemiology, causes, diagnosis and treatment are analyzed. [...

  17. Use of Gen-Probe AccuProbe Group B streptococcus test to detect group B streptococci in broth cultures of vaginal-anorectal specimens from pregnant women: comparison with traditional culture method.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbeau, P P; Heiter, B. J.; Figdore, M

    1997-01-01

    Detection of vaginal-anorectal colonization with group B streptococci (GBS) is critical to the prevention of neonatal GBS disease. The recommended method for the detection of GBS is culture of the distal vagina and anorectum in a selective broth medium followed by subculture to solid media and identification of GBS on the solid media. The purpose of this study was to compare this standard culture method with the detection of GBS directly from an enrichment broth by utilizing the Gen-Probe Acc...

  18. Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A study of 404 women that attended the Microbiology Laboratory of "Ramón Gonzalez Coro" Gynecoobstetric Hospital, in Havana City, was conducted aimed at identifying species of yeasts isolated from Pap smears, registering the signs and clinical symptoms and determining the risk factors associated wit [...] h infection. The isolated yeasts were identified by the filamentation tests in serum, production of chlamydoconidia and carbohydrate assimilation. It was found that 138 (34.16 %) of women had yeasts in the vagina. 3 genera were identified: Candida (88.49 %). Trichosporon (10.79 %) and Rhodotorula (0.72 %). Pruritus and heat showed statistical significance (p

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  20. Human Papillomavirus Community in Healthy Persons, Defined by Metagenomics Analysis of Human Microbiome Project Shotgun Sequencing Data Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yingfei; Madupu, Ramana; Karaoz, Ulas; Nossa, Carlos W.; Yang, Liying; Yooseph, Shibu; Yachimski, Patrick S; Brodie, Eoin L.; Nelson, Karen E; Pei, Zhiheng

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a number of neoplastic diseases in humans. Here, we show a complex normal HPV community in a cohort of 103 healthy human subjects, by metagenomics analysis of the shotgun sequencing data generated from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. The overall HPV prevalence was 68.9% and was highest in the skin (61.3%), followed by the vagina (41.5%), mouth (30%), and gut (17.3%). Of the 109 HPV types as well as additional unclassified types detected, most were undetecta...

  1. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Maura L. Gillison; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Lauri E. Markowitz; Fisher, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable ...

  2. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men, in Cancers other than Cervical and in Benign Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Ferrer, Elena; Burchell, Ann N.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Muñoz, Nubia; Schiffman, Mark; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is commonly found in the genital tract of men and women with or without any clinical lesion. The association of HPV DNA with several different ano-genital cancers other than cervical has been reported for the vulva, vagina, anus and penis. HPV DNA has also been identified in head and neck cancers in the oral cavity, the oropharynx and the larynx in both sexes. In men, 80–85% of anal cancers and close to 50% of penile cancers are associated with HPV infecti...

  3. A histological surprise: a rare case of myoepithelial tumour of the scrotum and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidike, Stephen; Nwaeze, Obinna; Aftab, Fuad

    2014-01-01

    A lump in the scrotum is a common presentation in most surgical clinics. However, myoepithelial tumours may not be up on the list of differentials. Although they may look benign, myoepithelial tumours are rare and have malignant potential. Treatment of these tumours involved total excision and adequate follow-up in cases of malignancy. These groups of tumours have not been reported in the scrotum in the past, but their occurrence in the vagina may not come as a surprise bearing in mind the embryonic origin of both organs. PMID:25084790

  4. The sexual function following irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following irradiation of a carcinoma of the cervix, the vagina is frequently narrowed or sometimes obliterated. This article considers the sexual functioning of women following such treatment. They noticed changes in their emotions and felt alterations in their function as a woman. They were less happy with cohabitation and found it more difficult to experience an orgasm. Their frequency of lovemaking diminished as did the occurrence of sexual dreams. A treatment scheme for helping such women with their sexual problems is outlined. (C.F.)

  5. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, S B; Liu, F D; Liu, J H; Zhang, J; Hu, X F; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, X; Huang, X T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU), organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole. PMID:26068346

  6. Scarless hepatectomy: natural orifice specimen extraction after left lateral sectionectomy / Hepatectomia sem cicatriz: extração do espécime por orifício natural depois de seccionectomia lateral esquerda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Univaldo E., SAGAE; Ivan R. B., ORSO; Helin Minoru, MATSUMOTO; Paulo, HERMAN.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O uso da laparoscopia na cirurgia de fígado está bem estabelecida e considerada o padrão-ouro para pequenas ressecções. As ressecções laparoscópicas têm menor morbidade e melhor resultado estético, mas ainda requerem uma i [...] ncisão para remover a peça cirúrgica. A possibilidade de retirar a amostra através de orifícios naturais e evitar incisão abdominal pode melhorar ainda mais os benefícios oferecidos pelos procedimentos minimamente invasivos. OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica de extração transvaginal do espécime após seccionectomia hepática laparoscópica esquerda lateral. MÉTODO: A hepatectomia laparoscópica é realizada de forma padrão. Depois de completar a ressecção, a amostra é colocada dentro de um saco plástico de recuperação. Para a realização de extração, uma colpotomia vaginal é realizada, guiado por trocarte de 12 mm introduzido através da vagina. Em seguida, o saco é removido, puxando-o através da incisão estendida na parede posterior da vagina. Após a extração, a incisão da colpotomia é fechada por laparoscopia. RESULTADOS: Esta técnica foi realizada em uma mulher de 74 anos de idade, por lesão de 3 cm entre os segmentos 2 e 3 do fígado Ela teve recuperação rápida e sem complicações. CONCLUSÃO: Esta técnica parece ser viável, segura e evitar as complicações de uma incisão abdominal. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The use of laparoscopy in liver surgery is well established and considered as the gold standard for small resections. The laparoscopic resections have lower morbidity and better cosmetic results, but still require an inc [...] ision to remove the surgical specimen. The possibility of remove the specimen through natural orifices and avoid an abdominal incision may further improve the benefits offered by minimally invasive procedures. AIM: To describe the technique of transvaginal extraction of the specimen after laparoscopic liver left lateral sectionectomy. METHOD: The laparoscopic liver resection is performed in a standard fashion. After completing the resection, the specimen is placed into a retrieval plastic bag. To perform de extraction, a vaginal colpotomy is performed, guided by a 12 mm trocar introduced through the vagina. Then the extraction bag is removed pulling the bag through the extended incision in the posterior wall of the vagina. After the extraction, the colpotomy incision is closed laparoscopically. RESULTS: This technique was performed in a 74-year-old woman with a 3 cm lesion between liver segments 2 and 3. She had a fast and uneventful recovery. CONCLUSION: This technique appears to be feasible, safe and avoid the complications of an abdominal incision.

  7. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  8. Delayed vaginal reconstruction in the fibrotic pelvis following radiation or previous reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaginal reconstruction was performed in 14 patients who had developed vaginal stenosis secondary to extensive pelvic fibrosis after pelvic radiation therapy (12 patients) or prior vaginal reconstruction (2 patients). Sixteen procedures were performed using a split-thickness skin graft. All patients had satisfactory vaginal restoration, and 12 patients reported good vaginal function. No fistula developed as a result of the operative procedure, but one patient later developed a rectovaginal fistula resulting from tumor recurrence. Successful vaginal reconstruction can be achieved even years after initial therapy in patients who develop an obliterated vagina from previous radiation or surgery

  9. Molecular Identification and Historic Demography of the Marine Tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis) at the Amazon River’s Mouth by Means of Mitochondrial Control Region Gene Sequences and Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Mark Shostell; Daniela Tejada-Martínez; Pablo Escobar-Armel; David Mejia; Manuel Ruiz-García

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, three fishermen, with artisan fishing vessels and drift gillnets, accidentally captured around 200 dolphins between Vigia and Salinópolis in the Amazon River estuary. The dolphins died and they then prepared their vaginas and penises in order to sell them in the Ver-ao-Peso market in the city of Belem within the Brazilian state of Pará. We randomly sampled a minimal quantity of tissue of these sexual organs from 78 of these 200 dolphins and we determined the following results after s...

  10. Motilidad y fertilidad del semen de carnero descongelado a dos diferentes ritmos de temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Bertha Angulo Mejorada; Antonio Ortiz Hern\\u00E1ndez; Jos\\u00E9 Manuel Berruecos Villalobos; Deborah Feldman Steel; Javier Valencia M\\u00E9ndez

    1999-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar el efecto de dos temperaturas y tiempos de descongelación sobre la motilidad y fertilidad del semen del ovino. Se utilizó un total de 208 ovejas y 13 carneros de diferentes razas. El semen se obtuvo por medio de una vagina artificial. Se evaluó, se diluyó con Tris -ácido cítrico-fructosa-glicerol-yema de huevo y se centrifugó a 200 g/15 min; el paquete celular se resuspendió con el mismo diluyente. El semen diluido se congeló en pajill...

  11. Experimental infection of the marmoset genital tract with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. P.; Hetherington, C M; Osborn, M. F.; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated in McCoy cells from the urethra of a patient suffering from non-gonococcal urethritis was inoculated into the vagina of 8 female marmosets. Chlamydiae were isolated repeatedly for 10-42 days from the lower genital tract of 7 of the marmosets. Six of the infected animals developed an acute inflammatory reaction in the genital tract and chlamydial inclusions in epithelial cells were seen in smears from 2 of them. In addition, each of 6 infected marmose...

  12. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7 and 8 (n=7 weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4% presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05 in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7 e 8 (n=7 semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4% apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05 nos valores de uréia ou creatinina em qualquer grupo, comparado com valores pré-operatórios. CONCLUSÃO: Apresentamos aqui um método barato e simples para a indução lenta de obstrução uretral em ratas adultas, com desenvolvimento progressivo de hipertrofia vesical e ureterohidronefrose, podendo ser utilizado como modelo experimental para estudo de diferentes aspectos da nefropatia obstrutiva.

  13. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results / Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvio, Tucci Jr; Carlos Augusto Ferreira, Molina; Marcelo Ferreira, Cassini; Murilo Ferreira de, Andrade; Gilson José de, Lima; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Martins.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7) e 8 (n= [...] 7) semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle) foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4%) apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05) nos valores de uréia ou creatinina em qualquer grupo, comparado com valores pré-operatórios. CONCLUSÃO: Apresentamos aqui um método barato e simples para a indução lenta de obstrução uretral em ratas adultas, com desenvolvimento progressivo de hipertrofia vesical e ureterohidronefrose, podendo ser utilizado como modelo experimental para estudo de diferentes aspectos da nefropatia obstrutiva. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 [...] (n=7) and 8 (n=7) weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4%) presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05) in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.

  14. Radiotherapy - an effective treatment for vaginal verrucous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaginal carcinoma makes up 1%-2% of all gynaecological tumours. Verrucous carcinoma of the vagina is even more rare -only 16 cases are reported in the scientific literature. A case of a complete regression after 60 Gy fractionated radiotherapy by a tumour 12 cm3 in size is reported. Most authors are of the opinion that radiotherapy causes anaplastic transformation of verrucous carcinoma. The minority view, that anaplastic transformation does not occur, is correct and is supported by our clinical and radiological data. The conflicting literature on vaginal verrucous carcinoma (VVC) is reviewed with reference to verrucous carcinoma at other sites. (Author)

  15. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse at midlife, quality of life, and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Fritel, Xavier; Varnoux, Noëlle; Zins, Marie; Breart, Gérard; Ringa, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate quality of life, prevalence, and risk factors associated with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) among middle-aged women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was mailed to 3,114 women aged 50-61 years in the GAZEL cohort; 2,640 (85%) returned it. Symptomatic POP was defined by feeling a bulge from the vagina (sometimes, often, or all the time compared with never or rarely). Quality of life was determined with the Nottingham Health Profile que...

  16. Localization of placenta in scanning by /sup 113m/In radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O.K.; Oh, K.K.; Park, C.Y.; Choi, B.S.; Ha, C.H.; Chung, S.O.; Kwak, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    Placenta previa is a common grave complication of late pregnancy, usually manifestated clinically by painless antenatal vaginal bleeding. Digital and rectal examinations are dangerous, due to the possibility that profuse hemorrhage from the vagina may result. Various radiological examinations have been performed in placenta previa for diagnosis and localization. However radioisotopic methods are superior due to safety, simplicity and a lower radiation dose, both fetal and maternal, compared to plain radiography. Among radiopharmaceuticals, In/sup 113m/ (transferrin for blood pool scan) is useful, giving more satisfactory results without any complications or untoward reactions.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  18. A new Thelastomatidae, Oryctophila bonaerensis sp. nov. (Nematoda parasite of curculionid beetle larvae of Prosalbus rufus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora B. Camino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oryctophila bonaerensis sp. nov. parasitizing curculionid beetle larvae from Argentina, is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by a prominent genital cone and a short and filiform tail appendage. Female with vulva at midlenght of body, vagina long, S-shaped, monodelphic, opistodelphic. Male with one club-shaped spicule. Genital papillae arranged as follows: one pair of large preanal papillae and three pairs of postanal papillae of various sizes: a pair of medium sized papillae is immediately posterior to the anus, followed by a pair of large papillae, and one pair of small papillae at the base of the caudal appendage.

  19. VULVAR MELANOMA- A CASE REPORT AND SHORT LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Tayade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare tumors located in areas of the body not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It  is the second most common vulvar malignancy but represents less than 1% of all melanomas. Because the overall prognosis is poor, it represents a significant issue in women’s health. Because of the inherent difficulty in performing large studies of vulvar melanoma, many questions about the biology, etiology, risk factors, and optimal management remain unanswered. Research for vulvar cancer is ongoing. We are presenting here a case report and short literature review of the case.

  20. The story of the condom

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Fahd; Mukhtar, Saheel; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat's bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not ...

  1. Combination of hyperthermia and radiation in cancer therapy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-six patients who had tumors known to be refractory to conventional treatment modalities were treated with 2450 MHz microwave hyperthermia in combination with radiation. Twenty-two out of the 26 patients were treated with external hyperthermia. Twelve out of the 22 patients (54.5%) experienced complete regression and 6 patients (27.3%) partial regression. Four patients who had tumors in the oral cavity and vagina were treates with internal applicators especially developed for intracavitary hyperthermia. One patient experienced complete regression and 3 patients partial regression. (orig.)

  2. [Frequency, diagnostic criteria and consequences of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Ma?gorzata; Martirosian, Gayane

    2004-01-01

    Vaginal discharge based on changes in a vaginal ecosystem (decreasing number of Lactobacillus and increasing number of Mobiluncus spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella spp., Mycoplasma hominis, Peptostreptococcus spp) appears to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with: preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, amniotic fluid infection, endometritis, low-weight neonates. The role of natural microflora of vagina, the most important diagnostic criteria, epidemiology and immunological changes in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis are discussed in the light of the recent publications. PMID:15730019

  3. [Streptococcus group B--association with Aerobic vaginitis and ability to human cell lines activation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanik, Ma?gorzata; Kafel, Joanna; Lagergård, Teresa; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate: the frequency of aerobic vaginitis, susceptibility of the GBS isolated from vagina of non-pregnant women with and without cervicitis to selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and the proinflammatory cytokines production by HeLa, THP-I, U - 937 cells after stimulation by vaginal GBS. Our results indicated low frequency of the aerobic vaginitis -4.5% among non-pregnant young women and ability of the vaginal GBS to release proinflammatory cytokines by human cell lines in vitro. PMID:17929406

  4. Heminefrectomía NOTES-híbrido transvaginal por duplicidad del sistema colector renal en el paciente adulto / Hybrid-NOTES transvaginal hemi-nephrectomy for duplicated renal collecting system in the adult patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Sotelo; C., Giedelman; O., Carmona; R. de, Andrade; D., Ramírez.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La duplicación del uréter y la pelvis renal es la anomalía más común del tracto urinario superior. La heminefrectomía polar superior es el tratamiento de elección cuando la anomalía se asocia con ectopia ureteral o ureterocele en un sistema no funcionante o infección crónica del riñón. [...] Material y método: Se describe la heminefrectomía del polo renal superior por NOTES-híbrido en una mujer de 24 años de edad con infecciones urinarias recurrentes en un sistema superior con escasa función. El procedimiento se realizó con un trócar bariátrico a través de la vagina, y un trócar multicanal (Triport, Olympus Surgical) a través del ombligo. Se utiliza bisturí ultrasónico para la heminefrectomía. El espécimen se retira por la vagina. Resultados: El tiempo operatorio fue 150 minutos y el sangrado 50 cc. Después de una semana la paciente desarrolló un urinoma en el lecho quirúrgico, que precisó exploración por vía laparoscópica. El lecho de la heminefrectomía fue fulgurado y se colocó un drenaje. La paciente se recuperó sin eventualidad tras la reintervención. Conclusiones: Se describe la técnica de heminefrectomía transvaginal con técnica NOTES-híbrido. Este abordaje requiere mayor desarrollo, tanto de la instrumentación como de la técnica. La combinación de los abordajes umbilical y transvaginal restablece la triangulación y facilita la disección, pero se requiere más experiencia para determinar su seguridad, eficacia y reproducibilidad. Abstract in english Introduction: Duplication of the ureter and renal pelvis is the most common anomaly of the upper urinary tract. Upper pole heminephrectomy is a treatment option when duplication anomalies are associated with ureteral ectopia or ureterocele with an associated nonfunctioning or infected upper pole moi [...] ety. Material and method: We describe a NOTES hybrid transvaginal upper pole heminephrectomy in a 24 year old with recurrent infections in a poorly functioning right upper pole moiety. The procedure was performed with a bariatric trocar in the vagina, and a multichannel single-port device (Triport, Olympus Surgical) in the umbilicus. An ultrasonic scalpel was used for the heminephrectomy. The specimen was retrieved through the vagina. Results: Operative time was 150 minutes and blood loss 50 cc. One week later the patient developed urinoma at the surgical site and was re-explored laparoscopically. The cut edge of the heminephrectomy defect was fulgurated and a drain placed. The patient recovered uneventfully following re-exploration. Conclusions: We describe the technique for transvaginal Hybrid-NOTES heminephrectomy. This approach requires further development with respect to instrumentation, and surgical expertise. The combined umbilical and vaginal approached restored triangulation and facilitates dissection, but more experience is required to determine safety, efficacy and reproducibility.

  5. A review of female genital schistosomiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjetland, Eyrun F; Leutscher, Peter D C

    2012-01-01

    In a review of the studies on genital schistosomiasis, the cervix, the Fallopian tubes, and the vagina are the most common gynaecological sites to harbour Schistosoma haematobium. Lesions are caused by host responses to dead or viable schistosomiasis eggs and may render women with genital schistosomiasis susceptible to HIV. The typical genital changes, such as sandy patches and pathological blood vessels may make women susceptible to super-infection, cause contact bleeding, decreased fertility, abortions, discharge and bleeding. Further research is needed to find simple, low-tech diagnostic methods, treatment for chronic lesions, and to explore the preventive effects of mass drug administration on symptoms, sandy patches, HPV and the HIV epidemic.

  6. The Morphology Of Mogheia Kangaraensis N.SP. A New Cestode From The Intestine Of Capra Hircus (GOAT At. Kangara(M.S. India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. PATIL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Scolex of Mogheia kangaraensis n.sp. is medium, oval, highly muscular. Suckers large, oval, arranged in two pairs, one pair in each half of the scolex, overlapping in each other, in each pair. Mature proglottids are thin, broader than long. Testes 20 in number in each segment 10 in poral half and 10 in aporal half, small to medium, bean shaped in appearance, ootype small, oval, ventrally of the ovary. Vagina is a long tube, posterior to the cirrus pouch. Genital pores medium, oval, marginal, regularly alternate.

  7. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, K; NØhr, S B

    1996-01-01

    Biofeedback is a method of pelvic floor rehabilitation using a surface electrode inserted into the vagina and a catheter in the rectum. Forty women with genuine urinary stress incontinence were randomized to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy and physiotherapy in combination with biofeedback. The effect of the treatment was determined by a standardized pad-weighing test. Long-term status was determined using a questionnaire after 2-3 years. Thirty-four women completed the treatment. The study showed a statistically significant better improvement in the biofeedback group. The long-term effect in the biofeedback group seemed better and the patients were more motivated for training afterwards. Udgivelsesdato: 1996-null

  8. Perivaskulær epiteloidcelletumor i uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen; Winter, Pia Engell

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas) are rare tumours with unknown malignant potential. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman, who had had many tumours, initially diagnosed as leiomyomas, removed from her uterus and vagina over 16 years. A recurrent tumour and revision of prior specimens revealed PEComa. As free surgical margins could not be obtained, the woman is regularly controlled by magnetic resonance imaging. So far recurrence has not been detected. This case shows that knowledge of PEComas is important to ensure relevant follow-up as these are low malignant tumours that tend to reoccur.

  9. Aggressive approach in a case of cancer cervix with uremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Janaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in developing countries. Majority of them present in locally advanced stages. A 36-year-old lady presented with bleeding and white discharge per vagina since four months, vomiting and reduced urine output since two weeks. Patient had an exophytic cervical growth. Investigation revealed elevated serum creatinine. Patient received single fraction radiation and underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. At one month follow-up, serum creatinine returned to almost normal level. Patient underwent bilateral ante grade stenting and completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In selected subsets of patients, aggressive management offered longer palliation and good quality of life.

  10. Lower prevalence of breast cancer and cancers of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared to non-athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisch, R E; Wyshak, G; Albright, N. L.; Albright, T. E.; Schiff, I.; Jones, K. P.; Witschi, J.; Shiang, E.; Koff, E.; Marguglio, M.

    1985-01-01

    The prevalence (lifetime occurrence) rate of cancers of the reproductive system (uterus, ovary, cervix and vagina) and breast cancer was determined for 5,398 living alumnae, 2,622 of whom were former college athletes and 2,776 non-athletes, from data on medical and reproductive history, athletic training and diet. The former athletes had a significantly lower risk of cancer of the breast and reproductive system than did the non-athletes. The relative risk (RR), non-athletes/athletes, for canc...

  11. A new Thelastomatidae, Oryctophila bonaerensis sp. nov. (Nematoda) parasite of curculionid beetle larvae of Prosalbus rufus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nora B., Camino; María Fernanda, Achinelly.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oryctophila bonaerensis sp. nov. parasitizing curculionid beetle larvae from Argentina, is described and illustrated. The species is characterized by a prominent genital cone and a short and filiform tail appendage. Female with vulva at midlenght of body, vagina long, S-shaped, monodelphic, opistode [...] lphic. Male with one club-shaped spicule. Genital papillae arranged as follows: one pair of large preanal papillae and three pairs of postanal papillae of various sizes: a pair of medium sized papillae is immediately posterior to the anus, followed by a pair of large papillae, and one pair of small papillae at the base of the caudal appendage.

  12. Whole pelvis megavoltage irradiation with single doses of 1000 rad to palliate advanced gynecologic cancers. [Incidence and severity of acute complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, R.J.; Caderao, J.B.; Delclos, L.; Wharton, J.T.; Peters, L.J.

    1979-03-01

    This study reviews the experiences at M.D. Anderson Hospital of treating advanced gynecologic malignacies for palliation with single doses of 1000 rad per fraction. When feasible, this treatment was repeated twice (for a total of 3 treatments between intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. The patients who received 3 treatments had the best palliation; 2 treatments were more effective than 1. The palliative response was good in cervix, vagina, and vulva, poor in endometrial and ovarian carcinoma. The follow-up was short in some cases, but the acute complications appear minimal.

  13. A rare case of angiomyxoma vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuhi Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally aggressive soft-tissue tumor that has a high propensity for local recurrence. It involves mainly the pelvis, vulva, perineum, vagina and urinary bladder in adult women in the reproductive age. Considering its locally aggressive nature, appropriate management and long-term follow-up is necessary. Though rare, this tumor needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of vulval tumor. We describe a case of angiomyxoma in a 32-year-old young patient presenting with a large recurrent swelling of the left labia majora.

  14. Chylous ascites: a sequel of pelvic radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipes, S.L.; Newton, M.; Lurain, J.R.

    1985-12-01

    Chylous ascites is an unusual condition with many causes. Two cases are presented in which it appeared to be related to whole pelvis irradiation in one patient for carcinoma of the vagina and in another for carcinoma of the vulva. The diagnosis is made by paracentesis and analysis of the fluid. The underlying disease usually requires identification by exploratory laparotomy. Although a malignant process is the most common cause, the only findings in the authors' cases were widespread radiation changes in the intestine. After diagnosis treatment by low-fat diet with medium-chain triglyceride supplements resulted in disappearance of chylous ascites.

  15. Enfermedad de Paget extensa de la vulva: Presentación de un caso y propuesta de manejo conservador / Extensive Paget's disease of the vulva: Case report and a conservative management proposal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gonzalo, Márquez-Acosta; Emilio José, Olaya-Guzmán; Josefina, Jiménez-López; Daniella, Gómez-Pue; Milagros, Pérez-Quintanilla.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Paget extramamaria (EPE) es una patología maligna observada, sobre todo, en áreas donde existe alta densidad de glándulas apocrinas. Presentamos el caso clínico de una paciente de 68 años de edad, atendida en la Clínica de Colposcopia del Servicio de Oncología, del Instituto Naciona [...] l de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, con diagnóstico de enfermedad de Paget a nivel vulvar, vagina, región de periné y región perianal, manejada con sesiones de vaporización con láser, con evolución satisfactoria. Dado que es una enfermedad poco frecuente, más común en el sexo femenino y en la raza blanca, con mayor incidencia en la séptima década de la vida, como es el caso de nuestra paciente, el objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión de la evaluación clínica, haciendo énfasis en el diagnóstico diferencial, uso de colposcopia para diagnóstico y tratamiento conservador fraccionado con vaporización de láser. La baja incidencia de la enfermedad de Paget de la vulva, vagina, periné y región perianal, así como la ausencia de informes sobre la posibilidad de tratamiento no quirúrgico, motivan a informar a la comunidad científica sobre el manejo con vaporización láser, con la intención de evitar la morbilidad que puede traer consigo el manejo quirúrgico convencional Abstract in english Extramammary Paget's disease (EPD) is a malignant disease observed, especially in areas with high density of apocrine glands. We report a case of a patient of 68 years old, attended at the Colposcopy Clinic of Oncology, National Institute of Perinatology Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, diagnosed with [...] Paget's disease of the vulva, vagina, perineum region and perianal region, and managed with laser vaporization sessions with satisfactory outcome. Since it is a rare disease, more common in females and in whites, with the highest incidence in the seventh decade of life, as is the case of our patient, propose in this paper to present a review of the clinical evaluation with emphasis on the differential diagnosis, use of colposcopy for diagnosis and dividing up conservative treatment with laser vaporization of the disease. The low incidence of Paget's disease of the vulva, vagina, perineum and perianal region, and the absence of reports on the possibility of nonsurgical treatment encouraged to inform the scientific community about the management with laser vaporization, with the intention of avoiding morbidity that can lead to the conventional surgical maneuvers

  16. Mouse strain-dependent differences in estrogen sensitivity during vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosci, Paolo; Pietrella, Donatella; Ricci, Giovanni; Pandey, Neelam; Monari, Claudia; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The animal models available for studying the immune response to genital tract infection require induction of a pseudo estrous state, usually achieved by administration of 17-?-estradiol. In our experimental model of vaginal candidiasis, under pseudo estrus, different strains of mice were used. We observed major differences in the clearance of Candida albicans infection among the different strains, ascribable to differing susceptibility to estradiol treatment. In the early phase of infection CD1, BALB/c, C57BL/6 albino and C57BL/6 mice were colonized to similar levels, while in the late phase of infection, BALB/c mice, which are considered genetically resistant to C. albicans infection, exhibited greater susceptibility to vaginal candidiasis than CD1 and C57BL/6 albino strains of mice. This was because estradiol induced "per se" enlarged and fluid-filled uteri, more pronounced in infected mice and consistently more evident in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice than in CD1 mice. Unlike CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed a heavy fungal colonization of the uterus, even though C57BL/6 mice apparently cleared C. albicans from the vagina. The presence of C. albicans in the vagina and uterus was accompanied by a heavy bacterial load. Collectively these observations prompted us to carry out a careful analysis of estradiol effects in a mouse model of vaginal infection. PMID:23054331

  17. Amputação abdômino-perineal mais colostomia para-vaginal no tratamento do câncer reto-anal / Abdomino-perineal amputation plus para-vaginal colostomy in the treatment of reto-anal cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcino, Lázaro da Silva.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O apresenta uma proposta e as tentativas iniciais para evitar a colostomia abdominal quando esta tem que ser definitiva. Na mulher foi possível a sua execução, desde que se aproveitou o tono da musculatura esfincteral vulvovaginal quando ela pode ser preservada na amputação de reto-ânus. O colo, pre [...] parado com as válvulas, desce posteriormente à vagina, por dentro do conjunto esfincteral vulvovaginal. As observações iniciais mostram que esta tentativa poderia ser incrementada para melhores estudos de continência. Abstract in english The Author presents a proposal and lhe initial attempties to avoid the abdominal colostomy when it has to be definitive. In the woman was possible its execution, since it took advantage from the vulvovaginal esfincteral muscle nohen it can be preserved ot the anus-rectum amputation. The colon, prepa [...] red wit the valves, descend posteriorily from the vagina, inside the vulvo-vaginal esfincteral group. The initial observations shows that this attempt could be better developed for cotinency etudies.

  18. [Report on 114 primary vaginal carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J H; Zhang, W H; Li, A L; Wu, A R

    1987-11-01

    114 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated in our hospital from 1958 to 1978. It accounted for 0.83% of all gynecological malignant tumors in the same period. The youngest was 26 years of age, the oldest 75. Patients 40-59 years comprised 61.4%. 33% of patients had wedding age under 17. 63.4% had more than 4 pregnancies and 58.4% gave more than 4 births. 89.69% was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma, 7.2% as adenocarcinoma, 2.06% as undifferentiated carcinoma and 1 as embryonic carcinoma. The tumor occurred frequently in the upper third and posterior wall of the vagina (60% and 68%). In this series, there were 21 stage I, 29 stage II, 61 stage III and 3 stage IV lesions. 110 patients were treated by radiotherapy in different schemes. Intracavitary radium or caesium plus 60Co external irradiation by four fields gave better result with a 5 year survival rate of 66.1%. Only 2 out of 12 patients were cured by 60Co rotation alone but if supplemented by intracavitary radium or caesium, the cure rate was increased. The 5 year survival rate was 71.4% for stage I, 62.1% for stage II, 42.6% for stage III and O for stage IV. After the radiotherapy, rectovaginal fistula developed in 1 patient, vesicovaginal fistula in 1. 14% was complicated with rectal bleeding and 8.18% with hematuria. PMID:3452544

  19. Primary vaginal myeloid sarcoma: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Gaurang; Madabhavi, Irappa; Panchal, Harsha; Patel, Apurva; Anand, Asha; Parikh, Sonia; Jain, Pritam; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Sarkar, Malay

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, or extramedullary myeloid tumour) is an extramedullary mass forming neoplasm composed of myeloid precursor cells. It is usually associated with myeloproliferative disorders but very rarely may precede the onset of leukemia. Here, we are presenting a rare case of primary vaginal myeloid sarcoma in a geriatric female patient without initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A 68-year-old female patient with ECOG Performance Score of 1 presented with pervaginal bleeding for 20 days. On colposcopic examination, she was found to have mass in the anterior fornix of vagina. A punch biopsy specimen revealed chloromatous infiltration of the vagina. LCA (leukocyte common antigen), MPO (myeloperoxidase), and c-kit were strongly positive on IHC (immunohistochemistry). The patient's routine blood investigations were normal including peripheral smear, lactose dehydrogenase, uric acid, 2D echocardiography, conventional cytogenetics, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy. The patient was given 4 cycles of decitabine (Decitex, manufactured by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, India), 20?mg/m(2) for 5 days at an interval of 28 days. There was a partial response to decitabine according to RECIST criteria. As decitabine therapy was well tolerated, we are continuing in the same way until disease progression without any complications. The patient is undergoing regular follow-up at our centre. PMID:25685570

  20. Syed-Neblett interstitial template in locally advanced gynecological malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampuero, F.; Doss, L.L.; Khan, M.; Skipper, B.; Hilgers, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced malignancies of the cervix and vagina were treated with a combination of external radiation therapy and after loading Syed-Neblett iridium template. There were 22 patients with squamous cell cancer and two patients with adenocarcinomas of the cervix. Four patients with squamous cell cancer of the vagina were treated with this method. Only patients with locally advanced disease (cervical lesion >4 cm in diameter) and poor vagnal anatomy were selected for this modality of therapy. In this series the incidence of distant failures of 39% seems to confirm the significance of local volume of disease as a prognostic indicator; despite a local control rate of 59%, only 33% of the patients are alive from 25-51 months. Complications occurred in 12 patients (42%). Six patients (22%) developed severe rectal stricture or rectovaginal fistula necessitating diverting sigmoid colostomy; five patients (18%) developed hemorrhagic proctitis with diarrhea and tenesmus; one patient developed vaginal vault necrosis. Complications occurred 7 to 24 months following therapy. Six of the 12 patients developing complications are dead of disease. On the basis of this study and because of the low cure rate and high incidence of complications, the value of the Syed-Neblett template in locally advanced gynecologic malignancies should be reconsidered.

  1. Vaginal Misoprostol in Early Pregnancy Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna R.Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy failure (EPF occurs in 10-15% of clinically diagnosed pregnancies. 65% of these women are not willing for surgical evacuation. Medical evacuation is gaining acceptance as a treatment of option than surgical or expectant management. This is a prospective clinical trial of 150 pregnant women with EPF of <13weeeks gestation managed by 400µg of vaginal misoprostol 4hourly to a maximum of 3 doses. Failure to expel the products of conception in 24 hours, excessive bleeding per vagina and incomplete expulsion were managed by surgical evacuation. Complete and incomplete evacuation was confirmed by transvaginalsonography (TVS. All surgical evacuations done under I.V. sedation required no anesthesia because of the cervical priming effect of misoprostol. Tolerable prostaglandin side effects were seen and no women required blood transfusion. Acceptance of medical management is 89%. Successful complete medical evacuation occurred in 86%, completely failed in 7.3%, incomplete evacuation in 3.3% and 3.3% underwent emergency surgical evacuation for excessive bleeding per vagina. Misoprostol, an antiulcer drug is still not approved by FDA for EPF management. But acceptance of medical management in EPF is 89%, it is economical without the surgical complication of anesthesia, uterine perforation, infection and uterine adhesions. Thus instead of going for expectant management, medical management has definitely a role in EPF in women not willing for surgical evacuation.

  2. Vaginoplastia: modificación de la técnica de McIndoe usando esponja de gel hemostático / Vaginoplasty: modification to McIndoe techique using hemostatic gel sponge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Antoniadis; G., Charles; I., Mejías; R., Pabón.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 23 años de edad, que consulta por amenorrea primaria. En el examen físico encontramos: fenotipo femenino, genitales externos normales y genitales internos con ausencia de vagina. Los exámenes complementarios, ultrasonido y tomografía abdomino-pélvica, demostrar [...] on útero aplásico. El perfil hormonal (FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona, testosterona y prolactina) fue normal y el cariotipo, 46 XX. Se diagnosticó clínicamente como Síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Realizamos vaginoplastia utilizando técnica descrita por McIndoe modificada, empleando esponja de gel hemostático para la fijación de los injertos. Abstract in english We report a case of a 23 years old female patient with primary amenorrhea. Physical exam: phenotipically female, normal external genitalia, show internal genitalia without evidence of vagina. Complimentary exams, abdominopelvic ultrasound and tomography: aplasic uterus. FSH, LH, estradiol, progester [...] one, testosterone, prolactin, all normal. Cariotype: 46XX. She is clinically diagnosed as a Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Vaginoplasty was performed by modifications of McIndoe´s technique, using hemostatic gel sponges for grafts integration.

  3. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue. PMID:22618209

  4. Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for Intensity-Modulated Pelvic Radiotherapy in Postoperative Treatment of Endometrial and Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an atlas of the clinical target volume (CTV) definitions for postoperative radiotherapy of endometrial and cervical cancer to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group led an international collaberation of cooperative groups in the development of the atlas. The groups included the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Gynecologic Oncology Group, National Cancer Institute of Canada, European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, and American College of Radiology Imaging Network. The members of the group were asked by questionnaire to define the areas that were to be included in the CTV and to outline theses areas on individual computed tomography images. The initial formulation of the group began in late 2004 and culminated with a formal consensus conference in June 2005. Results: The committee achieved a consensus CTV definition for postoperative therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. The CTV should include the common, external, and internal iliac lymph node regions. The upper 3.0 cm of the vagina and paravaginal soft tissue lateral to the vagina should also be included. For patients with cervical cancer, or endometrial cancer with cervical stromal invasion, it is also recommended that the CTV include the presacral lymph node region. Conclusion: This report serves as an international template for the definition of the CTV for postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for endometrial and cervical cancer

  5. Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Norris Turner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vaginal practices (VPs may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n=2,185 participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84% reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ?15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32. Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86. Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored.

  6. Novel cellular evidence of oviduct secretions in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad Yasir; Lisi, Hu; Yang, Ping; Ullah, Shakeeb; Zhang, Linli; Zhang, Qian; Li, Quanfu; Ahmad, Nisar; Chen, Wei; Zeshan, Basit; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-11-01

    The oviduct is the location of fertilization and sperm storage. We examined the ultrastructure of the oviduct epithelium and its glandular secretions in the isthmus, uterus and vagina of Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium in these segments is lined with ciliated, secretory and other cells; the first two cell types span the entire epithelium, with secretory cells being predominant. The ciliated cells are characterized by the presence of a secretory vacuole that releases apocrine secretions into the lumen, whereas the secretory cells contain typical biphasic granules with both dark and light aspects. The third type of cells observed have wider proximal portion, abundant mitochondria, vacuoles, and narrow nuclei. The storage of spermatozoa is restricted to the isthmus, uterus, and vagina. In addition, the gland cells show prominent features, including the presence of granules of different shapes, sizes, and electron densities. The synthesis of these granules is described for the first time in this study. Mitochondria appear to play an important role in the formation of dense granules, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and microfilaments may also play a role in the maturation of these dense granules. After completing the maturation process, these granules are released into the lumen of the gland cells. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 655-665, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350585

  7. Vaginoplastia: modificación de la técnica de McIndoe usando esponja de gel hemostático Vaginoplasty: modification to McIndoe techique using hemostatic gel sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Antoniadis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 23 años de edad, que consulta por amenorrea primaria. En el examen físico encontramos: fenotipo femenino, genitales externos normales y genitales internos con ausencia de vagina. Los exámenes complementarios, ultrasonido y tomografía abdomino-pélvica, demostraron útero aplásico. El perfil hormonal (FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona, testosterona y prolactina fue normal y el cariotipo, 46 XX. Se diagnosticó clínicamente como Síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Realizamos vaginoplastia utilizando técnica descrita por McIndoe modificada, empleando esponja de gel hemostático para la fijación de los injertos.We report a case of a 23 years old female patient with primary amenorrhea. Physical exam: phenotipically female, normal external genitalia, show internal genitalia without evidence of vagina. Complimentary exams, abdominopelvic ultrasound and tomography: aplasic uterus. FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, all normal. Cariotype: 46XX. She is clinically diagnosed as a Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Vaginoplasty was performed by modifications of McIndoe´s technique, using hemostatic gel sponges for grafts integration.

  8. TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. S., BERGDOLL.

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome is a staphylococcal disease caused by toxins produced by the staphylococci, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and enterotoxin B. The disease results from staphylococci growing in the vagina with the use of tampons during menstruation, primarily in young women. However, any staphyloco [...] ccal infection can result in toxic shock syndrome if the staphylococci produce the appropriate toxins and the individual has no antibodies to the toxins. The symptoms can be quite severe, with high fever, low blood pressure, diffuse macular erythroderma, orthostatic dizziness, vomiting and or diarrhea at the onset, severe myalgia, peeling of the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet after seven to ten days, and death in some cases. The disease is not contagious as it is necessary for the toxin producing organisms to infect a cut or incision or be inserted into the vagina with a tampon. A high percentage of individuals have protective antibody titers to the toxins, with the percentage of individuals with titers increasing with age. Anyone colonized with a toxin-producing staphylococci will have a protective antibody titer. The source of the disease causing staphylococci is difficult to determine although it can be transferred from other family members or from a surgeon during operations. The disease is more or less accidental. The toxins are classed as superantigens because they react with many more T-cells than do conventional antigens. They stimulate the production of cytokines which may be directly involved in toxic shock syndrome.

  9. TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. BERGDOLL

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic shock syndrome is a staphylococcal disease caused by toxins produced by the staphylococci, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and enterotoxin B. The disease results from staphylococci growing in the vagina with the use of tampons during menstruation, primarily in young women. However, any staphylococcal infection can result in toxic shock syndrome if the staphylococci produce the appropriate toxins and the individual has no antibodies to the toxins. The symptoms can be quite severe, with high fever, low blood pressure, diffuse macular erythroderma, orthostatic dizziness, vomiting and or diarrhea at the onset, severe myalgia, peeling of the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet after seven to ten days, and death in some cases. The disease is not contagious as it is necessary for the toxin producing organisms to infect a cut or incision or be inserted into the vagina with a tampon. A high percentage of individuals have protective antibody titers to the toxins, with the percentage of individuals with titers increasing with age. Anyone colonized with a toxin-producing staphylococci will have a protective antibody titer. The source of the disease causing staphylococci is difficult to determine although it can be transferred from other family members or from a surgeon during operations. The disease is more or less accidental. The toxins are classed as superantigens because they react with many more T-cells than do conventional antigens. They stimulate the production of cytokines which may be directly involved in toxic shock syndrome.

  10. Triphasic MRI of pelvic organ descent: sources of measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morren, Geert L. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)]. E-mail: geert_morren@hotmail.com; Balasingam, Adrian G. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Wells, J. Elisabeth [Department of Public Health and General Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine, St. Elmo Courts, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hunter, Anne M. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Coates, Richard H. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Perry, Richard E. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To identify sources of error when measuring pelvic organ displacement during straining using triphasic dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: Ten healthy nulliparous woman underwent triphasic dynamic 1.5 T pelvic MRI twice with 1 week between studies. The bladder was filled with 200 ml of a saline solution, the vagina and rectum were opacified with ultrasound gel. T2 weighted images in the sagittal plane were analysed twice by each of the two observers in a blinded fashion. Horizontal and vertical displacement of the bladder neck, bladder base, introitus vaginae, posterior fornix, cul-de sac, pouch of Douglas, anterior rectal wall, anorectal junction and change of the vaginal axis were measured eight times in each volunteer (two images, each read twice by two observers). Variance components were calculated for subject, observer, week, interactions of these three factors, and pure error. An overall standard error of measurement was calculated for a single observation by one observer on a film from one woman at one visit. Results: For the majority of anatomical reference points, the range of displacements measured was wide and the overall measurement error was large. Intra-observer error and week-to-week variation within a subject were important sources of measurement error. Conclusion: Important sources of measurement error when using triphasic dynamic MRI to measure pelvic organ displacement during straining were identified. Recommendations to minimize those errors are made.

  11. Triphasic MRI of pelvic organ descent: sources of measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify sources of error when measuring pelvic organ displacement during straining using triphasic dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: Ten healthy nulliparous woman underwent triphasic dynamic 1.5 T pelvic MRI twice with 1 week between studies. The bladder was filled with 200 ml of a saline solution, the vagina and rectum were opacified with ultrasound gel. T2 weighted images in the sagittal plane were analysed twice by each of the two observers in a blinded fashion. Horizontal and vertical displacement of the bladder neck, bladder base, introitus vaginae, posterior fornix, cul-de sac, pouch of Douglas, anterior rectal wall, anorectal junction and change of the vaginal axis were measured eight times in each volunteer (two images, each read twice by two observers). Variance components were calculated for subject, observer, week, interactions of these three factors, and pure error. An overall standard error of measurement was calculated for a single observation by one observer on a film from one woman at one visit. Results: For the majority of anatomical reference points, the range of displacements measured was wide and the overall measurement error was large. Intra-observer error and week-to-week variation within a subject were important sources of measurement error. Conclusion: Important sources of measurement error when using triphasic dynamic MRI to measure pelvic organ displacement during straining were identified. Recommendations to minimize those errors are made

  12. [Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosch, S; Fogolín, N; Azzaroni, E; Pairetti, N; Dana, L; Minacori, H; Tita, I; Redona, M; Gribaudo, G

    2006-01-01

    Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal--no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected--changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5% VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. PMID:17370572

  13. EVISCERACIÓN DEL INTESTINO DELGADO POR PERINÉ ANTERIOR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Alberto, Torrico Camacho; Juan Pablo, Torrico Vilte; Maryliz F., Torrico Vilte.

    Full Text Available En octubre de 2005, ingresa al servicio de emergencia de la C.N.S. una paciente de 80 años de edad, de sexo femenino con diagnóstico pre y post operatorio de evisceración de intestino delgado por vagina, post trauma, representando el 0,001 % de un total de 93.396 cirugías realizadas entre enero de 1 [...] 982 a marzo de 2006 en la Caja Nacional de Salud hospital Obrero No 2 de la ciudad de Cochabamba. Por la escasa presentación de esta patología a nivel mundial y en nuestro medio, se revisa el tema desde un punto de vista estadístico, diagnóstico y de tratamiento. Finalmente la evisceración del periné anterior, debe diferenciarse clínicamente de la evisceración del periné posterior que es más rara todavía su presentación y su manejo también es diferente. Abstract in english ln October 2005 a 80 - year- old female patient enters the emergency service with a pre and post surgical diagnostic of post trauma small intestine evisceration through vagina. This represents 0,001 % out of 93.396 operations carried out at the Hospital Obrero N°2 "Caja Nacional de Salud" of Cochaba [...] mba city within January 1982 and March 2006. Due to the scarce worldwide and nationwide presentation of this pathology, the topic is reviewed from statistics, diagnostic and treatment points of view. Finally, the evisceration of the frontal perineum should be differentiated from the posterior perineum evisceration which is more unusual and whose treatment is also different.

  14. Evisceração vaginal com isquémia intestinal sem antecedentes de cirurgia pélvica: caso clínico e breve revisão da literatura / Vaginal evisceration with bowel ischemia and no previous pelvic surgery: case report and brief review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto, Figueiredo; Guilherme, Fialho; Daniela, Rosado; Érika, Delgado; João, Magro; Jaime, Azedo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A evisceração vaginal é uma situação muito rara, encontrando-se pouco mais de 100 casos publicados, sendo a maioria associada a cirurgia pélvica prévia. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico de evisceração de intestino delgado pela vagina com estrangulamento e isquémia intestinal numa doente de 72 a [...] nos com prolapso pélvico crónico, sem antecedentes cirúrgicos. Combinou-se a abordagem vaginal e abdominal laparotómica, com ressecção do íleo terminal e cego necrosados, histeropexia e encerramento do fundo de saco de Douglas, com bons resultados. A evisceração vaginal de ansas intestinais constitui uma emergência cirúrgica potencialmente letal, recomendando-se a abordagem cirúrgica abdominal para avaliação da viabilidade dos segmentos afectados e correcção adequada do defeito vaginal e dos distúrbios pélvicos associados. Abstract in english Vaginal evisceration is a very rare event with only a few more than 100 published cases, mostly associated with previous pelvic surgery. The authors present a case of small bowel evisceration through the vagina with bowel strangulation and ischemia in a 72-year-old patient with chronic pelvic prolap [...] se and no record of previous surgeries. A combined vaginal and abdominal approach was performed with resection of the necrotic terminal ileum and cecum, hysteropexy and obliteration of the Douglas cavity, with good results. Vaginal bowel evisceration is a life-threatening surgical emergency, and the abdominal surgical approach is recommended to assess bowel viability and perform the appropriate correction of the vaginal defect and of the associated pelvic disturbances.

  15. Características do sêmen de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, pré e pós-congelação, nos períodos chuvoso e seco / Characteristics of the semen of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed sheep, pre-and post-freezing, in the rainy and dry period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Frazão Sobrinho; M.A. Castelo, Branco; A., Sousa Júnior; I.M.R., Nascimento; L.H.C.M., Mota; Y.N.T., Carvalho; S.B., Ferreira; D.N.M., Costa; F.J., Moraes Júnior; J.A.T., Souza.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características espermáticas de carneiros Dorper, Santa Inês e sem padrão racial definido, nos períodos chuvoso e seco. Após ser colhido por vagina artificial, o sêmen foi avaliado quanto ao volume, ao turbilhonamento, à motilidade, ao vigor, à morfologia e à concentração, congelado [...] e armazenado em botijão criogênico. Depois de descongelado, foram avaliadas a cinemática espermática, a integridade da membrana plasmática, a integridade do acrossoma e a atividade mitocondrial. Vigor espermático, motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, velocidade em linha reta e defeitos maiores não diferiram entre os períodos chuvoso e seco, porém volume, turbilhonamento, linearidade, retilinearidade e frequência de batimentos de cauda foram mais baixos (P Abstract in english The sperm characteristics of Dorper, Santa Ines and undefined breed ram in the rainy and dry seasons was assessed. After collection with an artificial vagina, the semen was evaluated for volume, turbulence, motility, viability, morphology and concentration, frozen and stored in a cryogenic cylinder. [...] After thawing kinematic sperm, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity were evaluated. Sperm vigor, total motility, progressive motility, straight line speed and larger line defects did not differ between the rainy and dry seasons, however, volume, turbulence, linearity, straightness and frequency of tail beats were lower (P

  16. Estudio comparativo entre las características citológicas de los epitelios nasal, faríngeo y vaginal en mujeres adultas jóvenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Fernández-Michelena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar las características citológicas de los epitelios nasal, faríngeo y vaginal en mujeres adultas jóvenes. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo y transversal de 35 mujeres no embarazadas, entre 18 y 35 años de edad, durante el período comprendido entre el 01 de enero al 01 de julio de 2004; que ingirieron o no anticonceptivos orales y a quienes se les estudiaron las citologías de los epitelios vaginal, faríngeo y nasal, según el porcentaje de índice de maduración de células exfoliadas y la cuantificación sérica de estrógeno y progesterona. Ambiente: Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología Hospital Chiquinquirá de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se determinó que no existe diferencia significativa entre la celularidad de los epitelios estudiados. Se estableció que existe buena correlación entre las células superficiales e intermedias de los frotis de vagina, faringe y nariz durante las fases del ciclo menstrual, en todas las mujeres, aun en las que recibieron píldoras anticonceptivas. Los niveles de estrógenos y progesterona tuvieron concordancia con las fases del ciclo, con el porcentaje y tipo de células exfoliadas. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que los epitelios nasales y faríngeos responden al influjo de hormonas ováricas similarmente como ocurre en la vagina y que estos métodos pueden ser aplicados en condiciones de difícil acceso a laboratorios hormonales o en pacientes vírgenes o con atresia/agenesia vaginal y niñas.

  17. [Consumption coagulopathies and severe postpartum hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Schweitzer, M; Gerbaut, A

    1976-06-01

    15 patients were referred to the Intensive Care Unit immediately after delivery for severe post-partum haemorrhage. In 7 cases complications followed retroplacental haemotoma formation and in the other 8 cases they were due to secondary haemorrhages from the placental site and/or from tears of the cervix or vagina. It is a clinical picture that is associated with a state of shock, with continuing massive bleeding associated with failure of the blood to clot and which persists and becomes worse with the transfusion of stored blood and of the coagulation factors. In all these cases severe coagulation pathology due to consumption defects is revealed. We must point out that tears of the cervix and vagina which have been neglected and failure to compensate for the original blood loss are among the aetiological factors. Treatment with Heparin giving a dose of 1 to 3 mg per kg of body weight per 24 hours and controlled by a strict biological check together with symptomatic resuscitation from the state of shock and from the coagulation factors is successful (9 cases) if it is undertaken early on. A fatal outcome, whether it is due to a persistent state of shock (1 case) or to visceral complications of diffuse intravascular coagulation (C.I.V.D.) (5 cases) can be found where treatment is delayed and when insufficient blood is replaced and when antifibrinolytics are prescribed. A preventive therapeutic plan as well as a curative one can be drawn up for these cases of obstetrical drama. PMID:1085307

  18. Severe Hydronephrosis Caused by Uterine Prolapse with Non Specific Symptoms and Normal Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic organ prolapse (POP, is the descent of pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, rectum until protrusion through the vagina and related to the loss of normal attachment and support of the pelvic floor. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a common problem in elderly women and usually causes various urologic symptoms. One of the most important complications of POP is hydronephrosis. The hydronephrosis is usually mild. Severe hydronephrosis is very rare. Hydronephrosis caused by POP may lead to renal dysfunction and serious urinary infections. Early detection and treatment is very important for preventing irreversible renal damage.Hereby, we report a case of 65-years-old woman who had massive uterine prolapse with silent severe bilateral hydronephrosis. She had no complaint except a protruding tissue out of her vagina. Renal function was normal and hydronephrosis was detected incidentally. The symptoms may be non-specific and silent until a serious infection or renal dysfunction. Therefore patients with a POP especially with severe POP need to have evaluation and imaging about the condition or the urinary system before a serious pathology occur

  19. Postnatal development of B lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-containing plasma cells in the chicken oviduct: studies on cellular distribution and influence of sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z; Hashimoto, Y; Iwami, Y; Iwanaga, T

    1997-05-01

    Postnatal development of B lymphocytes and plasma cells containing different classes of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) was immunohistochemically studied in the oviduct of the Dekalb strain of the White Leghorn chicken. B lymphocytes first appeared in the lamina propria of the chicken oviduct at 5 weeks of age. Their frequency of occurrence peaked at 15 weeks from the infundibulum to the uterus (glandular part), while in the vagina (aglandular part) it did so at 21 weeks. Intraepithelial B lymphocytes were very rare and exclusively located in the vagina at 19 and 21 weeks. Plasma cells first appeared in the lamina propria of the oviduct at 11 weeks of age, and this frequency peaked at 32 weeks. IgG-containing plasma cells were most numerous in the glandular part, whereas in the aglandular part IgA and IgM cells were more numerous than IgG cells. When 7-day-old-chickens were treated with sex hormones, B lymphocytes and plasma cells appeared 12 h and 5 days after the hormone injection, respectively. Their frequency of occurrence was statistically higher in diethylstibestrol (DES)-treated chickens than in DES plus progesterone-treated chickens. This suggests that the postnatal development of B lymphocytes and plasma cells in the oviduct of the chicken is correlated to estrogen secretion. PMID:9223236

  20. Sporadic congenital transmission of avian leukosis virus in hens discharging the virus into the oviducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, K; Hasebe, M; Kakita, S; Taniguchi, Y; Hihara, H; Kono, Y

    1992-02-01

    The efficacy of the albumen test for infectious avian leukosis virus (ALV) was examined in detecting congenitally transmitting hens. Seventy-three White Leghorn non-viremic hens with antibody to ALV were used. Eleven of the hens shed infectious ALV into their egg albumen, whereas only 7 of the 11 ALV-positive hens shed ALV antigens. The egg albumen test for infectious ALV was shown to be more effective in detecting the congenitally transmitting hens than that for ALV antigens. Then, twenty of the 62 hens which shed no infectious ALV into the albumen were studied for transmission of ALV to their embryos and for discharging ALV into the oviduct and vagina. Six of the 50 embryos from 4 hens were found to be infected with ALV but all of the 227 embryos from remaining 16 hens were free from the infection. Discharge of the virus into the oviduct and vagina was found both in the 4 transmitting hens and in 6 of the 16 non-transmitting hens. These results suggest that the hens discharging ALV into the oviduct, even though they do not shed ALV into egg albumen, may transmit the virus sporadically to their embryos. PMID:1313708