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Sample records for Vagina

  1. Vagina

    The vagina is the female body part that connects the womb (uterus) and cervix to the outside of the ... The vagina is a muscular tube lined with mucous membranes. Its opening is between the urethra (where urine leaves ...

  2. Irradiated vagina

    The gross and microscopic changes following different modes of therapy for 97 cases of Stage I and II carcinoma of the cervix were studied. Features frequently present in the radiotherapy patients were: narrowing or obliteration of the vagina, pelvic fibrosis, pain or discomfort on pelvic examination, and gross and microscopic changes in the vagina typical of radiation fibrosis; in addition, the vaginal cytology was not altered after estrogen stimulation. These features were less frequent in the surgical patients. Of all the organs in the body, the vagina is exposed to the heaviest doses of irradiation. (U.S.)

  3. Air in vagina

    Computed tomography of the normal female pelvis may show the presence of a tiny air bubble within the vagina. Among 2800 female abdomino-pelvic CTs, 27 were found to contain large amounts of intravaginal air. Twenty-three patients suffered from pelvic malignancy while in 4, non-tumorous pelvic pathology was present. Detection of air bubbles in the vagina is abnormal and indicates, in the majority of cases, an intrapelvic malignancy. (orig.)

  4. Vagina evaluation by MR imaging

    The author evaluated MR imaging of the vagina under different hormonal stimuli (25 patients) and assessed the role of MR imaging in the evaluation of congenital abnormalities (15 patients), primary (3) and metastatic (5) neoplasms, and reconstructive surgery (3). The findings were confirmed surgically. The appearance of the mucosa and vaginal wall was influenced by hormonal status. The presence of the vagina (45 patients), absence of the vagina (4), and the presence of duplication anomaly (3) were always accurately demonstrated on MR images. Carcinoma and metastases were depicted as tumor interrupting the low intensity signal of the muscular wall of the vagina. In two of three patients who underwent reconstructive surgery, postsurgical perivaginal abscesses developed that were correctly displayed on MR images. The normal and abnormal vaginas were exquisitely shown on MR images. For complicated congenital abnormalities, complications of postreconstructive surgery, and staging of neoplasms, MR imaging should be considered a primary imaging modality

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 ?g/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 ?g/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  6. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  7. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina in children

    Eight cases of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the vagina are presented. All were treated with curie therapy, and 7 of 8 received chemotherapy in addition. With a median follow up of 4 yr, 6 of 7 had local control without surgery, 1 required colpohysterectomy for microscopic disease after curie therapy. These techniques of curie therapy and chemotherapy for localized rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina allow one to obtain the cure while avoiding mutilating surgery. (author)

  8. Brachytherapy for the malignant tumours of vagina

    In 1986-1995 a total of 134 patients with malignant tumours of vagina were treated by interstitional radiotherapy. Fifty-two patients were irradiated with 60Co sources, and 82 patients - with 252Cf sources. Fourteen patients had primary carcinoma of vagina, 120 patients had metastases and recurrences in vagina. We used 60Co and 252Cf irradiation sources; their active length was 20-30 mm with an increasing activity at the ends. Special template devices made it possible to implant 2-16 sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. Radiation treatment was mainly interstitial therapy. Some patients underwent additional external radiotherapy (20-40 Gy), taking into account the time and dosage of previously applied therapy. Complete tumour regression was observed in 13 (92.8%) patients with primary vaginal carcinomas. In 1 patient more than 50% partial regression was observed. In 114 (85%) patients with tumour recurrences and metastases to the vagina complete tumour regression was observed. Partial regression was observed in 14 (10.4%), and there was no effect in 6 (4.4%) patients with tumour recurrences and metastases to the vagina. Five year survival was 46% for all treated patients. Mild radiation reactions were found in 35 (26.1%) patients. In 3 patients radiation ulcers developed in irradiation area. It should be noted that radiation reactions appeared later when radiation sources with 252Cf were used

  9. Imaging of the vagina and vulva

    In gynecological daily practices, the vulva and vagina are examined during physical examination, however there are situations where this is not possible or it is needed to determine the extension of an injury through imaging methods. The magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent cross-sectional modality for evaluation the alterations of vulva and vagina due its multiplanar evaluation and high tecidual contrast. Other cross-sectional modalities are ultrasound and enhanced computed tomography. This paper intends to give an overview of vaginal and vulvar pathology that can be identified by the radiologist. (author)

  10. Adenocarcinoma de células claras de la vagina

    Rubén, Urrejola S.; Ana María, Carrasco T.; Fernando, Heredia M..

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de adenocarcinoma de células claras de vagina en mujer de 23 años, sin antecedentes de exposición intrauterina a dietilestilbestrol. Se efectuó colpohisterectomía radical, linfadenectomía pélvica completa y ooforopexia bilateral, más radioterapia externa adyuvante (45 Gy) [...] . Sin evidencia de enfermedad a 5 meses de completada su terapia Abstract in english A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a 23 year old woman, without diethylstilbestrol intrauterine exposure, is presented. The surgical and the radiotherapy treatment are discussed. Without evidence of disease at 5 months follow up. A brief discussion of literature is also provided [...

  11. Adenocarcinoma de células claras de la vagina

    Rubén Urrejola S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de adenocarcinoma de células claras de vagina en mujer de 23 años, sin antecedentes de exposición intrauterina a dietilestilbestrol. Se efectuó colpohisterectomía radical, linfadenectomía pélvica completa y ooforopexia bilateral, más radioterapia externa adyuvante (45 Gy. Sin evidencia de enfermedad a 5 meses de completada su terapiaA case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a 23 year old woman, without diethylstilbestrol intrauterine exposure, is presented. The surgical and the radiotherapy treatment are discussed. Without evidence of disease at 5 months follow up. A brief discussion of literature is also provided

  12. Yolk sac tumor of the vagina

    Malignant germ-cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors of childhood accounting for less than 3% of pediatric malignancies. Endodermal sinus tumors (EST) form the most common histologic subtype of malignant GCT. The vagina is an extremely rare site for GCTs. An 8-month-old-female was admitted with a short history of vaginal bleeding, and a mass protruding from the vagina. A mass was palpable anteriorly on rectal examination. Computed tomography showed a tumor mass posterior to the bladder. A biopsy revealed a vaginal EST. The serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. Vaginohysterectomy was carried out. She was subsequently referred to the oncologist for further management. (author)

  13. Primary leiomyosarcoma of vagina: case report

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent about 1% of all gynecological malignancies. Most of these neoplasms are carcinomas. Sarcomas comprise less than 2% of all malignant vaginal tumours. In this present article, we describe a primary vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a 40-years-old woman. (author)

  14. Endodermal sinus tumor of vagina in infants

    Brijesh Thakur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Endodermal sinus tumor (or Yolk Sac tumor of the vagina is a rare malignant germ-cell tumor which is seen exclusively in children younger than 3 years of age. We report two cases of endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina. In both cases no radiological investigation was done and serum alpha-fetoprotein was elevated. The histopathological examination of both the tumor masses revealed vaginal endodermal sinus tumor. Periodic-acid-Schiff stain with diastase showed diastase resistant hyaline globules. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of endodermal sinus tumor in both cases. Vaginal endodermal sinus tumor is both locally aggressive and capable of metastasis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level is a useful marker for diagnosis and monitoring the recurrence of vaginal endodermal sinus tumor in infants. Early detection and therapy is important because of its aggressive nature and good response to chemotherapy.

  15. Cáncer primario de vagina Vaginal primary cancer

    Raiza Ruiz Lorente

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma primario de vagina es una neoplasia poco frecuente, representando solamente el 1-2 % de todos los tumores malignos del área ginecológica. Según la FIGO solo se considera como cáncer primario de vagina a aquellas lesiones confinadas a la vagina sin invasión del cuello uterino o la vulva. El pronóstico depende principalmente del estadio en que se encuentra la enfermedad, pero la supervivencia se reduce en pacientes mayores de 60 años de edad, si son sintomáticos al momento del diagnóstico, tienen lesiones del centro y tercio inferior de la vagina o tienen tumores mal diferenciados. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la experiencia en el manejo del cáncer primario de vagina, identificar variables demográficas y clínicas, mostrar la variedad histológica de presentación de esta neoplasia tan rara, así como el grado de diferenciación en cada caso. Igualmente relacionar estadio del cáncer, tratamiento y respuesta en cada una de las pacientes. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo de cinco pacientes con cáncer primario de vagina atendidas en el Servicio de Patología de cuello del Hospital Ramón González Coro, durante el año 2008. La evaluación inicial consistió en una historia clínica completa, examen físico haciendo hincapié en el área ginecológica descartando lesiones en vulva o cuello uterino. A todas las pacientes se les realizó biopsia excisional del tumor, enviando la muestra al estudio histopatológico. Se les realizó cistoscopia, rectoscopia, urograma descendente, a aquellas pacientes con sospecha de infiltración de vejiga o recto, laboratorio, radiografía del tórax y se estadiaron según la clasificación de la FIGO.The primary vaginal carcinoma is a uncommon neoplasm present only in the 1-2% of all the malignant tumors of gynecology area. According to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics only is considered as a primary vaginal cancer of those lesions confined to vagina without invasion of cervix or the vulva. The prognosis depends mainly on the disease stage, but the survival is reduced in patients aged over 60 if they are symptomatic at diagnosis, have lesions of the center and the inferior third of vagina or have ill-differentiated. The objectives of present study were to assess the experience in the vaginal primary cancer management, to identify demographic and clinical variables, to show the histological variety of presentation of this so rare neoplasm, as well as the differentiation grade of each case and to relate the cancer stage, the treatment and the response of each patient. It is retrospective study conducted in 5 patients presenting vaginal primary cancer seen in the Cervix Pathology Service of the "Ramón González Coro" Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital during 2008. The initial assessment included a complete medical record, physical examination with emphasis in the gynecological area ruling out vulva or cervix uteri lesions. All patients underwent excision biopsy of tumor with the corresponding histopathological study of the sample. A cystoscopy, rectoscopy descending urogram were carried out in those patients with a possible bladder or rectum infiltration, lab tests, thorax Rx staged according the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification.

  16. Radiation treatment policy for carcinoma vagina

    A small group of patients of primary carcinoma vagina is presented with their clinical profile and with an emphasis on external radiation therapy for such cases. Short-term control rate has been encouraging. It is recommended that an aggressive treatment policy even in locally advanced tumour and radical radiation with suitable branchytherapy practices can give as good results as with surgery with minimum of morbidity. Relevant literature has been reviewed. (auth.)

  17. Small cell carcinoma of the vagina

    A case of localized small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina is reported. The patient was treated with concurrent chemoradiation with significant toxicity but obtained a complete response. Thirteen months after therapy the patient developed distant metastasis and died shortly thereafter. Review of the literature found that patients treated with local therapy alone had a shorter survival and died of systemic disease. As with small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas arising from other sites, systemic relapse remains an important issue that warrants combination therapies, although in pelvic sites this may be associated with an increase in side-effects. Copyright (2000) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Radiotherapy of malignant tumors of the vagina

    A new method of combined radiotherapy for cancer of the vagina is presented: it includes contact (intracavitary and interstitial) gamma-therapy based on the principle of the manual and automated administration (using the AGAT-B unit) of endostats and low and high activity radiation sources, and gamma irradiation with irregular shaped fields. The problems of fractionation, a choice of required irradiation volumes as well as summary absorbed dose levels are discussed. An analysis of the clinical efficacy was based delayed results. The 5-year survival rate in the general group of patients was 41.2%

  19. Primary leiomyosarcoma of vagina: case report; Leiomiossarcoma primario de vagina: relato de caso

    Vieira, Leonardo Jose [Hospital ASCONCER Associacao Feminina de Prevencao e Combate ao Cancer, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia; Freitas, Rosyane Rena de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Oliveira, Alexandre Ferreira de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Cirurgia Gastroenterologica; Assis, Raimunda Violante Campos de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia; Cugola, Elaine Aline; Costa, Sandra Marcia Carvalho Ribeiro

    2004-07-01

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent about 1% of all gynecological malignancies. Most of these neoplasms are carcinomas. Sarcomas comprise less than 2% of all malignant vaginal tumours. In this present article, we describe a primary vaginal leiomyosarcoma in a 40-years-old woman. (author)

  20. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of vagina

    Thirty-four patients with carcinoma of the vagina were treated by radiotherapy at the Hyogo Medical Center for Adults between April 1965 and May 1990. All patients were treated with a combination of external and intracavitary or interstitial irradiation. Twenty-three patients had squamous cell carcinoma, five had adenocarcinoma and two had malignant melanoma. The five-year survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma was 70% in Stage I (10 patients), 40% in Stage II (seven patients), 50% in Stage III (three patients) and 0% in Stage IV (three patients). Local control was achieved in 72.7% of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma and 60% of those with adenocarcinoma. However, neither of the malignant melanomas was controlled. Five patients had severe complications that required surgical treatment: severe proctitis and small-bowel perforation, ileus, rectal stenosis, vesicovaginal fistula and small-bowel perforation. Local and pelvic failure was noted in three patients. Patients with previous hysterectomy were more likely to develop serious treatment-related complications. (author)

  1. Rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of vagina

    Bharati Dhorepatil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a rare case of primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of vagina treated successfully with wide local excision and post-operative radiotherapy. There was no recurrence even after four years.

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: CT and MR findings

    We report CT and MR findings in two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, one arising from cervicovaginal junction mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the other one recurring at vagina after resection. Two cases of malignant melanoma had high-attenuation on CT and high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and enhanced well after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration

  3. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  4. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size

  5. Radiosterilisation of the vagina in therapeutic doses - does it exist

    The endogenous genital flora is a major source of infections of the female genital tract, especially in patients with cervical or endometrial cancer. Until recently the 'radiosterilisation of the vagina', respectively a prophylactic and/or therapeutic effect of irradiation (external highvoltage as well as intracavitary-radium) concerning infections was postulated in the literature. This theory was disproved in a prospective clinical and bacteriological study covering 48 patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing primary intracavitary radium-irradiation and 38 patients with inoperable endometrical cancer, undergoing primary iridium-192-afterloading. Following intracavitary radium for cervical cancer some typical nosocomial pathogens like Streptococcus faecalis, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus and Pseudomonas were isolated significantly more frequently than before treatment. Likewise, the mean number of aerobic bacterial species increased significantly after irradiation. Also primary Ir-192 (afterloading) irradiation did not alter the frequency of isolation of the resident flora in endometrial cancer patients. Therefore, 'radiosterilisation' of the vagina as result of radiotherapy does not exist. (orig.)

  6. Interstitial radiotherapy of malignant tumors of the vagina

    A total of 65 patients with malignant tumors of the vagina aged 32 to 81 years were treated by interstitial radiotherapy. Out of the 65 subjects, 52 patients were irradiated with 60Co sources, and 13 patients with 252Cf sources. Fixing devices of three types were used which ensured practical implementation of interstitial radiotherapy in regard to tumor location, its shape, and volume. Complete tumor regression occurred in 54 patients (83.1%) and partial regression was observed in 9 patients (13.8%). Mild radiation reactions were found in 17 patients (26.1%). No effect was observed in 2 patients (3.1%). In one case a necrotic radiation ulcer developed. Based on the above data, the conclusion was drawn that interstitial radiotherapy represents the treatment of choice in malignant tumors of the vagina. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs

  7. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically

  8. A case of postirradiated malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the vagina

    An unusual case of postirradiated malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the vagina in a 72-year-old female is reported. The tumor occurred in the radiation field 30 years after radical hysterectomy and preoperative radiation therapy (radium 5,200 mgh) for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. She had been disease free for 30 years until she noticed a large mass in the vagina. Cytological study showed mainly two types of non-epithelial malignant cells; spindle-shaped fibroblast-like cells and histiocyte-like cells. Bizarre mono or multinucleated giant cells were often observed. The operative specimen revealed an arrangement composed of short or long spindle cells and vacuolated mononucleated and large multinucleated cells. The diagnosis was comfirmed by immunohistological and ultrastructural study. We have reviewed the literature on malignant fibrous histiocytoma occurring after radiation for cervical carcinoma. (author)

  9. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.

  10. Radiation therapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    The experiences with irradiation of 25 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina are presented. The 3-year survival was 36 per cent despite the fact that most of the cases were advanced. Further improvements in survival may probably be achieved with extension of the radium implantation to paravaginal tissues. Choice and technique of treatment must be individualized. Surgery is limited to the more advanced cases with involvement of the bladder and rectum. (Auth.)

  11. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vagina

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) usually develop in major nerve trunks, giving rise to tumors in the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and trunk. The MPNSTs primarily occurring in the female genital tract are quite rare. We describe a case of MPNST of the vagina and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. This patient was treated definitively with radical local excision and is well with no signs of recurrence 2 years postoperatively. (author)

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE VAGINA OF THE Myocastor coypus (COYPU ESTUDIO MORFOLOGICO DE LA VAGINA DE Myocastor coypus (COIPO

    Antonio E. Felipe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Myocastor coypus (coypu is a medium size rodent internationally considered as a species of economic interest because its fur. The aims of this work was realized the morphological study of the vagina of coypu. The vagina of sexually mature coypus appeared as a tubular organ, 10.25±1.40 cm long. The vaginal wall was very thin. It was composed by four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia or serosa (according to the region. The lining epithelium of the mucosa was squamous stratified and without glands. Two layers of smooth muscular tissue with abundance of connective tissue were differentiated in the muscularis. The tunica serosa, formed by connective tissue of dense aspect, had numerous big blood vesselsMyocastor coypus es un roedor de tamaño mediano, considerado internacionalmente como una especie de interés económico por sus cualidades peleteras. El estudio morfológico de su vagina reviste importancia en el marco de investigaciones de su fisiología reproductiva. La vagina de coipos sexualmente maduros se presentó como un órgano tubular, de 10,25 ± 1,40 cm de longitud. La pared vaginal fue muy delgada, distinguiéndose en ella cuatro túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular y adventicia o serosa (según la región. Su epitelio de revestimiento era de tipo escamoso estratificado y aglandular. En la túnica muscular se diferenciaron dos capas de tejido muscular liso con abundancia de tejido conectivo. La serosa, conformada por tejido conectivo de aspecto denso, presentó numerosos y grandes vasos sanguíneos

  13. Radiation treatment of primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Patterns of failures after definitive radiation therapy were analyzed in 88 patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina treated between 1957 and 1975. The majority of the local failures in early stages of the disease (I, II and a few III) were due to inadequate treatment either by external beam therapy or brachytherapy. In some cases the inadequate treatments were unavoidable (previous radiation treatment) and in a few they were due to poor brachytherapy technique. Distant failures are still a problem and need to be given further attention. (orig.)

  14. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The vagina

    The vagina is a virtual cavity involved in sexual reproduction field. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy of the pelvic region. This review aims to describe the vaginal acute and late side effects due to radiation, probably inadequately reported in the literature. Medline and PubMed literature searches were performed using the keywords -vaginal - radiotherapy - toxicity. The acute and late functional changes after external beam radiation consist mainly of drought. Their incidences are poorly described in the literature and the delivered doses even less. Recommendations are non-existent as the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Brachytherapy delivers high and heterogeneous doses, making it difficult to estimate the dose. The concomitant administration of chemotherapy appears to be a factor increasing the risk of toxicity. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity appear to have little impact on this body. Only a maximum dose on each third of the vagina appears to be currently proposed to avoid the risk of side effects. (authors)

  15. Management of radiation injuries of vulva and vagina

    Background: Acute and late injuries of vulva and vagina are frequent and potentially serious complications in radiotherapy of gynecologic tumors. They still are reported poorly in literature. Methods: Based on a literature search a survey will be given of the modalities, which are used or recommended for prophylaxis or treatment of these radiation injuries. The principles of the different measures will be discussed with available study results. Results: Hygiene measures and the topical application of antimicrobial or granulation stimulating substances, which is mostly based on long standing clinical experience, are the principles of the treatment of acute reactions of vulva and vagina. The topical use of estrogen, which promotes proliferation of epithelium, is generally described in connection with treatment and prophylaxis of late radiation injuries. As a prophylaxis for the late reaction of vaginal stenosis, vaginal dilatation is recommended in literature. Conclusion: With the exception of a few reports on estrogen, there are no data about the effectiveness of the currently used medical substances. The local application of estrogen as prophylaxis of the acute reactions will therefore be examined in a prospective study. (orig.)

  16. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors ≤4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy. Brachytherapy plays an important role in the treatment of many vaginal cancers but should be carefully selected and applied to obtain optimal coverage of the target volume

  17. Primary Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Vagina: A Rare Case Report

    Malay N. Parekh; Dhiren V. Kapapura; Jignasa N Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina is an extremely rare disease. There have been only 26 previously reported cases in literature. Here, we report a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of vagina. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed tumor cells positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE).

  18. A longitudinal study of Staphylococcus hyicus colonization of vagina of gilts and transmission to piglets

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Skov Jensen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    typing, as well as characterization of about 10 % of the isolates by plasmid profiles and antibiogram patterns, showed that, several different clones of S. hyicus could be present simultaneously in vagina of gilts and also on skin of piglets. Generally isolates from the vagina of one animal were...

  19. Radiation Therapy of Primary Carcinoma of the Vagina

    A retrospective study was carried out of 20 patients with histologically proven invasive carcinoma of the vagina from 1979 to 1993; 17 cases with curative primary radiotherapy and three cases with postoperative radiotherapy. The five and ten year overall survival rates were 79% and 53%, respectively. Survival was strongly correlated with stage. Five year survival rates of stage I, stage II, and stage III, IV were 100%, 78%, and 0%, respectively. Eight patients experienced recurrences; five within the irradiated volume, two distant metastasis, and one combined both local and distant metastasis. There was no significant late complication. From these data, radiation is effective in the management of the vaginal cancer patients and optimum treatment modality and total dose recommendation are made

  20. Radiation therapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    A retrospective analysis of 32 patients with carcinoma of the vagina treated with curative radiotherapy between 1965 and 1981 is presented. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histologic type, found in 78% of the patients. Patients were staged according to the FIGO system. Stage I and II disease was found in 8 and 18 patients, respectively. Six patients had either Stage III or IV disease. The absolute survival rate was 100% for Stage I and 72% for Stage II patients. The pattern of failure was analyzed. All patients who failed had done so within 14 months of completion of treatment. Treatment failure in the pelvis occurred only in 16% of the patients with early disease (Stages I and II) while 81% of the patients with late stage had failed in the pelvis

  1. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Young Yeon; Cho, Chi Heum; Choi, Tae Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy.

  3. Radiation-induced morphological changes in the vagina

    Kirchheiner, K.; Fidarova, E.; Schmid, M.P.; Sturdza, A.; Kranz, A.; Poetter, R. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Nout, R.A. [University Medical Center Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Oncology; Wiebe, E. [Alberta Univ., Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Polterauer, S. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of General Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology; Doerr, W. [Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-15

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced chronic vaginal changes after definitive radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer patients are reported as one of the most distressing consequences of treatment, with major impact on quality of life. Although these vaginal changes are regularly documented during gynecological follow-up examinations, the classic radiation morbidity grading scales are not concise in their reporting. The aim of the study was therefore to identify and qualitatively describe, on the basis of vaginoscopies, morphological changes in the vagina after definitive radio(chemo)therapy and to establish a classification system for their detailed and reproducible documentation. Patients and methods: Vaginoscopy with photodocumentation was performed prospectively in 22 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer after definitive radio(chemo)therapy at 3-24 months after end of treatment. All patients were in complete remission and without severe grade 3/4 morbidity outside the vagina. Results: Five morphological parameters, which occurred consistently after treatment, were identified: mucosal pallor, telangiectasia, fragility of the vaginal wall, ulceration, and adhesions/occlusion. The symptoms in general were observed at different time points in individual patients; their quality was independent of the time of assessment. Based on the morphological findings, a comprehensive descriptive and semiquantitative scoring system was developed, which allows for classification of vaginal changes. A photographic atlas to illustrate the morphology of the alterations is presented. Conclusion: Vaginoscopy is an easily applicable, informative, and well-tolerated procedure for the objective assessment of morphological vaginal changes after radio(chemo)therapy and provides comprehensive and detailed information. This allows for precise classification of the severity of individual changes. (orig.)

  4. Radiation-induced morphological changes in the vagina

    Background and purpose: Treatment-induced chronic vaginal changes after definitive radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer patients are reported as one of the most distressing consequences of treatment, with major impact on quality of life. Although these vaginal changes are regularly documented during gynecological follow-up examinations, the classic radiation morbidity grading scales are not concise in their reporting. The aim of the study was therefore to identify and qualitatively describe, on the basis of vaginoscopies, morphological changes in the vagina after definitive radio(chemo)therapy and to establish a classification system for their detailed and reproducible documentation. Patients and methods: Vaginoscopy with photodocumentation was performed prospectively in 22 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer after definitive radio(chemo)therapy at 3-24 months after end of treatment. All patients were in complete remission and without severe grade 3/4 morbidity outside the vagina. Results: Five morphological parameters, which occurred consistently after treatment, were identified: mucosal pallor, telangiectasia, fragility of the vaginal wall, ulceration, and adhesions/occlusion. The symptoms in general were observed at different time points in individual patients; their quality was independent of the time of assessment. Based on the morphological findings, a comprehensive descriptive and semiquantitative scoring system was developed, which allows for classification of vaginal changes. A photographic atlas to illustrate the morphology of the alterations is presented. Conclusion: Vaginoscopy is an easily applicable, informative, and well-tolerated procedure for the objective assessment of morphological vaginal changes after radio(chemo)therapy and provides comprehensive and detailed information. This allows for precise classification of the severity of individual changes. (orig.)

  5. Internal motion of the vagina after hysterectomy for gynaecological cancer

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate position changes of the vagina after hysterectomy for early stage cervical or endometrial cancer and their impact on CTV-PTV margins. We also studied their correlation with surrounding organ filling. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients underwent T2-weighted MR scans before and weekly during the course of their EBRT. The vaginal CTVs and the surrounding organs were delineated. PTV margins were derived from the boundaries of the CTVs in the main directions and correlated with changes in the volumes of organs at risk. Additionally we investigated the impact of margin sizes on CTV coverage. Results: The vaginal CTVs change their position in the pelvis during time with a maximum in anterior-posterior direction. The 95% confidence level was 2.3 cm into the anterior or posterior direction, 1.8 cm to left or right and 1.5 cm towards the cranial. With a homogenous 1.5 cm CTV-PTV margin ≥5% inadequately covered vaginal CTV was seen in only 3.3% of the measurements. This increased to 20.6% with a margin of 1.0 cm. Concerning the impact of organ filling on vaginal position changes we found the only significant correlation with rectal volume and shift of the vagina towards anterior-posterior. Conclusion: To accommodate the changes in the position of the vaginal CTV inhomogeneous PTV margins should be generated with the largest size in the anterior-posterior direction. The position shifts were only weakly related to the volume of the rectum and not at all to the volumes of other parts of the bowel and the bladder.

  6. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma patients with narrow vagina

    We retrospectively analyzed cervical cancer patients with narrow vagina treated by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy followed by external beam irradiation. Fifty patients were treated with radical radiotherapy between 1992 and 1999 at the National Tokyo Medical Center. All patients received 30 Gy of external whole pelvic irradiation and 20 Gy of pelvic irradiation with a central shield. After 30 Gy of whole pelvic irradiation, 24 Gy of fractionated brachytherapy was applied with a tandem and ovoids, non-rigid type developed in the Cancer Institute, according to the Manchester method. Nineteen patients with a narrow vagina of less than 40 mm in width were compared with 31 other patients (control group). The 5-year cumulative survival rates were 56% in the patients with a narrow vagina and 53% in the control group (P=0.6008). The control rate in the pelvis was not significantly different between the two groups. The cumulative rate of rectal complications of the patients with a narrow vagina was more frequent than the control group (58% vs 29%) (P=0.0924). Severe rectal bleeding was also more frequent in the patients with a narrow vagina. The estimated maximal dose of the rectal wall was significantly higher in patients with a narrow vagina. This result suggests that a lower brachytherapy dose is necessary for patients with narrow vagina considering the rectal sequelae in the case of using our methods. (author)

  7. High-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma patients with narrow vagina

    Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito; Kawase, Takatugu [National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Dokiya, Takushi [Saitama Medical Coll., Moroyama (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed cervical cancer patients with narrow vagina treated by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy followed by external beam irradiation. Fifty patients were treated with radical radiotherapy between 1992 and 1999 at the National Tokyo Medical Center. All patients received 30 Gy of external whole pelvic irradiation and 20 Gy of pelvic irradiation with a central shield. After 30 Gy of whole pelvic irradiation, 24 Gy of fractionated brachytherapy was applied with a tandem and ovoids, non-rigid type developed in the Cancer Institute, according to the Manchester method. Nineteen patients with a narrow vagina of less than 40 mm in width were compared with 31 other patients (control group). The 5-year cumulative survival rates were 56% in the patients with a narrow vagina and 53% in the control group (P=0.6008). The control rate in the pelvis was not significantly different between the two groups. The cumulative rate of rectal complications of the patients with a narrow vagina was more frequent than the control group (58% vs 29%) (P=0.0924). Severe rectal bleeding was also more frequent in the patients with a narrow vagina. The estimated maximal dose of the rectal wall was significantly higher in patients with a narrow vagina. This result suggests that a lower brachytherapy dose is necessary for patients with narrow vagina considering the rectal sequelae in the case of using our methods. (author)

  8. The irradiation tolerance dose of the proximal vagina

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the irradiation tolerance level and complication rates of the proximal vagina to combined external irradiation and low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Also, the mucosal tolerance for fractionated high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is further projected based on the biological equivalent dose (BED) of LDR for an acceptable complication rate. Materials and methods: Two hundred seventy-four patients with stages I-IV cervical carcinoma treated with irradiation therapy alone from 1987 to 1997 were retrospectively reviewed for radiation-associated late sequelae of the proximal vagina. All patients received LDR brachytherapy and 95% also received external pelvic irradiation. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 126 months (median, 43 months). The proximal vagina mucosa dose from a single ovoid (single source) or from both ovoids plus the tandem (all sources), together with the external irradiation dose, were used to derive the probability of a complication using the maximum likelihood logistic regression technique. The BED based on the linear-quadratic model was used to compute the corresponding tolerance levels for LDR or HDR brachytherapy. Results: Grades 1 and 2 complications occurred in 10.6% of patients and Grade 3 complications occurred in 3.6%. There were no Grade 4 complications. Complications occurred from 3 to 71 months (median, 7 months) after completion of irradiation, with over 60% occurring in the first year. By logistic regression analysis, both the mucosal dose from a single ovoid or that from all sources, combined with the external irradiation dose, demonstrate a statistically significant fit to the dose response complication curves (both with P=0.016). The single source dose was highly correlated with the all source dose with a cross-correlation coefficient 0.93. The all source dose was approximately 1.4 times the single source dose. Over the LDR brachytherapy dose rate range, the complication rate was relatively stable to small variations of the underlying tumor biological characteristics and the dose rate. The complication rates change approximately an absolute 1% over the range of the alpha-beta ratio (α/β) from 2 to 4 Gy and repair constant (μ) of 0.46/h to 0.60/h. The complication rates increased an absolute 2% over the mucosa dose rate from 1.75 to 3.50 Gy/h. They markedly increased as the dose rate increased above 3.00 Gy/h as in HDR brachytherapy. The projected HDR Grade 3 tolerance varied from 25 Gy for one fraction to 57 Gy for six fractions in addition to 20 Gy external irradiation for nominal 3-5% complication rates. The traditional LDR tolerance dose of 150 Gy was shown to yield nominal 11% and 4% Grades 1 and 2 and Grade 3 sequelae, respectively. Conclusions: The traditional 150 Gy LDR tolerance dose (single source plus external irradiation) can be relaxed to 175 Gy or equivalently a full mucosal dose of 238 Gy (all sources plus external irradiation) for a nominal 5% Grade 3 complication rate. Higher fractionation is necessary with four to six fractions in HDR therapy for similar rates of sequelae. The mucosal surface dose from a single ovoid, which can be readily computed, remains a convenient tolerance check for treatment planning purposes

  9. The present-day technologies of brachytherapy for primary and metastatic carcinoma of the vagina

    Results of brachytherapy of 133 patients with primary vaginal carcinoma, 137 - with cervical metastasis into the vagina, and 132 cases of endometrial metastasis into the vagina, and 132 cases of endometrial metastasis into the vagina are presented. Recommendations based on a detailed analysis of isodose distribution versus the applicator type and radiation source used are given. Annular colpostat using 137cesium radiation form the Selectron NMD/SMD installation and 197indium radiation from the MicroSelectron unit produces the maximum mean reference isodose. Uniform distribution of 100 % isodose in exophytic and mixed neoplasms and the best mucosal focus and applicator volume-target volume ratio are obtained

  10. Results of radiation therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of vagina

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Kakehi, Masae; Ono, Ryosuke (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1984-06-01

    Over a period from 1962 to 1982, 31 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina were treated by irradiation at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo. Of them, 15 patients (48.4%) were over 60 years old. Treatment was done by external irradiation alone or a combination of external and intracavitary or interstitial irradiation. The lesions were classified into stages of the FIGO system. Stage I was found in 11 cases (35.5%), Stage II in 11 cases (35.5%), Stage III in 7 cases (22.6%) and Stage IVa in 1 case (3.2%). Serious complication after treatment was observed in 5 cases (16.1%) which consisted of 2 cases of rectovaginal fistula and one case of rectal constriction, one case of intestinal necrosis and one case of rectal ulcer. Local and pelvic failure was noted in 6 cases (19.4%) which were treated by reirradiation. Prognosis was poor in all cases, except one which was in Stage I. Some subsequent surgical procedures were required for further treatment in those cases. The 5-year survival rates by stage were as follows: 90% (9/10) for cases of Stage I, 22.2% (2/9) for cases of Stage II, 16.7% (1/6) for cases of Stage III and 0% (0/1) for case of Stage IVa.

  11. Congenital absence of the vagina with a functioning uterus

    A functioning uterus may be present in 5 to 10 % of the patients with congenital absence of the vagina. The proper treatment for these patients depends on accurate pre-operative diagnosis on whether or not a cervix is present, because the mode of operation should be selected according to the type of abnormality. Ultrasonography or X-ray CT scan will not always be useful to answer this question. We encountered a 15-year-old female with cyclic lower abdominal pain and the failure of onset of menstruation. The external genitalia were normal except for the absence of the vaginal opening. Ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan revealed the presence of both uterine corpus and hematocolpos, but no definite findings were obtained on the integrity of the cervix. By using NMR-CT scan, we found a hematocolpos, properly developed uterine cervix and corpus above it. We treated the patient by preserving the uterine function and the potential for pregnancy in the future. NMR-CT scan seems more useful in some cases for diagnosis of pelvic mass than ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan. (author)

  12. Results of radiation therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of vagina

    Over a period from 1962 to 1982, 31 patients with squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina were treated by irradiation at National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo. Of them, 15 patients (48.4%) were over 60 years old. Treatment was done by external irradiation alone or a combination of external and intracavitary or interstitial irradiation. The lesions were classified into stages of the FIGO system. Stage I was found in 11 cases (35.5%), Stage II in 11 cases (35.5%), Stage III in 7 cases (22.6%) and Stage IVa in 1 case (3.2%). Serious complication after treatment was observed in 5 cases (16.1%) which consisted of 2 cases of rectovaginal fistula and one case of rectal constriction, one case of intestinal necrosis and one case of rectal ulcer. Local and pelvic failure was noted in 6 cases (19.4%) which were treated by reirradiation. Prognosis was poor in all cases, except one which was in Stage I. Some subsequent surgical procedures were required for further treatment in those cases. The 5-year survival rates by stage were as follows: 90% (9/10) for cases of Stage I, 22.2% (2/9) for cases of Stage II, 16.7% (1/6) for cases of Stage III and 0% (0/1) for case of Stage IVa. (author)

  13. The vagina as a route for drug delivery: a review.

    Srikrishna, Sushma; Cardozo, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome has a significant deleterious impact on quality of life. After conservative therapy and bladder retaining, antimuscarinic drugs remain the mainstay of OAB management. Oral therapy is associated with frequent side effects, leading to the development of alternative agents and formulations or the use of novel routes of drug administration, such as the vaginal route. The vagina is often ideal for drug delivery because it allows the use of lower doses, maintains steady drug administration levels, and requires less frequent administration than the oral route. With vaginal drug administration, absorption is unaffected by gastrointestinal disturbances, there is no first-pass effect, and use is discreet. The aim of this review is to provide a background overview of vaginal development, anatomy, and physiology and the effect this has on the use of this route for both local and systemic drug delivery, with special reference to OAB management. Vaginal therapy continues to be an underused route of drug delivery. Vaginal administration allows nondaily, low, continuous dosing, which results in stable drug levels and may, in turn, achieve a lower incidence of side effects and improve patient compliance. These benefits must be balanced against inherent patient or physician bias against using this route and the need to overcome cultural, personal, and hygiene-related barriers to this form of therapy. More sophisticated and programmable vaginal rings are being developed for systemic delivery of therapeutically important macromolecules, such as antimuscarinic therapy in OAB management. PMID:23229421

  14. vagina artificial, utilizando como estímulo objetos inanimados

    Virginio Aguirre Flores

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fi n de desarrollar una metodología para entrenar carneros en la recolección de semen con vagina artifi cial (VA, montando un objeto inanimado, se utilizaron nueve animales que se sometieron a cuatro etapas de preparación. La primera con el propósito de lograr la manifestación del repertorio sexual natural, y el resto para llevar a cabo un programa de condicionamiento operante: cuando la respuesta correcta (monta sucedía, en un inicio provocada por un estado de motivación sexual, se daba un refuerzo positivo o estímulo incondicionado (eyaculación, con lo que eventualmente y mediante un proceso de generalización la respuesta condicionada (primero montar a una hembra que no estaba en celo y luego a un objeto inanimado se aprendió como la respuesta correcta. Al inicio de cada fase 33%-55% de los carneros no eyacularon; sin embargo, al fi nal de las fases 1-3, todos eyacularon al menos una vez, al fi nal del entrenamiento fue imposible recolectar semen de un macho. Se concluye que mediante la metodología propuesta 90% de los machos jóvenes pueden ser entrenados para montar objetos inanimados con el fi n de recolectar semen mediante VA.

  15. Carcinoma of vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation therapy

    Gynecologic cancer records of 4,238 patients treated between 1956 and 1974 were reviewed. Sixteen patients developed neoplasia in the cervix or vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation. Three patients had squamous carcinoma in situ; the other 13 patients had invasive squamous cancer involving the upper vagina. Only 1.26 percent of invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiation therapy from 1956 to 1966 presented with a late or recurrent or new primary tumor involving the vagina or cervix 10 or more years after primary treatment. The authors conclude that the risk of developing radiation-induced carcinoma in the upper vagina or cervix following pelvic irradiation is low. Follow-up Pap smears are indicated for all patients treated for cervical or vaginal malignancies by radiation therapy in order to detect vaginal neoplasia as well as recurrent carcinoma of the cervix

  16. Lesson learned and dispelled myths: three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina.

    Barnhart, Kurt T; Pretorius, E Scott; Malamud, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina demonstrates that the cross section can be a "W," rather than an "H," and that intravaginal gel can ascend into the endocervix and presumably into the endometrium. PMID:15136106

  17. Incarcerated foreign body in the vagina – a metal bangle used as a pessary

    Dasari, Papa; Sagili, Haritha

    2012-01-01

    Long-forgotten vaginal pessaries get incarcerated in the vagina and their removal poses problems. A 60-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with foul smelling purulent discharge per vaginum and stress incontinence. Speculum examination revealed foul smelling white discharge per vaginum and a friable vaginal wall which bled on touch. The anterior portion of a metal ring deeply embedded in the vagina was seen. The cervix appeared normal. Attempts of removal by traction under local infiltrati...

  18. Contrast vaginography is more accurate than the radiopaque rod for localization of the vagina

    Purpose: To compare the radiopaque vaginal rod method with contrast vaginography in localization of the vagina. Methods and Materials: In 25 female patients who needed pelvic radiotherapy, both our standard localization procedure using the vaginal rod and a localization procedure using contrast vaginography were performed. As a rod can change the position of the vagina, contrast vaginography was considered to display the true anatomic position of the vagina. The corresponding rod and nonrod X-rays of each patient were compared. The distance from the true vaginal apex to the displaced vaginal apex (= the top of the rod) was measured in the sagittal plane. This distance was called the inaccuracy of the rod method. Furthermore, the size of the vaginal vault was measured using the contrast vaginography. Results: The median inaccuracy of the rod method was 13 mm (range 2 to 24 mm). The maximal width of the vagina ranged from 24 to 68 mm in the frontal plane (median 39 mm) and from 3 to 22 mm in the sagittal plane (median 10 mm). Conclusion: The rod method is not accurate to localize the vagina. Furthermore, the rod gives no information on the actual size of the vaginal vault. Contrast vaginography is the method of choice to localize the vagina.

  19. Exclusive radiotherapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze results of external beam therapy (EBT) with brachytherapy (BT) for primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma (PVSCC). Materials and methods: From 1970 to 2001, 91 patients were included. FIGO stages were: I (29%), II (38%), III (29%) and IVa (4%). EBT delivered a median total dose of 50 Gy to the pelvis. BT was performed with a customized intra-vaginal applicator and in 36% of applications combined endocavitary and interstitial BT. ICRU Report 38 parameters were reported. Results: The 5-year cause specific survival (CSS) rates were: 83% for stage I, 76% for stage II, 52% for stage III, and 2 of the 4 stage IVa patients died 9 and 36 months after treatment. The 5-year pelvis control rates were: 79% for stage I and II and 62% for stage III. Recurrences as a first event were local only in 68% of cases, nodal only in 10%, metastatic only in 13% and combined in 9%. In multivariate analysis: stage (I and II versus II and IV), response to EBT (evaluated at BT), and the number of BT applications were statistically significant for CSS. Grade 2-3 toxicities were as follows (Franco-Italian Glossary): rectum (n = 3), sigmoid colon and small bowel (n = 8), bladder (n = 5), ureter (n = 4) and vagina (n = 13). Anterior location of the tumor increased bladder toxicity (p = 0.01) and total reference air kerma was higher in patients who experienced grade 2-3 urinary or digestive toxicity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: EBT with BT is an effective treatment for patients with stage I-II PVSCC. The incidence and severity of late toxicity were relatively low. Recent advances in the treatment of cervix carcinoma emphasize the need for concomitant radio-chemotherapy in stages III-IV and the use of MRI for treatment planning

  20. Primary carcinoma of the vagina: Tata Memorial Hospital experience

    Purpose: Carcinoma of the vagina is a rare gynecological malignancy comprising approximately 2% of all the gynecological malignancies. We have analyzed the treatment outcome of the patients treated at the Tata Memorial Hospital from January 1984 to December 1993. Methods and Materials: In this 10-year period, 134 patients of primary vaginal cancers were registered at our hospital. Of these, 75 patients received complete treatment and are analyzed. Results: Disease-free survival (DFS) for the whole group is 50%, and overall survival (OAS) is 60%. Most locoregional recurrences and distant failures are noted in the 2 years following treatment. DFS at 5 years is as follows: Stage I (5 patients), Stage IIA (37 patients), Stage IIB (15 patients), Stage III (14 patients), and Stage IV (4 patients); are 40%, 55%, 60%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. The DFS for patients with complete response (42 patients) to external radiation at 5 years is 68%, with partial response (25 patients) is 35%, and with poor or no response (6 patients) is 18% (p 0.0000). We observed that brachytherapy was an important part of the treatment, and patients who received brachytherapy (59 patients), either with a vaginal intracavitary applicator (30 patients) or interstitial implant (29 patients) had a DFS of 53% and 56%, respectively, while 15 patients who received external radiation alone had a DFS of 30%. Patients receiving brachytherapy within 4 weeks of external radiation had a DFS of 60% as compared to 30% when the interval was more than 4 weeks. Conclusion: The factors indicating prognosis are: site and extent of involvement, presence of lymph nodes at presentation, technique of brachytherapy, and interval between external radiation and brachytherapy

  1. Sensibility of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome

    Vesanović Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Congenital absence of vagina is a failure present in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome. Treatment of this anomaly includes nonoperative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity (touch, warmness, coldness of a vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer-Küster-Rokitansky-Hauser syndrome and compare it with the normal vagina. Methods. A total of 21 female persons with reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method and 21 female persons with normal vagina were observed. All female persons were divided into groups and subgroups (according to age. Sensibility to touch, warmness and coldness were examined, applying VonFrey's esthesiometer and termoesthesiometer for warmness and coldness in three regions of vagina (enter, middle wall, bothom. The number of positive answers was registrated by touching the mucosa regions for five seconds, five times. Results. The obtained results showed that female patients with a reconstructed vagina by McIndoe method, felt touch at the middle part of wall and in the bottom of vagina better than patients with normal one. Also, the first ones felt warmness at the middle part of wall and coldness in the bottom of vagina, better than the patients with normal vagina. Other results showed no difference in sensibility between reconstructed and normal vagina. Conclusion. Various types of sensibility (touch, warmness, coldness are better or the same in vaginas reconstructed by McIndoe method, in comparison with normal ones. This could be explained by the fact that skin grafts are capable of recovering sensibility.

  2. Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: A report of two cases

    Gangopadhyay Mimi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the vagina in infants and children are rare, with primary germ cell tumor (endodermal sinus tumor [EST] being rarer, which carries a dismal prognosis. This tumor is often clinically mistaken as botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma and, on histopathological examination, is often misdiagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma. Two cases of EST of the vagina in infants aged 9 and 17 months are reported. Both the patients presented with bleeding per vagina and clinically and by ultrasonography were diagnosed as sarcoma botryoides. Both were diagnosed as primary yolk sac tumors. The serum alfa fetoprotein (AFP level was 4325 and 9328 ng/ml, respectively. One patient aged 9 months expired 2 months after receiving chemotherapy. The other, aged 17 months, was given chemotherapy followed by surgery with reduction of the AFP levels.

  3. Imaging of the vagina and vulva; Aspectos de imagem das lesoes vulvo-vaginais

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marquez Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Borges, Leonardo Romualdo; Rosalen Junior, Roberto Antonio [Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Signorini Filho, Roney Cesar; Marques, Renato Moretti; Nicolau, Sergio Mancini [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Oncoginecologia; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2006-10-15

    In gynecological daily practices, the vulva and vagina are examined during physical examination, however there are situations where this is not possible or it is needed to determine the extension of an injury through imaging methods. The magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent cross-sectional modality for evaluation the alterations of vulva and vagina due its multiplanar evaluation and high tecidual contrast. Other cross-sectional modalities are ultrasound and enhanced computed tomography. This paper intends to give an overview of vaginal and vulvar pathology that can be identified by the radiologist. (author)

  4. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    Tsukiyama, Iwao; Kakehi, Masae; Ono, Ryosuke; Watai, Kiichi; Yanagawa, Shigeo; Kasamatsu, Tatsuhiro

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author).

  5. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-URETHROVAGINAL FISTULA CAUSED BY A MIGRATING GRASS AWN IN THE VAGINA.

    Agut, Amalia; Carrillo, Juana D; Anson, Agustina; Belda, Eliseo; Soler, Marta

    2016-05-01

    A young intact female dog was presented with urinary incontinence. Abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of hyperechoic linear structures within the cranial vagina suggestive of foreign material. A computed tomography (CT) retrograde vaginourethrogram demonstrated the presence of a fistulous tract between the urethra and vagina. A presumptive diagnosis of urethrovaginal fistula due to migration of foreign material was made. The grass awn was removed with vaginoscopic-guided retrieval. Fourteen days later, surgical repair of the fistula and an ovariohysterectomy were done. This case report emphasizes the usefulness of CT for diagnosis and precise anatomical localization of genitourinary tract fistulas. PMID:26592703

  6. Carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in patients irradiated for carcinoma of the cervix

    Six patients with carcinoma of the vulva and 3 with carcinoma of the vagina following radiation therapy for cancer of the cervix were analyzed. The interval between irradiation and diagnosis of the second tumor varied from 5 to 23 years. Despite the lack of having detailed information on irradiation factors in all patients, circumstantial evidence from this study suggests that radiation therapy may have contributed to the development of carcinoma of the vulva and vagina in some of the patients. Close follow-up patients treated for squamous carcinoma of the genital tract must emphasize inspection for new lesions. The incidences previously reported in the literature are also reviewed for comparison. (author)

  7. Non-Diethylstilbestrol-Associated Primary Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: Two Case Reports with Immunohistochemical Studies and Literature Review

    Shagufta T. Mufti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary clear cell adenocarcinomas most commonly involve the genitourinary system, including the vagina. Previously, primary clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina have been discussed within the context of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol. Due to its widely proven role in the development of this carcinoma, administration of diethylstilbestrol is prohibited. We present two cases of non-diethylstilbestrol-associated primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina from the archives of the Anatomical Pathology Department at King Abdulaziz University in order to improve our understanding of its biological behavior. Our findings suggest that primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina may be unrelated to diethylstilbestrol exposure and that non-diethylstilbestrol-associated primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina, when present at a younger age, may have a worse prognosis.

  8. Optimization of vagina tumors brachytherapy by the usage of multichannel vaginal applicator

    Data about treatment of 46 patients with primary and metastatic cancer of vagina were represented in article. It was shown that multichannel vaginal applicator has much more benefits then single-channel one in combination with radiation therapy of vaginal tumors

  9. Clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma disseminated to the vagina

    The study presents an analysis of the data on 137 patients with cervical carcinoma metastases to the vagina (CCMV) treated with both combined (distance + contact) radiation and contact radiation alone administered in low, medium and high dose. It is shown that there was no correlation between radiotherapy efficacy and regimen (surgery, combined therapy or radiation) in the management of primary cervical carcinoma

  10. Morphology of the Turkey Vagina and Uterus With and Without an Egg Mass

    In this study we examined the gross anatomy of the uterus and vagina in turkeys in egg production. With no uterine egg mass, removal of the tunica serosa that enclosed the uterus revealed deep periodic in-folding of the muscularis transversely circumscribing the sac-like segment. When the connecti...

  11. Primary carcinoma of the vagina: A study of a Radiumhemmet series of 145 cases

    The infrequency of carcinoma of the vagina and the concomitant paucity of cases treated at any one institution have long delayed an appreciation of the fundamental characteristics of this disease and hindered the development of an effective programme of management. In the past decade publications based on relatively large number of cases have appeared from several clinics. These have greatly augmented previous reports of this disorder. However, the lack of a uniform clinical classification regarding the extent of the disease process before treatment has invalidated any attempt to compare the efficacy of methods of therapy employed at different clinics. It is the purpose of this paper to suggest a clinical classification for carcinoma of the vagina and to evaluate the cases treated at the Radiumhemmet in accordance with this proposed staging

  12. Sex Hormones Coordinate Neutrophil Immunity in the Vagina by Controlling Chemokine Gradients.

    Lasarte, Sandra; Samaniego, Rafael; Salinas-Muñoz, Laura; Guia-Gonzalez, Mauriel A; Weiss, Linnea A; Mercader, Enrique; Ceballos-García, Elena; Navarro-González, Teresa; Moreno-Ochoa, Laura; Perez-Millan, Federico; Pion, Marjorie; Sanchez-Mateos, Paloma; Hidalgo, Andres; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria A; Relloso, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Estradiol-based contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy predispose women to Candida albicans infections. Moreover, during the ovulatory phase (high estradiol), neutrophil numbers decrease in the vaginal lumen and increase during the luteal phase (high progesterone). Vaginal secretions contain chemokines that drive neutrophil migration into the lumen. However, their expression during the ovarian cycle or in response to hormonal treatments are controversial and their role in vaginal defense remains unknown.To investigate the transepithelial migration of neutrophils, we used adoptive transfer of Cxcr2(-/-) neutrophils and chemokine immunofluorescence quantitative analysis in response to C. albicans vaginal infection in the presence of hormones.Our data show that the Cxcl1/Cxcr2 axis drives neutrophil transepithelial migration into the vagina. Progesterone promotes the Cxcl1 gradient to favor neutrophil migration. Estradiol disrupts the Cxcl1 gradient and favors neutrophil arrest in the vaginal stroma; as a result, the vagina becomes more vulnerable to pathogens. PMID:26238687

  13. Brachytherapy for malignancies of the vagina in the 3D era

    Glaser, Scott M.; Beriwal, Sushil

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is an uncommon malignancy and can be either recurrent or primary. In both cases, brachytherapy places a central role in the overall treatment course. Recent technological advances have led to more advanced brachytherapy techniques, which in turn have translated to improved outcomes for patients with malignancies of the vagina. The aim of this manuscript is to outline the incorporation of modern brachytherapy into the treatment of patients with vaginal cancer including patient s...

  14. Verrucous carcinoma of the cervix and vagina treated by radiation therapy

    Seven cases of verrocous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (five) and vagina (two) were reviewed. Four of the five patients managed primarily with radiation therapy have survived a median of 10 years. Of the two patients managed primarily with surgery, one experienced recurrence and was then successfully treated with radiation therapy; the other died of metastatic carcinoma. No anaplastic transformation of lesions or distant metastases occurred in the patients treated with radiation therapy. Human papilloma virus was isolated in two patients

  15. A simple, inexpensive applicator for irradiation of localized areas of the vagina with intracavitary brachytherapy

    Purpose: To describe the construction of a simple, inexpensive applicator for irradiation of localized areas of the vagina with intracavitary brachytherapy Methods and Materials: It was desirable to avoid an interstitial implant in an elderly patient with a stage T2 vaginal cancer. The final phase of radiation therapy was delivered with a custom made intracavitary cylinder that allowed the high-dose area to be limited to the portion of the vagina at high risk for residual disease. The applicator was fabricated from a clear cast acrylic (Lucite) rod with dimensions 3.5 cm diameter x 5.0 cm long. The applicator contained 11 parallel grooves, each 1.8 mm deep x 2.2 mm wide, machined along the surface of the cylinder parallel its long axis at 1.0 cm increments. Plastic needles (15 gauge) were inserted into the grooves along the surface of the acrylic cylinder and held in place with heat shrink tubing. The applicator was easily inserted and positioned without anesthesia. Standard low dose rate 192Ir ribbons were inserted into the plastic needles after positioning the applicator in the vagina. Results: Construction of this applicator system requires a few weeks notice and approximately $150. Fabrication of the grooved cylinder is a routine task for a workshop with a milling machine. A step-by-step description of how to construct and use the applicator is provided along with the telephone numbers of commercial vendors to call to order all necessary materials. Conclusion: This article describes a simple, inexpensive method for constructing a customized vaginal applicator that can be used to treat a limited area of the vagina with intracavitary brachytherapy

  16. Hematocolpos in double vagina associated with uterus didelphus: US and MR findings

    Ballesio, L.; Andreoli, C.; De Cicco, M.L.; Angeli, M.L.; Manganaro, L

    2003-02-01

    The malformative syndrome of double vagina in association with uterus didelphus and kidney agenesis is a rare condition, often asymptomatic: if this condition is accompanied by imperforated obstructed hemivagina, the clinical manifestations depend on the presence of hematocolpos. MRI plays an important role for diagnosis because it allows to characterize the nature of the lesion and to evaluate the anatomical details of the uterine malformation. The authors describe this complex genital malformation and discuss the main US and MRI features.

  17. Long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Background: The long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina are not well defined. Patients and Methods: The treatment results of 41 patients with primary malignancies of the vagina were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 77.3 months (2.3-404 months). The predominant histology was squamous cell carcinoma, FIGO stages I: n = 7 (17.1%), II: n = 13 (31.7%), III: n = 13 (31.7%), and IVa: n = 8 (19.5%). Radiotherapy was the primary treatment for all patients. None of the patients had undergone prior surgery for vaginal carcinoma. The majority of patients received pelvic irradiation, including treatment of the inguinal lymphatics (median dose: 50 Gy). 26 patients received additional intravaginal brachytherapy. Results: Overall, 21 patients (51.2%) achieved complete remission, 17 patients (41.5%) had partial responses, and three patients (7.3%) had no change or progressive disease. The total median survival of the analyzed patients was 41.3 months. The 1-year survival probability was 85.4%, the 5-year survival probability 40.6%, and the 10-year survival probability 27.2%. Univariate analysis revealed a survival advantage for earlier tumor stages (FIGO I and II) compared to advanced stages (FIGO III and IV), with a median survival of 58.1 months compared to 26.8 months. Treatment side effects were tolerable and easily managed. Conclusion: Definite radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for primary carcinomas of the vagina. Considering that primary malignancies of the vagina are typically diseases of the elderly, it should be noted that radiotherapy is especially well tolerated in this population. (orig.)

  18. CT and MR imaging findings of primary leiomyosarcoma of the vagina : a case report

    Cho, So Hee; Rha, Sung Eun; Cho, Song Mee; Byun, Jae Young [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent approximately 1-2% of all gynecologic malignancies. About 2% of all malignant vaginal lesions are primary sarcomas, the most common of these being leiomyosarcoma. We report the CT and MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman with vaginal leiomyosarcoma presenting as a bulky solid mass which caused expansion of the vaginal canal.

  19. Long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Hegemann, Stefan; Willich, Normann [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Schaefer, Ulrich [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Lelle, Ralph [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology; Micke, Oliver [University Hospital, Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology

    2009-03-15

    Background: The long-term results of radiotherapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina are not well defined. Patients and Methods: The treatment results of 41 patients with primary malignancies of the vagina were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 77.3 months (2.3-404 months). The predominant histology was squamous cell carcinoma, FIGO stages I: n = 7 (17.1%), II: n = 13 (31.7%), III: n = 13 (31.7%), and IVa: n = 8 (19.5%). Radiotherapy was the primary treatment for all patients. None of the patients had undergone prior surgery for vaginal carcinoma. The majority of patients received pelvic irradiation, including treatment of the inguinal lymphatics (median dose: 50 Gy). 26 patients received additional intravaginal brachytherapy. Results: Overall, 21 patients (51.2%) achieved complete remission, 17 patients (41.5%) had partial responses, and three patients (7.3%) had no change or progressive disease. The total median survival of the analyzed patients was 41.3 months. The 1-year survival probability was 85.4%, the 5-year survival probability 40.6%, and the 10-year survival probability 27.2%. Univariate analysis revealed a survival advantage for earlier tumor stages (FIGO I and II) compared to advanced stages (FIGO III and IV), with a median survival of 58.1 months compared to 26.8 months. Treatment side effects were tolerable and easily managed. Conclusion: Definite radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for primary carcinomas of the vagina. Considering that primary malignancies of the vagina are typically diseases of the elderly, it should be noted that radiotherapy is especially well tolerated in this population. (orig.)

  20. CT and MR imaging findings of primary leiomyosarcoma of the vagina : a case report

    Primary malignant lesions of the vagina are uncommon and represent approximately 1-2% of all gynecologic malignancies. About 2% of all malignant vaginal lesions are primary sarcomas, the most common of these being leiomyosarcoma. We report the CT and MR imaging findings in a 41-year-old woman with vaginal leiomyosarcoma presenting as a bulky solid mass which caused expansion of the vaginal canal

  1. Hematocolpos in double vagina associated with uterus didelphus: US and MR findings

    The malformative syndrome of double vagina in association with uterus didelphus and kidney agenesis is a rare condition, often asymptomatic: if this condition is accompanied by imperforated obstructed hemivagina, the clinical manifestations depend on the presence of hematocolpos. MRI plays an important role for diagnosis because it allows to characterize the nature of the lesion and to evaluate the anatomical details of the uterine malformation. The authors describe this complex genital malformation and discuss the main US and MRI features

  2. Fewer Trichomonas vaginalis organisms in vaginas of infected women during menstruation.

    Demes, P; Gombosová, A; Valent, M; Fabusová, H; Jánoska, A

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to count Trichomonas vaginalis organisms recovered from the vaginas of patients with trichomoniasis, and to obtain data concerning changes in sizes of trichomonal populations during the menstrual cycle. In about 80% of symptomatic as well as symptomless patients, more than 1 x 10(5) parasites per ml could be obtained from vaginal washes. During menstruation, however, the number of trichomonads decreased appreciably, with subsequent increases within three to ...

  3. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  4. Compensatory structural adaptive modifications of vagina in response to functional demand in goat.

    Hussin, Amer M; Zaid, Nazih W; Hussain, S O

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina. PMID:24707438

  5. First record of the burrowing goby, Trypauchen vagina (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae), from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf

    YEGANEH, MOHAMMAD SADEGH ALAVI; DEYRESTANI, ABDOLLAH; MURDY, EDWARD O.

    2015-01-01

    The burrowing goby, Trypauchen vagina, is recorded for the first time from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. Only one other record is known for this species from the Persian Gulf; that record is from Kuwait. The subject record is a new addition to the ichthyofauna of Iran resulting from four T. Vagina specimens being collected from north of Qeshm Island in the Khoran Strait (26°56?N, 55°54?E) in the Persian Gulf.

  6. The relative efficacy of HDR and LDR interstitial brachytherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of vagina

    Introduction: Beginning in 1982 we performed low dose rate (LDR) interstitial template brachytherapy (ISTB) for carcinoma of the vagina. High dose rate (HDR) remote afterloading has been used exclusively since 1991. We compare the results LDR and HDR brachytherapy. Material and Methods: Between 1982 and 1994, 30 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of vagina received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy. The AJCC stage distribution was 3 stage I, 25 stage II, and 2 stage III. The average central pelvic EBRT dose was 35 Gy. Pelvic side wall EBRT doses ranged from 45 to 50.4 Gy. Nineteen patients had LDR treatment; 3 intracavitary brachytherapy (ICB) and 16 ISTB. Eleven patients had HDR treatment; 2 ICB and 9 ISB. The average dose delivered by LDR was 41.2 Gy usually in 2 fractions, and by HDR 32.5 Gy in 6 fractions of 500-550 cGy. Local failures were confirmed pathologically. The absolute survival (AS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank statistics. Results: The mean follow-up was 77 months for LDR and 23 months for HDR. Local and regional control was achieved in 90% (27/30) of the patients. Three year AS was 84% and RFS was 87%. There was no significant difference between LDR and HDR in AS, RFS or local-regional control, (log rank p=0.85, p=0.12 and p=0.35 respectively). The single HDR local failure presented in a patient with extensive stage II disease who declined ISTB. There were fewer complications following HDR. The 1 case of extensive vaginal necrosis and the 3 cases of rectovaginal fistula that required surgery occurred only with LDR brachytherapy. Discussion: Excellent local and regional control of carcinoma of the vagina can be achieved by administering limited doses of external radiation and brachytherapy. Interstitial template implants are the best means of encompassing paravaginal disease while sparing the adjacent uninvolved normal tissues from high doses of radiation. HDR technology is an effective means of administering high uniform tumor doses, maximizes dose control to the bladder and rectum and improves radiation safety. Conclusion: Optimal tumor control and less morbidity at 2 years after treatment can be achieved with HDR-ISTB in squamous carcinoma of the vagina compared to alternative treatments

  7. Pre leukemic granulocytic sarcoma of vagina: a case report with review of literature

    Granulocytic sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor of malignant granulocytic progenitor cells, that may precede the onset of acute myeloid leukemia or appear during the leukemic manifestation or blastic crisis of chronic myeloproliferative disorders. A case of granulocytic sarcoma of vagina in a 27 year old woman treated with local radiotherapy is described. After seven months of follow up she developed acute myeloid leukemia. The case has been presented in view of its rarity and discussed in light of the available literature. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  8. Role of radiation therapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina

    A retrospective analysis of 88 patients with microscopically proven primary carcinoma of the vagina is presented. All patients were treated between 1957 and 1975 and have been followed for a minimum of 5 years. The technique of treatment, external, intracavitary and interstitial irradiation has been highly integrated and individualized. Several important features could be drawn from the current data: (1) The necessity for individualized radiation treatment to achieve the success, (2) the necessity to subdivide stage II into II A and II B is clearly shown by the 5-year survival data, (3) a relatively low complication rate from the use of high dose combined radiation modalities in higher stages is demonstrated. (Auth.)

  9. Devices for interstitial radiotherapy of recurrents and metastases of uterine cancer to the vagina

    Three types of devices for interstitial radiotherapy have been developed in accordance with the technique of successive manual introduction of intrastates and radioactive sources taking into account localization, size, and degree of infiltration of underlaid tissues of recurrent and metastatic tumors during uterine cancer in all vagina sections. The proposed fixing devices provide safe predetermined source position and allow one to conduct local irradiation of pathological focus with minimum radiation loading on adjacensst organs and tiues, simplify dosimetric calculations of absorbed doses and reduce time of manipulation with radioactive sources

  10. Migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries

    In this report we describe a radionuclide procedure designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, as well as the determination of the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m-labelled human albumin microspheres (technetium-99m-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of 24 patients a day before they were to undergo different gynaecological operations. During this period sequential images were obtained and after the operation radioactivity levels in the removed organs and tissues were counted with a scintillation detector. In 14 out of 21 cases, the ovaries and fallopian tubes were counted separately from the uterus. Nine were positive (radioactivity levels were sufficiently high in the tubes and ovaries) and 5 were negative (no substantial radioactivity levels could be detected in either the tubes or the ovaries). The 5 negative results all occurred in patients with proved tubal damage as a result of previous infection. All the results were either true positive or true negative, providing evidence of migration, or obstruction, of technetium-99m-HAM from the vagina through the uterus and tubes to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries

  11. Tubulosquamous polyps in the vagina. Immunohistochemical comparison with ectopic prostatic tissue and Skene glands.

    Roma, Andres A

    2016-06-01

    Two tubulosquamous polyps arising in the vagina are reported. Both were diffusely positive for GATA3 in the squamous component and focally positive for NKX3.1 in the glandular component, prostate acid phosphatase was focally positive in only 1 case in the glandular component. Both cases were negative for PAX2, PAX8, SALL4, and prostate-specific antigen. In addition, we included 3 cases of cervical squamous-lined cysts most likely representing ectopic prostatic tissue in the cervix and 1 case of paraurethral Skene-type glands to compare the immunophenotype. We analyze this immunoprofile, not previously reported. We also suggest unifying the nomenclature because vaginal Brenner tumors are most likely synonymous with tubulosquamous polyp (TSP) of the vagina. Our findings add support to the postulated origin of TSPs and cervical ectopic prostatic tissue from eutopic or misplaced Skene glands, equivalent of the prostate in the female. NKX3.1 seems a better marker to study and diagnose ectopic prostatic tissue in the cervix as well as TSPs. PMID:27180063

  12. Postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina: treatment by topical 20 percent 5-fluorouracil cream

    Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina were treated with monthly 5 day courses of 20% 5-fluorouracil cream applied to the vagina. Seven (87.5%) of the women had an initial complete response; however, three subsequently developed recurrence after the treatment was stopped. They were retreated, and two of these three patients achieved a subsequent complete response. The overall response to therapy was 75% (6/8) with the six women off therapy from 1.1 to 6.9 years. Total follow-up of all patients was 3.1 to 6.9 years with no patients having developed invasive carcinoma. Because of the high success rate with no associated serious sequelae, this is believed to be a satisfactory method of therapy for women with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina occurring after pelvic irradiation

  13. Microbiological analysis of the uterus and vagina of nulliparous and non-nulliparous agoutis (Dasyprocta azarae

    Leandro Luis Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The genital organs of domestic animals are usually colonized by several microorganisms. This paper aims at describing the uterine and vaginal microbiota of nulliparous and non-nulliparous agoutis, which belong to the Catanduva City Zoo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. During the procedure of ovariosalpingohisterectomy, material was collected for microbiological analysis through the introduction of sterile swabs in the vagina and in each uterine horn. The presence of Proteus sp. was observed in the uterine material of only one animal. In the vaginal material of all animals, several bacteriae (Proteus sp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Staphylococcus sp. and yeasts were found. The vaginal and uterine microbiota of agoutis presents a colonization pattern different from that observed in other domestic animals, in women, and in female rats.

  14. Integrated external and interstitial radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Twenty-seven patients with the diagnosis of primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated by definitive radiotherapy. Twenty-three patients received a combination of external and interstitial iridium-192 implant irradiation and four patients received only interstitial irradiation. Twenty-one patients had squamous cell carcinoma and six had adenocarcinoma. All patients were staged according to the FIGO classification. More than 70% of patients had relatively advanced local disease and conventional intracavitary irradiation was unsuitable. Local tumor control was observed in 85% (23 of 27 patients), and 56% of the patients remain alive and free of disease for a median follow-up period of 50 months to a maximum follow-up period of 84 months. Fifteen percent of the patients suffered from treatment-related complications

  15. Radiation therapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: Stanford University experience

    A retrospective analysis of 38 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina seen at Stanford University Medical Center from 1958 to 1984 was undertaken. Patients were analyzed with regard to symptoms, stage, treatment techniques, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. Eighteen patients were classified as FIGO Stage I, 5 as Stage II, 10 as Stage III, and 5 as Stage IV. The 5-year disease-free survival was 94% in Stage I, 80% in Stage II, 50% in Stage III, and 0% in Stage IV. Five patients (13%) had eight major complications secondary to treatment. Only 2 of 23 patients with Stage I or Stage II disease developed a recurrence. There was a significant correlation between dose and response in patients treated with radiotherapy

  16. [Primary peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the vagina incidentally found at cervical cancer screening].

    Isobe, Rei; Mituishi, Toshimi; Omote, Mayuko; Mori, Yuichi; Ida, Koichi; Oguchi, Osamu; Nakai, Ikuko; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because a mass lesion had been palpable through the vaginal wall during a cervical cancer screening examination. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed marked thickening of the vaginal wall, constituting a mass 96 mm in diameter. Abnormal FDG uptake was observed in the vaginal mass, but no other lesions were detected by positron emission tomography (PET/CT). A transvaginal biopsy from the tumor revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Although endoscopic examinations revealed no signs of infiltration in either the bladder or the rectum, the MRI findings suggested invasion into the adjacent rectal wall. She achieved complete remission after six courses of biweekly THP-COP therapy, to which field radiation (39.6 Gy) was added. PTCL of the vagina is rare and this case therefore merits description in the literature. PMID:26861099

  17. Radicality of initial surgery for primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    Todo, Yukiharu; Okamoto, Kazuhira; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Minobe, Shinichiro; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-04-01

    Radical surgery is considered not to improve the prognosis of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina (PMMV). This study was carried out to review the general consensus. A systematic review was performed on the basis of data from 10 patients in our cohort and 147 patients in the previous literature. The radicality of the initial surgery (RAINS) score was defined as the total number of points in terms of the resected organs. The target organs were the vagina, vulva, urethra, bladder, uterus, anus, rectum, pelvic lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes. Overall survival (OS) according to the RAINS score was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Information on tumor stage, size, and depth of invasion was not obtained in 15, 47, and 43% of patients, respectively. The median follow-up period was 18 months. OS with a RAINS score of at least 7 was significantly longer than that with a RAINS score of up to 6 (median survival time, 41 vs. 19 months; log-rank test, P=0.037), despite the fact that the former group included significantly more patients with advanced-stage disease. A significant difference in OS was not found between patients with a RAINS score of at least 6 and up to 5. The therapeutic significance of radical surgery for PMMV has not been assessed appropriately in previous studies because of the lack of comparability among groups and differences in the definitions of surgical radicality. Patients with PMMV might benefit from initial surgery with appropriate surgical radicality, despite incomplete validation of the RAINS score. PMID:26825038

  18. Reconstruction of the anus, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina after postirradiation necrosis. Report of a unique case

    Successful repair of postirradiation total loss of the anal sphincters, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina is reported. Gracilis muscle flap was used as a substitute sphincter. Part of the muscle was wrapped-up in a split skin graft. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on new application of gracilis muscle and split skin graft in perineal reconstruction

  19. Factors affecting long-term outcome of irradiation in carcinoma of the vagina

    Objective: This report evaluates prognostic and technical factors affecting outcome of patients with primary carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on records of 212 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the vagina treated with irradiation. Results: Tumor stage was the most significant prognostic factor; actuarial 10-year disease-free survival was 94% for Stage 0 (20 patients), 80% for Stage I (59 patients), 55% for Stage IIA (63 patients), 35% for Stage IIB (34 patients), 38% for Stage III (20 patients), and 0% for Stage IV (15 patients). All in situ lesions except one were controlled with intracavitary therapy. Of the patients with Stage I disease, 86% showed no evidence of vaginal or pelvic recurrence; most of them received interstitial or intracavitary therapy or both, and the addition of external-beam irradiation did not significantly increase survival or tumor control. In Stage IIA (paravaginal extension) and IIB (parametrial involvement) 66% and 56% of the tumors, respectively, were controlled with a combination of brachytherapy and external-beam irradiation; 13 of 20 (65%) Stage III tumors were controlled in the pelvis. Four patients with Stage IV disease (27%) had no recurrence in the pelvis. The total incidence of distant metastases was 13% in Stage I, 30% in Stage IIA, 52% in Stage IIB, 50% in Stage III, and 47% in Stage IV. The dose of irradiation delivered to the primary tumor or the parametrial extension was of relative importance in achieving successful results. In patients with Stage I disease, brachytherapy alone achieved the same local tumor control (80-100%) as in patients receiving external pelvic irradiation (78-100%) as well. In Stage II and III there was a trend toward better tumor control (57-80%) with combined external irradiation and brachytherapy than with the latter alone (33-50%) (p = 0.42). The incidence of grade 2-3 complications (12%) correlated with the stage of the tumor and type of treatment given. Conclusion: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for patients with vaginal carcinoma, particularly Stage I. More effective irradiation techniques, including optimization of dose distribution combining external irradiation and interstitial brachytherapy in tumors beyond Stage I, are necessary to enhance locoregional tumor control. The high incidence of distant metastases emphasizes the need for earlier diagnosis and effective systemic cytotoxic agents to improve survival in these patients

  20. Phospholipase activity of Candida albicans isolated from vagina and urine samples

    Sanaz Miry

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Candida albicans is the most virulent among the Candida species, and can cause several forms of candidiasis in human. Extracellular phospholipases in C. albicans is discussed as one of the virulence factors. The present study, focused on extracellular phospholipase activities in different isolates of C. albicans isolated from vagina and urine samples from Ahvaz, Iran. In addition, phospholipase activities were compared in C. albicans isolated from two different sources. Materials and methods: In the present study, phospholipase activity of 100 isolates of C. albicans with urine and vaginitis origin was demonstrated using Sabouraud's dextrose agar supplemented with egg yolk. Results: The phospholipase activity was detected in all tested isolates with a high level in Pz<0.70. In the present study phospholipase activity with higher Pz values was more common in vaginal isolates (84.7% isolates with Pz value <0.70 compared with 75% in urine isolates. Conclusion: In the present study, 100% clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginitis and urine samples demonstrated phospholipase activity.

  1. Regulation of elastolytic proteases in the mouse vagina during pregnancy, parturition, and puerperium.

    Wieslander, Cecilia K; Marinis, Spyridon I; Drewes, Peter G; Keller, Patrick W; Acevedo, Jesús F; Word, R Ann

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence indicates that failure of elastic fiber assembly and synthesis is involved in the pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse in mice. It has been long been hypothesized that parturition-induced activation of proteases in the vaginal wall and its supportive tissues may contribute to pelvic organ prolapse in women. In this investigation, we determined the expression of matrix metalloproteases with elastase activity (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] 2, MMP9, and MMP12) and their inhibitors in the vaginal wall of nonpregnant, pregnant, and postpartum mice. Data obtained using mRNA levels and enzyme activity measurements indicate that MMP2, MMP9, and 21- to 24-kDa caseinolytic serine proteases are regulated in vaginal tissues from pregnant and postpartum mice. Although suppressed during pregnancy and the early postpartum time period, MMP2 and MMP9 enzyme activities are increased after 48 h, a time when mRNA levels of protease inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of MMP2 [Timp2], cystatin C [Cst3], and alpha-1 antitrypsin [Serpina1]) are decreased. We conclude that recovery of the vaginal wall from pregnancy and parturition requires increased elastic fiber assembly and synthesis to counteract the marked increase in elastolytic activity of the postpartum vagina. PMID:18003950

  2. Squamous carcinoma of the vagina: treatment, complications, and long-term follow-up

    Seventy-five cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated at the University of Pennsylvania are reviewed with long-term follow-up presented. These comprised 2.5% of all female genital malignancies treated during 1958 to 1980 inclusive. Patients treated during that time with non-squamous cell cancers have been excluded. Patients are analyzed with regard to stage, therapy, complications, and survival. Sixty-five percent of patients were stage I or II. Five-year survival for the entire group was 45%. Patients treated with radical surgery other than exenteration did well, with 7 of 8 surviving 5 years. Serious treatment complications were mostly related to radiation therapy and primarily involved the bowel and bladder. Three patients died of complications. Recurrence carried a grave prognosis as 30 of 33 patients with recurrence died of disease. Most recurrences were diagnosed within the first year following treatment. Patients with advanced disease were more likely to have distant recurrences. Although radiation therapy is generally the treatment of choice, radical surgery can yield excellent results when used in carefully selected patients. With meticulous attention to radiation dosage and technique it is hoped that treatment morbidity can be reduced. Optimal treatment of advanced disease may require some form of adjuvant systemic therapy

  3. Radiotherapy of primary carcinoma of the vagina: Clinical and histopathological variables associated with survival

    434 cases of primary vaginal carcinoma were treated from 1950 to 1984 at the Irradiation Department of the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna. The five-year survival rate for various clinical stages is as follows: Stage I 76.7%, stage II 44.5%, stage III 31%, stage IV 18.2%. In this retrospective study 110 patients seen from 1975 to 1984 were reviewed in detail and evaluated with a view toward their clinical and morphological aspects and survival rates. Patients up to the age of 60 have a five-year survival rate of 50%, those over 75 years of age reach only 34.3%. If the carcinoma was discovered in a routine check up the survival rate is 61.1%, whereas in cases with symptoms the rate decreases to 36.9%. Survival differences were also observed for patients with a carcinoma in the upper third of the vagina (61.1%) versus patients with a carcinoma in the lower third (33.3%); for patients with well-differentiated tumours (62.5%) versus patients with grades II and III (41.5% and 34.9%). It can be seen, that with brachytherapy local control of the carcinoma can be achieved with excellent results in early stages. Treatment of patients with more advanced carcinomas should include external beam therapy. The importance of gynecological screening especially for older women is emphasized. (orig.)

  4. A RARE C.T. SCAN FINDING OF FOREIGN BODY VAGINA, A HARD FRUIT, KEPT AS PESSARY FOR UTERINE PROLAPSE

    Radha Rani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal pessaries still have a role in the management of uterine prolapse, particularly in elderly patients. The presence of a foreign body or device in the female pelvis can be a potential source of confusion to the radiologists, particularly to the inexperienced reader. We present a rare C.T. scan finding of a hard fruit kept in vagina 5yrs back for uterine prolapse.

  5. Topometric preparation and interstitial gamma-therapy of patients with recurrencies and metastases of uterine cancer to the vagina

    The developed technique of preradiation topometry in patients with recurrencies and metastases of uterine cancer to the vagina allows to visualize boundaries of soft-tissue tumor formation and to specify its localization, sizes and relation with urethra, rectum, urinary bladder. Results of topometric investigation are used for individual planning of interstitial radiotherapy: fabrication of fixing instruments, choice of a number of sources, their activity, position, and exposure duration

  6. A RARE C.T. SCAN FINDING OF FOREIGN BODY VAGINA, A HARD FRUIT, KEPT AS PESSARY FOR UTERINE PROLAPSE

    Radha Rani; Sarada; Shamshad Begum

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal pessaries still have a role in the management of uterine prolapse, particularly in elderly patients. The presence of a foreign body or device in the female pelvis can be a potential source of confusion to the radiologists, particularly to the inexperienced reader. We present a rare C.T. scan finding of a hard fruit kept in vagina 5yrs back for uterine prolapse.

  7. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  8. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina

    G. Schönfelder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17αethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  9. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of bactrian camel semen collected by artificial vagina.

    Mosaferi, S; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Abarghani, A; Gharahdaghi, A A; Gerami, A

    2005-01-01

    Seminal characteristics were investigated in Bactrian camel in this study. Semen samples from ten mature Bactrian camel bulls were collected using a modified bovine artificial vagina. The biophysical parameters including volume, color, sperm concentration and fast forward progressive motility, percentage of live sperm and the biochemical parameters including osmolarity, pH, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, chloride, triglycerides, phospholipids, total protein, albumin and non-protein nitrogen concentrations in seminal plasma were measured. The mean time for semen collection was 5.3 +/- 0.29 min. The volume of semen varies from 1.2 to 26 (8.2 +/- 0.7 mls). The majority of semen samples (83.6%) were milky in color and consistency. The average osmolarity of semen was 316.1 +/- 1.48 mOsm/kg H(2)O. The pH of semen was slightly alkaline (7.4 +/- 0.03). The mean concentration of spermatozoa was 414.8 +/- 25.04 x 10(6)cells/ml. The fast forward progressive motility of spermatozoa was 62.4 +/- 1.57%. The percentage of live spermatozoa was 85.6 +/- 1.15. Seminal plasma concentration of glucose was 35.8 +/- 0.9 mg/dl. Non-protein nitrogen, total protein and albumin were 32.5 +/- 2.5, 2200 +/- 100 and 1100 +/- 100mg/dl, respectively. The average concentrations of phospholipids and triglycerides in seminal plasma were 36.4 +/- 2.1 and 101.6 +/- 5.5mg/dl, respectively. The concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and chloride were 8.2 +/- 0.1, 2.9 +/- 1.7 mg/dl and 97.9 +/- 2.9 mEq./l, respectively. PMID:15589276

  10. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Stjernquist Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years, in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years. Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036. Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071. There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels.

  11. Definitive radiation therapy for invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Impact of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of definitive radiation therapy (RT) for invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Twenty-six patients with invasive carcinoma of the vagina who received RT were studied retrospectively. The median age was 68 years. The pathologic subtype of vaginal carcinoma was squamous cell carcinoma in 24 patients, adenosquamous cell carcinoma in one patient, and adenocarcinoma in one patient. The distribution of clinical stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system was as follows: stage I, seven patients; stage II, 10 patients, stage III, seven patients; and stage IVA, two patients. Twenty patients received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT), and three received EBRT alone. The remaining three patients with stage I disease were given HDR-ICBT alone. The median dose was 50 Gy for EBRT, and 23 Gy for HDR-ICBT. Systemic chemotherapy was administered concurrently with RT to three patients. The median follow-up was 90 months. The initial rate of response to RT was 100%, and complete remission was attained in 21 patients (81%). The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) and the median survival time of the 26 patients were 57% and 97 months, respectively. The 5-year OS for the three patients who received HDR-ICBT alone was 100%. Severe toxicity occurred in three patients-grade 3 rectal hemorrhage in one, grade 3 cystitis in one, and grade 4 cystitis in one. Our results demonstrated that definitive RT with HDR-ICBT is effective for invasive carcinoma of the vagina, with acceptable toxicity. (author)

  12. Clinico-radiobiological evaluation of the correlation between dose and injury rate in radiotherapy of endometrial metastases into the vagina

    Problem of choosing optimum radiobiological model is studied for prediction of the probability of arising radiation-induced complications in case of radiotherapy of patients of corpus uteri carcinoma with metastases into the vagina. Based on the results of radiotherapy (remote plus contact; contact) at different doses the radiobiological modes time dose-fractionation factor is found to be usable in case of radiobiological assesment of various dose fractionation variants and choice of isoeffective regimes under clinical conditions. It is easy in case and makes it possible to predict truly the probability of arising early and late radiation-induced complication

  13. Normal tissue reactions to high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation of the vagina with different fractionation schedules and dose levels

    The radiation reactions in the normal tissues of the vagina, rectum and bladder were studied in 166 patients receiving prophylactic vaginal high dose-rate intracavitary irradiation. Most reactions were observed in the vaginal mucosa included in the intracavitary target and only a few in the rectum and bladder in close proximity to the same target. The influence of the total dose, the dose per fraction and the overall treatment time, summarized as the Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE), correlated well to the rate of reactions after a correction of the formula for late effects. (orig.)

  14. Melanoma amelanótico primario de vagina: reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    María Paula Houghton-Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar el diagnóstico clínico, histológico e inmunohistoquímico; las alternativas terapéuticas y los factores que influyen en el pronóstico del melanoma amelanocítico de vagina. Materiales y métodos: se presenta el caso de una paciente de 49 años que consultó por masa vaginal de 8 cm en pared anterior de vagina, nacarada y con fondo necrótico a la Unidad de Patología Cervical y Colposcopia del Hospital de Engativá, institución de segundo nivel de complejidad que atiende pacientes de nivel socioeconómico bajo afiliados al régimen de seguridad pública. Se realizó resección amplia de la lesión. La patología quirúrgica informó melanoma fusocelular y epiteloide maligno. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: melanoma primario y vagina en las bases de datos Medline vía PubMed, Cochrane y Ebsco. Resultados: se encontraron 489 artículos de los cuales 31 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron diez que correspondieron a nueve reportes de caso y a una revisión del tema. El diagnóstico clínico no es fácil. Las proteínas HMB45 y S100 son de gran utilidad en su identificación. La respuesta al tratamiento quirúrgico, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia es pobre. El pronóstico depende de la ploidía, la amelanosis y el índice mitótico. Conclusiones: el melanoma primario de vagina es una neoplasia rara y de mal pronóstico. Hace parte del grupo de melanomas de mucosa que tienen un origen y comportamiento biológico diferente al cutáneo. Tiene tendencia a la diseminación hematógena rápida y a recaídas locales. El tratamiento se basa en cirugía conservadora, radioterapia, quimioterapia y terapia biológica; sin embargo, su eficacia es limitada.

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail: handrade@hcnet.usp.br; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  16. Study of uterine prolapse by magnetic resonance imaging: topographical changes involving the levator ani muscle and the vagina.

    Ozasa, H; Mori, T; Togashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Alternations of the pelvic structure with an emphasis on those of the levator ani muscle, associated with uterine prolapse, were studied using sagittal magnetic resonance images obtained from 19 subjects without and 14 with uterine or vaginal prolapse of varied degree and 3 patients with Rokitansky syndrome who had undergone a McIndoe operation. Two additional patients with a grade III uterine prolapse were also studied before and 2-3 months after corrective surgery consisting of vaginal hysterectomy combined with anterior colporrhaphy and posterior colpoperineorrhaphy. Absence or presence of prolapse, irrespective of its grade, was found to be related to whether or not a reference line extrapolated from the levator plate crossed the pubis on sagittal images. This was the case as well in patients with Rokitansky syndrome with a neovagina and loss of such crossings was restored in patients with prolapse after surgery. Backward bending of the upper vagina noted in nonprolapse conditions was usually absent in patients with uterine prolapse. These results document that topographical changes involving the levator ani muscle and the vagina occur in association with uterine prolapse. PMID:1526530

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina

    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  18. Definitive radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina: outcome and prognostic factors

    Purpose: Primary carcinoma of the vagina is an uncommon tumor. Because of the long-standing interest in this disease at our institution a substantial number of patients with this disease has been accumulated, and this retrospective review was performed to define disease outcome, to delineate significant prognostic factors, and to provide treatment guidelines. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 301 patients with vaginal carcinoma (271 with squamous cell and 30 with adenocarcinoma) who received definitive radiotherapy between 1953 and 1991. Prognostic factors for outcome (local control, pelvic control, metastatic relapse, survival, and complications) were evaluated using univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: Patients disease was staged using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) system, and stages were distributed as follows: 0, 37 (12%); I, 65 (22%); II, 122 (40%); III, 60 (20%); and, IVA, 17 (6%). Treatment varied according to stage, with brachytherapy predominating for early disease but external beam playing a prominent role for more advanced disease. Patients with in situ disease received brachytherapy alone or transvaginal orthovoltage irradiation. For Stage I, brachytherapy alone was used in 25, external beam and brachytherapy in 38, and transvaginal alone in 2. For Stage II, brachytherapy alone was used in 20, external and brachytherapy in 66, and external irradiation alone in 36. For Stage III, external and brachytherapy was used in 15, and external alone in 45. Two patients with Stage IVA received brachytherapy alone, 10 received a combination of external and brachytherapy, and 6 received external irradiation alone. Total doses ranged from 10 to 154 Gy (mean 74.7 Gy, median 70.0 Gy), but only 18 (6%) received less than 55 Gy. At a median follow-up of 13 years, the 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year survival rates were 60%, 49%, 38%, 29%, and 23%, respectively. Beyond 5 years the survival rates relative to those for age-matched females in the general population were between 50 and 65%. Actuarial local recurrence rates were 23%, 26%, and 26% at 5, 10, and 15 years. Actuarial pelvic relapse rates were 26%, 30%, and 31% at 5, 10, and 15 years, and metastatic rates at those times were 15%, 18%, and 18%. Adenocarcinoma (nonclear cell) was a significantly worse disease than squamous cell carcinoma. The major determinants of local control for squamous carcinoma were tumor bulk (specified by size in centimeters, or by FIGO stage), tumor site (upper lesions faring better than others), and tumor circumferential location (lesions involving the posterior wall faring worse). Tumor bulk was an important determinant of metastatic relapse, but failure to achieve local control was also an independently significant determinant of metastases. Salvage after first relapse was uncommon and the survival rate at 5 years after relapse was only 12%. Serious complications occurred in 39 patients with an actuarial incidence of 19% at 20 years. Conclusion: Vaginal carcinoma poses a formidable therapeutic challenge. The disease is heterogeneous with respect to its prognostic factors. Nonclear cell adenocarcinoma has an extremely poor prognosis and should be distinguished from squamous carcinoma. Both external beam and brachytherapy play crucial roles in management and most patients with disease beyond in situ should receive a significant component of external irradiation prior to brachytherapy

  19. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared. PMID:24958655

  20. Disturbances in the vagina development of the white rat off spring under the effect of X-ray irradiation

    120 embryos of white rats from 13 to 22 days old irradiated with X-rays at 12-th-14-th days of embryogenesis. The embryos are classified in the series of sagittal, transversal, frontal cross sections and are dyed with conVentional techniques. The formation of paramesonefral tracts is obserVed in all experimental animals. The violations of the vaginal development manifest themselves in the time delay of connection of paramesonefral tracts resorption of medial partition between connected tracts, separation of the sinus vaginal part from the genitourinary sinus, recanalization of vaginal epithelial band. More serious injuries are presented by agenesis of the sinus part of vagina and atresia of the organ in the form of its transverse separation by a partition

  1. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  2. Ultrastructural features of vagina at different phases of the oestrous cycle in the female African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse).

    Akinloye, Adebayo K; Oke, Bankole O

    2014-06-01

    The ultrastructures of the vagina at various stages of the oestrous cycle in female African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse) were described in the present study. At mid-proestrus, late proestrus (LP)/early estrus (EE) and mid-estrus (ME) as well as late metestrus (LM)/early diestrus (ED) and mid-diestrus (MD), complex interface of epithelium and lamina propria were observed. Cells of the stratum basale formed finger-like extensions into the underlying lamina propria and tips of the extensions displayed hemidesmosome while basal lamina followed the contour of the extensions. At mid-metestrus (MM) and late diestrus/early proestrus, well developed, relatively straight basal lamina interfaced between the stratum basale and the lamina propria without finger-like projections. Polygonal cells with indented nuclei and, cytoplasm containing ribosomes, polysomes, intermediate filaments, and mitochondria were observed in stratum spinosum at all the phases of the oestrus cycle. At MM, LM/ED, and MD, the stratum spinosum had numerous desmosomes with tonofilaments, large microvilli that intermingled at the intercellular spaces and evidence of trapped/migrating neutrophils and lymphocytes. The superficial layer displayed short microvilli at mid-proestrus, cornification at LP/EE and desquamation at ME while it showed condensation of intermediate filaments; projections of large microvilli into the luminal surface at MM, and embeddement of neutrophils at LM/ED as well as MD. This study looked into the reproductive biology of female African giant rats to produce baseline information on its reproductive organs and represented the first comprehensive description of the vagina at the ultrastructural level during oestrous cycle. PMID:24737725

  3. Nonoxynol-9 berberine plural gel has little effect on expression of SLPI, SP-D and lactoferrin in mice’s vagina

    Huang Guangying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9 in the clinic alters the vaginal flora, which will result in an increased risk of opportunistic infection. So development of a novel spermicidal and microbicidal drug appears to be inevitable. Vaginal local immune is an important part of vaginal flora. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI, surfactant proteins D (SP-D, and lactoferrin (LF are anti-microbial molecules with important roles in immune system of female vaginas. Objective: To observe effect of a vaginal spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9 berberine plural gel on the expression of SLPI SP-D and LF in mice’s vaginas. Materials and Methods: Female BABL/C mice were randomly divided into following 5 groups: normal control group, blank gel group, berberine gel group, 12% N-9 gel group and N-9 berberine plural gel group. Estradiol benzoate at physiological dose was done by hypodermic injection to every group’s mice. After 72h, drug gels were separately injected into the mice’s vaginas, while immunohistochemistry and Western blot were taken to detect the expression of the 3 indexes in mice’s vaginas respectively after 24h and 72h of gel injection. Results: The differences in the three indexes between normal control group and blank gel group were not significant statistically (p>0.05. The expression of the three indexes in 12% N-9 gel group was decreased compared to that in blank gel group (p0.05. Also, the three index's level of 24h and 72h in sub observation groups after treatment were without statistical significance (p>0.05. Conclusion: Application of N-9 berberine plural gel had little impact on antimicrobial peptides in normal mice’s vaginas.

  4. Caracterização de leveduras isoladas da vagina e sua associação com candidíase vulvovaginal em duas cidades do sul do Brasil Characterization of yeasts isolated from the vagina and their association with vulvovaginal candidíasis in two cities of the South of Brazil

    Magda Helena S. H. Ferrazza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a distribuição de espécies de leveduras isoladas da vagina em duas localidades do sul do Brasil e comparar o perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro destas leveduras a antifúngicos usados na prática clínica. MÉTODOS: todas as mulheres atendidas entre janeiro e junho de 2004 para exames rotineiros de amostras vaginais, independente de serem sintomáticas ou não, foram incluídas neste estudo. Foram excluídas as que apresentavam imunodeficiências como AIDS ou outras infecções genitais. Amostras de conteúdo vaginal dessas mulheres (Jaraguá do Sul - SC (n=130 e Maringá - PR (n=97 foram cultivadas. As leveduras isoladas foram identificadas e submetidas ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos fluconazol, nistatina e anfotericina B. RESULTADOS: a freqüência de cultura positiva para levedura foi semelhante nas duas localidades, aproximadamente 24%. Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente, mas sua freqüência diferiu: em SC correspondeu a 77,4% das leveduras e foi a mais freqüente tanto nas mulheres sintomáticas quanto nas assintomáticas. Já no PR foi 50,0%, com predomínio mais evidente nos casos sintomáticos. Observamos altos índices de suscetibilidade ao fluconazol e anfotericina B, porém 51,1% das leveduras apresentaram suscetibilidade dependente da dose (S-DD para nistatina. C. albicans mostrou maior tendência de resistência à nistatina (52,8% de S-DD do que as espécies não-albicans (44,4%. CONCLUSÕES: nossos dados mostram diferenças regionais quanto à espécie de levedura em amostras vaginais. Sugerem que a determinação da espécie pode ter implicação clínica, considerando as diferenças quanto à suscetibilidade, principalmente à nistatina, e que poderiam ter importância no manejo da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to evaluate the distribution of yeast species isolated from the vagina in two cities of the South of Brazil and compare the in vitro susceptibility profile of these yeasts against some antifungals, which are used in clinical routine. METHODS: all women attended from January to June 2004 for vaginal routine examinations, independent of being symptomatic or not were included in the study. Only those who presented immunodeficiency like AIDS or any other genital infection were excluded. Samples of vaginal discharge from the women (Jaraguá do Sul - SC (n=130 and Maringá - PR (n=97 were cultivated. The yeasts were identified and submitted to the susceptibility test against the antifungals fluconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B. RESULTS: the frequency of positive cultures for yeasts was the same in both cities; C. albicans was the most prevalent species (about 24%, but its frequency was different: in SC it corresponded to 77.4% of the yeasts both in symptomatic and asymptomatic women and in PR it was 50.0% with predominance in symptomatic women. We observed high rates of susceptibility to fluconazole and amphotericin B, but 51.1% of the yeasts presented dose-dependent susceptibility (DDS to nystatin. C. albicans showed a higher tendency to be nystatin resistant (52.8% DDS than non-albicans species (44.4%. CONCLUSIONS: our data showed geographic differences among the species of yeasts isolated from the vagina and suggest that this fact has clinical relevance considering the differences in susceptibility, especially regarding nystatin, which could be important for the management of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  5. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories. PMID:25567033

  6. Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Gardiner, Gillian E.; HEINEMANN, Christine; Bruce, Andrew W.; Beuerman, Dee; Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic persistence at this site. Ten healthy women inserted vaginally a capsule containing either ...

  7. Fine structure of the vagina, accessory glands, uterus, oviducts and Gene's organ in the unfed tick, Ornithodoros (Pavlovskyella) erraticus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae).

    el Shoura, S M

    1988-03-01

    The fine structure of the reproductive system of the unfed female Ornithodoros (Pavloskyella) erraticus is described. The vagina consisting of vestibular (VV) and cervical (CV) regions is formed of a single epithelial layer lined with cuticle and surrounded by muscle layers. Epithelial cells of VV show no signs of activity, while those of CV have structural features of transporting epithelia. A pair of tubular accessory glands opening at the junction of the two vaginal regions consist of a layer of microvillate columnar cells containing rough endoplasmic reticulum; this is possibly involved in the formation of colloidal material which presumably coats the egg surface during its passage through the vagina. The bilobed uterus opening into the cervical vagina secretes material that is possibly responsible for the release of sperm from the endospermatophore. The paired oviducts joining the uterine lobes anteriorly have distinctive distal (DO) and proximal (PO) parts as well as 'ampullae' (AMP) at their junction. DO cells contain many lysosome-like structures which probably play a role in breaking down some sperms ascending to the ovary. Cells of AMP are packed with rickettsia-like Wolbachia, while those of PO contain a few granules. Gene's organ, present in female ticks only, consists of a stalk and two horns of epithelium lined internally by a cuticular layer. Bundles of microtubules are detected in the horn cell cytoplasm. This organ functions to waterproof the eggs with a waxy layer just before they are deposited. PMID:3409790

  8. Quantitative determination by real-time PCR of four vaginal Lactobacillus species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae indicates an inverse relationship between L. gasseri and L. iners

    Tagg John R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies of the vaginal microflora have been based on culture or on qualitative molecular techniques. Here we applied existing real-time PCR formats for Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis and developed new formats for Atopobium vaginae, L. iners and L. jensenii to obtain a quantitative non culture-based determination of these species in 71 vaginal samples from 32 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women aged between 18 and 45 years. Results The 71 vaginal microflora samples of these women were categorized, using the Ison and Hay criteria, as refined by Verhelst et al. (2005, as follows: grade Ia: 8 samples, grade Iab: 10, grade Ib: 13, grade I-like: 10, grade II: 11, grade III: 12 and grade IV: 7. L. crispatus was found in all but 5 samples and was the most frequent Lactobacillus species detected. A significantly lower concentration of L. crispatus was found in grades II (p L. jensenii was found in all grades but showed higher concentration in grade Iab than in grade Ia (p = 0.024. A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were present in high concentrations in grade III, with log10 median concentrations (log10 MC, respectively of 9.0 and 9.2 cells/ml. Twenty (38.5% of the 52 G. vaginalis positive samples were also positive for A. vaginae. In grade II we found almost no L. iners (log10 MC: 0/ml but a high concentration of L. gasseri (log10 MC: 8.7/ml. By contrast, in grade III we found a high concentration of L. iners (log10 MC: 8.3/ml and a low concentration of L. gasseri (log10 MC: 0/ml. These results show a negative association between L. gasseri and L. iners (r = -0.397, p = 0.001 and between L. gasseri and A. vaginae (r = -0.408, p Conclusion In our study we found a clear negative association between L. iners and L. gasseri and between A. vaginae and L. gasseri. Our results do not provide support for the generally held proposition that grade II is an intermediate stage between grades I and III, because L. gasseri, abundant in grade II is not predominant in grade III, whereas L. iners, abundant in grade III is present only in low numbers in grade II samples.

  9. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

    Wang Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.; Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  10. Il Linguaggio della Vagina

    Marco Menicocci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La cultura delle masse è oggi una cultura prevalentemente visuale. Tra i segni visuali da tempo in crescita è quello, caratteristico, della depilazione pubica femminile. Originata all'interno della cultura porno come segno di passività, questa pratica si è incontrata con i simboli della pulizia, dell'igiene, del rispetto, trasformando così il proprio significato in quello di autonomia e libertà. Così le donne possono depilarsi per scopi erotici minimizzando però la valenza sessuale del gesto tramite la tendenza alla super-igiene.

  11. Il Linguaggio della Vagina

    Marco Menicocci

    2011-01-01

    La cultura delle masse è oggi una cultura prevalentemente visuale. Tra i segni visuali da tempo in crescita è quello, caratteristico, della depilazione pubica femminile. Originata all'interno della cultura porno come segno di passività, questa pratica si è incontrata con i simboli della pulizia, dell'igiene, del rispetto, trasformando così il proprio significato in quello di autonomia e libertà. Così le donne possono depilarsi per scopi erotici minimizzando però la valenza sessuale del gesto ...

  12. Carcinoma of the vagina

    There are two major difficulties in the management of vaginal carcinoma. First, irradiation alone has not provided adequate results in stage III and stage IV disease. Pelvic failures and distant metastases occur in half of the patients with advanced disease. The second problem is that the results of therapy for patients with nonepithelial tumors (sarcomas, melanomas) are poor

  13. Carcinoma of the vagina

    Twenty-two patients with Stage I through IV primary vaginal squamous cell carcinomas treated for cure with radiation therapy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the relationship of dose to complications and local control. All but 2 patients received 4000 to 6000 rad whole pelvis irradiation plus at least one radium application. Local control was 91%, with an absolute 2-year disease-free survival of 82%. The degree of anaplasia was found to influence prognosis, with all local and distant failures resulting from high-grade lesions. The complication rate was modest, with no fistulae or serious bowel complications. An analysis of total dose (external plus radium) with respect to local failure and complications showed that no major complications occurred at a combined dose below 9000 rad. An analysis of the individual contributions of external irradiation and radium implants showed that all but one very minor complication occurred at a radium dose of 4000 rad or higher. From these data, overall treatment planning and total dose recommendations are made

  14. Histopathologic Changes in the Uterus, Cervix and Vagina of Immature CD-1 Mice Exposed to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Uterotrophic Assay

    Dixon, Darlene; Reed, Casey E.; Moore, Alicia B.; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene A; Hines, Erin P.; Wallace, Elizabeth A.; Stanko, Jason P.; Lu, Yi; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Newbold, Retha R.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was assessed using an immature mouse uterotrophic assay and by histologic evaluation of the uterus, cervix and vagina following treatment. Female offspring of CD-1 dams were weaned at 18 days old and assigned to groups of equal weight, and received 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg PFOA/kg BW/d by gavage with or without 17-β estradiol (E2, 500 μg/kg/d) from PND18-20 (n=8/treatment/block). At 24 hr after the third dose (PND 21), ...

  15. An Investigation About the Effects of Insemination Depth, Cervico-Vaginal Mucus Production and Reflux of Semen in the Vagina After Insemination in Sheep

    Koşum, Nedim

    2000-01-01

    The possible influence of factors such as depth of insemination, cervico-vaginal mucus production and reflux of semen in the vagina after insemination in German merinolandrace were considered. Fresh diluted semen was inseminated intracervically. The results obtained for non-return-rate, lambing rate and fecundity are 49.01%, 39.75% and 64.55% respectively. The year had a significant effect (p ² 0.05) on non-return-rate and lambing rate but not on fecundity.The other parameters considered d...

  16. Efecto del sistema de crianza (extensivo vssemiintensivo) del macho cabrío, sobre la obtención de semen mediante vagina artificial

    Víctor Manuel Prado; Agustín Orihuela Trujillo; Salvador Lozano Trejo; María Isabel Pérez León

    2001-01-01

    Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto del sistema de crianza (extensivo vs semiintensivo) del macho cabrío, en el entrenamiento para colecta de semen mediante vagina artificial, se utilizaron ocho animales criollos, de dos años de edad, con experiencia sexual; cuatro habían sido criados bajo condiciones extensivas, y los restantes bajo un manejo semiintensivo. Todos recibieron ocho sesiones de entrenamiento, exponiéndoles en forma individual, dos veces por semana, ante una hembra ...

  17. Entrenamiento de carneros para recolección de semen mediante vagina artificial, utilizando como estímulo objetos inanimados

    Virginio Aguirre Flores; Reyes Vázquez Rosales; Agustín Orihuela Trujillo

    2005-01-01

    Con el fi n de desarrollar una metodología para entrenar carneros en la recolección de semen con vagina artifi cial (VA), montando un objeto inanimado, se utilizaron nueve animales que se sometieron a cuatro etapas de preparación. La primera con el propósito de lograr la manifestación del repertorio sexual natural, y el resto para llevar a cabo un programa de condicionamiento operante: cuando la respuesta correcta (monta) sucedía, en un inicio provocada por un estado de motivac...

  18. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  19. Conceptual knowledge of vesico-vagina fistula among parents, teachers and counsellors of senior secondary students in Warri South local government area of Delta State, Nigeria

    Imoukhede M.O

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: VVF is leakages of urine and faeces through the vagina. It is rampant in the North and the Eastern parts of Nigeria due to the forced marriage of girls at about the age of eleven. This may be attributed to their small pelvises which have resulted in harmful reproductive health practice. The disability and suffering from obstetric fistula remains a neglected issue in global health. Aim: This study seeks to explore the conceptual knowledge of vesico-vagina fistula (VVF among parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school students in Warri South local government area of Delta state. Methods: A survey design was used. Random sampling method was used to select a total number of six hundred respondents including parents, teachers and counselors that participated in the study, but only five hundred and eleven questionnaires were retrieved. The questionnaire was divided into two sections containing information on demography and selected variables for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics of Anova and t-tests. Result: the study revealed that there is no significant difference in the conceptual knowledge of VVF among parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school students either by educational status or location. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parents, teachers and counselors of senior secondary school have very little knowledge about VVF. There is need for educational programmes on VVF to enlighten them about VVF and the danger it poses.

  20. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The vagina; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: le vagin Normal

    Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 42 - Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France); Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital de Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Haie-Meder, C. [Service de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2010-07-15

    The vagina is a virtual cavity involved in sexual reproduction field. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed in whole or in part to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy and/or brachytherapy of the pelvic region. This review aims to describe the vaginal acute and late side effects due to radiation, probably inadequately reported in the literature. Medline and PubMed literature searches were performed using the keywords -vaginal - radiotherapy - toxicity. The acute and late functional changes after external beam radiation consist mainly of drought. Their incidences are poorly described in the literature and the delivered doses even less. Recommendations are non-existent as the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Brachytherapy delivers high and heterogeneous doses, making it difficult to estimate the dose. The concomitant administration of chemotherapy appears to be a factor increasing the risk of toxicity. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity appear to have little impact on this body. Only a maximum dose on each third of the vagina appears to be currently proposed to avoid the risk of side effects. (authors)

  1. Radiation therapy of cancer of the cervix, corpus uteri and vagina at the 1st University Clinic of Gynaecology in Vienna from 1950 to 1979

    On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the department of radiotherapy of th 1st University-Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Vienna, the results obtained in the treatment of gynaecologic malignancy are presented. During this period, more than 10 000 malignant tumors of the female genital tract were treated, including 3605 cases of cancer of the cervix, 1412 endometrial carcinomas and 397 cases of cancer of the vagina. The principal method of irradiation was local application of radium. Dosage was established empirically after measurements on a model. In addition conventional percutaneous roentgen therapy was used until 1972, when telecobalt irradiation equipment was put into use. Five-year survival rates for cervical, endometrial and vaginal cancer are presented for the years from 1950 through 1972. These results are attributed primarily to intracavitary radium application. Of 2687 cases with cervical cancer 1222 (45.5%) were alive after five years, in stage III cervical cancer 535 out of 1321 (40.5%). The latest international tables published in the Annual Report give a five-year survival rate of 31.7% for stage-III cancer of the cervix. Of 994 cases of endometrial cancer 473 were alive after five years (49.8%), while the Annual Report gives a five-year survival rate of 39.0% for primary irradiation in endometrial cancer. For cancer of the vagina, our five-year survival rate was 42.8% (127 patients out of a total of 297), while the Annual Report gives 37.3%. This demonstrates, that the results obtained at the department of radiotherapy of the 1st University Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Vienna are better than the international average. Apart from the different methods of treatment the importance of primary radiation therapy in gynaecologic oncology is pointed out, and the side effects and complications are discussed. (orig.)

  2. The effect of copaiba balsam on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito do óleo de copaíba no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas fêmeas

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito; Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito; Rita de Kássia Vidigal Carvalho; Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil Matos; Rodolfo Costa Lobato; Suelen Costa Correa; Rosângela Baía Brito

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To verify the copaiba balsam (Copaifera officinalis) effect on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into vagina and uterine cervix of rats. METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used, distributed into 2 groups (GCop, GC). On the 1st day of the experiment, 0.3 ml of Walker 256 carcinoma (2x10(6) concentration) was inoculated in both groups; on the 3rd day of the experiment, it was given 4.8 ml/kg of distilled water to the GC group, and 4.8 ml/kg of copaiba bal...

  3. Histometric Parameters of Uterus and Vagina in Breeder Female Rabbits on the Day After Weaning According to the Ordinal Number of Parturitions / Parámetros Histométricos en Útero y Vagina de Conejas Reproductoras en el día Posterior al Destete Según el Número Ordinal de Partos

    José Alfonso, Banda-Herrera; Jesús, Aragón Hernández; Reyes, López Ordaz; Jorge, Hernández Espinosa; Mario, Pérez-Martínez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar en conejas Nueva Zelanda el efecto del número ordinal de partos sobre algunos parámetros histológicos, en el día posterior al destete. A partir de hembras de primero, segundo y tercer parto se obtuvieron fragmentos de tejido uterino y vaginal los que s [...] e procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina para efectuar cortes histológicos. En ocho campos microscópicos capturados con una cámara conectada a un microscopio óptico se midió la altura del epitelio luminal y glandular del endometrio; el grosor del epitelio de la vagina y del miometrio. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se concluye que existen diferencias significativas (p Abstract in english The objective of this study was to establish in New Zealand female rabbits, the effect of ordinal number of parturitions on some histological parameters on the day after weaning. Tissue fragments of uterus and vagina were obtained from females of first, second and third parturitions and were process [...] ed imbedding them in paraffin in order to do histological cuts. In eight microscope fields captured by a camera connected to an optic microscope, the lumen and glandular endometrial epithelium height, as well as the thickness of vaginal and myometrium epithelium thickness were measured. From the results that were obtained it was concluded that there are significant differences (p

  4. Can local application of imiquimod cream be an alternative mode of therapy for patients with high-grade intraepithelial lesions of the vagina?

    Haidopoulos, D; Diakomanolis, E; Rodolakis, A; Voulgaris, Z; Vlachos, G; Intsaklis, A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the local application of imiquimod cream 5% as an alternative mode of therapy for high-grade vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN 2/3). Positive human papillomavirus (HPV) patients with multifocal high-grade VAIN (2/3) not involving the vaginal vault in hysterectomized patients took part in this study. The treatment consisted of vaginal application of the cream under colposcopic guidance. Following management, biopsies were obtained from the previously recorded lesions. p53 expression was recorded prior and after therapy. Seven patients with VAIN 2/3 took part in this study. Six patients (86%) were positive for high-risk HPV type while three (43%) women who were positive for p53 nuclei prior to therapy were found to be negative following treatment. After treatment, 86% of the patients were found to have either HPV infection or low-grade VAIN. During follow-up, two patients (28.5%) were managed by vaginectomy, one for persistent and one for recurrent high-grade VAIN. Currently, from the five patients that are followed, three have simple HPV infection and two, VAIN 1. Imiquimod cream 5% might represent an alternative although not permanent method of management in young, HPV-positive women with multifocal high-grade lesions of the vagina (VAIN 2/3). PMID:16174242

  5. Total cystectomy and subsequent urinary diversion to the prepuce or vagina in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the trigone area: A report of 10 cases (2005–2011)

    SAEKI, Kohei; Fujita, Atsushi; Fujita, Naoki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; NISHIMURA, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    The cases of 10 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that underwent total cystectomy were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of total cystectomy and ureteral transplantation to the prepuce or vagina. Dehiscence of ureterostomy (n = 2), pyelonephritis (n = 3), oliguria (n = 2), azotemia (n = 1), and ureteral obstruction (n = 1) were observed complications. The estimated median survival time was 385 days. This study demonstrates the feasibil...

  6. Detection of the Human 70-kD and 60-kD Heat Shock Proteins in the Vagina: Relation to Microbial Flora, Vaginal pH, and Method of Contraception

    S. S. Witkin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the 60-kD and 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70 in the vaginas of 43 asymptomatic women of reproductive age with or without a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVV were compared. Vaginal wash samples were obtained and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human hsp60 and hsp70. Heat shock protein 70 was not detected in any of the 19 women with no history of RVV, and hsp60 was present in only one woman in this group. In contrast, in the RVV group, 11 (45.8% were hsp60-positive and eight (33.3% were hsp70-positive. The presence of either heat shock protein in the vagina was associated with an elevated vaginal pH (>4.5. Bacterial vaginosis or Candida was identified in some of the asymptomatic subjects; their occurrence was significantly higher in women with vaginal hsp70 than in women with no heat shock proteins. Oral contraceptives were used by 35.7% of subjects who were negative for vaginal heat shock proteins, as opposed to only 12.5% of women who were positive for hsp70 and 8.3% who were positive for hsp60. Expression of heat shock proteins in the vagina may indicate an altered vaginal environment and a susceptibility to vulvovaginal symptoms. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:23–25, 1999.

  7. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  8. The effect of copaiba balsam on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats Efeito do óleo de copaíba no tumor de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas fêmeas

    Nara Macedo Botelho Brito

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the copaiba balsam (Copaifera officinalis effect on Walker 256 carcinoma inoculated into vagina and uterine cervix of rats. METHODS: Eighteen female Wistar rats weighing between 180-250g were used, distributed into 2 groups (GCop, GC. On the 1st day of the experiment, 0.3 ml of Walker 256 carcinoma (2x10(6 concentration was inoculated in both groups; on the 3rd day of the experiment, it was given 4.8 ml/kg of distilled water to the GC group, and 4.8 ml/kg of copaiba balsam to the GCop group. On the 12th day, euthanasia was performed and the tumor was grafted, being weighted and verified its volume. The data were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA test. RESULTS: It was observed that copaiba balsam presented a negative inhibitory potential of 70%. CONCLUSION: The copaiba balsam stimulated the tumor growth.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do óleo de copaíba da espécie Copaifera officinalis no carcinoma de Walker 256 inoculado em vagina e colo de útero de ratas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 18 ratas da linhagem Wistar, pesando entre 180-250g, distribuídas em dois grupos (CCop, GC. No 1º dia de experimento, em ambos os grupos foi inoculado 0,3ml de tumor de Walker 256 na concentração de 2x10(6; no 3º dia após essa inoculação, foi iniciada a administração de água destilada na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GC, e copaíba na dose de 4,8 ml/kg ao GCop. No 12º dia foi realizada a eutanásia das ratas e ressecado o tumor, sendo este pesado e averiguado seu volume. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística pelo método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o óleo de copaíba apresentou um potencial inibitório negativo de 70%. CONCLUSÃO: O óleo de copaíba estimulou o crescimento tumoral.

  9. Estrogen and the irradiated vagina

    The vaginal response of patients to estrogen therapy following radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma is discussed. The authors take exception to the statement of Abitbol and Davenport that irradiation destroys the possibility of a vaginal response to estrogen stimulation

  10. MRI of the uterus, uterine cervix, and vagina: diagnostic performance of dynamic contrast-enhanced fast multiplanar gradient-echo imaging in comparison with fast spin-echo T2-weighted pulse imaging

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced fast multiplanar gradient-echo (GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image sets in the assessment of uterus, cervix, and vagina. Fast (up to 20 contiguous sections in 23 s) multiplanar GRE and FSE images of 45 patients referred for imaging of the female pelvis were evaluated retrospectively with regard to overall image quality and the ability to detect normal anatomic structures, as well as lesion conspicuity. Results were compared with histologic findings (n = 29) or clinical follow-up. Furthermore, a quantitative assessment of contrast-to-noise ratios among normal uterine and cervical structures as well as uterine lesions was performed for both sequences. On GRE images, uterine and cervical differentiation was best seen on the image sets acquired 15 and 60 s following contrast enhancement and results were significantly better compared with delayed images (p 2 test, the difference in diagnostic performance between FSE and GRE revealed no significant difference, whereas the combination of both techniques performed better than FSE imaging alone (p < 0.05). The presented data suggest that dynamic contrast-enhanced GRE imaging should be part of an MR examination of the female pelvis. Combined GRE and FSE imaging provide an excellent sensitivity in the assessment of uterine and vaginal pathologies. (orig.) (orig.)

  11. Congenital malformations of uterus and vagina

    The radiographic findings according to the classification of Buttram and Gibbons are described for HSG, ultrasound and MRI. The advantages and limitations of each method are discussed, and finally an algorithm for imaging is recommended. (orig.)

  12. Primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina

    Forty-three cases of primary vaginal squamous cell cancer were treated at the University of Wisconsin Hospital between 1956 and 1971. These cases comprised of 1.2% of patients admitted to the University Hospital with female genital tract cancer. Evidence is presented to support a modification of the currently accepted FIGO staging system for vaginal carcinoma (Stage II disease). Radiation therapy using both external beam and brachyradium equivalents or interstitial implantation of suitable isotopes was an effective method for the treatment of patients having early and locally advanced invasive vaginal cancer. The 5-year absolute survival rate for the entire series was 37.2%. Absolute survival rate by modified FIGO clinical staging was 66% for Stages I and IIA, 31% for Stage IIB, 25% for Stage III, and 0% for Stage IV

  13. Caracterización de la microbiota levaduriforme residente en la vagina de perras en diferentes fases del ciclo estral Characterization of vaginal microbiotic yeasts of bitches in distinct stages of the oestrous cycle

    M B Cleff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hongos levaduriformes son aislados frecuentemente de los animales domésticos y silvestres, siendo algunos comensales del tegumento y mucosas. Las levaduras son frecuentes en la mucosa vaginal de las mujeres, pero en perras son escasos los estudios referentes a la microbiota fúngica vaginal, sin conocerse su relación con el ciclo reproductivo. En este estudio se buscó aislar e identificar levaduras de la microbiota vaginal de perras, y establecer si hay alteración de la microbiota levaduriforme en las fases del ciclo reproductivo. Se analizaron 75 muestras de la vagina de 75 perras de los caniles particulares (Grupo I y 224 muestras de 14 perras experimentales (Grupo II. El ciclo estral fue determinado por citología vaginal y se registraron observaciones clínicas como sangrado, edema y pliegues de vulva. Las muestras fueron sometidas a examen directo y cultivos en Agar-Sabouraud dextrosa con cloranfenicol, a 37 ºC por 10 días. Las levaduras fueron clasificadas por macro y micromorfología, pruebas bioquímicas, tubo germinativo y microcultivo. De las 75 muestras del grupo I, el aislamiento fue 33,3% (n = 25; las muestras fueron obtenidas en las fases de proestro 56,3%, estro 16,7%, diestro 66,7% y anestro 20,5%, respectivamente. De las 224 muestras del grupo II se aislaron levaduras en 147 (65,6%: en proestro 61,9%, estro 71,9%, diestro 82,7% y anestro 57,1%, respectivamente. Las levaduras fueron identificadas como Candida spp, Malassezia pachydermatis y Rhodoturola spp. Los resultados sugieren que estas levaduras forman parte de la microbiota vaginal de perras sanas y sus frecuencias se alteran en las fases del ciclo reproductivo.Yeasts are commensal organisms frequently isolated from the skin and mucous membranes of domestic and wild mammals. Although yeasts are frequently isolated from women’s vaginal mucus, similar studies in canine are rare, therefore their behaviour during the canine oestrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeasts from the vaginal microbiota of bitches and to evaluate their behaviour in different stages of the oestrous cycle. We examined 75 samples of mucus from the vaginal cavity of 75 domestic bitches and 224 samples from 14 experimental bitches. The stages of the oestrous cycle were characterized through vaginal cytology and clinical observation of bleeding, vulvar oedema and pucker. Samples were examined visually, and also cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloranphenicol, at 37 ºC for 10 days. The yeasts were classified according to their macro and micro morphology, biochemical tests, germination tube and micro culture. Yeasts were isolated from 25 (33.3% samples from domestic females. Among the samples collected during proestrous, oestrous, diestrous and anestrous, 56.3% 16.7% 66.7% and 20.5% were positive, respectively. Yeasts were isolated from 147 (65.6% samples from experimental bitches. Among the samples collected during proestrous, oestrous, diestrous and anestrous, positive samples represented 61.9%, 71.9%, 82.7%, and 57.1%, respectively. The identified species were Candida spp, M. pachydermatis and Rhodotorula spp, which are commonly present in the vaginal mucus microbiota of healthy bitches and their frequency changes with the different stages of the oestrous cycle.

  14. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained by gynecologic examination were also recorded. Results: yeast belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from 18 (25% patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans (77,8% and therefore, 22.2% were non-albicans species. The most prevalent among the non-albicans species was C. glabrata (16.7% followed by C. parapsilosis (5.6%. The symptoms most directly associated with Candida were itching and burning. Different from the symptoms directly associated with C. albicans infection, we observed that C. glabrata does not cause vaginal discharge. There was no positive association between predisponent factors such as age, education and contraceptive method used and the presence or absence of Candida. Conclusions: our results suggest: (i that there is a high prevalence of Candida species among women; (ii that non-albicans species play an important role in the vaginal medium; (iii that itching and burning are the most common symptoms in women with Candida, and (iv C. glabrata usually does not cause vaginal discharge. Finally, it is important to emphasize that our results are consistent with the present worldwide findings.

  15. Biofilm formation among Candida albicans isolated from vagina

    D C Thamke; H A Tayade; Surekha Tayade; Bankar, N. J.; N. G. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital with a purpose to demonstrate the biofilm forming abilities of C. albicans isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.Material and Methods: C. albicans was isolated and identified by standard laboratory techniques. Biofilm formation in vitro was tested using the 96 well microtitre plate method with crystal violet staining.Results: Overall rate of Candida isolation in study subjects was 40%. Candida i...

  16. Uterus and vagina. TNM classification of malignant tumours

    Cervix uteri and Corpus uteri were amongst the first sites to be classified by the TNM system. The ''League of Nations'' Stages for carcinoma of the cervix have been used with minor modifications for nearly fifty years and because these are accepted by the Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO), the TNM categories have been defined to correspond to the FIGO stages. Some amendments have been made in collaboration with FIGO and the classifications now published will remain unchanged until at least 1986

  17. Late effects of ionizing radiations on vulva, vagina and uterus

    Reporting and scoring complications after radiotherapy of gynaecological cancers is difficult because of the variety of treatment techniques involved. Use of an international classification is necessary to compare results obtained in series of patients treated in different institutions. An international group of experts designed in the early nineties the so-called French-Italian glossary. This classification of late effects is now completed with the new LENT SOMA scales. This paper contains details of these late changes, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  18. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Prescription medicine before and during pregnancy Birth defects ...

  19. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage)

    Søren Ventegodt; Birgitte Clausen; Omar, Hatim A.; Joav Merrick

    2006-01-01

    Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm) are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, suppleme...

  20. Fine structure of the male reproductive ducts, vagina and seminal receptacle of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea)

    Poddubnaya, L. G.; Mackiewicz, J. S.; Bruňanská, Magdaléna; dezfuli, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 241-250. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1317 Grant ostatní: Russian Foundation of Fundamental Research(RU) 05-0448250 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ultrastructure * reproductive organs * Cestoda Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  1. Isolated epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the vagina: a case report and review of the literature

    Zhao J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jing Zhao,1 Yang Xiang,1 Dachun Zhao,2 Tong Ren,1 Fengzhi Feng,1 Xirun Wan1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: An epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT is a rare trophoblastic tumor originating from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblasts. Vaginal involvement in ETT in the form of isolated lesions has not been previously reported. A 43-year-old woman presented with vaginal wall cysts and was diagnosed with ETT by pathological examination after cystectomy. No clinical evidence of uterine involvement was found at diagnosis or during follow-up. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and surgery after the first recurrence and underwent follow-up for 8 months. The serum human chorionic gonadotropin titer remained at undetectable levels. Keywords: ETT, isolated lesions, vaginal involvement

  2. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    Chinawa, JM; Obu, HA; Uwaezuoke, SN

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long-standing intra-vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6-year-old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a foul-smelling, blood-stained vaginal discharge as well as dysuria for 2 years. There was no history of sexual abuse. Initial evaluation that excluded gynecologic examination revea...

  3. Unusual foreign body insertion in rectum and vagina in schizophrenic patient

    Raheel Mushtaq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Insertion of foreign body in to the body is rare in medical literature. Here we report a case of 21 year old female who presented to emergency with acute abdomen and on detailed evaluation turned out to be schizophrenia. Our patient had history of insertion of ball pen in rectum following command hallucination. The foreign body was later removed through laparotomy. The cause of insertion of foreign body are multiple from command hallucination, suicidal attempt, erotism to somatic delusions. Thus the clinician should always be vigilant while dealing with psychiatric patients as sometimes impacted foreign body can present as acute emergency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 367-369

  4. "The Vagina is a Very Tricky Little Thing Down There": Cervical Health Literacy among Incarcerated Women.

    Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to understand factors associated with women's ability to engage in cervical cancer prevention and follow-up care given ongoing criminal justice involvement. We conducted four focus groups with 45 incarcerated women to assess barriers to cervical health promotion, and used a grounded theory method to analyze data. We administered the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults to assess general health literacy as a standalone factor related to cervical health promotion. Ninety-one percent of participants had adequate health literacy scores. However, we found that the women had varying levels of cervical health literacy, which we operationalized as knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy related to cervical health promotion. Practitioners should establish broader interventions to empower women with criminal justice histories to take control of their own cervical health and focus on communicating updated recommendations to improve cervical health understanding, beliefs, and practices among high-risk women. PMID:26548678

  5. Kadar Estradiol dan Progesteron Serum, Tampilan Vulva dan Sitologi Apus Vagina Kambing Bligon Selama Siklus Birahi

    Irkham Widiyono; Prabowo Purwono Putro; Sarmin -; Pudji Astuti; Claude Mona Airin

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the serum estradiol and progesterone concentration, vulvaappearance, and vaginal cytology during estrous cycle in bligon goat. Four female non pregnant bligongoats (Indonesian indigenous) were used in this research. They were clinically healthy and showed normalestrous cycle. Estrous state was examined by using biological method. When the animals showed acceptanceto be mounted by a buck, they were confirmed as the first day of estrous cycle (estrous phase)...

  6. Kadar Estradiol dan Progesteron Serum, Tampilan Vulva dan Sitologi Apus Vagina Kambing Bligon Selama Siklus Birahi

    Irkham Widiyono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the serum estradiol and progesterone concentration, vulvaappearance, and vaginal cytology during estrous cycle in bligon goat. Four female non pregnant bligongoats (Indonesian indigenous were used in this research. They were clinically healthy and showed normalestrous cycle. Estrous state was examined by using biological method. When the animals showed acceptanceto be mounted by a buck, they were confirmed as the first day of estrous cycle (estrous phase. Collectionof blood sample, preparation of vaginal smears, and measurement of some physical genital parameterswere conducted by standard veterinary clinical methods at day 11, day between 3-5, day between 6-16, andday between 17-19 of estrous cycle. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determineserum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Mean difference of each parameter was analyzed byanalyses of variance (Anova, followed by Tuckey HSD. The serum estradiol concentration ranged between211.25-247.77 pg/ml. Peak of the estradiol was occurred at the first day of estrous phase, namely 247.77pg/ml and to decrease at day 3-16. The serum progesterone concentration was at the level of 0.21-0.70 ng/ml and showed a significant increase at day 6-16 (p<0.05. The specific physical genital changes (swellingvulva, reddish mucous membrane of vulva, and excretion of viscous transparent vaginal discharge wereidentified as the animals were at the estrous phase. Composition of exfoliative vaginal cytology did notshow any specific and consistent changes throughout the estrous cycle. Superficial and intermediate cellswere very dominant (>60% during estrous cycle. In conclusion, serum estradiol, progesterone, the vulvaappearance combined with sexual receptivity could be a good estrous predictor for female cycling bligongoat.

  7. High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for primary or recurrent cancer in the vagina

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HDR brachytherapy for primary or recurrent vaginal cancer. Between the years 2000 to 2006, 18 patients with primary or recurrent vaginal cancer were treated with brachytherapy (HDRB). Six patients had primary vaginal cancer (stage II to IVA) while 12 were treated for isolated vaginal recurrence (primary cervix = 4, vulva = 1 and endometrium = 7). Five patients had previous pelvic radiation therapy. All except one patient received external beam radiation therapy to a median dose of 45 Gy (range 31.2–55.8 Gy). The HDRB was intracavitary using a vaginal cylinder in 5 patients and interstitial using a modified Syed-Nesblett template in 13 patients. The dose of interstitial brachytherapy was 18.75 Gy in 5 fractions delivered twice daily. The median follow-up was 18 months (range 6–66 months). Complete response (CR) was achieved in all but one patient (94%). Of these 17 patients achieving a CR, 1 had local recurrence and 3 had systemic recurrence at a median time of 6 months (range 6–22 months). The 2-year actuarial local control and cause-specific survival for the entire group were 88% and 82.5%, respectively. In subset analysis, the crude local control was 100% for primary vaginal cancer, 100% for the group with recurrence without any prior radiation and 67% for group with recurrence and prior radiation therapy. Two patients had late grade 3 or higher morbidity (rectovaginal fistula in one patient and chronic vaginal ulcer resulting in bleeding in one patient). Both these patients had prior radiation therapy. Our small series suggests that HDRB is efficacious for primary or recurrent vaginal cancer. Patients treated with primary disease and those with recurrent disease without prior irradiation have the greatest benefit from HDRB in this setting. The salvage rate for patients with prior radiation therapy is lower with a higher risk of significant complications. Additional patients and follow-up are ongoing to determine the long-term efficacy of this approach

  8. Didelphic uterus with imperforate unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: Magnetic resonance

    We present two cases of didelphic uterus with the clinical appearance of a pelvic mass produced by the hematometra-hematocolpos retained by an imperforate unilateral hemivagina. In both cases, this anomaly was accompanied by ipsilateral renal agenesis. We basically review the diagnosis of this disorder, focusing on magnetic resonance as the technique of choice. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina. Immunocytochemical and cytofluorometric analysis of prognostic factors

    Blecharz, P. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Gynecological Oncology; Reinfuss, M.; Jakubowicz, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rys, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Tumor Pathology Oncology; Skotnicki, P.; Wysocki, W. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Oncological Surgery

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the potential prognostic factors in patients with primary invasive vaginal carcinoma (PIVC) treated with radical irradiation. Patients and methods: The analysis was performed on 77 patients with PIVC treated between 1985 and 2005 in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Krakow. A total of 36 patients (46.8 %) survived 5 years with no evidence of disease (NED). The following groups of factors were assessed for potential prognostic value: population-based (age), clinical (Karnofsky Performance Score [KPS], hemoglobin level, primary location of the vaginal lesion, macroscopic type, length of the involved vaginal wall, FIGO stage), microscopic (microscopic type, grade, mitotic index, presence of atypical mitoses, lymphatic vessels invasion, lymphocytes/plasmocytes infiltration, focal necrosis, VAIN-3), immunohistochemical (protein p53 expression, MIB-1 index), cytofluorometric (ploidity, index DI, S-phase fraction, proliferation index SG2M) factors. Results: Significantly better 5-year NED was observed in patients: < 60 years, KPS {<=} 80, FIGO stage I and II, grade G1-2, MIB-1 index < 70, S-phase fraction < 10, and proliferation index < 25. Independent factors for better prognosis in the multivariate Cox analysis were age < 60 years, FIGO stage I or II, and MIB-1 index < 70. Conclusion: Independent prognostic factors in the radically irradiated PIVC patients were as follows: age, FIGO stage, MIB-1 index. (orig.)

  10. The influence of radium therapie on the yeast contamination of the vagina

    Before the beginning of radium therapy a vaginal yeast contamination of 9,7% was found of 113 patients with various genital carcinomas. However, the incidence of vaginal yeast contamination increased suddenly to 30,9% under the contac irradiation therapy with radium. The radiation effect of radium is not sufficient for a 'selfsterilisation' of the radium-carrier in the case of yeast contamination. Therefore, a chemic desinfection of the radium-carriers is principly necessary. The significance is discussed and the recommendation is made that routine mycological supervision be carried out on all patients with gynaecological carcinomas and appropriate antimycotic therapy initiated where necessary. (orig.)

  11. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina. Immunocytochemical and cytofluorometric analysis of prognostic factors

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the potential prognostic factors in patients with primary invasive vaginal carcinoma (PIVC) treated with radical irradiation. Patients and methods: The analysis was performed on 77 patients with PIVC treated between 1985 and 2005 in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Krakow. A total of 36 patients (46.8 %) survived 5 years with no evidence of disease (NED). The following groups of factors were assessed for potential prognostic value: population-based (age), clinical (Karnofsky Performance Score [KPS], hemoglobin level, primary location of the vaginal lesion, macroscopic type, length of the involved vaginal wall, FIGO stage), microscopic (microscopic type, grade, mitotic index, presence of atypical mitoses, lymphatic vessels invasion, lymphocytes/plasmocytes infiltration, focal necrosis, VAIN-3), immunohistochemical (protein p53 expression, MIB-1 index), cytofluorometric (ploidity, index DI, S-phase fraction, proliferation index SG2M) factors. Results: Significantly better 5-year NED was observed in patients: < 60 years, KPS ≤ 80, FIGO stage I and II, grade G1-2, MIB-1 index < 70, S-phase fraction < 10, and proliferation index < 25. Independent factors for better prognosis in the multivariate Cox analysis were age < 60 years, FIGO stage I or II, and MIB-1 index < 70. Conclusion: Independent prognostic factors in the radically irradiated PIVC patients were as follows: age, FIGO stage, MIB-1 index. (orig.)

  12. Adenocarcinoma of vagina: combined surgery and radiation with preservation of genital function

    A report is given of a patient treated at Memorial Hospital, New York City, by external and fractionated intravaginal radiation given after a surgical procedure that consisted of local excision of tumor, pretreatment laparotomy, and lateral ovarian transposition. The treatment plan was based on the observations that there was no evidence of local or distant spread and that the ovaries could be moved to positions where radiation exposure would not terminate their activity. The patient has survived over six years and is without evidence of recurrence

  13. Radiotherapy of primary carcinoma of the vagina: management and results of different therapy schemes

    Three hundred and sixty-two cases of primary vaginal carcinoma were treated at the Irradiation Department of the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna, from 1950 to 1977. As the method of choice an individually dosed, fractioned, and protracted radium-telecobalt therapy was employed. Comparing the last period analyzed (1971-1977) with another period 20 years earlier (1951-1956), a marked increase of advanced stages and older patients can be observed. These changes are reflected in the 5-year remission rate: in the total population it was 39.8%, as compared to 32% for the period from 1971 to 1977. For a group of 99 patients, who were treated between 1971 and 1977, the therapeutic effect of different therapy schemes is reported. The benefit of teletherapy is remarkable for advanced states, whereas for stages I and II an intrauterine application may be of importance. The complication rate amounted to 8% recto- or vesicovaginal fistulas and 41% and 43% cystitis and proctitis. The central importance of gynecological screening, especially for older women, is emphasized

  14. Importance of brachytherapy technique in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina

    Primary vaginal carcinoma is a rare malignancy. There is little information regarding the optimal treatment. Management has primarily been with external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This paper examines the importance of brachytherapy and the significance of its techniques in the treatment of this disease. Brachytherapy plays an important part in the management of primary vaginal carcinoma. External-beam radiation therapy alone is not an adequate treatment for this disease. For stages II and III disease, there is a trend toward improved disease-free survival with the use of a temporary interstitial implant compared to an intracavitary application

  15. Iterstitial gamma-therapy of recurrences and metastases of uterine and rectal cancer to the vagina

    A technique of interstitial radiation therapy for locally disseminated vaginal recurrences and metastases that occOr after the use of various therapeutic methods for uterine and rectal cancer is devised. Indications and coUnterindications to interstitial radiation therapy with 60Co as an independent method or the main therapeutic component in combined or multimodality treatment, were determined. Methods of the topometric and dosimetric planning of treat-- ment, methods of needle administration and fixation by the system of manual afterloading were developed. Interstitial radiation therapy was given to 22 patients with a complete tumor regression in 17 of them. Interstitial radiation therapy is recommended as a method of choice for the therapy of vaginal recurrences and metastases

  16. Primary invasive cancer of the vagina: outcome and complications of therapy

    The aim of the present study was to review the characteristics of cases of vaginal cancer, results of treatment and complications occurring at Westmead Hospital over the period 1979-96. International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status had been recorded prospectively, while other information was obtained retrospectively, including complications using the Franco-Italian Glossary. There were 37 eligible patients, 34 of whom were treated radically. Five-year survival for stage I was 90%, for stage 11 it was 50%, and for stage III it was 40%. There was only one stage-V patient. The majority of patients who relapsed did so locally (63%). Using the Franco-Italian Glossary 10.8% of patients had, at worst, G0 toxicity, 21.6% had G1 toxicity, 29.7% had G2 toxicity, 37.8% had G3 toxicity, and no patients had G4 toxicity. Seven patients (18.9%) had a laparotomy for a complication of therapy. Excluding the three palliative patients and controlling for disease stage, it was found that there was a trend to improved survival in patients who had brachytherapy and those who suffered worse complications. While results for treatment of early stage vaginal cancer appear good, new techniques, particularly those that improve local control, are required for higher stage disease. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Laparoscopic management of fallopian tube prolapse masquerading as adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a hysterectomized woman

    Kucuk Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fallopian tube prolapse as a complication of abdominal hysterectomy is a rare occurrence. A case with fallopian tube prolapse was managed by a combined vaginal and laparoscopic approach and description of the operative technique is presented. Case presentation A 39-year-old woman with vaginal prolapse of the fallopian tube after total abdominal hysterectomy presented with an incorrect diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the vaginal apex. The prolapsed tube and cystic ovary were removed by vaginal and laparoscopic approach. The postoperative course went well. Conclusions Early or late fallopian tube prolapse can occur after total abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms consist of persistent blood loss or leukorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Vaginal removal of prolapsed tube with laparoscopic surgery may be a suitable treatment. The abdominal or vaginal approach used in surgical correction of prolapsed tubes must be decided in each case according to the patient's individual characteristics.

  18. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  19. Phasic Contractions of the Mouse Vagina and Cervix at Different Phases of the Estrus Cycle and during Late Pregnancy

    Gravina, Fernanda S.; Van Helden, Dirk F; Kerr, Karen P.; Ramatis B. de Oliveira; Jobling, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The pacemaker mechanisms activating phasic contractions of vaginal and cervical smooth muscle remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate properties of pacemaking in vaginal and cervical tissues by determining whether: 1) functional pacemaking is dependent on the phase of the estrus cycle or pregnancy; 2) pacemaking involves Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) -dependent intracellular Ca2+ stores; and 3) c-Kit and/or vimentin immunoreact...

  20. Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate Direct Intralesional Sclerotherapy of Venous Malformations of the Vulva and Vagina: Report of Five Cases

    We report five cases of female patients affected by symptomatic focal external genital venous malformations treated with percutaneous direct intralesional injection of sodium tetradecyl sulphate (STS). All patients were referred because of discomfort and pain when sexual intercourse was attempted. Direct sclerotherapy with 3% STS was performed on a day-hospital basis with the patient under local anesthesia. Complete resolution of the symptoms was achieved in all cases. No major adverse effects were reported. Direct intralesional sclerotherapy with STS may be considered a safe and effective method for the treatment of female external genital malformation without the necessity of general anesthesia for pain control.

  1. Expression of Ezrin in Vagina Cells of Postmenopausal Rats after Dietary Administration of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formula

    Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Junsik; Lee, Arum; Park, Yongsoon; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Heesook

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To see the effect of dietary administration of omega 3-fatty acid formula on the vaginal cells of postmenopausal rats. Methods Three-week-old female Wistar/ST rats were raised after one week of adjustment period. The rats were then divided into three groups, for three different kinds of diet; general diet, 1% omega-3 fatty acid diet, and 2% omega-3 fatty acid diet. After eight weeks of having assigned diet, after the oophorectomy, with the same diet previously they had Immunohistoc...

  2. Comparative study vagina mould/ fletcher applicator in MRI guided pulsed rate brachytherapy in patients reached by an uterine cervix carcinoma

    This study began in february 2009 and included until today ten patients. twenty patients are planned. The analysis of preliminary results show a much higher tolerance for the vaginal cast device. The dosimetry data were the object of a preliminary study that seems demonstrate an equivalence of the both modalities, with differences concerning the doses to critical organs; The definitive result swill be presented with the data including the twenty planned patients. (N.C.)

  3. Role of HOXA7 to HOXA13 and PBX1 genes in various forms of MRKH syndrome (congenital absence of uterus and vagina

    Pellerin Isabelle

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome refers to the congenital absence or severe hypoplasia of the female genital tract, often described as uterovaginal aplasia which is the prime feature of the syndrome. It is the second cause of primary amenorrhea after gonadal dysgenesis and occurs in ~1 in 4500 women. Aetiology of this syndrome remains poorly understood. Frequent association of other malformations with the MRKH syndrome, involving kidneys, skeleton and ears, suggests the involvement of major developmental genes such as those of the HOX family. Indeed mammalian HOX genes are well known for their crucial role during embryogenesis, particularly in axial skeleton, hindbrain and limb development. More recently, their involvement in organogenesis has been demonstrated notably during urogenital differentiation. Although null mutations of HOX genes in animal models do not lead to MRKH-like phenotypes, dominant mutations in their coding sequences or aberrant expression due to mutated regulatory regions could well account for it. Sequence analysis of coding regions of HOX candidate genes and of PBX1, a likely HOX cofactor during Müllerian duct differentiation and kidney morphogenesis, did not reveal any mutation in patients showing various forms of MRKH syndrome. This tends to show that HOX genes are not involved in MRKH syndrome. However it does not exclude that other mechanisms leading to HOX dysfunction may account for the syndrome.

  4. Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related disease in older puppies and CHV-1 shedding in the vagina of adult pregnant dogs.

    Kapil, Sanjay

    2015-11-01

    A large breeding kennel of Bulldogs (n = 57) experienced several Canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1)-related diseases in older puppies (9 weeks of age) in Arkansas. CHV-1 has been repeatedly confirmed in the kennel in several animals for 3 years (January 2012-February 2015) using various virology tests. I was able to detect a partial sequence of CHV DNA (~120 bp) in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks after 3 years of storage. CHV-1 is persistently circulating in this kennel in spite of high serum antibody titers in the adult dogs. The dogs were negative for canine brucellosis antibodies based on Brucella canis rapid card test. PMID:26450840

  5. SU-E-T-579: Impact of Cylinder Size in High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDRBT) for Primary Cancer in the Vagina

    Zhang, H; Gopalakrishnan, M; Lee, P; Sathiaseelan, V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high dose rate Brachytherapy for primary vaginal cancers. Methods: Patients treated with HDR vaginal vault radiation in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm increment were analyzed. All patients’ doses were prescribed at the 0.5 cm from the vaginal surface with different treatment lengths. A series of reference points were created to optimize the dose distribution. The fraction dose was 5.5 Gy, the treatment was repeated for 4 times in two weeks. A cylinder volume was contoured in each case according to the prescribed treatment length, and then expanded to 5 mm to get a volume Cylinder-5mm-exp. A volume of PTV-Eval was obtained by subtracting the cylinder volume from the Cylinder-5mm-exp. The shell volume, PTV-Eval serves as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation. Results: DVH curves and average doses of PTV-Eval were obtained. Our results indicated that the DVH curves shifted toward higher dose side when larger cylinder was used instead of smaller ones. When 3.0 cm cylinder was used instead of 2.5 cm, for 3.0 cm treatment length, the average dose only increased 1%, from 790 to 799 cGy. However, the average doses for 3.5 and 4 cm cylinders respectively are 932 and 1137 cGy at the same treatment length. For 5.0 cm treatment length, the average dose is 741 cGy for 2.5 cm cylinder, and 859 cGy for 3 cm cylinder. Conclusion: Our data analysis suggests that for the vaginal intracavitary HDRBT, the average dose is at least 35% larger than the prescribed dose in the studied cases; the size of the cylinder will impact the dose delivered to the target volume. The cylinder with bigger diameter tends to deliver larger average dose to the PTV-Eval.

  6. Protection against Genital Herpes Infection in Mice Immunized under Different Hormonal Conditions Correlates with Induction of Vagina-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Gillgrass, Amy E; Tang, Vera A.; Towarnicki, Kate M.; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.; Kaushic, Charu

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the hormonal environment on immunization with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 TK−) and subsequent protection against challenge. Ovariectomized mice were administered saline (S; control), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), or a combination of estradiol and progesterone (E+P) and immunized intravaginally (IVAG) with HSV-2 TK−. Three weeks later, the immunized mice were challenged IVAG with wild-type HSV-2. Mice...

  7. SU-E-T-579: Impact of Cylinder Size in High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDRBT) for Primary Cancer in the Vagina

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of cylinder size in high dose rate Brachytherapy for primary vaginal cancers. Methods: Patients treated with HDR vaginal vault radiation in a list of cylinders ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm in diameter at 0.5 cm increment were analyzed. All patients’ doses were prescribed at the 0.5 cm from the vaginal surface with different treatment lengths. A series of reference points were created to optimize the dose distribution. The fraction dose was 5.5 Gy, the treatment was repeated for 4 times in two weeks. A cylinder volume was contoured in each case according to the prescribed treatment length, and then expanded to 5 mm to get a volume Cylinder-5mm-exp. A volume of PTV-Eval was obtained by subtracting the cylinder volume from the Cylinder-5mm-exp. The shell volume, PTV-Eval serves as the target volume for dosimetric evaluation. Results: DVH curves and average doses of PTV-Eval were obtained. Our results indicated that the DVH curves shifted toward higher dose side when larger cylinder was used instead of smaller ones. When 3.0 cm cylinder was used instead of 2.5 cm, for 3.0 cm treatment length, the average dose only increased 1%, from 790 to 799 cGy. However, the average doses for 3.5 and 4 cm cylinders respectively are 932 and 1137 cGy at the same treatment length. For 5.0 cm treatment length, the average dose is 741 cGy for 2.5 cm cylinder, and 859 cGy for 3 cm cylinder. Conclusion: Our data analysis suggests that for the vaginal intracavitary HDRBT, the average dose is at least 35% larger than the prescribed dose in the studied cases; the size of the cylinder will impact the dose delivered to the target volume. The cylinder with bigger diameter tends to deliver larger average dose to the PTV-Eval

  8. Uterine prolapse

    ... heaviness in the pelvis or vagina Problems with sexual intercourse Leaking urine or sudden urge to empty the ... vagina Ulcers in the vagina Problems with normal sexual intercourse SURGERY Surgery should not be done until the ...

  9. Pelvic Support Problems

    ... pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . ... of pelvic heaviness or fullness • Bulge in the vagina • Organs bulging out of the vagina • Pulling or ...

  10. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    ... about vaginal cancer? What is vaginal cancer? The vagina The vagina is a 3- to 4-inch ( ... refers only to cancers that start in the vagina, also known as primary vaginal cancers. Last Medical ...

  11. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle.

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-06-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed. In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubertal minipigs (n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs (n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs. PMID:26801101

  12. Caracterización de la microbiota levaduriforme residente en la vagina de perras en diferentes fases del ciclo estral Characterization of vaginal microbiotic yeasts of bitches in distinct stages of the oestrous cycle

    M B Cleff; M O Xavier; A A Martins; R. SANTIN; M C A Meireles

    2007-01-01

    Hongos levaduriformes son aislados frecuentemente de los animales domésticos y silvestres, siendo algunos comensales del tegumento y mucosas. Las levaduras son frecuentes en la mucosa vaginal de las mujeres, pero en perras son escasos los estudios referentes a la microbiota fúngica vaginal, sin conocerse su relación con el ciclo reproductivo. En este estudio se buscó aislar e identificar levaduras de la microbiota vaginal de perras, y establecer si hay alteración de la microbiota levaduriform...

  13. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed.In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubert...

  14. Gonorrhea

    ... spread. Touching infected fluids from the vagina or penis and then touching your eyes can cause an ... spread. Touching infected fluids from the vagina or penis and then touching your eyes can cause an ...

  15. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters a little more complicated, she ... is not involved, we would surgically remove the bladder, the anterior part of the vagina, the cervix ...

  16. Pregnancy Complications: Placental Accreta, Increta and Percreta

    ... from the wall of the uterus, and your contractions help push it into the vagina (birth canal). ... from the wall of the uterus, and your contractions help push it into the vagina (birth canal). ...

  17. Warning Signs After Birth

    ... from a c-section incision (cut), episiotomy or perineal tear (a tear that happens between the vagina ... from a c-section incision (cut), episiotomy or perineal tear (a tear that happens between the vagina ...

  18. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    ... BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. ... when you urinate Itching inside and outside the vagina You also may not have any symptoms.

  19. Barrier Methods of Contraception

    ... that melts after it is inserted in the vagina ), or film (thin sheets). Spermicide can be used ... spermicide. A spermicide should be inserted into the vagina close to the cervix no more than 30 ...

  20. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    ... to treat fungal and yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for ...

  1. Vaginal Infections

    ... have pain, itching, or other symptoms around your vagina, don’t try to treat them yourself. Don’ ... include itching, burning, pain in or around your vagina , or a problem with your vaginal discharge (fluid). ...

  2. Nystatin

    ... to treat fungal infections of the skin, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract. Fungal medicines will not work ... and vaginal cream to be inserted into the vagina; and in powder, ointment, and cream to be ...

  3. Clotrimazole

    ... is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina, mouth, and skin such as athlete's foot, jock ... and vaginal cream to be inserted into the vagina. Clotrimazole is usually used five times a day ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    ... uterus is the cervix , which leads to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The ... include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called ...

  5. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication

    ... certain organs - such as the uterus, cervix, and vagina - is not a welcome turn of events. What ... that evolve into the fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina in females. They come together during the ninth ...

  6. Butoconazole Vaginal Cream

    ... is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... comes as a cream to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime. Follow ...

  7. Urinary incontinence - tension-free vaginal tape

    ... small surgical cut (incision) is made inside your vagina. Two small cuts are made in your belly ... tape is passed through the cut inside the vagina. The tape is then positioned under your urethra. ...

  8. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    2010-04-01

    ... into ewe's vagina 13 days before desired start of breeding. For intravaginal use in sheep only. Do not... sponges to minimize exposure to drug. Do not leave sponge in the vagina for more than 21 days. Ewes...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening

    ... and is located at the top of the vagina . Screening includes cervical cytology (also called the Pap ... cancer as well as cancer of the vulva , vagina, penis, anus, mouth, and throat. Types of HPV ...

  10. Types of Hymens

    ... thin membrane that surrounds the opening to the vagina. Hymens can come in different shapes. The most ... menstrual blood to flow out of a girl’s vagina. Imperforate hymen : An imperforate hymen can be diagnosed ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    ... uterus is the cervix , which leads to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The ... include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called ...

  12. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    ... uterus is the cervix , which leads to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The ... include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called ...

  13. Healthy Sexuality

    Full Text Available ... from the walls of the vagina. The vaginal muscles relax, causing the vagina to lengthen and widen. ... causing it to rise and stiffen. The smooth muscles of the scrotum contract, the skin of the ...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4520 - Obstetric-gynecologic general manual instrument.

    2010-04-01

    ... instrument, with fiberoptic light, used to expose and illuminate the interior of the vagina. (3) A metal vaginal speculum is a metal instrument used to expose the interior of the vagina. (4) An umbilical... instrument used to introduce dressing into the uterus or vagina. (7) A vaginal applicator is an...

  15. Serotonin Localization in the Turkey Vaginal but not Sperm Storage Tubule Epithelia

    Our knowledge regarding the mechanism of sperm selection and transport in the hen’s vagina is meager. Preliminary observations indicate the presence of non-neuron endocrine cells in the epithelia lining the lumina of the turkey hen vagina and uterovaginal junction. While no cells in the vagina or U...

  16. [ABOUT UNIFICATION OF LABORATORY CRITERIA OF DIFFERENTIATION OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS].

    Mavzutov, A R; Tsvetkova, A V; Muretdinova, L A

    2015-06-01

    The article presents analysis of laboratory criteria and classifcations used to interpret results of laboratory analysis by technique of microscopy on bacterial vaginosis or dysbacteriosis of vagina. Their advantages and restrictions are demonstrated The unified criteria of evaluation are proposed concerning results of microscopy of mucosal discharge of vagina and corresponding classification. Thereafter, three degrees of bacterial vaginosis (dysbacteriosis of vagina) are differentiated: first degree--compensated dysbacteriosis of vagina, second degree--sub compensated dysbacteriosis of vagina and third degree--decompensated dysbacteriosis of vagina. The corresponding laboratory report of physician is formulated. The proposals are presented concerning development of common unified requirements to stages (pre-analytical, analytical, post-analytical) of laboratory diagnostic of bacterial vaginosis (dysbacteriosis of vagina) with purpose of their unambiguous understanding by clinicians and hence their decision making concerning necessity and tactics of management of patient. PMID:26466451

  17. Comparative study vagina mould/ fletcher applicator in MRI guided pulsed rate brachytherapy in patients reached by an uterine cervix carcinoma; Etude comparative moule vaginal/applicateur de fletcher en curietherapie de debit pulse guide par IRM chez les patientes atteintes d'un cancer du col uterin

    Francois, G.; Dumas, I.; Mazeron, R.; Verezesan, O.; Monnier, L.; Vieillot, S.; Gensse, M.C.; Haie-Meder, C. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2009-10-15

    This study began in february 2009 and included until today ten patients. twenty patients are planned. The analysis of preliminary results show a much higher tolerance for the vaginal cast device. The dosimetry data were the object of a preliminary study that seems demonstrate an equivalence of the both modalities, with differences concerning the doses to critical organs; The definitive result swill be presented with the data including the twenty planned patients. (N.C.)

  18. Too Few Preteen Girls Get HPV Vaccine, CDC Says

    ... vaccine protects against infection with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina and anus. "Increasing delivery of HPV vaccination at ...

  19. Birth control and family planning

    Contraception; Family planning and contraception; Coitus interruptus ... and always working? Is preventing infections spread by sexual ... vagina before intercourse. A condom must be worn at all times ...

  20. What Is Vulvar Cancer?

    ... it, the opening of the urethra (the short tube that carries urine from the bladder). The Bartholin glands are found just inside the opening of the vagina -- one on each side. These glands produce a mucus-like fluid that acts as a lubricant during sex. At the front of the vagina, the labia ...

  1. Cervical occlusion in women with cervical insufficiency: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial with cerclage, with and without cervical occlusion

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; MaCormack, CD; Weber, Tom; Hein, M; Helmig, RB

    2007-01-01

    , without the membranes being exposed to the vagina. 6. Tertiary cerclage: Short cervix, membranes exposed to the vagina. Observational study: Eligible women who refuse to be randomised will participate in an observational study. 7. Repeat/requested cervical occlusion. METHODS: The women will be randomised...

  2. IDENTIFIKASI INFEKSI TERSAMAR CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS, MYCOPLASMA GENITALIUM, UREAPLASMA UREALYTICUM, NEISSERIA GONORHOEA DAN TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS DI SULAWESI SELATAN DENGAN PEWARNAAN GIEMSA, KULTUR DAN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

    Mardiah Tahir; Rizalinda Sjahrir; Monika Fitria farid; Yenni Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Peradangan pada rongga panggul perempuan yang berlangsung kronis dapat berdampak pada subfertilitas dan infertilitas. Sumber peradangan berupa infeksi bermula dari vagina dan serviks yang bergerak ke atas (ascenderen) dan menyebabkan peradangan pada tuba fallopii dan meninggalkan sikatriks. Infeksi pada vagina dan serviks dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai jenis bakteri dan virus, namun yang berpotensi menyebabkan peradangan kronis dengan perlangsungan yang tidak bergejala adalah Mycoplasma genit...

  3. : Chlamydia trachomatis; Neisseria gonorrhoea; Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Mardiana Tahir

    2014-01-01

    Peradangan pada rongga panggul perempuan yang berlangsung kronis dapat berdampak pada subfertilitas dan infertilitas. Sumber peradangan berupa infeksi bermula dari vagina dan serviks yang bergerak ke atas (ascenderen) dan menyebabkan peradangan pada tuba fallopii dan meninggalkan sikatriks. Infeksi pada vagina dan serviks dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai jenis bakteri dan virus, namun yang berpotensi menyebabkan peradangan kronis dengan perlangsungan yang tidak bergejala adalah Mycoplasma genit...

  4. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... United States to have recurrence of her cervical cancer in the anterior portion of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into ... involving the posterior bladder, the vagina and the cervix completely ... negative for cancer. She was surgically cured with this procedure that ...

  5. Apical blebs on sperm-storage tubule epithelial cell microvilli: their release and interaction with resident sperm in the turkey hen oviduct

    Technical Abstract: Located at the anterior end of the turkey hen vagina are numerous discrete tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium, collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). Following mating or artificial insemination, sperm ascend the vagina, enter the SSTs, and ove...

  6. Wnt family genes and their modulation in the ovary-independent and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation and keratinization induced by neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure in mice

    Proliferation and differentiation of cells in female reproductive organs, the oviduct, uterus and vagina, are regulated by endogenous estrogen. In utero exposure to a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), induces vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma in humans. In mice, perinatal exposure to DES results in abnormalities such as polyovular follicles, uterine circular muscle disorganization and persistent vaginal epithelial cell proliferation. We reported the persistent gene expression change such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) related genes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its downstream signaling in the mouse vagina exposed neonatally to DES. In this study, we found persistent up-regulation of Wnt4 and persistent down-regulation of Wnt11 in the vagina of mice exposed neonatally to DES and estrogen receptor ? specific ligand. Also Wnt4 expression in vagina is correlated to the stratification of epithelial cells with the superficial keratinization of vagina, but not epithelial cell stratification only.

  7. Progesterone receptors in the female lower urinary tract

    When female estrogenized rabbits were injected i.v. with 3H-progesterone, the tritium concentration determined after one hour was about two to three times higher in urethra, urinary bladder and vagina than in the heart. High affinity progesterone receptors (KD = 1-2 nM) could be demonstrated in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions prepared from estrogenized rabbit urethra, bladder and vagina. The cytosolic receptor concentration in both urethra and bladder was about half of that in the vagina. The concentration of nuclear receptors in urethra was not significantly different from that in the vagina, but in the bladder the concentration was only about one fourth of that in the vagina or urethra. The mean KD of cytosolic receptors from bladder was significantly higher than the corresponding values in urethra and vagina. Progesterone binding sites in the bladder had a broader hormonal specificity than those in the urethra or vagina. The present demonstration of specific progesterone receptors in the female urethra might provide a possible link between estrogen progesterone interaction and the appearance of urinary incontinence during pregnancy in women

  8. Progesterone receptors in the female lower urinary tract

    Batra, S.C.; Iosif, C.S.

    1987-11-01

    When female estrogenized rabbits were injected i.v. with /sup 3/H-progesterone, the tritium concentration determined after one hour was about two to three times higher in urethra, urinary bladder and vagina than in the heart. High affinity progesterone receptors (KD = 1-2 nM) could be demonstrated in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions prepared from estrogenized rabbit urethra, bladder and vagina. The cytosolic receptor concentration in both urethra and bladder was about half of that in the vagina. The concentration of nuclear receptors in urethra was not significantly different from that in the vagina, but in the bladder the concentration was only about one fourth of that in the vagina or urethra. The mean KD of cytosolic receptors from bladder was significantly higher than the corresponding values in urethra and vagina. Progesterone binding sites in the bladder had a broader hormonal specificity than those in the urethra or vagina. The present demonstration of specific progesterone receptors in the female urethra might provide a possible link between estrogen progesterone interaction and the appearance of urinary incontinence during pregnancy in women.

  9. Genital tract pressures in mares. I. Normal pressures and the effect of physiological events.

    Goddard, P J; Allen, W E; Gerring, E L

    1985-05-01

    A computerised system involving electronic catheter-tipped transducers was used to measure pressures developed within the vagina and uterus of mares. Larger mares tended to have lower intravaginal pressure than ponies. Insertion of an arm into the vagina to place the catheters caused a rise in intravaginal pressure. Pressure in the uterus was usually higher than that in the vagina. Both vaginal and uterine pressures were increased by urination, snorting, whinnying, stretching and respiration - the latter effect was most noticeable in larger mares. Vaginal pressure was also influenced by peristalsis in the rectum, defaecation, the passage of flatus and the stance of the mare. PMID:16726052

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    ... uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system . The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ ... to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    ... uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system . The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ ... to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  12. General Information About Uterine Sarcoma

    ... uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system . The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ ... to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  13. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    ... uterus. The uterus is part of the female reproductive system . The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ ... to the vagina . Enlarge Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include ...

  14. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... for locally invasive cervical cancer. She did very well, had no evidence of her cancer, as I ... the vagina, the cervix and surrounding tissues as well last the uterus and both tubes and ovaries. ...

  15. Expanding Patient Options: Minilaparotomy for Hysterectomy

    Full Text Available ... from our laparoscopic experiences that we can perform full procedures internally. We can take out a uterus. ... using the Impact LigaSure, but, again, you have full visualization of the vagina. There have been a ...

  16. Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

    ... human papillomavirus infection, herpes, syphilis, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]). Speculum: An instrument used to hold apart the walls of the vagina so that the cervix can be seen. If ...

  17. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... See this is a beautiful example of the human anatomy here. You can see the endopul fascia ... Sometimes the manipulation of the retractor in the vagina can help us locate this. But in this ...

  18. Hysterectomy

    ... Uterine prolapse - when the uterus drops into the vagina Cancer of the uterine, cervix, or ovaries Vaginal bleeding that persists despite treatment Chronic pelvic pain, as a last resort Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  19. Dealing with Pain during Childbirth

    ... and the stretching of the birth canal and vagina. Pain during labor is different for every woman. Although labor is often thought of as one of the more painful events in human experience, it ranges widely from woman to woman ...

  20. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Full Text Available ... weeks even, before we actually ever touch a human patient. And that's the beauty of the da ... the junction between the cervix and the upper vagina. And I'm trying to -- sometimes it's really ...

  1. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women What is HPV? HPV is human papillomavirus. It is the most common viral sexually ... on the cervix (opening to the uterus) or vagina. “High risk” HPV can also cause precancerous changes ...

  2. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Surgery

    Full Text Available ... system completely eradicates all normal tremor that a human hand might have. And as a standard laparoscopic ... between the cervix and the top of the vagina. So now, we use that cap while we ...

  3. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not ... for the rest of your life. Note: Strep throat is caused by a different bacterium. If you ...

  4. Hysteroscopy

    ... the uterus . A hysteroscope is a thin, lighted telescope-like device. It is inserted through your vagina ... hysteroscope, bleeding may occur, or excess fluid may build up in your system. In rare cases, hysteroscopy ...

  5. Dyspareunia: Painful Sex for Women

    ... part of the genitals can cause pain during sex. Some conditions affect the skin around the vagina. ... types of birth control) does not fit correctly, sex may also be painful. Vaginismus (say: "vag-in- ...

  6. Clindamycin Vaginal

    Vaginal clindamycin is used to treat bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. It works by slowing or stopping ...

  7. Endometriosis

    Full Text Available ... can grow into other organs including the intestines, bladder, vagina and ureters, which are the tubes from the kidney to the bladder. Although it’s rare, endometriosis can be found outside ...

  8. General Information about Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

    ... into the vagina to make the sonogram. Blood chemistry studies : A procedure in which a blood sample ... outside the government may be owned by the writer, and graphics may be owned by their creator. ...

  9. Vaginal yeast infection

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  10. Endometriosis

    Full Text Available ... can grow into other organs including the intestines, bladder, vagina and ureters, which are the tubes from the kidney to the bladder. Although it’s rare, endometriosis can be found outside ...

  11. Sexual Problems

    Full Text Available ... occur with entry into the vagina or as deep pain. Both psychological and physical factors can contribute ... All Rights Reserved. ASRM Non Discrimination Policy | ASRM Web Site Terms & Conditions of Use | Web Design and ...

  12. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... to you by Intuitive Surgical. During the program, it’s easy for you to learn about the procedure. ... of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters ...

  13. Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    ... the vagina to provide support for prolapsed organs. Sexual intercourse is not possible after this procedure. How does ... exercise, lifting, and straining. You also should avoid sexual intercourse for several weeks after surgery. Glossary Anesthesia: Relief ...

  14. Cervicitis

    ... be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse Pain in the vagina Pressure or heaviness in ... have sex with any other people. Not having sexual intercourse (abstinence) is the only absolute method of preventing ...

  15. Thrush - children and adults

    Candidiasis - oral; Oral thrush; Fungal infection - mouth; Candida - oral ... do not fit well. Candida can also cause yeast infections in the vagina. Thrush in newborns is somewhat common and easy to treat.

  16. Episiotomy - aftercare

    Perineal laceration - aftercare; Vaginal birth perineal tear - aftercare; Postpartum care - episiotomy - aftercare ... to widen the opening of the vagina. A perineal tear or laceration often forms on its own ...

  17. [Morphogenesis of vaginal aplasia. Therapeutic deductions].

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive. PMID:4059773

  18. Accidental Bowel Leakage

    ... leakage: Injury to the sphincter muscles of the anus Loss of feeling in your rectum Inability of ... will have a physical examination of your vagina , anus, and rectum to look for signs of problems, ...

  19. Sexual Problems

    Full Text Available ... pleasurable sexual sensations in her clitoris or vagina. Male erectile disorder, or ED, is the inability of ... physical, psychological, medical conditions, or medications. Men with male orgasmic disorder have a delay in, or absence ...

  20. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... to you by Intuitive Surgical. During the program, it’s easy for you to learn about the procedure. ... of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters ...

  1. What Are Some Common Complications During Labor and Delivery?

    ... health care provider will need to do an episiotomy (a surgical cut between the vagina and anus) ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2006). ACOG Practice Bulletin. Episiotomy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107 (4), 957–962. [top] McGuire, ...

  2. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... part of the vagina, the cervix and surrounding tissues as well last the uterus and both tubes ... sac. We see some radiation fibrosis, the mottled tissue from fibrosis. And that will become an issue ...

  3. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... In this procedure, I remember us gathering about 42 lymph nodes in total. Yes. And urologists who ... the vagina and the cervix completely removed, all 42 lymph nodes were negative for cancer. She was ...

  4. Colposcopy

    ... in the stirrups as you would for a Pap smear. Your doctor inserts a speculum into your vagina ... your doctor find the reason for an abnormal Pap smear. Why is colposcopy important? A colposcopy is important ...

  5. Intestinal Infarctus following Dilatation and Uterine Curettage

    Ngowe, N.M.; Atangana, R.; Eyenga, V.C.; Sosso, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of intestinal infarctus through the vagina. This was a consequence of induced abortion done clandestinely. The main objective was to point out the surgical complications of uterine dilatation and curettage by means of this rare case.

  6. Metronidazole Oral

    Metronidazole eliminates bacteria and other microorganisms that cause infections of the reproductive system, gastrointestinal tract, skin, vagina, ... Metronidazole comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken two or three times ...

  7. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... well last the uterus and both tubes and ovaries. In addition to that, we perform a quite ... end of the pelvis, remove the uterus, tubes, ovaries, surrounding issues, the majority of the anterior vagina ...

  8. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the body, like the mouth, or vagina. We all have candida in our bodies, but usually it's kept in ...

  9. Healthy Sexuality

    ... the stomach to breasts and neck develops. During orgasm, also called the climax, there are strong rhythmic ... the pelvic floor, the vagina, and uterus. After orgasm, this process may be repeated or the body ...

  10. Healthy Sexuality

    Full Text Available ... the stomach to breasts and neck develops. During orgasm, also called the climax, there are strong rhythmic ... the pelvic floor, the vagina, and uterus. After orgasm, this process may be repeated or the body ...

  11. Healthy Sexuality

    Full Text Available ... responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina is ... sex life that they deserve. Looking for Additional Information? Visit our provider site at www.asrm.org ...

  12. Penile Trauma

    ... What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education materials on ... be ejaculated into the vagina. Share Causes Advertisement Patient Education Materials We provide free patient education materials on ...

  13. Calendula

    ... for 10 days improves diaper rash compared to aloe gel. Ear infections (otitis media). Early research shows ... dermatitis in people receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer. Thinning of the wall of the vagina (vaginal ...

  14. Ethinyl Estradiol and Etonogestrel Vaginal Ring

    ... is a progestin and ethinyl estradiol is an estrogen. Etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring works by ... rinse it with cool or lukewarm (not hot) water and replace it in your vagina as soon ...

  15. 38 CFR Appendix B to Part 4 - Numerical Index of Disabilities

    2010-07-01

    .... GYNECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS AND DISORDERS OF THE BREAST 7610 Vulva, disease or injury. 7611 Vagina, disease or... Pregnancy, surgical complications. 7624 Fistula, rectovaginal. 7625 Fistula, urethrovaginal. 7626 Breast... Eleventh (spinal accessory, external branch), paralysis. 8212 Twelfth (hypoglossal), paralysis....

  16. Sexual Problems

    Full Text Available ... may be due to many factors, including physical, psychological, medical conditions, or medications. Men with male orgasmic ... into the vagina or as deep pain. Both psychological and physical factors can contribute to the condition. ...

  17. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  18. Posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin: a case report

    Sunita Samal; Akshaya Mahapatro; Barathi Poorkodi

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of vagina are relatively uncommon and an incidental finding during routine gynaecological examination. Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, usually reported during childbearing age group. These cysts mostly arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly in relation to bladder, but very rarely they may also extend posteriorly. This is a rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. A 36-year-old multi para (P2L2 both SVD), presented with a mass des...

  19. Use of a Flexible Inflatable Multi-Channel Applicator for Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Management of Gynecologic Cancer

    Shin, Samuel M.; Duckworth, Tamara L.; Cooper, Benjamin T; Curtin, John P.; Schiff, Peter B.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Lymberis, Stella C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evaluate use of novel multi-channel applicator (MC) Capri™ to improve vaginal disease coverage achievable by single-channel applicator (SC) and comparable to Syed plan simulation. Materials and methods Twenty-eight plans were evaluated from four patients with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer in the vagina. Each received whole pelvis radiation, followed by three weekly treatments using HDR brachytherapy with a 13-channel MC. Upper vagina was treated to 5?mm depth...

  20. Large Vesico-Vaginal Fistula Caused by a Foreign Body

    Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A

    2013-01-01

    Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesi...

  1. Recent Advances in Understanding the Microbiology of the Female Reproductive Tract and the Causes of Premature Birth

    Xia Zhou; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Pawel Gajer; Zaid Abdo; Ursel Schüette; Sam Ma; Jacques Ravel; Forney, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Data derived from molecular microbiological investigations of the human vagina have led to the discovery of resident bacterial communities that exhibit marked differences in terms of species composition. All undergo dynamic changes that are likely due to intrinsic host and behavioral factors. Similar types of bacteria have been found in both amniotic fluid and the vagina, suggesting a potential route of colonization. Given that not all of the species involved in intrauterine infections are re...

  2. Use of rotational fluoroscopy and 3-D reconstruction for pre-operative imaging of complex cloacal malformations.

    Patel, Manish N

    2016-04-01

    Complex cloacal malformations are associated with a wide spectrum of anatomic defects involving the gastrointestinal, urinary, and gynecologic tracts; the variety and complexity of these defects complicate surgical planning and repair. Rotational fluoroscopy with 3-D reconstruction provides precise anatomic detail, particularly regarding length of the common channel, appearance/location of the vagina(s) and bladder, which facilitates surgical planning and determination of prognosis. PMID:26969233

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of vaginal and vulval pathology

    Griffin, N.; Grant, L.A.; Sala, E. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Box 219, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    There are a number of conditions affecting the vagina and vulva that can be optimally assessed with the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper gives a suggested protocol for MRI technique and sequences for imaging the pelvis and perineum and reviews the MRI appearances of many of the common pathologies affecting the vagina and vulva. Congenital anomalies, inflammatory and neoplastic entities such as vaginal and vulval carcinoma are discussed, with rarer malignancies also reviewed. (orig.)

  4. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I

    1993-01-01

    proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...... the complexity of glycoconjugate synthesis in mouse vagina and reveal the distinct cycle-specific patterns of individual glycoprotein expression. These cyclic glycoproteins could serve as vaginal biochemical markers for the specific phases of the estrous cycle....

  5. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio; Franceschi Silvia; Burattini Marcelo N.; Villa Luisa L; Arslan Annie; Randi Giorgia; Gonçalves Maria; Massad Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was goo...

  6. Rare association in a female DSD case of phallus, accessory phallic urethra, perineal lipoma and anterior ectopic anus.

    Mahalik, Santosh Kumar; Mahajan, Jai Kumar; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Garge, Saurabh; Vaiphei, Kim; Rao, Kattragadda L

    2013-02-01

    Disorders of sex differentiation (DSD) are a heterogeneous and broad spectrum group of diseases with a varied appearance. Presence of an accessory phallus with a phallic urethra in association with a normal vagina in a female is an extremely uncommon anomaly. We present a rare case of a genotypically female child with a normal urethra and vagina in association with a phallus, accessory phallic urethra, perineal lipoma and anterior ectopic anus. PMID:22836203

  7. Sobre a anatomia do sistema genital de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae ocorrentes em Porto Alegre, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Mônica Picoral

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base em material coletado em Porto Alegre, apresenta-se um estudo anatômico detalhado do sistema genital de Bradybena similaris (Férussac, 1821, comparado com trabalhos anteriores, propondo-se uma padronização da nomenclatura dos diversos órgãos e regiões, destacando-se a estrutura da região da encruzilhada ("carrefour", do ovispermioducto até a vagina e do pênis e assinalando-se a independência das aberturas do pênis, vagina e saco do dardo num átrio genital.

  8. The Great Divide: Understanding Cloacal Septation, Malformation, and Implications for Surgeons

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea; Peña, Alberto; Laura A. Runck; Guasch, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The anorectal and urogenital systems arise from a common embryonic structure termed cloaca. Subsequent development leads to the division/septation of the cloaca into the urethra, urinary bladder, vagina, anal canal, and rectum. Defective cloacal development and the resulting anorectal and urogenital malformations are some of the most severe congenital anomalies encountered in children. In the most severe form in females, the rectum, vagina, and urethra fail to develop separately and drain via...

  9. Methods for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of vaginal microflora during menstruation.

    Onderdonk, A B; Zamarchi, G R; J A Walsh; Mellor, R D; Muñoz, A; Kass, E H

    1986-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative changes in the bacterial flora of the vagina during menstruation have received inadequate study. Similarly, the effect of vaginal tampons on the microbial flora as well as the relationship between the microbial flora of the vagina and that of the tampon has not been adequately evaluated. The purposes of the present study were (i) to develop quantitative methods for studying the vaginal flora and the flora of tampons obtained during menstruation and (ii) to det...

  10. Distribution of a spermicide containing Nonoxynol-9 in the vaginal canal and the upper female reproductive tract.

    Barnhart, K T; Stolpen, A; Pretorius, E S; Malamud, D

    2001-06-01

    Topical, intravaginal microbicides and spermicides are greatly needed to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and/or unwanted pregnancies. The development of such compounds is a high research priority. The presumed method of action of existing, or novel, microbicides/spermicides is to provide a chemical barrier to the vaginal epithelium preventing exposure to micro-organisms. Other intravaginal products are used to treat vaginal bacteria of fungal infections. Little is known, however, about the actual or optimal initial distribution and subsequent spread of medications placed in the vagina. We describe a sensitive new technique to quantify the spread of a gel placed in the vagina using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Five millilitres of an over-the-counter spermicide containing Nonoxynol-9 was mixed with Gadolinium. MRI was used to quantify spread of the mixture 10 min after insertion with a standard applicator. We demonstrated contiguous spread of gel throughout the vagina. The coverage of material was thicker in the upper vagina than in the lower vagina. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that spermicidal compounds may migrate from the vaginal canal into the endocervix within 10 min of insertion. This finding suggests that topical microbicides/spermicides may act both in the vaginal canal and in the upper female genital tract. PMID:11387285

  11. Posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin: a case report

    Sunita Samal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of vagina are relatively uncommon and an incidental finding during routine gynaecological examination. Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, usually reported during childbearing age group. These cysts mostly arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly in relation to bladder, but very rarely they may also extend posteriorly. This is a rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. A 36-year-old multi para (P2L2 both SVD, presented with a mass descending through vagina since 2-3 months. Pelvic examination revealed a 5x5 cm cystic mass arising from the posterior vaginal wall. Complete excision of the cyst was done. The cyst was filled with chocolate coloured material and histopathology confirmed a Mullerian cyst. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 245-246

  12. HERLYN - WERNER - WUNDERLICH SYNDROME (HWW SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Pallavi S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the mullerian duct system can result in various urogenital anomalies and, Herlyn Werner Wunderlich syndrome (HWW syndrome is one such rare anomaly . This syndrome is characterized by uterus didelphys with blind hemi vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis . 1 it is also known as OHVIRA (Obstructed Hemi vagina with Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly syndrome . 2 Mullerian anomalies are frequently associated with renal anomalies, the incidence ranges from 0.2 to 7.4%. 3 Diagnosis of this condition is rarely made in prepubertal girls, and rather it is diagnosed after menarche. Common clinical presentation is pelvic pain shortly after menarche with an associated vaginal or pelvic mass. 4 this triad of obstructed hemi vagina, uterus didelphys and ipsilateral renal agenesis was first reported in 1950.

  13. New laparoscopic peritoneal pull-through vaginoplasty technique

    Pravin Mhatre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many reconstructive surgical procedures have been described for vaginal agenesis. Almost all of them are surgically challenging, multi-staged, time consuming or leave permanent scars on abdomen or skin retrieval sites. Aim: A new simple technique using laparoscopic peritoneal pull-through in creation of neo vagina has been described. Material and Methods: Total of thirty six patients with congenital absence of vagina (MRKH syndrome were treated with laparoscopic peritoneal pull through technique of Dr. Mhatre between 2003 till 2012. The author has described 3 different techniques of peritoneal vaginoplasty. Results: This technique has given excellent results over a period of one to seven years of follow-up. The peritoneal lining changes to stratified squamous epithelium resembling normal vagina and having acidic Ph. Conclusion: Apart from giving excellent normal vaginal function, as the ovary became accessible per vaginum three patients underwent ovum retrieval and pregnancy using surrogate mother, thus making this a fertility enhancing procedure.

  14. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  15. Herlyn Werner Wunderlich Syndrome with Hematocolpos: An Unusual Case Report of Full Diagnostic Approach and Treatment.

    Bhoil, Rohit; Ahluwalia, Ajay; Chauhan, Narvir

    2016-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is an uncommon combined müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) and mesonephric duct malformation of female urogenital tract characterized by uterus didelphys and obstructed hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) syndrome. We present a rare and unusual case of this syndrome in a 19 year-old female who suffered from hypomenorrhoea and abdominal pain. She had an obstructed hemi-vagina on right side which led to marked distention of ipsilateral cervix, while proximal hemi-vagina compressed the contralateral side causing its partial obstruction resulting in hypomenorrhoea. Understanding the imaging findings of this rare condition is important for early diagnosis in order to prevent complications which may lead to infertility. PMID:27123211

  16. Herlyn Werner Wunderlich Syndrome with Hematocolpos: An Unusual Case Report of Full Diagnostic Approach and Treatment

    Rohit Bhoil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW syndrome is an uncommon combined müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs and mesonephric duct malformation of female urogenital tract characterized by uterus didelphys and obstructed hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA syndrome. We present a rare and unusual case of this syndrome in a 19 year-old female who suffered from hypomenorrhoea and abdominal pain. She had an obstructed hemi-vagina on right side which led to marked distention of ipsilateral cervix, while proximal hemi-vagina compressed the contralateral side causing its partial obstruction resulting in hypomenorrhoea. Understanding the imaging findings of this rare condition is important for early diagnosis in order to prevent complications which may lead to infertility.

  17. A rare case of Turner′s syndrome presenting with Mullerian agenesis

    Suresh Vaddadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner′s syndrome also called as Ullrich Turner′s syndrome, is a disease of unclear pathogenesis characterized by complete or partial absence of one sex chromosome, with or without cell line mosaicism in a phenotypic female with short stature. Various anomalies result in a constellation of features, of which the most disturbing is primary amenorrhea due to gonadal dysgenesis. Hormone therapy in these patients can often result in successful menstruation, and scope for subsequent pregnancy because of anatomically normal uterus and vagina. Coexisting Mullerian agenesis in these patients can jeopardize the chances of future pregnancy as they have associated structural abnormalities of the uterus and vagina. We report a rare case of middle-aged female with Turner′s syndrome and Mullerian agenesis having absent secondary sexual characters and missing uterus with incompletely formed vagina.

  18. The impact of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual function assessed using the LENT SOMA scales

    Background and purpose: As there are few studies examining the impact of radiotherapy on sexuality, we assessed the effect of radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix on sexual health and the ability of the LENT system to assess sexual function. Materials and methods: Using the vagina and sexual dysfunction scales of the LENT SOMA scales, subjective scores were measured prospectively before initiation of radiotherapy for 89 women, and at the following times after the start of treatment: 21, 70, 200, 400, 600 and 800 days. Results: There was considerable variation in pre-radiotherapy scores that was not related to disease stage (P=0.054), but was related to patient age (P=0.037, for the average vagina scores and P=0.039 for the maximum vagina scores) The scores were influenced by prior surgery (P<0.0005 for maximum and average vagina scores, P=0.042 average and 0.017 maximum sexual dysfunction scores). For 48 patients for whom data were available at the first three time points, the vagina scores decreased significantly by 70 days compared to pre-radiotherapy scores, but not for sexual dysfunction. There was heterogeneity in the pattern of changes of scores over time: for some women there was no change in vagina subsection score, some increased, and some decreased. Conclusions: The work has shown variation both in pre-treatment sexual function and in the pattern of changes seen following radiotherapy. Our questionnaire proved useful to score subjective sexual and vaginal problems as given in the LENT subjective scales. Further study is needed to assess the effectiveness of the scales in assessing late effects

  19. Systemic Dexamethasone and its Effect on Normal Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Cow

    Gholam-Ali Kojouri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on 17 Holestein, heifers, aged between 1 to 2 years for determining the normal aerobic bacterial flora and their changes after dexamethasone injection. Swab samples were taken from eye, ear, pharynx and vagina before and 5 days after twice dexamethasone treatment. Results indicated that Bacillus cereus and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis had higher frequency of isolations than the other bacterial flora in eye, ear and pharynx. Actinomyces pyogenes was isolated with considerable frequency from vagina. Klebsiella pneumoniae was also isolated from pharynx and its frequency was increased significantlyafter dexamethasone injection (p<0.05.

  20. Síndrome de Morris Morris Syndrome

    Julio Aurelio Borrego López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el síndrome de resistencia completa a los andrógenos, feminización testicular o síndrome de Morris, puede presentarse en uno de cada 20 000 a 64 000 recién nacidos varones. Objetivo: presentar un caso con genotipo masculino y fenotipo femenino dado por desarrollo mamario, con genitales externos femeninos con hipoplasia de los labios mayores y menores y la vagina muy corta que termina en un fondo de saco ciego. Métodos: se valora en la consulta a una paciente adolescente de 19 años de edad con amenorrea primaria y contacto sexual insatisfactorio (imposibilidad de penetración. Resultados: se comprueba al examen vagina rudimentaria de unos dos centímetros y escaso desarrollo de genitales externos. En los exámenes complementarios se comprueban cifras de testosterona y LH aumentadas, así como el estradiol disminuido y un cariotipo 46 XY por lo que se sospecha síndrome de Morris y se planifica intervención quirúrgica combinada en un tiempo (vaginal y abdominal donde se realiza anexectomía total derecha por video laparoscopia y reconstrucción de vagina por técnica de Williams. Posoperatorio satisfactorio y seguimiento ulterior por consulta donde se comprueba vagina funcional y estabilidad emocional de la paciente. Conclusiones: el estudio anatomo-patológico comprueba la existencia de ovario y testículo en la muestra quirúrgica lo que confirma el diagnóstico de síndrome de Morris o de resistencia completa a los andrógenos.Introduction:the syndrome of complete androgen resistance, testicular feminization or Morris syndrome may occur in one in 20 000 to 64 000 of male newborns. Objective: to present a case with male genotype and female phenotype given by breast development, female external genitalia with hypoplasia of the labia and very short vagina ending in a blind pouch Methods: a 19 year- old female patient is assisted in consultation due primary amenorrhea and unsatisfactory sexual contact (impossibility of penetration. Results: at examination, we found a rudimentary vagina of about two inches and underdeveloped external genitalia. The exams confirmed increased LH and testosterone levels and decreased estradiol. It is also found a 46 XY karyotype, so Morris syndrome is suspected. Combined surgery is planned for the vagina and abdomen. Total videolaparoscopy right adnexectomy and vaginal reconstruction by technique of Williams are performed. We had satisfactory postoperative and subsequent follow-up consultation where functional vagina and emotional stability of the patient were checked. Conclusions: the pathological study verifies the existence of ovary and testis in the surgical specimen confirming the diagnosis of Morris syndrome or complete androgen resistance.

  1. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Kirill V. Gordon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical physiotherapy promotes disruption of bacterial slimes, oestrogen elevation, immune reconstruction and vaginal biocenosis, which has positive effect on patients’ fertility level, frequency of obstetrical and perinatal pathologies.

  2. Sobre a anatomia do sistema genital de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821) (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae) ocorrentes em Porto Alegre, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Mônica Picoral; José Willibaldo Thomé

    1989-01-01

    Com base em material coletado em Porto Alegre, apresenta-se um estudo anatômico detalhado do sistema genital de Bradybena similaris (Férussac, 1821), comparado com trabalhos anteriores, propondo-se uma padronização da nomenclatura dos diversos órgãos e regiões, destacando-se a estrutura da região da encruzilhada ("carrefour"), do ovispermioducto até a vagina e do pênis e assinalando-se a independência das aberturas do pênis, vagina e saco do dardo num átrio genital.

  3. Genital system structure of unfed female Rhipicephalus (Rhipicephalus) sanguineus (Latreille) (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae).

    Mohamed, F S; Marzouk, A S; Omar, N R

    2001-04-01

    The reproductive system of female Rhipicephalus sanguineus consists of a single ovary, paired oviducts fusing into a single common oviduct, connecting tube, the vagina that in turn divides into cervical and vestibular regions, a wide receptaculum seminis and tubular accessory glands that open into the vagina between the cervical and vestibular regions. The histological structure of each part of the female reproductive system is described. The fine structure of the ovary, connecting tube and accessory glands is also provided in this study. PMID:12557929

  4. Clear Cell Carcinoma Presented as a Large Polypoid Mass Expanding the Vaginal Fornix: Report of Two Cases

    Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Ho [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Primary clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or uterine cervix is a very rare tumor. We report radiologic findings of two cases of clear cell carcinoma, arising in the vagina and uterine cervix in a 16-year-old and a 26-year-old female. These were presented as a large polypoid mass with a stalk and expanding the vaginal fornix. One case with ultrasonography showed relatively homogeneous echoic solid mass; the other case with a CT showed heterogeneously and strongly enhancing mass. All of the two cases showed non-specific signal intensity with heterogeneous and strong enhancement on MRI.

  5. Rectovaginal Fistulae.

    Das, Bidhan; Snyder, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rectovaginal fistulae are abnormal epithelialized connections between the rectum and vagina. Fistulae from the anorectal region to the posterior vagina are truly best characterized as anovaginal or very low rectovaginal fistulae. True rectovaginal fistulae are less common and result from inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, or iatrogenic injury. A very few patients are asymptomatic, but the symptoms of rectovaginal fistula are incredibly distressing and unacceptable. Diagnostic approach, timing, and choice of surgical intervention, including sphincteroplasty, gracilis flaps, Martius flaps, and special circumstances are discussed. PMID:26929752

  6. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Silvio Tucci Jr.; Carlos Augusto Ferreira Molina; Marcelo Ferreira Cassini; Murilo Ferreira de Andrade; Gilson José de Lima; Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7) and 8 (n=7) weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presente...

  7. CONGENITAL VESICOUTERINE FISTULA ALONG WITH DISTAL VAGINAL AGENESIS, SOLITARY KIDNEY AND TONGUE TIE: A RARITY

    Khalid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Congenital vesicouterine fistula in association with vaginal agenesis and solitary renal agenesis has been rarely reported. We present a case of 19 year old female suffering from cyclical menouria for last years. Physical examination revealed absence of vagina. IVP revealed left renal agenesis and CT scan revealed left renal agenesis with vesicouterine fistula. Cystoscopy showed vesicouterine fistula located above trigone near midline. Vesicouterine fistula was repaired along with uterine preservation. Sigmoid colon neovagina was created. Patient is doing well and menstruating per vagina till last followup

  8. CUERPO EXTRAÑO INTRAVAGINAL SECUNDARIO A MIGRACIÓN DE AGUJA DE OSTEOSÍNTESIS DE CADERA

    Ernesto Perucca P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta caso clínico de migración de aguja de fijación de artroplastia de cadera a vagina en mujer embarazadaWe report a case of an intravaginal foreign body due to migration of needle hip fixation from hip arthroplasty in a pregnant woman

  9. Urogenital tumors

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  10. An unusual case of long standing vaginal foreign body removed with obstetric forceps

    Padmalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of retained foreign body in vagina for 10 years, a wood apple which was inserted to reduce uterine prolapse. It was retained without any symptoms for 10 years. The foreign body was removed using obstetric forceps after other methods were failed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 502-504

  11. Genital Warts

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    ... cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (see FAQ191 “Human Papillomavirus [HPV] Vaccination”). There are many types of HPV. Some types of HPV, called “high-risk types,” can cause cancer of the anus, cervix, vulva, vagina, and penis. They also can cause cancer of ...

  13. 75 FR 3745 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insights; Notice

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Consensus Development Conference on Vaginal Birth After... public. Vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) is the delivery of a baby through the vagina after a previous... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Office of...

  14. Successful pregnancy outcome in an untreated case of concomitant transverse complete vaginal septum with unicornuate uterus

    Naina Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse vaginal septum is a result of faulty canalization of embryonic vagina. Septum may be complete but usually has laterally placed tiny hole giving an impression of vaginal vault without cervix. We described a case of untreated transverse vaginal septum with small central aperture diagnosed during labor and unicornuate uterus diagnosed intraoperatively, with successful pregnancy outcome.

  15. 76 FR 70462 - Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of Meeting

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee for Reproductive Health Drugs; Notice of... of pregnancy.'' The uterine cervix is the mouth of the uterus (or womb) leading into the vagina...

  16. Fungal Infections

    ... form of candidal infection in and around the vagina. This is called a yeast infection. Pityriasis versicolor (say: pih-tuh-RYE-uh-sis VUR-suh-kul-ur) is a mouthful to say. It's a rash caused by a fungus that normally lives on human skin. It can appear over the chest, shoulders, ...

  17. Get Tested for HIV

    ... have oral sex, use a condom or dental dam (rectangular sheet of latex placed over the vagina). Limit your number of sexual partners. Don’t inject drugs or share needles. If you have more than one sexual partner, get tested for HIV regularly. Check out these condom do's and don'ts . Next ...

  18. Healthy Sexuality

    Full Text Available ... to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina is lubricated ... become erect, her blood pressure and heart rate increase, and a “sex flush” from the stomach to ...

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of fistulising Crohn's disease

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Ljungmann, Ken; Qvist, Niels; Staun, Michael; Tøttrup, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A fistula is defined as a pathological connection between the intestine and an inner (bladder or other intestine) or outer (vagina or skin) epithelial surface. Fistulas are discovered in up to 25% of all Crohn's disease patients during long-term follow-up examinations. Most are perianal fistulas...

  20. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de q...

  1. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus. (author)

  2. Lactobacillus delbrueckii as the Cause of Urinary Tract Infection▿

    Darbro, Benjamin W.; Petroelje, Brian K.; Doern, Gary V.

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are part of the normal bacterial flora of the vagina and are typically considered contaminants when cultured from urine specimens of female patients. Here we describe the case of a female patient with chronic pyuria and urinary tract symptoms in which Lactobacillus delbrueckii was determined to be the causative microorganism.

  3. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S B; Walter, S

    1996-01-01

    Biofeedback is a method of pelvic floor rehabilitation using a surface electrode inserted into the vagina and a catheter in the rectum. Forty women with genuine urinary stress incontinence were randomized to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy and physiotherapy in combination with biofeedback...

  4. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    ... Symptoms Symptoms of herpes outbreaks typically begin with pain, tenderness, or itching in the genital area and also might include fever and headache. Bumps and blisters may appear on the vagina, penis, scrotum, anus, thigh, or buttocks. Blisters soon open to form painful sores that ...

  5. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  6. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers: A growing global problem.

    Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers. PMID:27127735

  7. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    ... inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis). Long-lasting (persistent) symptoms and yeast infection that does not heal may be the first ... with HIV. Signs and Symptoms The appearance and symptoms of yeast infection depend upon the area affected. The most common ...

  8. Robot-Assisted Gynecologic Oncology Surgery

    Full Text Available ... confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis at the time of hysterectomy. So we always ... 04 CHRISTOPHER STANLEY, MD: I think specifically endometrial cancer, if the patient's ... pelvic sidewalls, to the bladder, to the lower vagina. If you can with ...

  9. Your First Period

    ... need to change it more often. What are menstrual cups? Menstrual cups are made of plastic or rubber. They are inserted into the vagina to catch the menstrual flow. You remove and empty the cup every 8–12 hours. Some cups are used ...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5400 - Menstrual cup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menstrual cup. 884.5400 Section 884.5400 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5400 Menstrual cup. (a) Identification. A menstrual cup is a receptacle placed in the vagina to collect...

  11. "You Want Me to Talk to Children about What?" Responding to the Subject of Sexuality Development in Young Children

    Sciaraffa, Mary; Randolph, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    Many people think it is taboo to talk about sex with children. Adults reinforce this belief when, for example, they use substitute words rather than "vagina" or "penis". They may be embarrassed to learn about children's sexual development or ask others for assistance. Although most people in US society are open about sexuality now, the topic of…

  12. Sex and Sexuality and HIV

    ... decisions: High risk Anal sex without a condom (penis in the anus) Vaginal sex without a condom (penis in the vagina) Low risk Sex with a ... it hard: Put on the condom after the penis is erect and before it touches any part ...

  13. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Danish Adults

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Bager, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  14. Primary Gonorrhea Infection

    ... is typically displayed as a discharge from the penis, while redness and an ulceration on the tip of the penis can also be displayed, as seen in this ... a thick, cloudy, or bloody discharge from the penis, vagina, or rectum; or pain with sexual intercourse. ...

  15. Surgical Tutorial of a Robotic-Assisted Anterior Pelvic Exenteration

    Full Text Available ... was found on evaluation here in the United States to have recurrence of her cervical cancer in the anterior portion of the cervix and the anterior vagina and it invading into the posterior bladder. To make matters a little more complicated, she was one of ...

  16. Condiloma Acuminado

    Juan Carlos Céspedes Escobar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El Condilomas Acuminado es una enfermedadcausada por el Virus Papiloma Humano.Se caracteriza por el crecimiento de verrugas blandas en los genitales o en la regiónanal, o sea que crece entre los muslos y la parte interna de las nalgas, en el pene o en la vagina.

  17. Episiotomy

    An episiotomy is a minor surgery that widens the opening of the vagina during childbirth. It is a cut ... There are some risks to having an episiotomy. Because of the ... they used to be. The risks include: The cut may tear and become ...

  18. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and PreCancer in Danish Adults

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen; Bager, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  19. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or...

  20. Vaginal leiomyoma as a cause of pelvic pain and cystitis cystica.

    Shaw, C T

    1989-10-01

    Leiomyoma of the vagina occurs extremely rarely and may be confused with a variety of benign vaginal tumors. A preoperative diagnosis is seldom made. The author reports a case of leiomyoma found in the anterior vaginal wall beneath the urethra and associated with pelvic pain and urinary symptoms. PMID:2808027

  1. Sterility of the uterine cavity

    Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul; Frost, Lars; Mogensen, Søren C.

    1995-01-01

    trachomatis, yeasts and viruses were taken preoperatively from the apex of the vagina and cervical os. Immediately after hysterectomy the uterus was opened under sterile conditions and samples obtained from the isthmus and fundus of the uterine cavity for microbiological examination. Wet smears were taken...

  2. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  3. Covered exstrophy with anorectal malformation and vaginal duplication

    Bawa Monika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Covered exstrophy is a rare variant of the exstrophy-epispadias complex. We report a female newborn with covered exstrophy, absent anal opening and duplication of the introitus and the lower vagina. This rare, previously unreported, combination of anomalies highlights the complexity of the embryological events in the caudal area during separation of the hindgut and allantois.

  4. Perivaskulær epiteloidcelletumor i uterus

    Nguyen Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen; Winter, Pia Engell; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang; Waldstrøm, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas) are rare tumours with unknown malignant potential. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman, who had had many tumours, initially diagnosed as leiomyomas, removed from her uterus and vagina over 16 years. A recurrent tumour and revision of prior...

  5. Posterior vaginal wall Gartner′s duct cyst

    Ripan Bala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyst of posterior vaginal wall is very rare. This case relates to a patient who presented with polypoidal mass protruding out from vagina which could have been easily mistaken as uterovaginal prolapse, but appropriate clinical evaluation supported with investigations clinched the diagnosis easily.

  6. Versatility of the free jejunum flap in vaginal reconstruction.

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Alamouti, Reza; Martinez Alcaide, Sonia; Matute Tobias, Luis Javier; Blanco Gonzalez, Francisco Javier; Mallent Añon, José

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal reconstruction represents a very difficult challenge. Free jejunal flaps can be easily molded and adapted to solve complex cases restoring the width, length, and consistency of the "new" vagina without compromising the external genitalia and improving the lubrication while preserving sensation to clitoris. PMID:27014442

  7. The surgical team as a source of postoperative wound infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Kolmos, H J; Svendsen, R N; Nielsen, S V

    1997-01-01

    than surgeons and obstetricians. In outbreaks where an attack rate could be calculated, it was at least 7%. T-28 was the most commonly involved T-type, accounting for seven outbreaks. The anus and vagina were the most common carrier sites in staff members. A combination of penicillin and oral...

  8. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para pacientes

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  9. Cáncer de vagina—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del cáncer de vagina, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. Treatment with tibolone partially protects 3-D microarchitecture of lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties

    Ding, Ming

    Treatment with Tibolone partially Protects 3-D Microarchitecture of Lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties Tibolone (Org OD14) is a tissue selective steroid with estrogenic effects on the brain, bone and vagina, without stimulating the...

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J; Jørgensen, J C; Palle, C; Junge, Jette; Christensen, H B; Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...

  12. Aggressive angiomyxoma.

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Lakshmi, M Dhana; Sylvester, N

    2014-04-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix.[1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence.[2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity. PMID:24860748

  13. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    L Padmavathy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid matrix. [1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence. [2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

  14. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in a HIV sero - positive patient

    Padmavathy L; Rao I; Selvam Siva; Sahoo C

    2001-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic disease, classically involving the nose and nasopharynx, clinically presenting as polypii. However,disseminated rhinosporidiosis, involving various other sites including lips, conjunctiva, uvula, vagina, larynx. trachea. scalp and skin is also known to occur. A case of rhinosporidiosis, with nasal, oropharyngeal and multiple cutaneous lesions, in a patient who is sera - positivafor HIV is reported.

  15. Aggressive Angiomyxoma

    Padmavathy, L.; Lakshmana Rao, L.; M Dhana Lakshmi; Sylvester, N.

    2014-01-01

    Myxoid tumors are a heterogeneous group of lesions characterized by a marked abundance of extra cellular mucoid (myxoid) matrix. [1] The term aggressive emphasizes the often infiltrative nature of the tumor and its frequent association with recurrence. [2] A case of aggressive angiomyxoma arising from the vagina in a 55-year-old woman is reported for its rarity.

  16. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in a HIV sero--positive patient.

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, I L; Selvam, S S; Sahoo, C G

    2001-01-01

    Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic disease, classically involving the nose and nasopharynx, clinically presenting as polypii. However,disseminated rhinosporidiosis, involving various other sites including lips, conjunctiva, uvula, vagina, larynx. trachea. scalp and skin is also known to occur. A case of rhinosporidiosis, with nasal, oropharyngeal and multiple cutaneous lesions, in a patient who is sero--positive for HIV is reported. PMID:17664794

  17. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis in a HIV sero - positive patient

    Padmavathy L

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic disease, classically involving the nose and nasopharynx, clinically presenting as polypii. However,disseminated rhinosporidiosis, involving various other sites including lips, conjunctiva, uvula, vagina, larynx. trachea. scalp and skin is also known to occur. A case of rhinosporidiosis, with nasal, oropharyngeal and multiple cutaneous lesions, in a patient who is sera - positivafor HIV is reported.

  18. 78 FR 20667 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    2013-04-05

    ...- cancer drug, to overcome chemoresistance and enhance cytotoxicity. These results suggest the inhibitors... are known to induce DNA damage. Potential Commercial Applications: Method to treat cancer Method to... examining the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva, long working-distance (-30 cm)...

  19. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G. (Institut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Milchwirtschaft der TU Muenchen); Leidl, W. (Gynaekologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik der Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus.

  20. Stages of Cervical Cancer

    ... flow from the body to a collection bag. Plastic surgery may be needed to make an artificial vagina ... in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Surgery or radiation ... with your doctor about the effects of radiation on the fetus . It may be ...

  1. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    ... flow from the body to a collection bag. Plastic surgery may be needed to make an artificial vagina ... in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Surgery or radiation ... with your doctor about the effects of radiation on the fetus . It may be ...

  2. Endometriosis

    Full Text Available ... In severe cases, endometriosis can grow into other organs including the intestines, bladder, vagina and ureters, which are the tubes from the kidney to the bladder. Although it’s rare, endometriosis can be found outside the pelvic cavity in almost any location in the body. Rarely, ...

  3. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes: A prospective study in IVF patient

    Haahr, Thor; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has a prevalence of approximately 19% in the infertile population. BV is often sub-clinical, characterized by a dysbiosis with anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella (g) vaginalis and Atopobium (a) vaginae. Few studies have been...

  4. Multikulturní dialog v Monologu o vaginach

    Uhde, Zuzana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2005), s. 39-40. ISSN 1213-0028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS700280503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Vagina Monologues * gender justice * multiculturalism Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography www.genderonline.cz

  5. Colostomía perineal en el carcinoma recto vaginal Perineal colostomy in recto-vaginal carcinoma

    Elpidio Barrial García

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una variante quirúrgica en una paciente con cáncer recto-vaginal, con infiltración del tercio inferior y cara lateral derecha del recto, muy próximo al esfínter del ano. La técnica consistió, previo diagnóstico por biopsia, en realizar excérecis del tumor que comprometió al parapeto derecho y el tercio inferior de vagina, terminando con una colostomía perineal, conservando algunas fibras del esfínter del ano. Se dejó drenaje en ambos lados y se reconstruyó resto de la vagina. Se logró buena continencia rectal del paciente, con buen estado de satisfacción. No hubo complicaciones y actualmente defeca sin dificultad. Ha tenido seguimiento por consulta de Oncoginecología del Hospital III Congreso de Pinar del Río. La intervención se llevó a cabo en una hora.A surgical alternative was performed in a patient suffering from rectovaginal cancer infiltrating the lower third and lateral right aspect of the rectum, so closed to anal sphincter. Operative technique consisted of a previous diagnosis by biopsy, besides, exceresis of the tumor that compromised right pararectum and lower third of vagina, ending in perineal colostomy preserving some fibers of anal sphincter. Drainage was performed in both sides and the rest of the vagina was reconstructed. A good rectal continence and well being were obtained, observing no complications, the patient defecates without difficulties, this case is followed up at "III Congreso Hospital" in Pinar del Rio. Operative procedures lasted an hour.

  6. CONGENITAL HIGH TYPE ANORECTAL MALFORMATION (RECTO - VAGINAL FISTULA) IN A 7 MONTHS OLD GIRL: A CASE REPORT

    Anderson; Suiyibangbe; Lokendra; Ranita Devi; Moirangthem

    2015-01-01

    A congenital recto - vaginal fistula is a high type of ARM characterized by the abnormal connection of the rectum to the vagina . High type anorectal malformations (ARM) are extremely rare variants in the spectrum of anorectal deformities. Delayed presentation of a patient with high anorectal malformation is rare. The unusually rare and...

  7. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    ... of menstrual cramps) • Nausea and vomiting • Dizziness and light-headedness • Bleeding and spotting Glossary Cervix: The opening of the uterus at the top of the vagina. Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg begins to grow in a place other than inside the uterus, ...

  8. Childhood lichen sclerosus is a rare but important diagnosis

    Jensen, Lise Soldbro; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic skin disorder with a predilection for the anogenital area. The disease is mostly seen in prepubertal and postmenopausal females. The lesions present as sharply demarcated white plaques encircling the vagina and anus. The atrophic form can lead to scarring of the...

  9. Healthy Sexuality

    Full Text Available ... body responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina ... changes occur; a woman’s nipples become erect, her blood pressure and heart rate increase, and a “sex ...

  10. Hallazgo de una leucorrea vaginal de carácter no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas. I. Examen macroscópico y microscópico (Finding of a vaginal leucorrhea of non-inflammatory character in bovine females. I. Macroscopic and microscopic examination

    Luis O. Alba Gómez,

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de demostrar la existencia de una leucorrea vaginal no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas, se examinaron macroscópicamente los órganos genitales de 350 novillas y 800 vacas Cebú comercial y mestizas Holstein x Cebú sacrificadas en el matadero. Se colectaron secreciones leucorréicas en las vaginas o cuernos uterinos del 12 y 20% de las novillas y vacas respectivamente. Ninguno de los órganos genitales de estos animales mostraron signos de inflamación en sus mucosas. El examen histológico se realizó en 80 muestras de vagina y de cuernos uterinos leucorréicos y solamente el 6,3% de los cortes histológicos de vaginas y el 8,8% de los de úteros presentaron lesiones microscópicas leves. El pH vaginal promedió 6,85 ? 0,2. No se encontraron diferencias en el espectro electroforético entre las secreciones mucosas y las leucorréicas. Tampoco se encontraron células inflamatorias en los frotis teñidos. Los resultados indican que las secreciones leucorréicas observadas no son verdaderos exudados, sino secreciones mucosas modificadas que no tienen un origen inflamatorio. With the objective of demonstrating the existence of a non-inflammatory vaginal leucorrhea in bovine females, the genital organs of 350 heifers and 800 Zebu cows and of the crossing Holstein x Zebu, slaughterhouse, were examined macroscopically. Mucopurulent and purulent exudates were collected in vaginas or uterine horns of the 12 and 20% of heifers and cows respectively. In none of the genital organs of these animals were observed inflammation signs in their mucous membranes. For the histological examination 80 samples of those vagina and uterine horns were used; only 6.3% of the histological preparations from vagina and 8.8% from the uterus presented slight microscopic lesions. The vaginal pH averaged 6,85 ? 0,2. There were not differences in the electrophoretic spectrum between the mucous secretions and the leucorrheic one. Inflammatory cells in the stained vaginal smear were not found. The results point out that leucorrheic secretion observed are not true exudates, but modified mucous secretions, which have not an inflammatory origin. Key words: Bovine female. Vaginal exudate. Vaginal pH. Vaginal leucorrhea

  11. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    N.N. Dhaher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects of the semen collection method on ability of dilution and storage of buck semen, and using of artificial vagina and 10% of egg yolk is recommended for buck semen dilution and storage.

  12. [Colonization with group B streptococcus in pregnant women taken into the care of unit K and hospitalized in the department of obstetric pathology].

    Szponar, M; Gali?ski, J; Bolt, L; Ordyniec, E

    1992-01-01

    Colonization with group B streptococci (GBS) in 714 pregnant women was investigated. Among 232 were hospitalised in department of pathological pregnancy and 512 were under ambulatory control. In 13.4% of hospitalised patients and 2.8% healthy pregnant women the colonization of vagina or throat with GBS was stated. The greatest percentage of vagina colonization was found in patients hospitalised in connection with gestosis or because of abortions, premature delivery and inanimate fetus. No correlation was found between range of GBS colonization and trimester of pregnancy. Almost all GBS strains proved to be susceptible for commonly used antibiotics but resistant to biseptol (88.2%). Patients of hospitalised group were more often colonized not only GBS but also other potentially pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:1304502

  13. FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND MICROBIAL ASSAY OF TINIDAZOLE VAGINAL SUPPOSITORY CONTAINING LACTIC ACID BACILLUS SPORES

    SC Shivhare*, AR Umarkar and PA Salunke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human vagina represents a dynamic ecosystem dominated by certain species of Lactobacillus. This microorganism restricts the growth of pathogens by using properties of steric exclusion and inhibitory substance production. Serious complications including bacterial vaginosis and vaginal cancer are often determined in women with reduced numbers of lactobacilli. Local application of Lactobacillus is consequently promising to keep the vagina colonized by this strain, which consequently reduces the infections. The first objective of this research was to develop a local application pharmaceutical formulation of a vaginal suppository containing lyophilized culture of Lactobacillus with anti-microbial agent tinidazole. The second objective was to establish its in vivo performance by developing in vitro methods of evaluation as well as antimicrobial activity of tinidazole alone with Lactic acid Bacillus Spores in vaginosis.

  14. Custom fabricated acrylic vaginal stent as an adjunct to surgical creation of neovagina for a young female with isolated vaginal agenesis

    Manu Rathee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal agenesis is one of the major congenital anomalies of the female genital tract. It may present either as an isolated developmental defect or within a complex of more extensive anomalies. Most commonly it is associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-K?ster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome. The correction of vaginal agenesis requires the creation of a neovaginal cavity that is dissected between the bladder and the rectum. After reconstruction of space for vagina surgically, a long-term vaginal stent use is required to maintain vaginal width and depth and to prevent contraction. In this article is presented a case of nonsyndromic agenesis of vagina in a 14-year-old girl and its surgical management using custom fabricated acrylic vaginal stent.

  15. Actualización sobre vaginosis bacteriana

    Wilmer Martínez Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La vaginosis bacteriana es una enfermedad polibacteriana que afecta a muchas mujeres en todo el mundo. La mayor prevalencia se observa en países subdesarrollados y en poblaciones con factores de riesgo como la promiscuidad. La enfermedad se produce cuando los lactobacilos, presentes en la microbiota normal de la vagina de mujeres sanas son reemplazados o superados en número por bacterias Gram negativas o Gram variables, anaerobias estrictas o facultativas presentes en pequeñas cantidades en la vagina sana y en el tracto gastrointestinal. La enfermedad puede cursar de forma asintomática o con leucorrea y ardor vulvar, en algunas pacientes puede ocasionar complicaciones obstétricas y ginecológicas importantes. El diagnóstico de la vaginosis bacteriana ha sido un tema controversial. Aunque existen algunos métodos diagnósticos clínicos y microbiológicos, todavía no se cuenta con un método potente para el diagnóstico eficaz de la vaginosis bacteriana.

  16. Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula using gracilis muscular flap. A case report

    A 78 year-old female suffered from vaginal discharge of flatus and stool for 20 years after the radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Digital and endoscopic examination of the rectum and the vagina disclosed a large, short rectovaginal fistula at the level of the cervix. Since laparotomy and low anterior resection of the rectum were impossible, a perineal approach was adopted. After perineal skin incision, the fistula was resected and the defects of the rectum and the vagina were closed. Gracilis muscular flap was anchored between the two closures. Though the closure of the rectal side was torn, her postoperative course was uneventful. Endoscopic examination 24 days after the operation confirmed healing of the dehiscence. The results verified the usefulness of the perineal approach using the gracilis muscular flap as an alternative method to low anterior resection for troublesome radiation induced rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  17. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: The transvaginal route moving forward from cholecystectomy

    Eduardo M Targarona

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of minimally invasive surgery and the advances in endoluminal flexible endoscopy have converged to generate a new concept in digestive surgery, whose acronym natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, has become a familiar term in the surgical community. NOTES has been performed through the mouth, the bladder, the rectum and the vagina. Of these four approaches, the vagina has gained most popularity for several reasons. It is not only readily accessible and easy to decontaminate but it also provides safe entry and simple closure. The transvaginal approach has been described in the experimental and the clinical setting as an option for cholecystectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, segmental gastrectomy, retroperitoneal exploration and bariatric surgery. However, larger series are needed to delineate the exact risks of this approach, and to transcend cultural barriers that impede its wider introduction. Prospective randomized trials will shed light on the definitive role of the vaginal approach in minimal invasive surgery of the future.

  18. Complete imperforate tranverse vaginal septum with septate uterus: A rare anomaly

    Nutan Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated, complete, transverse vaginal septum is one of the most infrequent anomalies of the female genital tract, and when it coexists with a septate uterus, it is even rarer. This report describes a case of transverse vaginal septum with septate uterus. A 12-year-old girl sought medical assessment because of severe cyclic lower abdominal cramping and pelvic pain. Local examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch of 2 cm and on rectal examination a tender pelvic mass was noted. Radiological examination showed transverse vaginal septum in the lower vagina with bicornuate uterus. Surgical resection of the vaginal septum was done under laparoscopic guidance. Hysteroscopy revealed presence of uterine septum which was resected by a resectoscope. Post-operative dilatation of vagina was done to prevent restenosis. Laparoscopic guided abdominoperineal approach is better in such a case as multiple mullerian anomalies may coexist with each other.

  19. Ethological, psychological and legal aspects of animal sexual abuse.

    Hvozdík, Anton; Bugarský, Andrej; Kottferová, Jana; Vargová, Milada; Ondrasovicová, Ol'ga; Ondrasovic, Miloslav; Sasáková, Nad'a

    2006-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of sexual abuse of five three-month old calves that died as a result of injury. A subsequent police investigation concluded that the animals had been sexually abused by an individual affected with zoophilia. The calves received injuries in the anogenital region resulting in fatal internal bleeding. The wounds appeared to have been caused by inserting and manipulating an unknown object into the vaginas of the animals. Post-mortem examination showed rupture of both the rectum and vagina in each calf with massive haemorrhage into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. From the psychiatric and animal welfare viewpoints animal sexual abuse is linked to clinical veterinary ethology. Ethical and legal aspects of animal welfare are evaluated with particular regard to the cases described. PMID:16019241

  20. Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula using gracilis muscular flap. A case report

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ooi, Masataka; Takeuchi, Kenji; Honzumi, Makoto [Nabari City Hospital, Mie (Japan); Fukunishi, Shigeji

    1999-07-01

    A 78 year-old female suffered from vaginal discharge of flatus and stool for 20 years after the radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Digital and endoscopic examination of the rectum and the vagina disclosed a large, short rectovaginal fistula at the level of the cervix. Since laparotomy and low anterior resection of the rectum were impossible, a perineal approach was adopted. After perineal skin incision, the fistula was resected and the defects of the rectum and the vagina were closed. Gracilis muscular flap was anchored between the two closures. Though the closure of the rectal side was torn, her postoperative course was uneventful. Endoscopic examination 24 days after the operation confirmed healing of the dehiscence. The results verified the usefulness of the perineal approach using the gracilis muscular flap as an alternative method to low anterior resection for troublesome radiation induced rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  1. Studies and methodologies on vaginal drug permeation.

    Machado, Rita Monteiro; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Gaspar, Carlos; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita

    2015-09-15

    The vagina stands as an important alternative to the oral route for those systemic drugs that are poorly absorbed orally or are rapidly metabolized by the liver. Drug permeation through the vaginal tissue can be estimated by using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models. The latter ones, although more realistic, assume ethical and biological limitations due to animal handling. Therefore, in vitro and ex vivo models have been developed to predict drug absorption through the vagina while allowing for simultaneous toxicity and pathogenesis studies. This review focuses on available methodologies to study vaginal drug permeation discussing their advantages and drawbacks. The technical complexity, costs and the ethical issues of an available model, along with its accuracy and reproducibility will determine if it is valid and applicable. Therefore every model shall be evaluated, validated and standardized in order to allow for extrapolations and results presumption, and so improving vaginal drug research and stressing its benefits. PMID:25689736

  2. [Female homicides involving deep injuries to sexual organs].

    Konopka, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Kunz, Jerzy; Fraczek, Dagna; Kozioł, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    In a search for motives that drive perpetrators of sexual homicides who perforate the vagina of a victim, an analysis was performed of such cases referred to the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine. In the period 1981-2006, nine cases of this type were examined. In one instance, a forensic sexologist found evidence of sadism; similar observations were made in another three cases, where no perpetrator was determined. In four cases, in the course of sexual practices termed fisting, the perpetrator tore the vagina with his hand and inflicted extensive injuries within the abdominal cavity. In three of these cases, the intercourse was consensual, with the victim deeply intoxicated, while in the fourth instance, an inebriated perpetrator took advantage of the victim's infirmity. In a single case, vaginal tears were an effect of acute alcohol psychosis in the offender. PMID:20073256

  3. Vaginal Smear TNF-alpha, IL18, TLR4, and GATA3 mRNA Levels Correlate with Local Inflammation

    Olga Bourmenskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A molecular approach to estimation of local inflammatory response associated with dysbiotic conditions of the vagina is reported. This approach is based on immune response gene transcription levels measured by qPCR assay. Methods and Results: qPCR analysis of 24 immune response gene transcripts in vaginal smears was performed for 215 women with vaginitis and 95 healthy controls. The data were sorted by comparison to local inflammatory response profiles assessed by conventional methods. The local inflammatory response in the vagina is found to correlate with TNF-alpha, IL18, TLR4, and GATA3 transcript levels. Sensitivity and specificity of the approach, as validated in accordance with conventional clinical examination results, are 94.9% and 93.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The noninvasive diagnostic approach to vaginal pathology based solely on its molecular characterization may prove to be clinically relevant.

  4. Una especie nueva de Smicridea de la Argentina (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae A new species of Smicridea from Argentina (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae

    Julieta V. Sganga

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Se describen el macho y la hembra de una especie nueva de Smicridea (Rhyacophylax Müller (Hydropsychidae: Smicrideinae, recolectados cerca del Parque Nacional El Palmar, provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Los machos se caracterizan por la presencia de tres puntas en el ápice del falo, una dorsal y dos laterales, y dos ganchos internos. La hembras se distinguen fácilmente por las características de la vagina y de la placa interna.ABSTRACT. The male and the female of a new species of Smicridea (Rhyacophylax Müller (Hydropsychidae: Smicrideinae collected near by El Palmar National Park, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina, are described. The males of this species are characterized by the presence of three points at the apex of the phallus, one dorsal and two lateral, and two lateral internal hooks. The females are easily distinguished by the characteristics of the vagina and the internal plate.

  5. MR-colpocystorectography. A new dynamic method for assessing pelvic floor descent and prolapse in women

    Introduction of a new method for the dynamic evaluation of genital prolapse by using fast magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic fast magnetic resonance imaging with pelvic floor contraction, relaxation and straining manoeuvres were performed with volunteers and patients presenting with pelvic descent. The urethra, bladder, vagina and rectum were opacified by using a water of MagnevistR enteral solution. Delineation and movement of the urethra, bladder, uterus, vagina, rectum and small bowel can be shown in a reliable manner. In comparison to dynamic fluoroscopy an equal or superior diagnosis has been achieved in all cases. In comparison to dynamic fluoroscopy MR-Colpocystorectography is a promising new method in assessing pelvic floor descent and prolapse in women. Further studies will have to focus on standardisation and clinical implication. (orig.)

  6. Large vesico-vaginal fistula caused by a foreign body.

    Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A

    2013-07-01

    Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications. PMID:24116334

  7. Apedunculata discoidea gen. n., sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) from southeastern Brazil Apeduncullata discoidea gen. n., sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasito de Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) do sudeste do Brasil

    AM. Cuglianna; NS. Cordeiro; JL. Luque

    2009-01-01

    A new species of dactylogyrid monogenean, Apedunculata discoidea gen. n., sp. n. is described and illustrated from the gills of the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837) in pisciculture ponds from Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Diagnostic characters of the new genus and species are: 1) vagina dextrolateral slightly sclerotised, opening anteriorly at level of copulatory complex; 2) copulatory organ coiled with two counterclockwise rings; 3) Accessory piece distal and not ...

  8. A New Species of Kritskyia (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) Parasite of Urinary Bladder of Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Characiformes) from the Floodplain of the High Paraná River, Brazil

    Takemoto Ricardo M; Lizama Maria de los Angeles P; Pavanelli Gilberto C

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Kritskyia inhabits the urinary bladder of the "curimba", Prochilodus lineatus in the floodplain of the high Paraná river. The new species resembles others members of Kritskyia in the following features: haptor lacking anchors and with 14 hooks marginal, posterior male copulatory organ non articulated with the accessory piece and vagina a sclerotized tube. However, it differs from the known species mainly by the shape of the copulatory complex. This is the third endoparasitic ...

  9. Malformations in a cohort of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH

    Oppelt Patricia G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the spectrum of genital and associated malformations in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome using evaluated diagnostic procedures and the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system (VCUAM. Methods 290 women with MRKH syndrome were clinically evaluated with using clinical examinations, abdominal and perineal/rectal ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy. Results Classification of female genital malformation according to the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system was possible in 284 women (97.9%. Complete atresia of Vagina (V5b and bilateral atresia of Cervix (C2b were found in 284 patients (100%. Uterus: bilateral rudimentary or a plastic uterine horns were found in 239 women (84.2%. Adnexa: normal Adnexa were found in 248 women (87.3%. Malformations: associated malformations were found in 126 of 282 evaluable women (44.7%, 84 women (29.6% had malformations of the renal system. Of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome 212 women (74.7% could be classified as V5bC2bU4bA0. The most frequent classification was V5bC2bU4bA0M0 (46.8% diagnosed in 133 of 284 women. Conclusions Complete atresia of vagina and cervix were found in all patients, variable malformations were found with uterus and adnexa. A variety of associated malformations were present, predominantly of the renal system. It is therefore recommended that all patients with genital malformations should be evaluated for renal abnormalities.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis adherence mediates differential gene expression in human vaginal epithelial cells

    Kucknoor, Ashwini; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, an ancient protist, colonizes the vaginal mucosa causing trichomonosis, a vaginitis that sometimes leads to severe health complications. Preparatory to colonization of the vagina is the adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by trichomonads. We hypothesized that VECs alter the gene expression to form a complex signalling cascade in response to trichomonal adherence. In order to identify the genes that are upregulated, we constructed a subtraction cDNA library after...

  11. Efficacy risks of the minimal-invasive plastic and reconstructive neovagina Vecchietti technique in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

    Cezar, C; Devassy, R.; Larbig, A; de Wilde, RL

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital disorder clinically defined by primary amenorrhea and infertility, congenital aplasia of the uterus and upper vagina. The patients with MRKH-syndrome have a female karyotype (46, XX), normally functioning ovaries and regular development of secondary sexual characters. Generally, the initial clinical sign of the syndrome is the failure to begin the menstrual cycle. Even though the psychological impact of the disease...

  12. Species-level classification of the vaginal microbiome

    Fettweis Jennifer M; Serrano Myrna G; Sheth Nihar U; Mayer Carly M; Glascock Abigail L; Brooks J Paul; Jefferson Kimberly K; Buck Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The application of next-generation sequencing to the study of the vaginal microbiome is revealing the spectrum of microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina. High-resolution identification of bacterial taxa, minimally to the species level, is necessary to fully understand the association of the vaginal microbiome with bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy complications, menopause, and other physiological and infectious conditions. However...

  13. Vaginal dose point reporting in cervical cancer patients treated with combined 2D/3D external beam radiotherapy and 2D/3D brachytherapy

    Background and purpose: Traditionally, vaginal dose points have been defined at the vaginal source level, thus not providing dose information for the entire vagina. Since reliable vaginal dose volume/surface histograms are unavailable, a strategy for comprehensive vaginal dose reporting for combined EBRT and BT was established and investigated. Material and methods: An anatomical vaginal reference point was defined at the level of the Posterior–Inferior Border of Symphysis (PIBS), plus two points ±2 cm (mid/introitus vagina). For BT extra points were selected for the upper vagina at 12/3/6/9 o’clock, at the vaginal surface and 5 mm depth. A vaginal reference length (VRL) was defined from ring centre to PIBS. Fifty-nine patients treated for cervical cancer were included in this retrospective feasibility study. Results: The method was applicable to all patients. Total EQD2 doses at PIBS and ±2 cm were 36.7 Gy (3.1–68.2), 49.6 Gy (32.1–89.6) and 4.3 Gy (1.0–46.6). At the vaginal surface at ring level doses were respectively 266.1 Gy (67.6–814.5)/225.9 Gy (61.5–610.5) at 3/9 o’clock, and 85.1 Gy (55.4–140.3)/72.0 Gy (49.1–108.9) at 12/6 o’clock. Mean VRL on MRI was 5.6 cm (2.0–9.4). Conclusions: With this novel system, a comprehensive reporting of vaginal doses is feasible. The present study has demonstrated large dose variations between patients observed in all parts of the vagina, resulting from different contributions from EBRT and BT

  14. Retroperitoneoscopic Nephrectomy for Treatment of a Case of Left Single Ectopic Ureter Accompanied by Dysplastic Kidney

    Hara,Ryoei; Fujii,Tomohiro; Jo, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Teruhiko; Miyaji, Yoshiyuki; Nagai,Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with a single ectopic ureter who was treated with retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy for a chief complaint of urinary incontinence. Preoperative CT showed a contrasted dysplastic kidney of 1cm in the renal fossa and a left ureteral opening into the vagina. Retroperitoneoscopic left nephrectomy was conducted with opening of the lateroconal fascia to enable identification of the dysplastic kidney. No intraoperative complications were encountered. Urinary in...

  15. Spermicidal activity of the crude ethanol extract of Sedum praealtum in mice.

    Silva-Torres, Rafael; Montellano-Rosales, Hortensia; Ramos-Zamora, Delfina; Castro-Mussot, M Eugenia; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M

    2003-03-01

    Ethanol extract of Sedum praealtum in intravaginal doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight showed a toxic effect in spermatozoa viability after 24h of administration. Spermatozoa viability was 94, 83, 58 and 24%, respectively, for extract doses of 10, 20, 40 and 50mg/kg body weight, while only dead spermatozoa were found in the vagina of the treated female mice with doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight. PMID:12576197

  16. Vaginal cancer with multiple liver and pulmonary metastases that achieved long-term survival

    Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyoung-A; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won

    2013-01-01

    Primary vaginal cancer represents only 1% to 2% of malignant neoplasm of the female genital tract. Here, we report a 68-year-old woman who showed a vaginal tumor extending to urethra and clitoris, a 10 cm-sized mass in left adnexa and multiple metastases in lung and liver. Vaginal biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma of vagina and she was diagnosed as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IVB vaginal cancer. Palliative surgery including left salpingectomy, tumorectomy, ...

  17. MUNGKINKAH PENIS DIPERBESAR

    Bambang Wasito

    2012-01-01

    A man frequently complains many matters on his sexual functions. Sometime people care with the penis diameter than the length. Here no physiological reason on diameter that influences sensation during coitus. Vagina can amazing and accomodating the present object to a size of one finger until a baby head. The size phallus is an attractive attentionas to increase the number of men who looking for penis enlargement, some men ask penis enlargement for functional reasons; nevertheless, the majori...

  18. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts

    Jyoti Dhawan; Saurabh Singh,; Somesh Gupta

    2011-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the...

  19. Female form of persistent mullerian duct syndrome: Rare entity.

    Solanki, Shailesh; Gowrishankar; Jadhav, Vinay; Babu, M Narendra; Ramesh, S

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of Disorder of sex development in which Mullerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus and the proximal vagina) are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In the majority of cases, PMDS is a surprise finding either during orchidopexy or during inguinal hernia repair. We report a case of 4 year child with female type (Type III) PMDS. We are discussing the presentation, management and review of the literature. PMID:25657558

  20. Longitudinal analysis of the vaginal microflora in pregnancy suggests that L. crispatus promotes the stability of the normal vaginal microflora and that L. gasseri and/or L. iners are more conducive to the occurrence of abnormal vaginal microflora

    Temmerman Marleen; De Backer Ellen; Claeys Geert; Verhelst Rita; Verstraelen Hans; Vaneechoutte Mario

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite their antimicrobial potential, vaginal lactobacilli often fail to retain dominance, resulting in overgrowth of the vagina by other bacteria, as observed with bacterial vaginosis. It remains elusive however to what extent interindividual differences in vaginal Lactobacillus community composition determine the stability of this microflora. In a prospective cohort of pregnant women we studied the stability of the normal vaginal microflora (assessed on Gram stain) as a...

  1. WOMEN FACING HEAVY VAGINAL DISCHARGE (LEUCORRHEA) BY VIRTUE OF UNHEALTHY LIFE STYLE

    Somia Gul; Hina Qamar; Wardha Jawaid; Urooj Bukhari; Yumna Javed

    2013-01-01

    Leucorrhea also spelled leucorrhoea, flow of a whitish, yellowish, or greenish discharge from the vagina of the female that may be normal or that may be a sign of infection. It is mucous discharge which represents desquamation of vaginal epithelial cells because of the effects of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to distinguish leucorrhea from pathologic discharge. Leucorrhea usually does not cause irritation but some adolescents worry that it may represent an infection. A total...

  2. Female circumcision: a risk factor in postpartum haemorrhage.

    McSwiney M

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A major postpartum haemorrhage occurred in a patient with a previous history of female circumcision. Following assisted vaginal delivery 6 litre blood loss occurred as a result of tears to the vagina and perineum. The tears were sutured, followed by insertion of vaginal packs. Replacement fluid therapy was given. To reduce the incidence of tears and accompanying haemorrhage, it is advisable to perform two episiotomies viz. anterior and midline posterior or mediolateral.

  3. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Sujatha Srinivasan; David N. Fredricks

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR met...

  4. Ovarian radiation dose during dynamic cystourethrography using videorecording and photofluorography

    Westby, M.; Sandbu, J.; Jahren, R.; Asmussen, M.

    The ovarian radiation dose in dynamic cystourethrography was estimated by thermoluminescence dosimetry in a phantom and in 26 patients. The urodynamic examination technique was standardized and included fluoroscopy with videorecording and rapid sequence 100 mm fluorography. The examination was performed in the lateral position with dosimeters in the vagina, uterine cavity and rectum. The total dose in the midline was 13 mGy per examination, which compares with 12 mGy in urography.

  5. Ovarian radiation dose during dynamic cystourethrography using videorecording and photofluorography

    The ovarian radiation dose in dynamic cystourethrography was estimated by thermoluminescence dosimetry in a phantom and in 26 patients. The urodynamic examination technique was standardized and included fluoroscopy with videorecording and rapid sequence 100 mm fluorography. The examination was performed in the lateral position with dosimeters in the vagina, uterine cavity and rectum. The total dose in the midline was 13 mGy per examination, which compares with 12 mGy in urography. (orig.)

  6. Adaptive Plasticity of Vaginal Innervation in Term Pregnant Rats

    Liao, Zhaohui; Peter G. SMITH

    2011-01-01

    Changes in reproductive status place varied functional demands on the vagina. These include receptivity to male intromission and sperm transport in estrus, barrier functions during early pregnancy, and providing a conduit for fetal passage at parturition. Peripheral innervation regulates vaginal function, which in turn may be influenced by circulating reproductive hormones. We assessed vaginal innervation in diestrus and estrus (before and after the estrous cycle surge in estrogen), and in th...

  7. Bacterial vaginosis biofilms: challenges to current therapies and emerging solutions

    Machado, D.; J. Castro; Oliveira, Ana Palmeira de; Oliveira, José Martinez de; Cerca, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common genital tract infection in women during their reproductive years and it has been associated with serious health complications, such as preterm delivery and acquisition or transmission of several sexually transmitted agents. BV is characterized by a reduction of beneficial lactobacilli and a significant increase in number of anaerobic bacteria, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus spp., Bacteroides spp. and Prevotella spp.. ...

  8. Vaginal mesh – the controversy

    Togami, Joanna M.; Brown, Elizabeth; Winters, J. Christian

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition that can cause significant symptoms that affect a woman's quality of life. It is the result of defects in the supporting structures of the vagina and, depending on the location and size, can alter the functions of the organs contained within the female pelvis. Approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention for their prolapse or for incontinence in their lifetime. Unfortunately, one third of these will require reoperation for failed procedure...

  9. Selected Background Findings and Interpretation of Common Lesions in the Female Reproductive System in Macaques

    Cline, J Mark; Charles E. Wood; Vidal, Justin D.; Tarara, Ross P; Buse, Eberhard; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; de Rijk, Eveline P. C. T.; Esch, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a selection of normal findings and common naturally occurring lesions in the reproductive system of female macaques, including changes in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and mammary glands. Normal features of immature ovaries, uteri, and mammary glands are described. Common non-neoplastic lesions in the ovaries include cortical mineralization, polyovular follicles, cysts, ovarian surface epithelial hyperplasia, and ectopic ovarian tissue. Ovarian neoplasms include gr...

  10. Pemeliharaan Kebersihan Diri Ibu Hamil di Kecamatan Medan Belawan

    Aramico, Sarwan

    2015-01-01

    Self-hygiene is an action to keep a person clean and healthy physically and psychologically. It includes hair care, leg and nail care, mouth hygiene, bathing, breast care, vulva/vagina care, and washing hands. The research used descriptive correlation method which was aimed to describe self-hygiene and some factors which influenced self-hygiene of pregnant women at Belawan 2 village, Medan Belawan Subdistrict. The samples were 50 respondents, taken by using convenience sampling technique. The...

  11. Vesico-vaginal fistula and psycho-social well-being of Nigerian women

    Fasakin, Gbola Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The problem of vesico-vagina fistula still remains a ravaging scourge in resource-poor countries of which Nigeria is visibly prominent. A majority of the cases are attributed to prolonged complicated labour due to inaccessibility of adequate and immediate obstetric health care. Complicated labour arises as a result of narrow pelvis bones of victims due to suffering from poor nutrition. While the above factors are noted as the direct cause to the prevalent of VVF, there are other socio-cultura...

  12. Lactobacillus species isolated from vaginal secretions of healthy and bacterial vaginosis-intermediate Mexican women: a prospective study

    Martínez-Peña, Marcos Daniel; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela; Aguilera-Arreola, Ma Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus jensenii, L. iners, L. crispatus and L. gasseri are the most frequently occurring lactobacilli in the vagina. However, the native species vary widely according to the studied population. The present study was performed to genetically determine the identity of Lactobacillus strains present in the vaginal discharge of healthy and bacterial vaginosis (BV) intermediate Mexican women. Methods In a prospective study, 31 strains preliminarily identified as Lactobacillus spec...

  13. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Gynecologic Procedures prior to and during the Utilization of Assisted Reproductive Technologies: A Systematic Review

    Pereira, Nigel; Hutchinson, Anne P; Jovana P. Lekovich; Hobeika, Elie; Elias, Rony T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased steadily. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of ART-related procedures such as hysterosalpingography (HSG), saline infusion sonography (SIS), hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, oocyte retrieval, and embryo transfer (ET). While performing these procedures, the abdomen, upper vagina, and endocervix are breached, leading to the possibility of seeding pelvic structures with microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis is there...

  14. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    H. F. Al-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases,...

  15. Social and health reasons for lime juice vaginal douching among female sex workers in Borno State, Nigeria

    Mairiga, Abdulkarim G.; Kullima, Abubakar A.; Kawuwa, Mohammed B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vaginal douching with lime juice and other agents has been perceived to enhance sexual excitement through sensations of vaginal dryness, tightness or warmth, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections and restore and tighten the vagina after delivery. Its effectiveness as a contraceptive has also been reported. However, the social and health reasons/consequences of such a practice have not been adequately documented in the communities of Borno State, Nigeria.Objectives: Th...

  16. Dystopic dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter: improved localization by fusion of MR urography and 99mTc-DMSA SPECT datasets

    We report a 12-year-old girl with a long history of constant urinary dribbling and apparently only a left kidney. Using a multimodality approach involving the fusion of MR urography and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) SPECT datasets, it was finally possible to exactly localize the very small dystopic, dysplastic right kidney and its ectopic ureter draining into the vagina. (orig.)

  17. A 20-Year-Old Contraceptive Device Transformed into a Calcified Mass

    Awatuf Elshirif; Seema Sadiq

    2014-01-01

    Case: A 52-year-old female who was presented to accident and emergency felt unwell; she reported that she had an IUCD inserted over 20 years ago. On examination she had a large calcified mass occupying the vagina. CT scan confirmed a calcified IUCD. Conclusion: Serious complication secondary to IUCD is rare but well recorded, extensive calcification as in this case is very rare and has not been previously reported.

  18. Rectocele

    Beck, David E.; Allen, Nechol L.

    2010-01-01

    Rectoceles are common and involve a herniation of the rectum into the posterior vaginal wall that results in a vaginal bulge. Women with rectoceles generally complain of perineal and vaginal pressure, obstructive defecation, constipation, or the need to splint or digitally reduce the vagina to effectuate a bowel movement. Rectoceles are associated with age and parturition and arise from either a tear or stretching of the rectovaginal fascia, and can be repaired via a vaginal, anal, or perinea...

  19. Mouse intravaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and role of Lactobacillus acidophilus in sustaining infection.

    McGrory, T; Garber, G E

    1992-01-01

    Recent work with a mouse model of Trichomonas vaginalis infection indicated that only 25% of mice harbor Lactobacillus spp. and that T. vaginalis infection rates fall rapidly after 7 days postinfection. In women infected with T. vaginalis, there is a disruption of the Lactobacillus population, which usually predominates. In an attempt to establish a better mouse intravaginal infection that resembles human disease, we established Lactobacillus acidophilus in estrogenized BALB/c mice. T. vagina...

  20. Rectal extrusion of the catheter and air ventriculography following bowel perforation in ventriculo-peritoneal shunt

    Arico, M.; Podesta, A.F.; Bianchi, E.; Beluffi, G.; Fiori, P.; Chiari, G.; Pezzotta, S.

    1985-01-01

    Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is frequently carried out in infantile hydrocephalus. The peritoneal shunt has a lower morbidity than ventriculo-atrial shunt and severe complications are uncommon. Abdominal complications include intestinal perforation, shunt migration, inguinal hernia, cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts and hollow viscus perforation. A few cases of catheter extrusion from the rectum, vagina, umbilicus and urethra have been described. We report a new case of intestinal perforation with rectal extrusion of the catheter associated with a ventriculogram.

  1. Cell-mediated Immunity to HIV in the Female Reproductive Tract

    SHACKLETT, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of HIV infections occur via sexual transmission across a mucosal barrier. In the case of male-to-female transmission, HIV-susceptible target cells are abundant in the ectocervix and vagina but are also present in the upper reproductive tract (endocervix and uterus). While the mechanisms of HIV transmission in the female reproductive tract are an active area of investigation, cell-mediated immune responses in reproductive tissues have not been thoroughly characterized. HIV-specifi...

  2. Acute pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella during pregnancy

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Arakaki, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella species during pregnancy. Veillonella is part of the normal flora from the oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, because Veillonella is usually isolated from cultures of clinical specimens as part of commensal flora, it is frequently regarded as a contaminant. In the present case, Veillonella was isolated from the patient's urine and blood samples that showed evidence of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia...

  3. Aggressive angiomyxoma of the vulva presenting as a pedunculated swelling

    Mandal Shramana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive angiomyxoma is a rare, locally aggressive soft tissue tumor that has high propensity for local recurrence. It involves mainly the pelvis, vulva, perineum, vagina and urinary bladder in adult women in the reproductive age. Considering its locally aggressive nature, appropriate management and long-term follow-up is necessary. We describe a case of a 22-year-old young pregnant patient presenting with a large pedunculated swelling on the left labia majora.

  4. Diagnosis of Ovarian Metastasis from Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia by 3D Power Doppler Ultrasound and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Case Report

    Júnior, E. Araujo; Sun, S. Y.; Campanharo, F.F.; Nacaratto, D.C.; Nardozza, L.M.M.; Mattar, R.; Habib, V.V.; Moron, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant disease of trophoblastic cells, which affects young women in the reproductive years. The main sites of metastasis from choriocarcinoma are lung, vagina, liver, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys, and the involvement of the ovaries is extremely rare. The diagnosis of ovarian metastasis is made mainly by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) with color Doppler, which shows a large vessel in the center of the mass. The three-dimensional power Doppler ultras...

  5. Placenta accrete treated with uterine arterial embolization (case report)

    Objective: To investigate the possibility of interventional treatment of placenta accrete. Methods: One patient with placenta accrete was treated with uterine arterial infusion of cef and MTX followed by embolization. Results: Her placenta discharged through vagina at the 27 th day after uterine arterial embolization. No remnant was found in the uterine by Doppler imaging. The patient uneventfully recovered. Conclusions: Interventional therapy with uterine arterial embolization is a new and reliable method for treatment for placenta accrete

  6. Genital and lingual warts in small cetaceans from coastal Peru

    Van Bressem, M.-F.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Piérard, G E; Desaintes, C

    2013-01-01

    We report on genital warts in dusky dolphins Lagenorhynchus obscurus, long-snouted common dolphins Delphinus capensis, bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis caught in fisheries off central Peru. Lesions were observed inside the genital slit, on the skin adjacent to it, on the penis and on the vagina. Macro- and microscopical features of the lesions resemble those of benign genital warts associated with papillomavirus infection in humans. Genita...

  7. Comparative genomics of the Bifidobacterium breve taxon

    Bottacini, Francesca; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Kuczynski, Justin; O’Connell, Kerry Joan; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Zomer, Aldert; Zhurina, Daria; Riedel, Christian; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    Background Bifidobacteria are commonly found as part of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of a broad range of hosts, where their presence is positively correlated with the host’s health status. In this study, we assessed the genomes of thirteen representatives of Bifidobacterium breve, which is not only a frequently encountered component of the (adult and infant) human gut microbiota, but can also be isolated from human milk and vagina. Results In silico analysis of genome se...

  8. Comparative genomics of the Bifidobacterium breve taxon

    Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Kuczynski, Justin; O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Zomer, Aldert; Zhurina, Daria; Riedel, Christian; Ventura, Marco; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bifidobacteria are commonly found as part of the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of a broad range of hosts, where their presence is positively correlated with the host's health status. In this study, we assessed the genomes of thirteen representatives of Bifidobacterium breve, which is not only a frequently encountered component of the (adult and infant) human gut microbiota, but can also be isolated from human milk and vagina. RESULTS: In silico analysis of genome ...

  9. Genetic basis of semen traits and their relationship with growth rate in rabbits

    Tusell, Llibertat; Legarra, Andres; Garcia-Tomas, M.; Rafel, O.; Ramon, J.; Piles, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to estimate the genetic parameters of seminal and production traits in a paternal line of rabbits selected for ADG during the fattening period. The onsidered traits were male libido (Lib) defi ned as successful mounting of an artificial vagina; presence of urine (Ur) and calcium carbonate deposits (Ca) in the ejaculate; semen pH; individual sperm motility (IM); the suitability for AI of the ejaculate (Sui), which involves the subjective combination of several quality traits; th...

  10. Antibiotic Therapy for Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Labor and Effect on Fetal Outcome

    Seelbach-Goebel, B.

    2013-01-01

    In Germany almost 10 % of children are born before the end of 37th week of gestation. In at least one quarter of these cases, ascending infection of the vagina plays a causative role, particularly during the early weeks of gestation. If, in addition to the decidua, the amniotic membrane, amniotic fluid and the umbilical cord are also affected, infection not only triggers uterine contractions and premature rupture of membranes but also initiates a systemic inflammatory reacti...

  11. Recovery of Mycoplasma spp. from the Reproductive Tract of the Mare during the Estrous Cycle

    Bermudez, Victor; Miller, Richard; Johnson, Walter; Rosendal, Soren; Ruhnke, Louise

    1987-01-01

    The sites in the genital tract from which mycoplasmas could be recovered at various stages of the estrous cycle were studied in five Standardbred mares naturally infected with Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma equigenitalium and Mycoplasma subdolum were most frequently isolated from the clitoral fossa as compared to the vagina, cervix, and uterus. The lowest isolation prevalence was observed in the uterus. The recovery of Mycoplasma spp. from the clitoral fossa did not differ at any stage of the estrous...

  12. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains and Their Comparison with Strain GG

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome....

  13. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG

    Douillard, F.P.; Ribbera, A.; R Kant; Pietilä, T.E.; Järvinen, H.M.; Messing, M.; Randazzo, C.L.; Paulin, L.; Laine, P.K.; Ritari, J.; Caggia, C.; Lähteinen, T.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Satokari, R.M.; Ossowski, von, I.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome....

  14. Tissue toxicity following the vaginal administration of nanosilver particles in rabbits

    Chen, Dandan; Yang, Zhaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Nanosilver particles are used in various clinical settings because of their antibacterial properties. However, their safety evaluation when used for gynaecological disorders has not been established. Nanosilver particles were administrated in the vagina of New Zealand rabbits, and the pathological appearance of the surrounding tissue was examined by hematoxylin–eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after 1 and 3 days of treatment. The nanosilver content was assessed by pla...

  15. Nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder: a case report

    Chung, Sun Hee; Lee, Sun Wha; Han, Woon Seup [Ewha Womans Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign metaplastic lesion of the urinary tract occurring most frequently at the urinary bladder. It is very rare, especially in children. We describe the US, CT and MRI findings of nephrogenic adenoma arising from the urinary bladder in an 8-year-old girl who suffered rupture of the bladder, urethra and vagina after a traffic accident and whose condition was complicated by urethral stricture and vesicoureteral reflux.

  16. Pharmacomicrobiomics: The Impact of Human Microbiome Variations on Systems Pharmacology and Personalized Therapeutics

    2014-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome influence human health, immunity, and different disease states. In this review article, we summarize the key findings and applications of the HMP that may impact pharmacology and personalized thera...

  17. Pharmacomicrobiomics : the impact of human microbiome variations on systems pharmacology and personalized therapeutics

    ElRakaiby, Marwa; Dutilh, Bas E.; Rizkallah, Mariam R; Boleij, Annemarie; Cole, Jason N; Aziz, Ramy K

    2014-01-01

    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome influence human health, immunity, and different disease states. In this review article, we summarize the key findings and applications of the HMP that may impact pharmacology and personalized thera...

  18. Oral candidiasis: An overview

    Arun Singh; Renuka Verma; Aditi Murari; Ashutosh Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Th...

  19. Robotic repair of vesicovaginal fistulae with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach: A case series

    Luciano A. Nunez, Bragayrac; Raed A., Azhar; Golena, Fernandez; Marino, Cabrera; Eric, Saenz; Victor, Machuca; Robert de, Andrade; Oswaldo, Carmona; Rene, Sotelo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe a novel technique of repairing the VVF using the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Materials and Methods From June 2011 to October 2013, four patients with symptoms of urine leakage in the vagina underwent robotic repair of VVF [...] with the transperitoneal-transvaginal approach. Cystoscopy revealed the fistula opening on the bladder. A ureteral stent was placed through the fistulous tract. After trocar placement, the omental flap was prepared and mobilized robotically. The vagina was identified and incised. The fistulous tract was excised. Cystorrhaphy was performed in two layers in an interrupted fashion. The vaginal opening was closed with running stitches. The omentum was interposed and anchored between the bladder and vagina. Finally, the ureteral catheters were removed in case they have been placed, and an 18 Fr urethral catheter was removed on the 14th postoperative day. Results The mean age was 46 years (range: 41 to 52 years). The mean fistula diameter was 1.5 cm (range 0.3 to 2 cm). The mean operative time was 117.5 min (range: 100 to 150 min). The estimated blood loss was 100 mL (range: 50 to 150 mL). The mean hospital stay was 1.75 days (range: 1 to 3 days). The mean Foley catheter duration was 15.75 days (range: 10 to 25 days). There was no evidence of recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusions The robot-assisted laparoscopic transperitoneal transvaginal approach for VVF is a feasible procedure when the fistula tract is identified by first intentionally opening the vagina, thereby minimizing the bladder incision and with low morbidity.

  20. Congenital Pouch Colon associated with Pseudoexstrophy: Report of Two Cases.

    Jhanwar, Praveen; Shinde, Nand Kishor; Patel, Jigar N; Pant, Nitin; Chadha, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    This report describes two newborn girls with single perineal opening (cloaca), and pseudoexstrophy in the form of divergent pubic bones and rectus muscles, and a low-set umbilicus. Both patients had a type II congenital pouch colon (CPC) with one hemiuterus and vagina on each side in the pelvis. In one patient, a Meckel's diverticulum was present 5 cm from the ileocecal junction. In both girls, a diverting proximal ileostomy was the initial surgery. PMID:26814054

  1. Congenital Pouch Colon associated with Pseudoexstrophy: Report of Two Cases

    Praveen Jhanwar; Nand Kishor Shinde; Patel, Jigar N; Nitin Pant; Rajiv Chadha

    2016-01-01

    This report describes two newborn girls with single perineal opening (cloaca), and pseudoexstrophy in the form of divergent pubic bones and rectus muscles, and a low-set umbilicus. Both patients had a type II congenital pouch colon (CPC) with one hemiuterus and vagina on each side in the pelvis. In one patient, a Meckel’s diverticulum was present 5 cm from the ileocecal junction. In both girls, a diverting proximal ileostomy was the initial surgery.

  2. Congenital Pouch Colon associated with Pseudoexstrophy: Report of Two Cases

    Praveen Jhanwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes two newborn girls with single perineal opening (cloaca, and pseudoexstrophy in the form of divergent pubic bones and rectus muscles, and a low-set umbilicus. Both patients had a type II congenital pouch colon (CPC with one hemiuterus and vagina on each side in the pelvis. In one patient, a Meckel’s diverticulum was present 5 cm from the ileocecal junction. In both girls, a diverting proximal ileostomy was the initial surgery.

  3. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, 18F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses

  4. Two Neonates with Congenital Hydrocolpos

    Kristin Voos; Julie Weiner; Vydehi Murthy; Jessica Costalez

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Neonatal hydrocolpos is a rare condition. Hydrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina with fluid accumulation due to a combination of stimulation of secretary glands of the reproductive tract and vaginal obstruction. The differential for a neonatal presentation of lower abdominal mass includes urogenital anomalies, Hirschsprung's, disease or sacrococcygeal teratoma. Prenatal diagnosis and early newborn imaging studies leads to early detection and treatment of these cases. Cas...

  5. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; KHAN, ZEENAT IQBAL; Khar, Roop Krishen; ALI, MUSHIR

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a ...

  6. Correlates of Occurrence of Obstetric Fistula among Women in Selected States of India: An Analysis of DLHS1-3 Data

    Gulati, B.K.; Unisa, S.; Pandey, A.; Sahu, D.; Ganguly, S.

    2011-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is the most devastating form of maternal morbidity. It is an opening in the wall of vagina connecting to bladder or to rectum due to prolonged obstructed labour without timely medical assistance. A few research studies carried out in India and recently conducted DLHS-3 survey (2007-08) has information on obstetric fistula that gives scope for further research. This paper examines prevalence of obstetric fistula and its correlates using DLHS-3 data for selected states in Indi...

  7. Female form of persistent mullerian duct syndrome: Rare entity

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of Disorder of sex development in which Mullerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus and the proximal vagina are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In the majority of cases, PMDS is a surprise finding either during orchidopexy or during inguinal hernia repair. We report a case of 4 year child with female type (Type III PMDS. We are discussing the presentation, management and review of the literature.

  8. Prevention of cervical, vaginal, and vulval cancers: role of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine

    Maria Lina Diaz

    2010-01-01

    Maria Lina DiazSection of Ambulatory Gynecology Cleveland Clinic Florida Weston, Florida, USAAbstract: The relationship between the human papillomavirus (HPV) and malignancies of the uterine cervix, vagina, and vulva has been established. The development of a quadrivalent HPV recombinant prophylactic vaccine represents the first time in history that primary prevention of these cancers is offered to girls and women. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV subtypes in cervical cancers has been the most...

  9. Hodnocení kvalitativních a kvantitativních ukazatelů spermií muflona obyčejného v průběhu roku

    Balážová, Bianka

    2014-01-01

    The object of this work was to evaluate kvantity and quality of sperm of mouflon (Ovis musimon) and theire fertilization ability, depending on month, season and presence of female. The samples were collected from 2 beings, age 2 and 4 years, from february 2013 to january 2014, in interval 1 time per month. The method of collection the ejaculate samples was electroejaculation by the full consciousness of animals in artificial vagina. The work is interesting in macroscopic and also microscopic ...

  10. Reproductive performance of totally confined sheep bred with semen extended in a lactose-egg yolk-glycerol buffer and stored at 5 degrees C.

    Hackett, A. J.; Wolynetz, M S

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in January and May 1975 to study reproductive performance (fertility, prolificacy and fecundity) of totally confined sheep synchronized for estrus. The main objective of the first experiment was to compare reproductive performance of ewes bred naturally to those bred by artificial insemination. Semen for artificial insemination was collected by either artificial vagina or electroejaculation and stored for up to 36 hours at 5 degrees C. A second objective was t...

  11. The effect of incubation time on capacitation and acrosome reaction of in vitro ovine spermatozoa

    J Wattimena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to know the effect of incubation time on capacitation and acrosome reaction of in vitro ovine spermatozoa. Twelve ejaculates from two Garut sheep were collected using artificial vagina and then evaluated macro and microscopically. After semen washing (centrifugation method), semen was diluted in Brackett and Oliphant (BO) medium and then incubated during 6 hours in incubator CO2, temperature 38.5ºC. Evaluation of capacitation and acrosome reaction was conducted on...

  12. Macroscopic Morphometric Analysis of Genital Organs of Rabbit does with Differing Parturitions at 24 Hours Post-weaning / Análisis Morfométrico Macroscópico de Órganos Genitales de Conejas con Diferentes Partos a las 24 Horas Post-destete

    Jesús, Aragón-Hernández; Fernando Iván, Flores-Pérez; Claudia, Hallal-Calleros; Mario, Pérez-Martínez.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue analizar la morfometría macroscópica de los ovarios, útero y vagina en conejas de primero, segundo y tercer parto a las 24 horas post-destete con el propósito de determinar si existen diferencias entre los partos. El destete de la camada se realizó a los 30 días desp [...] ués del parto y 24 horas después fueron eutanasiadas. De cada animal se removieron los ovarios derecho e izquierdo, cuernos-cuello uterinos derecho e izquierdo y la vagina y se midió la longitud de cada uno de los órganos genitales. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en la longitud del ovario derecho entre el grupo de primer parto con respecto al de segundo y tercer parto (P 0,05 y P 0,01). Además, la longitud media de ovario izquierdo fue significativamente diferente entre el grupo de primero y segundo parto con respecto al de tercer parto (P Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to analyze the macroscopic morphometry of the ovaries, uterus and vagina in rabbit does in the first, second and third parturition at 24 hours post-weaning in order to determine if there are differences between parturitions. Weaning of the litter was performed at 30 day [...] s post-partum and 24 hours later the does were euthanized. Right and left ovaries, uterine horns-cervix and vagina were removed, and the length of each one was measured. Significant differences were found in the average of the right ovary length between the first group with respect to second and third parturition group (P 0.05 and P 0.01). Also, left ovary length was different between the first and second with respect to third parturition group (P

  13. Adjunctive Pessary Therapy after Emergency Cervical Cerclage for Cervical Insufficiency with Protruding Fetal Membranes in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: A Novel Modification of Treatment

    Katarzyna Kosinska-Kaczynska; Dorota Bomba-Opon; Aleksandra Zygula; Bartosz Kaczynski; Piotr Wegrzyn; Miroslaw Wielgos

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive pessary therapy after emergency cervical cerclage (ECC) in improving perinatal outcome in cervical insufficiency with fetal membranes protruding into the vagina. Material and Methods. A retrospective analysis of patients treated at the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, between 2008 and 2013. The study group consisted of 15 women treated with ECC and a pessary and the control group consisted of 17 patient...

  14. Gestational choriocarcinoma diagnosed with spontaneous splenic rupture after pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization: a case report

    Yürüyen, Mehmet; Yildiz, Ozcan; Papila, Cigdem; Tuzuner, Nukhet

    2009-01-01

    Gestational choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of trophoblastic cells with a propensity to metastasize to various sites including lungs, vagina, brain, liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract, in descending order of frequency. A 29-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the hospital as an emergency with abdominal pain, hypotension, nausea and vomiting at about 6th month of a twin delivery after in vitro fertilization. Our case probably represents the first case of metastatic chorioc...

  15. Vaginal Versus Sublingual Misoprostol for Labor Induction at Term and Post Term: a Randomized Prospective Study

    Ayati, Sedigheh; Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Farshidi, Farnoosh; Shahabian, Masoud; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar

    2014-01-01

    We want to compare the efficacy and safety of vaginal versus sublingual misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labor. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 140 women with medical or obstetric indications for labor induction. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: vaginal and sublingual administration of misoprostol. In first group, 25 µg misoprostol was placed in the posterior fornix of the vagina and second group received 25 µg misoprostol sublingually, eve...

  16. What is the Health Risk Associated with Amenorrhea?

    Vrkljan, Milan; Brkić, Marijo; Zečević, Ana-Marija; Topić, Patricija

    2001-01-01

    Amenorrhea is one of the most common symptoms in the woman’s health pathology. It can be caused by anatomical defects of the outflow tract (uterus, cervix, vagina), thus being in the gynecologist’s domain, or can be observed in gonadal dysgenesis (Turner’s syndrome), hypopituitarism (Sheehan’s syndrome), prolactin-secreting pituitary tumors, Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, stress, anorexia nervosa, polycystic ovaries, and in women upon discontinuation of oral contraceptives, especially i...

  17. “My Work Constitutes a Form of Participatory Action”

    Yurong, Peng; Pernin, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Ai Xiaoming, born in 1953 in Wuhan, is a retired professor in the literature department of Guangzhou’s Sun Yat-Sen University. Following an academic career in comparative literature, she came out as a public intellectual, initially through involvement in defending women’s and gays rights. She organised many activities to raise awareness on issues such as discrimination and violence against women, the most famous of which was the translation and staging of The Vagina Monologueswith her student...

  18. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.; Reed, N.; Pignata, S.; Potter, R.; Randall, M.; Mirza, M.; Trimble, E.; Gaffney, D.

    2009-01-01

    -dose-rate brachytherapy (27.57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or...

  19. Forgotten Vaginal Foreign Body Presenting as Cervical Dystocia

    Singla, Anshuja; Chandra, Charu; Falodia, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Generally encountered in paediatrics age group, vaginal foreign body is a rare presentation in gynaecological clinics. Inserted as a part of sexual abuse, gratification or psychiatric disorder, these foreign bodies can present with a varied symptomatology. We report a case of 22-year-old female, a victim of domestic violence, who had a foreign body inserted in the vagina which was forgotten. Later it was discovered when she presented at term with cervical dystocia.

  20. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  1. A Giant Gartner Duct Cyst Originating from the Uterine Cervix and Adjacent Myometrium: A Case Report

    Kim, Eun Hui; Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    Gartner duct cysts are relatively common congenital cysts in the anterolateral wall of the vagina. Most are small (less than 2 cm) and asymptomatic, but larger cysts may cause problems. We report a rare case of a giant Gartner duct cyst (7 cm) originating from the right lateral portion of the uterine cervix and adjacent myometrium. It appeared as an exophytic multiseptated cystic mass containing different density fluids on CT

  2. Dystopic dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter: improved localization by fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA SPECT datasets

    Kreissl, Michael C.; Lorenz, Reinhard [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Clinic and Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ohnheiser, Gerd [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Zentrum Operative Medizin, Clinic and Polyclinic of Urology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Darge, Kassa [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiodiagnosis, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    We report a 12-year-old girl with a long history of constant urinary dribbling and apparently only a left kidney. Using a multimodality approach involving the fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) SPECT datasets, it was finally possible to exactly localize the very small dystopic, dysplastic right kidney and its ectopic ureter draining into the vagina. (orig.)

  3. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  4. Variables seminales en llama (Lama glama) * Semen variables in llama (Lama glama)

    L. VON BAER; C. HELLEMANN

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue el ensayo de una técnica de colección de semen de llamas (Lama glama) con vagina artificial y el registro de variables seminales, tendiente a estudiar parámetros indicadores de la fertilidad potencial del macho. De 18 machos en edad reproductiva de un criadero se seleccionaron 11, de los cuales se obtuvieron 72 eyaculados. Descartados 31 eyaculados por azoospermia o akinozoospermia y 15 en que no se obtuvieron todos los registros, quedaron 26 eyaculados cuyas varia...

  5. Does cancer start in the womb? Altered mammary gland development and predisposition to breast cancer due to in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors

    SOTO, ANA M.; Brisken, Cathrin; Schaeberle, Cheryl; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We are now witnessing a resurgence of theories of development and carcinogenesis in which the environment is again being accepted as a major player in phenotype determination. Perturbations in the fetal environment predispose an individual to disease that only becomes apparent in adulthood. For example, gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol resulted in clear cell carcinoma of the vagina and breast cancer. In this review the effects of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) on mammary ...

  6. Vaginal reconstruction with the Abbe-McIndoe technique in Mayer Rokitansky Kuster Hauser syndrome: a case report

    Sujata Swain; Abarajda Dilip; Prithviraj Singh; Rabi Narayan Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    The Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a rare but well discussed entity characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3rd) of the vagina in women with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46, XX karyotype. The inability to lead a normal sexual and reproductive life bears a great amount of social inhibition and psychological distress on the affected individuals. The physical inability can definitely be attended to by vari...

  7. MRKH SYNDROME: KEY ROLE OF COUNSELING

    Yelikar; Deshpande; Wakpanjar; Pagare

    2014-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital malformation of vertical fusion defect of mullerian system characterized by an absence of the vagina associated with a variable abnormality of the uterus and the urinary tract but functional ovaries. We are reporting 21 years primary ammenorrhea case. Clinically it was diagnosed as Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, which was confirmed, by sonography and laparoscopy. She was treated with Mcindoe te...

  8. Development of a Sperm Preparation Method for Artificial Insemination in Rabbits

    Hee Yi; Soo-Min Cho; Myeong-Kyu Park; Jin-Sik Cho; You-Seok Kim; Wook-Joon Yu; Jeong-Sup Hong; Hee-Jung Cho; Ho-Chul Shin

    2012-01-01

    A novel method of sperm preparation by direct collection from the cauda epididymis and vas deferens of male rabbits is suggested and validated for improved artificial insemination efficiency in rabbits. Although, conventional methods in which sperm for artificial insemination are prepared using an artificial vagina have been well established in many laboratories due to its benefits over natural mating, this new method eliminates the existing disadvantages of the conventional semen preparation...

  9. Treatment of peunomovaginitis in dairy cattle by caslick operation

    S. N. Dehghani,; Yavari, M.; M. KAFI

    2011-01-01

    Pneumovagina is caused by faulty closure of the lips of vulva as results of poor conformation or traumatic injuries to the vagina due to abnormal handling of the fetus during delivery. The present study was carried out to describe the beneficial effects of caslick operation in cattle affected by pneumovaginitis and infertility syndrome. 27 Holstein dairy cattle were referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Shiraz Veterinary School affected by pnumovagina and repeat breeder syndrome...

  10. Female epispadias

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  11. Tumor de la vulva, vulvectomía radical Vulvar tumor, total vulvectomy

    Asbel Alfredo Vicente de la Cruz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores de la vulva no son una rareza entre los cánceres que afectan a las féminas, pero tampoco son de los más frecuentes. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 59 años, que en el año 2000 se le diagnostica carcinoma epidermoide del clítoris, en 2004 se vuelve a intervenir por recidiva tumoral, y en 2009 acude a nuestra consulta nuevamente y es cuando se decide realizarle vulvectomía y resección de vagina y todo el sistema ginecológico. Concluyó la intervención con una talla vesical extraperitoneal. El tumor se extiende hasta la porción inicial de la vagina y uretra. Se trata de un tumor maligno, bien diferenciado, que se ha comportado en una forma no habitual, con recidivas locales, cuando en apariencia el tumor había sido resecado en toda su extensión, y en esta última oportunidad, a pesar de ser un estadio avanzado, no hemos encontrado metástasis ni multicentricidad del tumor. La evolución posoperatoria fue sin complicaciones y se dio de alta al quinto día.The vulvar tumors are not uncommon among the different types of cancer involving females, but neither are the more frequent ones. This is the case of a female aged 59 that in 2000 is diagnosed with epidermoid carcinoma of clitoris, in 2004 is re-operated on by tumor relapse, and in 2009 she came again to our consultation and a vulvectomy, vagina resection and all gynecological system are carried out. Intervention concluded with an extraperitoneal vesical cutting. The tumor extends up to the initial portion of vagina and urethra. It is a malignant and well-differentiated tumor behaved in non habitual way with local relapses, when apparently the tumor was resected in all its extent, and in this last change, despite and advanced stage, there were neither tumor metastases nor multi-centralization. The postoperative course was free of complications receiving the discharge at fifth day.

  12. DISORDER OF SEX DEVELOPMENT: DESCRIPTION OF 2 CASES OF MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    C. Varetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. "Genetic errors" with malformations and hormonal alterations result in a broad spectrum of disorders of sexual identity difficult to classify for etiopathogenesis and anatomy. Male pseudohermaphroditism (PEM is the result of defects in masculinisation, persistence of mullerian ducts or genital malformations. In these patients, there is always a 46 XY karyotype, male gonads with the external genitalia and phenotype completely or partially female. The authors describe 2 cases of PEM. Patients and Methods. RS and HNA, 9 and 15 years old. Both had 46 XY karyotype and female phenotype with the presence of penile clitoris and small vagina. The urethral meatus was positioned at the base of the penile clitoris and upper vagina and testicles, were located at the proximal portion of the inguinal canal.Patients were subjected to MRI showing absence of uterus and ovaries. The endoscopy described a small vagina dead-end about 4-5 cm long. Complete resection of the vagina, bilateral orchiopexy, correction of perineal hypospadias with urethral tubulization, reconstruction of the scrotum, with the results of penoscrotal hypospadias were performed. Discussion. Sexual differentiation is the process between VII and XII weeks of gestational age leading to formation of male or female fetus from embryo potentially bisexual. Brain Code gender is bipolar: male or female. In the sexual disorders there is a discrepancy between anatomical sex and the brain code. Genital malformation with a direct mechanism (external genitalia and indirect (prenatal pathological imprinting on all the receptors of target organs may exacerbate the brain deterioration of the code resulting in disease patterns difficult to manage according psychological and surgical aspects. Conclusions. Pediatric Surgeon plays a key role in the treatment of genital anomalies. Valutation of pelvic-perineal anatomy is important for the choice of sexual phenotype and related surgical strategy. Early correction of genital abnormality may effectively prevent the child present psychological, behavioral onsequences and problems in family and society.

  13. A New Era of the Vaginal Microbiome: Advances using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G.; Girerd, Philippe H.; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, bacterial species that inhabit the human vagina have been primarily studied using organism-centric approaches. Understanding how these bacterial species interact with each other and the host vaginal epithelium is essential for a more complete understanding of vaginal health. Molecular approaches have already led to the identification of uncultivated bacterial taxa associated with bacterial vaginosis. Here, we review recent studies of the vaginal microbiome and discuss how cult...

  14. Frequency Distribution Candidal Vaginitis in Women Referred to Health Centers in Yazd

    Ali Fattahi Bafghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The vaginal flora is a dynamic ecosystem that can be easily altered. Although, there are four causes of vaginal discharges which cover almost 95% of vaginaitis. Candidal Vaginaitis is an infection of the vagina’s mucous membranes by Candida albicans (CA. Present study attempted to Candidal Vaginitis in women referred to health centers in Yazd and the role of innate & cell-mediated immunity against Candidal Vaginitis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2011 to September 2012 in Yazd city. A total of 360 women were recruited. The collection of material for diagnosis is ideally performed during a comprehensive pelvic examination using a speculum for diagnosis of CA with identify vaginal pH; smear preparing and staining and culturing. Results: Finally all of 360 women that observed and tested, 120 (33.33% of them have involved and 240 (66.67% have not involved. from 120 infected women, 55paitents had Bacterial vaginosis (15.6% 40 patients had Ca (10.8% and 25 patients had Trichomonas vaginalis (5.9%. Despite the role for cell-mediated immunity in host protection against the majority of mucosal CA infections, studied has been in women with recurrent vaginitis, in HIV-infected women. Thus, current investigations have been focused specifically on innate and acquired immune responses against CA at the vaginal mucosa instead of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis being caused by defective or dysfunctional CD4+ T helper 1-type cell-mediated immune reactivity. Conclusion: Strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4_ T cells probably playing a major role.

  15. Understanding vaginal microbiome complexity from an ecological perspective

    Hickey, Roxana J.; Xia ZHOU; Pierson, Jacob D.; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    The various microbiota normally associated with the human body have an important influence on human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition. This is certainly true for the vagina wherein communities of mutualistic bacteria constitute the first line of defense for the host by excluding invasive, nonindigenous organisms that may cause disease. In recent years much has been learned about the bacterial species composition of these communities and how they differ between individuals of di...

  16. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    O. I. Azawi; M A Ismaeel

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility...

  17. Hybrid Transureteral Nephrectomy in a Survival Porcine Model

    Anderson, Kirk M.; Alsyouf, Muhannad; Richards, Gideon; Agarwal, Gautum; Heldt, Jonathan P.; Schlaifer, Amy E.; Baldwin, D. Duane

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Natural-orifice approaches for nephrectomy have included access via the stomach, vagina, bladder, and rectum. Recently, the feasibility of using the ureter as a natural orifice for natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery nephrectomy has been demonstrated in a nonsurvival porcine model. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes of transureteral laparoscopic natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery nephrectomy in a survival porcine model. Met...

  18. [A neonate with ambiguous genitalia].

    Jansen, Burgo J; van Rijn, Rick R; van Trotsenburg, A S P Paul

    2015-01-01

    In a neonate with ambiguous genitalia, physical examination revealed a phallus. Ultrasonography showed a vagina and uterus, but no gonads. Because of severe undervirilisation in the presence of a uterus, probably due to 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, parents were advised female sex assignment. When after a few weeks the phallus had increased in size, abdominal laparoscopy showed an underdeveloped uterus. Gonadal biopsy confirmed gonadal dysgenesis. Sex assignment was reconsidered and changed into the male gender. PMID:26200425

  19. Uterus didelphys with partial vaginal septum and distal vaginal agenesis: an unusual anomaly

    Complex malformations of female genital tract are not so common. Their correct identification is of paramount importance for appropriate management. A thorough knowledge of embryology, pre-operative imaging with MRI and examination under anaesthesia is essential to identify accurately the constellation of anomalies and to plan appropriate management. This case reports the coexistence of Mullerian abnormality with vaginal agenesis in an 18 years old girl which was managed by dissecting the lower half of vagina and pull-through vaginoplasty. (author)

  20. Effect of vaginal distention on elastic fiber synthesis and matrix degradation in the vaginal wall: potential role in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse

    Rahn, D. D.; Acevedo, J. F.; Word, R A

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity is increased in the postpartum vagina of wild-type (WT) animals. This degradative activity is also accompanied by a burst in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly. The mechanisms that precipitate these changes are unclear. The goals of this study were to determine how vaginal distention (such as in parturition) affects elastic fiber homeostasis in the vaginal wall and the potential significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse....

  1. Chronic candidiasis - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

    Klajn-Laslo Marija

    2009-01-01

    The yeast named Candida normally colonizes the gut and vagina without causing any sign of its presence. It is a commensal and opportune fungus but in certain conditions it turns to be pathogenic, causing chronic disturbances in any part of the body. The pathogenesis is complex, signs and symptoms are non-specific. The colonisation is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods do not always allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Treatment is complex, indiv...

  2. AN UNCONSUMMATED MARRIAGE: A CASE REPORT

    Ersin Akp?nar; Esra Saatç?

    2007-01-01

    Vaginismus is described as “recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of the perineal muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted with penis, finger, tampon, or speculum. The purpose of this case report is to investigate the treatment model of a patient with vaginismus who benefited from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in a couple (woman 21, man 23 years old) admitting to family practice for treatment of vaginismus. The duration of marriage...

  3. Advances in labor analgesia

    Wong, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Cynthia A WongDepartment of Anesthesiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina...

  4. Intrapartum ultrasound: A useful method for evaluating labor progress and predicting operative vaginal delivery

    Ahn, Ki Hoon; Oh, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The last step of a successful pregnancy is the safe delivery of the fetus. An important question is if the delivery should vaginal or operative. In addition to the use of conventional antenatal ultrasound, the use of intrapartum ultrasound to evaluate fetal head station, position, cervical ripening, and placental separation is promising. This review evaluates and summarizes the usefulness of intrapartum ultrasound for the evaluation of labor progress and predicting successful operative vagina...

  5. SUCCENTURIATE PLACENTA: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING DURING CESAREAN SECTION

    Unmesh; Bhavya; Rudra; Shivam; Disha

    2015-01-01

    A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigati...

  6. Role of non-descent vaginal hysterectomy in previous cesarean section scar women

    Naina Kumar; Surekha Tayade

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy (NDVH) is removal of uterus through vagina in absence of cervical descent. Objective: To assess safety, feasibility of NDVH in patients with previous cesarean section. Methods: Prospective study was conducted at department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of rural Tertiary care centre of Central India from January 2013 to December 2014. Effort was made to perform hysterectomies vaginally in women with benign conditions in absence of prolapsed uterus...

  7. Histological Study of Cervix Uteri in Caspian Miniature Horse

    M Rezaian; S. Hamedi

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Uterine cervix which separates the uterus from the vagina, shows remarkable anatomical and histological differences among mammalian species. Since no cleared observations have been found in regards with the Caspian miniature horses cervix, the aim of the present study was to supplement this missing information which could be helpful for providing a stricter basis in detecting reproductive diseases and abnormalities in this valuable species. Approach: Cervices from 4 female ...

  8. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2009-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB.

  9. Identification and H2O2 Production of Vaginal Lactobacilli from Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preterm Birth and Relation with Outcome

    Wilks, Mark; Wiggins, Rebecca; Whiley, Angela; Hennessy, Enid; Warwick, Simon; Porter, Helen; Corfield, Anthony; Millar, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacilli, principally the strains that are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing, may have a protective effect against vaginal colonization by pathogenic species such as those that cause bacterial vaginosis. Previous reports have also suggested that H2O2-producing lactobacilli in the vagina may protect pregnant women against ascending infection of the chorioamniotic membranes and uterine cavity. We report the identification and H2O2 production of lactobacilli isolated from vaginal swabs coll...

  10. Malformations in a cohort of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH)

    Oppelt Patricia G; Lermann Johannes; Strick Reiner; Dittrich Ralf; Strissel Pamela; Rettig Ingo; Schulze Christine; Renner Stefan P; Beckmann Matthias W; Brucker Sara; Rall Katharina; Mueller Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the spectrum of genital and associated malformations in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome using evaluated diagnostic procedures and the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system (VCUAM). Methods 290 women with MRKH syndrome were clinically evaluated with using clinical examinations, abdominal and perineal/rectal ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy. Results Classification of f...

  11. Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics

    Sarah Cribby; Michelle Taylor; Gregor Reid

    2008-01-01

    The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli...

  12. Müllerian agenesis in the presence of anorectal malformations in female newborns: a diagnostic challenge

    Teo, Xin Ling; Narasimhan, Kannan Laksmi; Chua, Joyce Horng Yiing

    2015-01-01

    Rectovestibular fistula is the most common type of anomaly found in a female newborn with anorectal malformation. However, when the baby is found to have two orifices in the introitus, rectovaginal fistula is much less common and suspected. The rare differential diagnosis of Müllerian agenesis, a condition in which the rectum shifts anteriorly and the vagina is absent, is seldom considered. In many cases, the diagnosis of Müllerian agenesis is made only during definitive anorectoplasty. In vi...

  13. Defining the molecular pathologies in cloaca malformation: similarities between mouse and human

    Laura A. Runck; Method, Anna; Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc; Peña, Alberto; Collins, Margaret H; Gupta, Anita; Shanmukhappa, Shiva; Wells, James M; Guasch, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies that form a spectrum of disorders, from the most benign type with excellent functional prognosis, to very complex, such as cloaca malformation in females in which the rectum, vagina and urethra fail to develop separately and instead drain via a single common channel into the perineum. The severity of this phenotype suggests that the defect occurs in the early stages of embryonic development of the organs derived from the cloaca. Owing to the in...

  14. CONGENITAL VESICOUTERINE FISTULA ALONG WITH DISTAL VAGINAL AGENESIS, SOLITARY KIDNEY AND TONGUE TIE: A RARITY

    Khalid; #, Amit; Rana Pratap; Ahsan; Takallum

    2015-01-01

    : Congenital vesicouterine fistula in association with vaginal agenesis and solitary renal agenesis has been rarely reported. We present a case of 19 year old female suffering from cyclical menouria for last years. Physical examination revealed absence of vagina. IVP revealed left renal agenesis and CT scan revealed left renal agenesis with vesicouterine fistula. Cystoscopy showed vesicouterine fistula located above trigone near midline. Vesicouterine fistula was repaired along wi...

  15. PERANAN BETA-KAROTEN DALAM MEMPERTAHANKAN DAYA HIDUP SPERMATOZOA SEMEN CAIR DOMBA GARUT ROLE OF BETA-CAROTENE INI MAINTAINING SPERM LIVABILITY OF CHILLED-SEMEN OF GARUT RAM

    Muhammad Rizal

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi kualitas semen cair domba garut yang diencerkan dengan larutan pengencer tris dengan penambahan berbagai konsentrasi beta-karoten. Semen dikoleksi dengan vagina buatan satu kali dalam satu minggu dari empat pejantan domba garut dewasa kelamin. Segera setelah dievaluasi, semen segar dibagi ke dalam tiga buah tabung reaksi dan masing-masing diencerkan dengan pengencer tris (kontrol, pengencer tris + 0,0125% beta-karoten

  16. Culling practices of Ontario cow-calf producers.

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W

    1992-01-01

    This study describes the distribution of herd culling rates for 123 Ontario cow-calf herds maintaining individual animal records. Associations between culling and factors at both the individual and herd level were examined. In addition, the relative importance of individual animal and herd level influences on culling were investigated. The following individual cow culling risk factors: nonpregnancy, age, weaning weight index, calf outcome, abortion, prolapsed vagina, prolapsed uterus, calving...

  17. The bovine cervix explored : the cow as a model for studies on functional changes in the cervix uteri

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The cervix uteri is a rigid tube which connects the uterus with the vagina and during most of the time it is firmly closed. During oestrus, late pregnancy and parturition, the morphological appearance in the cervix changes markedly, resulting in a softer cervix, which during parturition can even be stretched open to a diameter that is more than a tenfold larger than before. During gyneacological interventions, such as artificial inseminations in several animal species, or in women it would be...

  18. Ovarian carcinoma producing parathyroid hormone-related protein causing hypercalcemia and metastatic calcification detected on 18F-FDG PET-CT

    Hypercalcemia is associated with gynecologic malignant diseases, and cases involving various organs such as the uterus, ovaries, vulva, and vagina. This may be due to elevated levels of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP). We describe here two cases of ovarian carcinoma simultaneously producing PTHrP that caused hypercalcemia and metastatic calcification detected on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). (author)

  19. Localization of 3H-estradiol in the reproductive organs of male and female baboons

    The uptake and retention of radiolabeled estradiol by both the male and female reproductive organs were examined in the baboon. Two male and two female baboons were injected intracardially with 1 microgram/kg body weight of 3H-estradiol and two animals, one male and one female, were injected with both labeled and 100 micrograms/kg body weight of unlabeled estradiol. One and a half hours after the injections, the animals were sacrificed and the uterus, cervix, vagina, oviduct, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland were removed and processed for autoradiography. The stratified squamous epithelia of the cervix and vagina demonstrated a light uptake of the label in the germinative, but not in the superficial cell layers. The columnar cells lining the oviduct and uterine glands were labeled, whereas the luminal epithelium of the uterus and the glandular epithelia of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland did not sequester the tritiated steroid. The interstitial cells of all the organs studied demonstrated a moderate to heavy uptake of the radioactivity, whereas the smooth muscle cells were lightly labeled except in the vagina, in which these cells displayed a moderate number of silver grains

  20. Excretory urography and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in a foal

    A 7-week-old Appaloosa filly was admitted for persistent urinary incontinence since birth. Vaginal speculum examination revealed urine flowing from an opening in the right vaginal wall. Cytoscopy demonstrated that the ureters did not terminate at the bladder. The endoscope passed easily from the vagina directly into a dilated right ureter. An excretory urogram confirmed the vaginal termination of at least one ureter, based upon extensive filling of the vagina with contrast media in the absence of bladder filling. Bilateral hydroureter and dilated renal pelves were demonstrated both by excretory urography and by urtrasonography. Euthanasia was required by the owner in lieu of attempted surgical correction. At necroscopy, it was confirmed that the right ureter entered the vagina and the left ureter terminated at the urethra. The diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureter in this foal was suggested by this history and clinical signs, supported by endoscopy and ultrasonography, and confirmed by excretory urography and necropsy. This case establishes the value of diagnostic imaging techniques in the antemortem diagnosis of ectopic ureter