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A comparative analysis of users and non-users of prescribed psychotropic medication among individuals who reported mental health problems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The use of psychotropic medication has increased over the years and there are concerns about the inappropriate use and prescribing of such medication. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of users and non-users of prescribed psychotropic medication among individuals who report mental health problems. Method: Data from the 2006 Health Research Board, National Psychological Wellbeing and Distress Survey (HRB NPWDS was used to compare users and non-users of prescribed psychotropic medication among 382 individuals who reported mental health problems. The HRB NPWDS was carried out between December 2005 and April 2006. Results: One-third of respondents who had experienced a mental health problem in the past 12 months had used prescribed psychotropic medication. The majority of the respondents had their medication prescribed by the general practitioner (GP. Those who had used psychotropic medication in the previous year had also used more supports than those who had not used medication. Users were also more likely to have lower weekly income, attend the GP more often and have lower perceived mental health status. Users were not more willing to disclose distressing information and did not have higher levels of psychological distress. Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of the GP in the treatment and care of common mental health problems. Furthermore, the findings highlight the gap in treatment for those who are experiencing mental health problems.

Silvia Gallagher

2010-01-01

2

Non-Academic Service Quality: Comparative Analysis of Students and Faculty as Users  

Science.gov (United States)

The research focus was a non-academic service quality assessment within higher education. In particular, non-academic service quality perceptions of faculty and students were evaluated using a service profit chain. This enabled a comparison which helped understanding of non-academic service quality orientation from a key users' perspective. Data…

Sharif, Khurram; Kassim, Norizan Mohd

2012-01-01

3

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GRAPHICAL USER AUTHENTICATION APPROACHES?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, authentication technology is the main measure to guarantee information security, and the most common and convenient authentication method in use is the alphanumeric password. However, their inherent defects led to the development of graphical password as an alternative. Graphical password which uses images as passwords, rather than alphanumeric characters is motivated particularly by the fact that it is generally easier for users to remember and recall images than words, and it is conceivable that graphical password would be able to provide better security than alphanumeric password. Authentication, authorization and auditing are the most important issues of security on data communication. In particular, authentication is the life of every individual essential closest friend. The user authentication security is dependent on the strength of user password. A secure password is usually random, strange, very long and difficult to remember. For most users, remember these irregular passwords are very difficult. To easily remember and security are two sides of one coin. Graphical password authentication technology is the use of click on the image to replace input some characters. The graphical user interface can help user easy to create and remember their secure passwords. However, in the graphical password system based on images can provide an alternative password, but too many images will be a large database to store issue. In this thesis, a study of various schemes of graphical user authentication is made and also several challenges in graphical authentication are discussed.

Radhika?

2014-09-01

4

Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.

Salguero, D.E.

1995-12-01

5

MAUS: MICE Analysis User Software  

CERN Document Server

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has developed the MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) to simulate and analyse experimental data. It serves as the primary codebase for the experiment, providing for online data quality checks and offline batch simulation and reconstruction. The code is structured in a Map-Reduce framework to allow parallelization whether on a personal machine or in the control room. Various software engineering practices from industry are also used to ensure correct and maintainable physics code, which include unit, functional and integration tests, continuous integration and load testing, code reviews, and distributed version control systems. Lastly, there are various small design decisions like using JSON as the data structure, using SWIG to allow developers to write components in either Python or C++, or using the SCons python-based build system that may be of interest to other experiments.

CERN. Geneva

2012-01-01

6

Comparative Analysis of Allocative Efficiency in Input use by Credit and Non Credit User Small Scale Poulty Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the relative allocative efficiencies in input use by credit user and non credit user small scale poultry farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. Relative elasticities of production and returns to scale of the defined poultry farmers were examined. Primary data were collected from a random sample of 108 small scale poultry farmers consisting of 54 credit users and 54 non credit users. A stochastic frontier production function model was used to analyse the data. Results of the findings indicate that none of the poultry farmer groups allocated any production input optimally. All the variables entered in the model were significant for credit and non credit users except drugs and veterinary services which was not significant for non credit user poultry farmers. On the whole, the credit user poultry farmers over utilized (Kij1 feed input as well as drugs and veterinary services. The non credit user farmers over utilized (Kij1 feed input. It is therefore the recommendation of this study that economic policies and programmes such as the Delta state microcredit programme should be strengthened so as to improve access to credit and enhance efficiency in the use of resources by small scale poultry farmers.

P.C. Ike

2011-11-01

7

Relative injury severity among vulnerable non-motorised road users: comparative analysis of injury arising from bicycle-motor vehicle and bicycle-pedestrian collisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the expansion of bicycle usage and limited funding and/or space for segregated pedestrian and bicycle paths, there is a need for traffic, road design and local government engineers to decide if it is more appropriate for space to be shared between either cyclists and pedestrians, or between cars and cyclists, and what restrictions need to be applied in such circumstances. To provide knowledge to aid engineers and policy makers in making these decisions, this study explored death and morbidity data for the state of New South Wales, Australia to examine rates and severity of injury arising from collisions between pedestrians and cyclists, and between cyclists and motor vehicles (MVs). An analysis of the severity of hospitalised injuries was conducted using International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) diagnosis-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) and the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was used to measure burden of injury arising from collisions resulting in death or hospitalisation. The greatest burden of injury in NSW, for the studied collision mechanisms, is for cyclists who are injured in collisions with motor vehicles. Collisions between cyclists and pedestrians also result in significant injuries. For all collision mechanisms, the odds of serious injury on admission are greater for the elderly than for those in other age groups. The significant burden of injury arising from collisions of cyclists and MVs needs to be addressed. However in the absence of appropriate controls, increasing the opportunity for conflict between cyclists and pedestrians (through an increase in shared spaces for these users) may shift the burden of injury from cyclists to pedestrians, in particular, older pedestrians. PMID:19887170

Chong, Shanley; Poulos, Roslyn; Olivier, Jake; Watson, Wendy L; Grzebieta, Raphael

2010-01-01

8

Comparing the life concerns of prescription opioid and heroin users.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (N=529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (psignificant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients' lives. PMID:25171955

Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Thurmond, Portia; Bailey, Genie L

2015-01-01

9

LEXICAL ANALYSIS TO EFFECTIVELY DETECT USERS’ OPINION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a lexical approach that will identify opinion of web users popularly expressedusing short words or sms words. These words are pretty popular with diverse web users and are used forexpressing their opinion on the web. The study of opinion from web arises to know the diverse opinion ofweb users. The opinion expressed by web users may be on diverse topics such as politics, sports, products,movies etc. These opinions will be very useful to others such as, leaders of political parties, selectioncommittees of various sports, business analysts and other stake holders of products, directors andproducers of movies as well as to the other concerned web users. We use semantic based approach to findusers opinion from short words or sms words apart of regular opinionated phrases. Our approachefficiently detects opinion from opinionated texts using lexical analysis and is found to be better than theother approaches on different data sets.

Anil Kumar K.M

2011-11-01

10

Usage analysis of user files in UNIX  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a user-oriented analysis of short term file usage in a 4.2 BSD UNIX environment. The key aspect of this analysis is a characterization of users and files, which is a departure from the traditional approach of analyzing file references. Two characterization measures are employed: accesses-per-byte (combining fraction of a file referenced and number of references) and file size. This new approach is shown to distinguish differences in files as well as users, which cam be used in efficient file system design, and in creating realistic test workloads for simulations. A multi-stage gamma distribution is shown to closely model the file usage measures. Even though overall file sharing is small, some files belonging to a bulletin board system are accessed by many users, simultaneously and otherwise. Over 50% of users referenced files owned by other users, and over 80% of all files were involved in such references. Based on the differences in files and users, suggestions to improve the system performance were also made.

Devarakonda, Murthy V.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

1987-01-01

11

Risk and protective factors of adolescent exclusive snus users compared to non-users of tobacco, exclusive smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of snus is increasing in Norway. In this study we examined differences between adolescents who were exclusive snus users, and adolescent non-users, smokers and dual users of snus and cigarettes on a number of psychosocial factors, categorized as risk variables and protective variables associated with involvement in health compromising behavior. We applied separate logistic regression models, where exclusive snus users (n=740) were compared with non-users (n=904), smokers (n=219), and dual users (n=367). Compared to non-users, the group of exclusive snus users was associated with variables traditionally predicting health risk behavior, such as smoking friends (OR=1.74, SD 1.27-2.38) and truancy (OR=2.12, SD 1.65-2.78). Compared to smokers, exclusive snus users were related to variables traditionally associated with protection against involvement in health risk behavior, e.g. higher academic orientation (OR=1.66, SD 1.12-2.45). Associations with protective factors were also observed when exclusive snus users were compared with dual users. While the group of exclusive snus users was associated with a pattern of psychosocial risk compared to non-users, they showed a more conventional pattern when compared to smokers and dual users. The group of exclusive snus users may be described on a continuum varying from psychosocial risk factors to protective factors of risk involvement depending on the group of comparison. PMID:23583834

Larsen, E; Rise, J; Lund, K E

2013-07-01

12

Spreadsheet End-User Behaviour Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To aid the development of spreadsheet debugging tools, a knowledge of end-users natural behaviour within the Excel environment would be advantageous. This paper details the design and application of a novel data acquisition tool, which can be used for the unobtrusive recording of end-users mouse, keyboard and Excel specific actions during the debugging of Excel spreadsheets. A debugging experiment was conducted using this data acquisition tool, and based on analysis of end-u...

Bishop, Brian; Mcdaid, Kevin

2008-01-01

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ForAVis : explorative user forum analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

User generated textual content on the internet has become increasingly valueable during the past few years. Forums, blogs, twitter and other social media websites are accessible for a huge amount of people all over the world. Hence, methods and tools are needed to handle this vast bulk of textual data. In this paper we present an explorative forum analysis system helping various stakeholders to cope with the task analyzing user generated content in online forums. The used mobile communication...

Wanner, Franz; Ramm, Thomas; Keim, Daniel

2011-01-01

14

Comparative risk analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judginbility of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

15

Automation of user analysis workflow in CMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CMS has a distributed computing model, based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centres. However, the end physicist is not interested in the details of the computing model nor the complexity of the underlying infrastructure, but only to access and use efficiently and easily the remote services. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is the official CMS tool that allows the access to the distributed data in a transparent way. We present the current development direction, which is focused on improving the interface presented to the user and adding intelligence to CRAB such that it can be used to automate more and more the work done on behalf of user. We also present the status of deployment of the CRAB system and the lessons learnt in deploying this tool to the CMS collaboration.

16

COMPARE USABILITY AND SECURITY OF GRAPHICAL USER AUTHENTICATION APPROACHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, authentication technology is the main measure to guarantee information security, and the most common and convenient authentication method in use is the alphanumeric password. However, their inherent defects led to the development of graphical password as an alternative. Graphical password which uses images as passwords, rather than alphanumeric characters is motivated particularly by the fact that it is generally easier for users to remember and recall images than words, and it is conceivable that graphical password would be able to provide better security than alphanumeric password. Authentication, authorization and auditing are the most important issues of security on data communication. In particular, authentication is the life of every individual essential closest friend. The user authentication security is dependent on the strength of user password. A secure password is usually random, strange, very long and difficult to remember. For most users, remember these irregular passwords are very difficult. To easily remember and security are two sides of one coin. Graphical password authentication technology is the use of click on the image to replace input some characters. The graphical user interface can help user easy to create and remember their secure passwords. However, in the graphical password system based on images can provide an alternative password, but too many images will be a large database to store issue. In this thesis, a study of various schemes of graphical user authentication is made and also several challenges in graphical authentication are discussed.

Radhika?

2014-09-01

17

Comparing the Iowa and Soochow gambling tasks in opiate users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is in many respects the gold-standard for demonstrating decision-making in drug using groups. However, it is not clear how basic task properties such as the frequency and magnitude of rewards and losses affect choice behaviour in drug users and even in healthy players. In this study, we used a variant of the IGT, the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT, to observe choice behaviour in opiate users and healthy decision makers in a task where reward frequency is not confounded with the long-term outcome of each alternative. In both opiate users (n=26 and healthy controls (n=27, we show that reward frequency strongly influences choice behaviour in the IGT and SGT. Neither group showed a consistent preference across tasks for alternatives with good long-term outcomes, but rather, subjects appeared to prefer alternatives that win most frequently. We interpret this as evidence to suggest that healthy players perform better than opiate users on the IGT because they are able to utilize gain-loss frequencies to guide their choice behaviour on the task. This challenges the previous notion that poorer performance on the IGT in drug users is due to an inability to be guided by future consequences.

RebeccaKerestes

2012-03-01

18

CONPAS 1.0 (CONtainment Performance Analysis System). User's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) is a verified computer code package to integrate the numerical, graphical, and results-operation aspects of Level 2 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) for nuclear power plants automatically under a PC window environment. Compared with the existing DOS-based computer codes for Level 2 PSA, the most important merit of the window-based computer code is that user can easily describe and quantify the accident progression models, and manipulate the resultant outputs in a variety of ways. As a main logic for accident progression analysis, CONPAS employs a concept of the small containment phenomenological event tree (CPET) helpful to trace out visually individual accident progressions and of the large supporting event tree (LSET) for its detailed quantification. For the integrated analysis of Level 2 PSA, the code utilizes four distinct, but closely related modules; (1) ET Editor for construction of several event tree models describing the accident progressions, (2) Computer for quantification of the constructed event trees and graphical display of the resultant outputs, (3) Text Editor for preparation of input decks for quanification and utilization of calculational results, and (4) Mechanistic Code Plotter for utilization of results obtained from severe accident analysis codes. Compared with other existing computer codes for Level 2 PSA, the CONPAS code provides several advanced features: computational aspects including systematic uncertainty analysis, importance analysis, sensitivity analysis and data interpretation, reporting aspects including tabling and graphic as well as user-friend interface. 10 refs. (Author) .new

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Social network based microblog user behavior analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of microblog on information transmission is becoming more and more obvious. By characterizing the behavior of following and being followed as out-degree and in-degree respectively, a microblog social network was built in this paper. It was found to have short diameter of connected graph, short average path length and high average clustering coefficient. The distributions of out-degree, in-degree and total number of microblogs posted present power-law characters. The exponent of total number distribution of microblogs is negatively correlated with the degree of each user. With the increase of degree, the exponent decreases much slower. Based on empirical analysis, we proposed a social network based human dynamics model in this paper, and pointed out that inducing drive and spontaneous drive lead to the behavior of posting microblogs. The simulation results of our model match well with practical situation.

Yan, Qiang; Wu, Lianren; Zheng, Lan

2013-04-01

20

End user analysis model at CMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CMS experiment at LHC has had a distributed computing model since early in the project plan. The geographically distributed computing system is based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centers; data reconstructed at Tier-0 are then distributed and archived at Tier-1 where re-reconstruction on data events is performed and computing resources for skimming and selection are provided. The Tier-2 centers are the primary location for analysis activities. The analysis will be thus performed in a distributed way using Grid infrastructure. The CMS computing model architecture has also the goal to enable thousands physicist collaboration worldwide spread (about 2600 from 180 scientific institutes) to access data. In order to require to the end user a very limited knowledge of underlying technical details, CMS has been developed a set of specific tools using the Grid services. This model is being tested in many Grid Service Challenges of increasing complexity, coordinated with the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid community. In this talk the status, plans, and prospects for CMS analysis using the Grid are presented.

 
 
 
 
21

User controlled analysis of gamma ray spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The program 'ANGES' was designed as a general purpose high-resolution ? ray spectrometry program. It offers all main features as commercial software packages except control of acquisition process. The program is able to perform automatic analysis of spectra but it is announced as 'user controlled' because it supplies all intermediate results and gives the opportunity these results to be analyzed and corrected by the user. ANGES offers: multi document Windows interface; detailed visualization of spectra; nuclide library based on another contribution to CRP; energy and FWHM calibrations calculated by means of orthonormal polynomial fitting; peak processing engine based on a non-linear LSQ method for fitting peaks; peak location engine, based on first derivative method is provided to ease the preparation of a spectrum for processing; two methods for efficiency calibration (an efficiency calibration curve and reference table); peak identification and activity calculation procedure; a number of corrections (true coincidence summing, background correction, pile up rejection and so on); an option for processing series of similar spectra. The fitting procedure can be applied to the whole spectrum or to a single Region-of-Interest (ROI). The assumed peak shape is pure Gaussian. All peaks in single ROI are assumed to have the same FWHM. The maximum number of peaks in a single ROI is restricted to 25, the maximum ROI length is 512 channels, and the baseline is described with a polynomial of a degree up to 4. As a result of the identification procedure a report file is issued containing spectrum processing results, list of identified and not identified peaks, list of identified nuclides and background nuclides. (author)

22

Factors Affecting Mobile Users’ Switching Intentions: A Comparative Study between the Brazilian and German Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the competitive wireless market, there are many drivers behind customer defection. Switching barriers, service performance, perceived value in carriers’ offers, satisfaction and other constructs can play a pivotal role in customer switching processes among carriers. This study attempts to compare the influence of these factors, taking into account cultural similarities and dissimilarities, between Brazilian and German mobile users. A survey was conducted on two samples, comprising 202 users in Brazil and 200 users in Germany, with culture being employed as a context variable to compare their behavior. Analysis by means of multi-group structural equation modeling suggests that, in both countries, customer satisfaction, service performance and perceived value have important roles in defining customer switching intentions, while switching barriers did not prove to have significant effects upon switching behavior. The results also suggest that the two cultures are sufficientlysimilar (considering the sample and the variables involved in the model to not present differences in the studied consumer behavior, except for the effect of service performance upon satisfaction.

Rodrigo C. Martins

2013-07-01

23

Factors affecting mobile users' switching intentions: a comparative study between the brazilian and german markets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the competitive wireless market, there are many drivers behind customer defection. Switching barriers, service performance, perceived value in carriers' offers, satisfaction and other constructs can play a pivotal role in customer switching processes among carriers. This study attempts to compare [...] the influence of these factors, taking into account cultural similarities and dissimilarities, between Brazilian and German mobile users. A survey was conducted on two samples, comprising 202 users in Brazil and 200 users in Germany, with culture being employed as a context variable to compare their behavior. Analysis by means of multi-group structural equation modeling suggests that, in both countries, customer satisfaction, service performance and perceived value have important roles in defining customer switching intentions, while switching barriers did not prove to have significant effects upon switching behavior. The results also suggest that the two cultures are sufficiently similar (considering the sample and the variables involved in the model) to not present differences in the studied consumer behavior, except for the effect of service performance upon satisfaction.

Rodrigo C., Martins; Luis Fernando, Hor-Meyll; Jorge Brantes, Ferreira.

2013-09-01

24

A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Entender la forma de cómo realizar el trabajo en las organizaciones es parte importante para alcanzar los objetivos, los modelos de tareas ayudan a realizar esta tarea. Estos modelos son la intersección entre el diseño de la interfaz de usuario y enfoques sistemáticos. Existen diferentes niveles de abstracción para representar un modelo de tarea. Cuando los diseñadores requieren sólo especificar los requisitos con respecto a cómo las actividades se deben realizar, consideran sólo las tareas de alto nivel. Por otro lado, cuando los diseñadores tienen por objeto proporcionar indicaciones precisas entonces las actividades están representadas con mayor granularidad, incluidos los aspectos relacionados con el modelo de diálogo de una interfaz de usuario (que define cómo las acciones del sistema y el usuario pueden ser secuenciados. En este artículo se presenta un análisis comparativo de modelos de tareas con el fin de identificar conceptos comunes. Este análisis comparativo se basa en tres criterios: información, la cobertura conceptual y expresividad. La fusión de los resultados derivó en un meta-modelo robusto que cubre la mayoría de las situaciones concernientes al modelado de tareas, incluyendo: la interacción de varios usuarios, los sistemas de información, el flujo de trabajo, y CSCW.Task Models describe how to perform activities to reach users' goals. Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches. Task models can be represented at various abstraction levels. When designers want to specify only requirements regarding how activities should be performed, they consider only the main high-level tasks. On the other hand, when designers aim to provide precise design indications then the activities are represented at a small granularity, thus including aspects related to the dialogue model of a user interface (which defines how system and user actions can be sequenced. In this paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today's multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressiveness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW.

Jean Vanderdonckt

2012-03-01

25

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC-5) user`s manual. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC-5) calculates the consequences of the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Using a personal computer, a user can generate a fission product inventory from either reactor operating history or nuclear criticalities. RSAC-5 models the effects of high-efficiency particulate air filters or other cleanup systems and calculates decay and ingrowth during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment. Doses are calculated through the inhalation, immersion, ground surface, and ingestion pathways. RSAC+, a menu-driven companion program to RSAC-5, assists users in creating and running RSAC-5 input files. This user`s manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for RSAC-5 and RSAC+. Instructions, screens, and examples are provided to guide the user through the functions provided by RSAC-5 and RSAC+. These programs are designed for users who are familiar with radiological dose assessment methods.

Wenzel, D.R.

1994-02-01

26

Semantic compared cross impact analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of cross impact analysis (CIA) is to predict the impact of a first event on a second. For organizations strategic planning, it is helpful to identify the impacts among organizations internal events and to compare these impacts to the corresponding impacts of external events from organizations competitors. For this, literature has introduced compared cross impact analysis (CCIA) that depicts advantages and disadvantages of the relationships between organizations events to the relations...

Thorleuchter, Dirk; Den Poel, Dirk

2014-01-01

27

Comparative Analysis of University Sports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors compare collegiate sports governance in Turkey and the United States using comparative analysis techniques. Using the U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association as a model, the authors evaluate structural and political aspects of the Turkish University Sports Federation to identify new potentialities for its growth and for the support of collegiate sports within Turkey.

Tiffany Allen

2012-01-01

28

Trajectory Based Behavior Analysis for User Verification  

Science.gov (United States)

Many of our activities on computer need a verification step for authorized access. The goal of verification is to tell apart the true account owner from intruders. We propose a general approach for user verification based on user trajectory inputs. The approach is labor-free for users and is likely to avoid the possible copy or simulation from other non-authorized users or even automatic programs like bots. Our study focuses on finding the hidden patterns embedded in the trajectories produced by account users. We employ a Markov chain model with Gaussian distribution in its transitions to describe the behavior in the trajectory. To distinguish between two trajectories, we propose a novel dissimilarity measure combined with a manifold learnt tuning for catching the pairwise relationship. Based on the pairwise relationship, we plug-in any effective classification or clustering methods for the detection of unauthorized access. The method can also be applied for the task of recognition, predicting the trajectory type without pre-defined identity. Given a trajectory input, the results show that the proposed method can accurately verify the user identity, or suggest whom owns the trajectory if the input identity is not provided.

Pao, Hsing-Kuo; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Fadlil, Junaidillah

29

Comparative performance analysis of mobile displays  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-phone display performance (in terms of color quality and optical efficiency) has become a critical factor in creating a positive user experience. As a result, there is a significant amount of effort by cell-phone OEMs to provide a more competitive display solution. This effort is focused on using different display technologies (with significantly different color characteristics) and more sophisticated display processors. In this paper, the results of a mobile-display comparative performance analysis are presented. Three cell-phones from major OEMs are selected and their display performances are measured and quantified. Comparative performance analysis is done using display characteristics such as display color gamut size, RGB-channels crosstalk, RGB tone responses, gray tracking performance, color accuracy, and optical efficiency.

Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

2012-01-01

30

Comparative loneliness of users versus nonusers of online chatting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Online chatting is an important component of improving interpersonal relationships online, but it may reduce participants' communication time with family members. We conducted a study of the relationship between participants' intent to engage in online chatting and three dimensions of loneliness: social, familial, and romantic. This study was designed to show the effect of online chatting on each of these three dimensions of loneliness. The participants in the study were 709 students at two universities in Taiwan who were classified on the basis of whether or not they had ever engaged in online chatting. Of the participants, 651 (91.82%) fully completed the questionnaires that served as the study instruments and were included in data analysis. The study found that individuals who had participated in online chatting exhibited greater familial loneliness than those who had not because the time spent in online chatting reduced the time spent in familial relationships. Social loneliness was related to the quality of Internet relationships rather than to the time spent online. Individuals who participated in online chatting had less romantic loneliness because of a greater ease of maintaining romantic relationships online. We conclude that online chatting can reduce social loneliness through high-quality Internet relationships but may exacerbate familial loneliness. PMID:21329441

Ong, Chorng-Shyong; Chang, Shu-Chen; Wang, Chih-Chien

2011-01-01

31

Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model

32

User-Centered Analysis of Corpora using Semantic Features Redundancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accessing textual information is still a complex activity when users have to browse through large corpus or long texts. In order to help users in such tasks, we propose a model dedicated to lexical representation of thematic domains as well as tools for personal corpora analysis.

Roy, Thibault; Beust, Pierre; Ferrari, Ste?phane

2008-01-01

33

CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

de Cosa, A.

2011-12-01

34

User Behavior and IM Topology Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of Instant Messaging, or IM, has become widely adopted in private and corporate communication. They can provide instant, multi-directed and multi-types of communications which make the message spreading in IM different from those in WWW, Blog and email systems. Groups have great impacts on message spreading in IM. The research demonstrates the power law distribution of groups in MSN with parameter ? ranging from 0.76 to 1.22. Based on an online survey, IM user behavior is analyzed from the aspects of message sending/receiving and contacts maintaining. According to the results, degree distribution of users has a peak value and doesn't present power law character. This may indicate that social networks should be a prospective direction for the research on IM topology.

Qiang Yan

2008-07-01

35

Reinforcing user data analysis with Ganga in the LHC era: scalability, monitoring and user-support  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ganga is a grid job submission and management system widely used in the ATLAS and LHCb experiments and several other communities in the context of the EGEE project. The particle physics communities have entered the LHC operation era which brings new challenges for user data analysis: a strong growth in the number of users and jobs is already noticeable. Current work in the Ganga project is focusing on dealing with these challenges. In recent Ganga releases the support for the pilot job based grid systems Panda and Dirac of the ATLAS and LHCb experiment respectively have been strengthened. A more scalable job repository architecture, which allows efficient storage of many thousands of jobs in XML or several database formats, was recently introduced. A better integration with monitoring systems, including the Dashboard and job execution monitor systems is underway. These will provide comprehensive and easy job monitoring. A simple to use error reporting tool integrated at the Ganga command-line will help to improve user support and debugging user problems. Ganga is a mature, stable and widely-used tool with long-term support from the HEP community. We report on how it is being constantly improved following the user needs for faster and easier distributed data analysis on the grid.

36

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC-5) user's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC-5) calculates the consequences of the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Using a personal computer, a user can generate a fission product inventory from either reactor operating history or nuclear criticalities. RSAC-5 models the effects of high-efficiency particulate air filters or other cleanup systems and calculates decay and ingrowth during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment. Doses are calculated through the inhalation, immersion, ground surface, and ingestion pathways. RSAC+, a menu-driven companion program to RSAC-5, assists users in creating and running RSAC-5 input files. This user's manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for RSAC-5 and RSAC+. Instructions, screens, and examples are provided to guide the user through the functions provided by RSAC-5 and RSAC+. These programs are designed for users who are familiar with radiological dose assessment methods

37

TRANSNET: a user-accessible network of transportation analysis models  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Models and associated data bases, developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories, have been used to support transportation analysis efforts for specific sites and for the assessments of the impacts of transportation of specific waste forms to processing/storage sites. TRANSNET, an interactive computer network, was developed to allow outside users access to these models. TRANSNET contains the most recent versions of models developed under DOE/TTC sponsorship - code modifications that have been made since the last published documentation is noted to the user on the TRANSNET screens. To permit a greater spectrum of users to utilize the models, considerable attention has been given to making the models user-friendly and in providing default data sets for typical problems. TRANSNET access and use is limited to support of DOE related program activities; for such activities there are currently no access or user charges

38

Beyond Categories: A Structural Analysis of the Social Representations of Information Users' Collective Perceptions on 'Relevance'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relevance has a long history of scholarly investigation and discussion in information science. One of its notable concepts is that of 'user-based' relevance. The purpose of this study is to examine how users construct their perspective on the concept of relevance; to analyze what the constituent elements (facets of relevance are, in terms of core-periphery status; and to compare the difference of constructions of two groups of users (information users vs. information professionals as applied with a social representations theory perspective. Data were collected from 244 information users and 123 information professionals through use of a free word association method. Three methods were employed to analyze data: (1 content analysis was used to elicit 26 categories (facets of the concept of relevance; (2 structural analysis of social representations was used to determine the core-periphery status of those facets in terms of coreness, sum of similarity, and weighted frequency; and, (3 maximum tree analysis was used to present and compare the differences between the two groups. Elicited categories in this study overlap with the ones from previous relevance studies, while the findings of a core-periphery analysis show that Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Importance are configured as core concepts for the information user group, while Topicality, User-needs, Reliability/Credibility, and Currency are core concepts for the information professional group. Differences between the social representations of relevance revealed that Topicality was similar to User-needs and to Importance. Author is closely related to Title while Reliability/Credibility is linked with Currency. Easiness/Clarity is similar to Accuracy. Overall, information users and professionals function with a similar social collective of shared meanings for the concept of relevance. The overall findings identify the core and periphery concepts of relevance and their relationships in terms of coreness, similarity, and weighted frequency.

Boryung Ju

2013-06-01

39

An Analysis of User Attitudes to SNS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Networking Service (SNS have become widely used in Japan in recent years with Facebook, mixi and Twitter being the most popular. These are used in various fields of life together with the convenient devices such as smart-phones. A questionnaire investigation was used to clarify the current usage condition, issues and desired function etc. Information for marketing purposes was then extracted. Fundamental Statistical Analysis, Multi Corresponding Analysis, Quantitative Analysis and Text Minig Analysis were then performed. Reviewing past research, there are some related papers, but they do not include new tools which are evolving rapidly. Moreover there has been little research conducted on this precise topic. Some interesting results were obtained.

Tsuyoshi Aburai

2013-04-01

40

CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor for the CMS experiment. The analysis workflow is organized in a modular way integrated within the CMS framework that organizes in a flexible way user analysis code. The Python scripting language is adopted to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. It could be a challenging task for users, especially for newcomers, to develop analysis jobs managing the configuration of many required modules. For this reason a graphical tool has been conceived in order to edit and inspect configuration files. A set of common analysis tools defined in the CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) can be steered and configured using the Config Editor. A user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT tools according to the specific user requirements. CMS users can adopt this tool, the Config Editor, to create their analysis visualizing in real time which are the effects of their actions. They can visualize the structure of their configuration, look at the modules included in the workflow, inspect the dependences existing among the modules and check the data flow. They can visualize at which values parameters are set and change them according to what is required by their analysis task. The integration of common tools in the GUI needed to adopt an object-oriented structure in the Python definition of the PAT tools in the Python definition of the PAT tools and the definition of a layer of abstraction from which all PAT tools inherit.

 
 
 
 
41

A Study on Library Users’ Satisfaction Evaluation Using Sentimental Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper employs the sentimental analysis to study the library users’ satisfactory evaluation, where users’ opinions were classified as positive, neutral and negative, respectively. To provide the immediate library service improvement, the graphic representation is further used to show evaluation results. After collecting the library users’ opinions from micro webs, i.e., Plurk, to be the corpus, the corpus was then pre-processed and annotated manually. Moreover, all the related dictionaries for sentimental analysis were constructed. accuracy each category, were employed to cluster the corpus into five categories. Furthermore, two new sentimental analyses for library satisfactory evaluation were proposed, which include introducing degree words, negatives and sentimental words weights, and introducing sentimental polarities and categories, respectively. Experimental results showed that both KNN and sentimental analysis introducing sentimental polarities and categories obtain better satisfactory evaluation results. Furthermore, all the constructed dictionaries for sentimental analysis were shown their feasibility as well.

June-Jei Kuo

2013-06-01

42

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. he model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NO...

43

Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester parameters be held and managed in a single managed data repository, while allows users to customize standard values and perform individual analysis. Server-based calculations can be easily extended, versions and upgrades managed, and any changes are immediately available to all users. This user manual describes how to use and/or modify input database tables, run DANA, view and modify reports.

Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

2012-10-01

44

Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

2014-01-01

45

User-level sentiment analysis incorporating social networks  

CERN Document Server

We show that information about social relationships can be used to improve user-level sentiment analysis. The main motivation behind our approach is that users that are somehow "connected" may be more likely to hold similar opinions; therefore, relationship information can complement what we can extract about a user's viewpoints from their utterances. Employing Twitter as a source for our experimental data, and working within a semi-supervised framework, we propose models that are induced either from the Twitter follower/followee network or from the network in Twitter formed by users referring to each other using "@" mentions. Our transductive learning results reveal that incorporating social-network information can indeed lead to statistically significant sentiment-classification improvements over the performance of an approach based on Support Vector Machines having access only to textual features.

Tan, Chenhao; Tang, Jie; Jiang, Long; Zhou, Ming; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

46

GRAFLAB 2.3 for UNIX - A MATLAB database, plotting, and analysis tool: User`s guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a user`s manual for GRAFLAB, which is a new database, analysis, and plotting package that has been written entirely in the MATLAB programming language. GRAFLAB is currently used for data reduction, analysis, and archival. GRAFLAB was written to replace GRAFAID, which is a FORTRAN database, analysis, and plotting package that runs on VAX/VMS.

Dunn, W.N.

1998-03-01

47

Comparing user experiences in using Twiki & Mediawiki to facilitate collaborative learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research seeks to determine the perceived effectiveness of using TWiki and MediaWiki in collaborative work and knowledge management; and to compare the use of TWiki and MediaWiki in terms of user experiences in the master’s level of study at the University of Hong Kong. Through a multiple case study approach, the study adopted a mixed methods research design which used both quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze findings from specific user groups in two study programmes. In th...

Liang, M.; Siu, F.; Zhou, A.; Chu, S.

2009-01-01

48

Comparative Analysis of Packet Scheduling Schemes for HSDPA Cellular Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present comparison analysis for packet scheduling algorithms for HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Networks. In particular, we analyze the round robin, max C/I and FCDS packet scheduling algorithms in HSDPA by comparing the average throughput, delay and fairness of the users, changing the number of the users in pedestrian and vehicular environment. The results have showed that the number of the users in a given coverage area is very important when choosing which packet scheduling algorithm for HSDPA networks. These results will be very useful for choosing the adequate scheduling algorithm in HSDPA network with aim to satisfy the desired quality of service for the mobile users.

T. Janevski

2009-06-01

49

Multiple-user data acquisition and analysis system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear physics program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) employs a pair of PDP-11 computers for the dual functions of data acquisition and analysis. The data acquisition is accomplished through CAMAC and features a microprogrammed branch driver to accommodate various experimental inputs. The acquisition computer performs the functions of multi-channel analyzers, multiscaling and time-sequenced multichannel analyzers and gamma-ray coincidence analyzers. The data analysis computer is available for rapid processing of data tapes written by the acquisition computer. The ability to accommodate many users is facilitated by separating the data acquisition and analysis functions, and allowing each user to tailor the analysis to the specific requirements of his own experiment. The system is to be upgraded soon by the introduction of a dual port disk to allow a data base to be available to each computer

50

Desktop Analysis Reporting Tool (DART) User's Guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Desktop Analysis Reporting Tool (DART) is a software package that allows a user to easily view and analyze radiation portal monitor (RPM) daily files that span long periods. DART gives users the capability to determine the state of health of a monitor, troubleshoot and diagnose problems, and view data in various time frames to perform trend analysis. In short, it converts the data strings written in the daily files into meaningful tables and plots. DART is an application-based program that was designed to maximize the benefit of a centralized data repository while distributing the workload to individual desktop machines. This networked approach requires a more complex database manager (SQL Server); however, SQL Server is not currently provided with the DART Installation Disk. SQL Express is sufficient for local data analysis and requires the installation of SQL Express and DART on each machine intended for analysis.

Lousteau, Angela L [ORNL; Alcala, Scott [ORNL

2012-04-01

51

Comparing Frequent and Average Users of Elementary School-Based Health Centers in the Bronx, New York City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzed health care utilization at three New York City school-based health centers (SBHCs), comparing characteristics of frequent and average users. Examination of participants' encounter forms and charts indicated that the SBHCs had a high rate of use. Frequent users were more likely to be older, comprised 28 percent of clinic-users, and…

Baquiran, Raymundo S.; Webber, Mayris P.; Appel, David K.

2002-01-01

52

User's operating procedures. Volume 2: Scout project financial analysis program  

Science.gov (United States)

A review is presented of the user's operating procedures for the Scout Project Automatic Data system, called SPADS. SPADS is the result of the past seven years of software development on a Prime mini-computer located at the Scout Project Office, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. SPADS was developed as a single entry, multiple cross-reference data management and information retrieval system for the automation of Project office tasks, including engineering, financial, managerial, and clerical support. This volume, two (2) of three (3), provides the instructions to operate the Scout Project Financial Analysis program in data retrieval and file maintenance via the user friendly menu drivers.

Harris, C. G.; Haris, D. K.

1985-01-01

53

Users' guide to CACECO containment analysis code. [LMFBR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The CACECO containment analysis code was developed to predict the thermodynamic responses of LMFBR containment facilities to a variety of accidents. The code is included in the National Energy Software Center Library at Argonne National Laboratory as Program No. 762. This users' guide describes the CACECO code and its data input requirements. The code description covers the many mathematical models used and the approximations used in their solution. The descriptions are detailed to the extent that the user can modify the code to suit his unique needs, and, indeed, the reader is urged to consider code modification acceptable.

Peak, R.D.

1979-06-01

54

Software Users Manual (SUM): Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

This software user manual describes the implementation and use the Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool. The ETA Tool is a software program that augments the analysis and reporting capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) testability analysis software package called the Testability Engineering And Maintenance System (TEAMS) Designer. An initial diagnostic assessment is performed by the TEAMS Designer software using a qualitative, directed-graph model of the system being analyzed. The ETA Tool utilizes system design information captured within the diagnostic model and testability analysis output from the TEAMS Designer software to create a series of six reports for various system engineering needs. The ETA Tool allows the user to perform additional studies on the testability analysis results by determining the detection sensitivity to the loss of certain sensors or tests. The ETA Tool was developed to support design and development of the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. The diagnostic analysis provided by the ETA Tool was proven to be valuable system engineering output that provided consistency in the verification of system engineering requirements. This software user manual provides a description of each output report generated by the ETA Tool. The manual also describes the example diagnostic model and supporting documentation - also provided with the ETA Tool software release package - that were used to generate the reports presented in the manual

Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

2011-01-01

55

User's manual of a support system for human reliability analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many kinds of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been developed. However, users are required to be skillful so as to use them, and also required complicated works such as drawing event tree (ET) and calculation of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, each method is not so complete that only one method of them is not enough to evaluate human reliability. Therefore, a personal computer (PC) based support system for HRA has been developed to execute HRA practically and efficiently. The system consists of two methods, namely, simple method and detailed one. The former uses ASEP that is a simplified THERP-technique, and combined method of OAT and HRA-ET/DeBDA is used for the latter. Users can select a suitable method for their purpose. Human error probability (HEP) data were collected and a database of them was built to use for the support system. This paper describes outline of the HRA methods, support functions and user's guide of the system. (author)

56

Development of output user interface software to support analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Data processing software packages such as VSOP and MCNPX are softwares that has been scientifically proven and complete. The result of VSOP and MCNPX are huge and complex text files. In the analyze process, user need additional processing like Microsoft Excel to show informative result. This research develop an user interface software for output of VSOP and MCNPX. VSOP program output is used to support neutronic analysis and MCNPX program output is used to support burn-up analysis. Software development using iterative development methods which allow for revision and addition of features according to user needs. Processing time with this software 500 times faster than with conventional methods using Microsoft Excel. PYTHON is used as a programming language, because Python is available for all major operating systems: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS/2, Mac, Amiga, among others. Values that support neutronic analysis are k-eff, burn-up and mass Pu239 and Pu241. Burn-up analysis used the mass inventory values of actinide (Thorium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Uranium). Values are visualized in graphical shape to support analysis.

Wahanani, Nursinta Adi; Natsir, Khairina; Hartini, Entin

2014-09-01

57

Sociological analysis and comparative education  

Science.gov (United States)

It is argued that comparative education is essentially a derivative field of study, in that it borrows theories and methods from academic disciplines. After a brief humanistic phase, in which history and philosophy were central for comparative education, sociology became an important source. In the mid-50's and 60's, sociology in the United States was characterised by Structural Functionalism as a theory, and Social Survey as a dominant methodology. Both were incorporated into the development of comparative education. Increasingly in the 70's, and certainly today, the new developments in sociology are characterised by an attack on Positivism, which is seen as the philosophical position underlying both functionalism and survey methods. New or re-discovered theories with their attendant methodologies included Marxism, Phenomenological Sociology, Critical Theory, and Historical Social Science. The current relationship between comparative education and social science is one of uncertainty, but since social science is seen to be returning to its European roots, the hope is held out for the development of an integrated social theory and method which will provide a much stronger basis for developments in comparative education.

Woock, Roger R.

1981-12-01

58

User`s Guide for the NREL Teetering Rotor Analysis Program (STRAP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following report gives the reader an overview of instructions on the proper use of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute, or SERI) teetering Rotor Analysis Program (STRAP version 2.20). STRAP is a derivative of the Force and Loads Analysis program (FLAP). It is intended as a tool for prediction of rotor and blade loads and response for only two-bladed teetering hub wind turbines. The effects of delta-3, undersling, hub mass, and wind turbulence are accounted for. The objectives of the report are to give an overview of the code and also show the methods of data input and correct code execution steps in order to model an example two-bladed teetering hub turbine. A large portion of the discussion (Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) is devoted to the subject of inputting and running the code for wind turbulence effects. The ability to include turbulent wind effects is perhaps the biggest change in the code since the release of FLAP version 2.01 in 1988. This report is intended to be a user`s guide. It does not contain a theoretical discussion on equations of motion, assumptions, underlying theory, etc. It is intended to be used in conjunction with Wright, Buhl, and Thresher (1988).

Wright, A D

1992-08-01

59

Forecasting methods: a comparative analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forecasting is an important tool for management, planning and administration in various fields. In this paper forecasting performance of different methods is considered using time series data of Pakistan's export to United Sates and money supply. It is found that, like other studies of this nature, no single forecasting method provides better forecast for both the series. The techniques considered are ARIMA, Regression Analysis, Vector Autoregression (VAR), Error Correction Model ...

Iqbal, Javed

2001-01-01

60

Reinforcing user data analysis with Ganga in the LHC era: scalability, monitoring and user-support.  

CERN Document Server

Ganga is a grid job submission and management system widely used in the ATLAS and LHCb experiments and several other communities in the context of the EGEE project. The particle physics communities have entered the LHC operation era which brings new challenges for user data analysis: a strong growth in the number of users and jobs is already noticeable. Current work in the Ganga project is focusing on dealing with these challenges. In recent Ganga releases the support for the pilot job based grid systems Panda and Dirac of the ATLAS and LHCb experiment respectively have been strengthened. A more scalable job repository architecture, which allows efficient storage of many thousands of jobs in XML or several database formats, was recently introduced. A better integration with monitoring systems, including the Dashboard and job execution monitor systems is underway. These will provide comprehensive and easy job monitoring. A simple to use error reporting tool integrated at the Ganga command-line will help to imp...

Brochu, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Ebke, J; Egede, U; Elmsheuser, J; Jha, M K; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Lee, H C; Maier, A; Moscicki, J; Munchen, T; Reece, W; Samset, B; Slater, M; Tuckett, D; Van der Ster, D; Williams, M

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Reinforcing User Data Analysis with Ganga in the LHC Era: Scalability, Monitoring and User-support  

CERN Document Server

Ganga is a grid job submission and management system widely used in the ATLAS and LHCb experiments and several other communities in the context of the EGEE project. The particle physics communities have entered the LHC operation era which brings new challenges for user data analysis: a strong growth in the number of users and jobs is already noticable. Current work in the Ganga project is focusing on dealing with these challenges. In recent Ganga releases the support for the pilot job based grid systems Panda and Dirac of the ATLAS and LHCb experiment respectively have been strengthened. A more scalable job repository architecture, which allows efficient storage of many thousands of jobs in XML or several database formats, was recently introduced. A better integration with monitoring systems, including the Dashboard and job execution monitor systems is underway. These will provide comprehensive and easy job monitoring. A simple to use error reporting tool integrated at the Ganga command-line will help to impr...

Brochu, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Ebke, J; Egede, U; Elmsheuser, J; Jha, M K; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Lee, H C; Maier, A; Moscicki, J; Munchen, T; Reece, W; Samset, B; Slater, M; Tuckett, D; Van der Ster, D; Williams, M

2010-01-01

62

User's manual for the Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP-1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CHAP-1 is the first release version of an HTGR overall plant simulation program with both steady-state and transient solution capabilities. It consists of a model-independent systems analysis program and a collection of linked modules, each representing one or more components of the HTGR plant. Detailed instructions on the operation of the code and detailed descriptions of the HTGR model are provided. Information is also provided to allow the user to easily incorporate additional component modules, to modify or replace existing modules, or to incorporate a completely new simulation model into the CHAP systems analysis framework

63

Rent control: a comparative analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders - and consequential homelessness - on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do [...] not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold deregulation. In light of these comparisons and the fact that the South African social sector is not functioning optimally yet, the question is whether the South African private sector is able to provide the required level of tenure protection for struggling tenants. Recent case law shows that tenants are at liberty to lodge unfair practice complaints with the Rental Housing Tribunals on the basis that the landlords' ground for termination of the lease constitutes an unfair practice. The Court defined an unfair practice as a practice that unreasonably prejudices the tenants' rights or interests. This judicial development signifies some transformation in the private sector since it allows the Tribunals to scrutinise landlords' reasons for termination of tenancies in light of tenants' personal and socioeconomic circumstances. The Tribunals are therefore empowered to weigh the interests of both parties and decide whether to confirm termination of the lease or set aside such termination. In light of this recent development, the Tribunals can provide strengthened tenure protection for destitute tenants on a case by case basis, which incorporates a flexible context-sensitive approach to the provision of secure housing rights in the landlord-tenant framework. This methodology is similar to the German approach. Even though this judicial development is welcomed, it raises some concerns with regard to landlords' property rights and specifically landlords' constitutional property rights since Tribunals are now at liberty to set aside contractually agreed grounds for termination of leases without any statutory guidance. The legislation fails to provide any information regarding legitimate grounds for termination, which might have to be rectified in future. The grounds listed in the rent control legislation should serve as a starting point to determine which grounds for termination of a lease should generally be upheld. However, German landlord-tenant law shows that a statutory ground for termination of a lease shoul

S, Maass.

64

Development of a User Interface for a Regression Analysis Software Tool  

Science.gov (United States)

An easy-to -use user interface was implemented in a highly automated regression analysis tool. The user interface was developed from the start to run on computers that use the Windows, Macintosh, Linux, or UNIX operating system. Many user interface features were specifically designed such that a novice or inexperienced user can apply the regression analysis tool with confidence. Therefore, the user interface s design minimizes interactive input from the user. In addition, reasonable default combinations are assigned to those analysis settings that influence the outcome of the regression analysis. These default combinations will lead to a successful regression analysis result for most experimental data sets. The user interface comes in two versions. The text user interface version is used for the ongoing development of the regression analysis tool. The official release of the regression analysis tool, on the other hand, has a graphical user interface that is more efficient to use. This graphical user interface displays all input file names, output file names, and analysis settings for a specific software application mode on a single screen which makes it easier to generate reliable analysis results and to perform input parameter studies. An object-oriented approach was used for the development of the graphical user interface. This choice keeps future software maintenance costs to a reasonable limit. Examples of both the text user interface and graphical user interface are discussed in order to illustrate the user interface s overall design approach.

Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Volden, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

65

The community Analysis of User Behaviors Network for Web Traffic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Understanding the structure and dynamics of the user behavior networks for web traffic (To be convenient in next sections, we refer to replace it as UBNWT that connect users with servers across the Internet is a key to modeling the network and designing future application. The Web-visited bipartite networks, called the user behavioral networks, display a natural bipartite structure: two kinds of nodes coexist with links only between nodes of different types. We obtained the result that the out-degree distribution of clients (the host initiating the connection, the in-degree distribution of servers (the host receiving the connection and the strength distribution (the exchange bytes between clients and servers are approximately power-law, whose exponential is between 1.7 and 3.4. The clustering coefficient of clients and servers is larger than that in randomized, degree preserving versions of the same graph, which indicate a modular structure of UBNWT. Finally, based on the algorithm of finding the community structure in bipartite network, we divided the clients into different communities, through manual examination of hosts in these communities, the typical normal (interest and abnormal (DOS communities were found. Interestingly, the loyalty of clients belonging to the same community in different time is higher than 80%. The structure analysis of UBNWT is very helpful for the network management, resource allocation, traffic engineering and security.

Jun Cai

2011-11-01

66

A Comparative Study of Library Surveys of Internet Users at Seton Hall University in 1998 and 2001.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares data collected in library surveys of Internet users at Seton Hall University in 1998 and 2001 to provide information on changes in library users' Internet use behavior, satisfaction levels, and problems in using the Internet. Discusses use of the university library home page; search strategies; and search training. (Author/LRW)

Bao, Xue-Ming

2002-01-01

67

Learning Mobile App Design from User Review Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new learning environment for developers of mobile apps that merges two quite different views of the same topic. Creative design and system engineering are core issues in the development process that are based on diverging principles. This new learning environment aims to address both points of view by not suppressing one of them but trying to benefit from both. User review content analysis is introduced as a tool to generate information that is useful for both aspects.

Elisabeth Platzer

2011-07-01

68

User-friendly software for Moessbauer spectrum analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new user-friendly software for analysis of Moessbauer-spectra has been developed. The program makes use of the advantages provided by the current generation of fast personal computers. An Evolution Algorithm1,2 is used for global search of Moessbauer parameters in order to enhance the reliability of the obtained results. Fitting of Lorentzians, Pseudo-Voigt line profiles, and deriving hyperfine-field distributions including correlations and combinations and Moessbauer Line Sharpening by Fourier transformation provide a wide range of applicability. (author). 20 refs., 7 figs

69

Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 2: User's manual  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic and/or supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations have multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planforms and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis. Computation times on an IBM 3081 are typically less than one minute of CPU/Mach number at subsonic, supersonic, or hypersonic speeds. This is a user manual for the computer programming.

Sova, G.; Divan, P.; Spacht, L.

1991-01-01

70

A Comparative Analysis of Web Page Ranking Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web is expending day by day and people generally rely on search engine to explore the web. In such a scenario it is the duty of service provider to provide proper, relevant and quality information to the internet user against their query submitted to the search engine. It is a challenge for service provider to provide proper, relevant and quality information to the internet user by using the web page contents and hyperlink between the web pages. This paperdeals with analysis and comparison of web page ranking algorithms based on various parameter to find out their advantages and limitations for the ranking of the web pages. Based on the analysis of different web page ranking algorithms, a comparative study is done to find out their relative strengths and limitations to find out the further scope of research in web page ranking algorithm.

Dilip Kumar Sharma,

2010-11-01

71

A graphical user interface for infant ERP analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recording of event-related potentials (ERPs) is one of the best-suited technologies for examining brain function in human infants. Yet the existing software packages are not optimized for the unique requirements of analyzing artifact-prone ERP data from infants. We developed a new graphical user interface that enables an efficient implementation of a two-stage approach to the analysis of infant ERPs. In the first stage, video records of infant behavior are synchronized with ERPs at the level of individual trials to reject epochs with noncompliant behavior and other artifacts. In the second stage, the interface calls MATLAB and EEGLAB (Delorme & Makeig, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 134(1):9-21, 2004) functions for further preprocessing of the ERP signal itself (i.e., filtering, artifact removal, interpolation, and rereferencing). Finally, methods are included for data visualization and analysis by using bootstrapped group averages. Analyses of simulated and real EEG data demonstrated that the proposed approach can be effectively used to establish task compliance, remove various types of artifacts, and perform representative visualizations and statistical comparisons of ERPs. The interface is available for download from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods/eeg.html in a format that is widely applicable to ERP studies with special populations and open for further editing by users. PMID:24264591

Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Forssman, Linda; Perdue, Katherine; Leppänen, Jukka

2014-09-01

72

Performance Analysis of Web Applications Based on User Navigation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a method to conduct performance eanalysis of web applications. The behavior model is firstly built from log file after user navigation, then an extended state diagram is extracted from this log file, finally multiple Markov model is cooperated to this state diagram and the performance analysis can be obtained from the Markov model. Five indexes are used to measure the performance and they are: service response time, service path length, service utilization, service implementation rate and access error rate. Our performance analysis result will provide a suggestion to improve the design of web applications and optimize the services. A case study of Zhejiang Chess web site has been used to demonstrate the advantage of our method.

Zhou, Quanshu; Ye, Hairong; Ding, Zuohua

73

Single and Multiple Hand Gesture Recognition Systems: A Comparative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the evolution of higher computing speed, efficient communication technologies, and advanced display techniques the legacy HCI techniques become obsolete and are no more helpful in accurate and fast flow of information in present day computing devices. Hence the need of user friendly human machine interfaces for real time interfaces for human computer interaction have to be designed and developed to make the man machine interaction more intuitive and user friendly. The vision based hand gesture recognition affords users with the ability to interact with computers in more natural and intuitive ways. These gesture recognition systems generally consist of three main modules like hand segmentation, hand tracking and gesture recognition from hand features, designed using different image processing techniques which are further integrated with different applications. An increase use of new interfaces based on hand gesture recognition designed to cope up with the computing devices for interaction. This paper is an effort to provide a comparative analysis between such real time vision based hand gesture recognition systems which are based on interaction using single and multiple hand gestures. Single hand gesture based recognition systems (SHGRS have fewer complexes to implement, with a constraint to the count of different gestures which is large enough with various permutations and combinations of gesture, which is possible with multiple hands in multiple hand gesture recognition systems (MHGRS. The thorough comparative analysis has been done on various other vital parameters for the recognition systems.

Siddharth Rautaray

2014-10-01

74

Micromechanical combined stress analysis: MICSTRAN, a user manual  

Science.gov (United States)

Composite materials are currently being used in aerospace and other applications. The ability to tailor the composite properties by the appropriate selection of its constituents, the fiber and matrix, is a major advantage of composite materials. The Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) code provides the materials engineer with a user-friendly personal computer (PC) based tool to calculate overall composite properties given the constituent fiber and matrix properties. To assess the ability of the composite to carry structural loads, the materials engineer also needs to calculate the internal stresses in the composite material. MICSTRAN is a simple tool to calculate such internal stresses with a composite ply under combined thermomechanical loading. It assumes that the fibers have a circular cross-section and are arranged either in a repeating square or diamond array pattern within a ply. It uses a classical elasticity solution technique that has been demonstrated to calculate accurate stress results. Input to the program consists of transversely isotropic fiber properties and isotropic matrix properties such as moduli, Poisson's ratios, coefficients of thermal expansion, and volume fraction. Output consists of overall thermoelastic constants and stresses. Stresses can be computed under the combined action of thermal, transverse, longitudinal, transverse shear, and longitudinal shear loadings. Stress output can be requested along the fiber-matrix interface, the model boundaries, circular arcs, or at user-specified points located anywhere in the model. The MICSTRAN program is Windows compatible and takes advantage of the Microsoft Windows graphical user interface which facilitates multitasking and extends memory access far beyond the limits imposed by the DOS operating system.

Naik, R. A.

1992-01-01

75

Motives, barriers and quality evaluation in fish consumption situations : Exploring and comparing heavy and light users in Spain and Belgium  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate motives and barriers for eating fish among light users and heavy users, to discuss consumer evaluation of fish quality, and to explore the existence of cross-cultural fish consumer  segments. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were collected through six focus group discussions, three in Spain and three in Belgium. In each country, one group consisted of heavy users while two groups included light users. Findings - The same attitudinal motives and barriers for fish consumption can be found in both countries and across user groups, even though fish consumption levels differ considerably. The main motives for eating fish are health and taste, while the main barriers are price perception, smell when cooking fish, and that fish does not deliver the same level of satiety as compared to meat. Big differences are found between countries and user groups with respect to preparation skills and the use of quality cues. Heavy users are very skilled in evaluating fish quality, especially those in Spain, while light users, especially those in Belgium, make seemingly irrational assumptions when evaluating the quality of fish. Research limitations/implications - This study is based on qualitative focus group discussions in two European countries only. Originality/value - This study explores and compares motives, barriers and quality evaluation among heavy and light fish consumers in two European countries. The paper yields valuable insights for further quantitative research into explaining variations in fish consumption, as well as for fish quality evaluation and fish market segmentation studies.

BrunsØ, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

2009-01-01

76

A comparative analysis of aircraft noise performances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of aircraft acoustical performance based on the definition of a noise performance indicator called ENSA (equivalent number of standard aircraft. ENSA methodology is based on the choice of a standard aircraft, then ENSA’s values are obtained by comparing the generic aircraft’s performances with the standard aircraft’s performances. The performance evaluation is performed by analysing for each aircraft the equivalent number of standard aircrafts movements generating a noise level corresponding with one standard aircraft movement. This comparative analysis permits the evaluation of aircraft noise performance by comparing the ENSA values for different aircrafts.

Nicola Gualandi

2009-09-01

77

Automatic generation of user material subroutines for biomechanical growth analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of the biomechanics of growth and remodeling in soft tissues requires the formulation of specialized pseudoelastic constitutive relations. The nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS allows the user to implement such specialized material responses through the coding of a user material subroutine called UMAT. However, hand coding UMAT subroutines is a challenge even for simple pseudoelastic materials and requires substantial time to debug and test the code. To resolve this issue, we develop an automatic UMAT code generation procedure for pseudoelastic materials using the symbolic mathematics package MATHEMATICA and extend the UMAT generator to include continuum growth. The performance of the automatically coded UMAT is tested by simulating the stress-stretch response of a material defined by a Fung-orthotropic strain energy function, subject to uniaxial stretching, equibiaxial stretching, and simple shear in ABAQUS. The MATHEMATICA UMAT generator is then extended to include continuum growth by adding a growth subroutine to the automatically generated UMAT. The MATHEMATICA UMAT generator correctly derives the variables required in the UMAT code, quickly providing a ready-to-use UMAT. In turn, the UMAT accurately simulates the pseudoelastic response. In order to test the growth UMAT, we simulate the growth-based bending of a bilayered bar with differing fiber directions in a nongrowing passive layer. The anisotropic passive layer, being topologically tied to the growing isotropic layer, causes the bending bar to twist laterally. The results of simulations demonstrate the validity of the automatically coded UMAT, used in both standardized tests of hyperelastic materials and for a biomechanical growth analysis. PMID:20887023

Young, Jonathan M; Yao, Jiang; Ramasubramanian, Ashok; Taber, Larry A; Perucchio, Renato

2010-10-01

78

International Reactor Physics Handbook Database and Analysis Tool (IDAT) - IDAT user manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IRPhEP Database and Analysis Tool (IDAT) was first released in 2013 and is included on the DVD. This database and corresponding user interface allows easy access to handbook information. Selected information from each configuration was entered into IDAT, such as the measurements performed, benchmark values, calculated values and materials specifications of the benchmark. In many cases this is supplemented with calculated data such as neutron balance data, spectra data, k-eff nuclear data sensitivities, and spatial reaction rate plots. IDAT accomplishes two main objectives: 1. Allow users to search the handbook for experimental configurations that satisfy their input criteria. 2. Allow users to trend results and identify suitable benchmarks experiments for their application. IDAT provides the user with access to several categories of calculated data, including: - 1-group neutron balance data for each configuration with individual isotope contributions in the reactor system. - Flux and other reaction rates spectra in a 299-group energy scheme. Plotting capabilities were implemented into IDAT allowing the user to compare the spectra of selected configurations in the original fine energy structure or on any user-defined broader energy structure. - Sensitivity coefficients (percent changes of k-effective due to elementary change of basic nuclear data) for the major nuclides and nuclear processes in a 238-group energy structure. IDAT is actively being developed. Those approved to access the online version of the handbook will also have access to an online version of IDAT. As May 2013 marks the first release, IDAT may contain data entry errors and omissions. The handbook remains the primary source of reactor physics benchmark data. A copy of IDAT user's manual is attached to this document. A copy of the IRPhE Handbook can be obtained on request at http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/irphe/irphe-handbook/form.html

79

SOR Users` Guide : How to Navigate Through the SOR Analysis.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) gave river managers, users, and the general public a chance to examine system operations in detail, to study how each river use affects others, and to consider the consequences of changing the way the system works. The task was enormous, and it was a multiyear undertaking. In its wake, the SOR left a multitude of documents and six years of analysis that can and should be used broadly for other reference and research purposes. This catalog will introduce you to numerous SOR products to be found throughout the 20 appendices and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Main Report. They include maps, models, data bases, current descriptions of Federal hydro projects and river resources, publications, and slide shows.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1996-08-01

80

Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User's guide. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option

 
 
 
 
81

User's manual for seismic analysis code 'SONATINA-2V'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The seismic analysis code, SONATINA-2V, has been developed to analyze the behavior of the HTTR core graphite components under seismic excitation. The SONATINA-2V code is a two-dimensional computer program capable of analyzing the vertical arrangement of the HTTR graphite components, such as fuel blocks, replaceable reflector blocks, permanent reflector blocks, as well as their restraint structures. In the analytical model, each block is treated as rigid body and is restrained by dowel pins which restrict relative horizontal movement but allow vertical and rocking motions between upper and lower blocks. Moreover, the SONATINA-2V code is capable of analyzing the core vibration behavior under both simultaneous excitations of vertical and horizontal directions. The SONATINA-2V code is composed of the main program, pri-processor for making the input data to SONATINA-2V and post-processor for data processing and making the graphics from analytical results. Though the SONATINA-2V code was developed in order to work in the MSP computer system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the computer system was abolished with the technical progress of computer. Therefore, improvement of this analysis code was carried out in order to operate the code under the UNIX machine, SR8000 computer system, of the JAERI. The users manual for seismic analysis code, SONATINA-2V, including pri- and post-processor is given in the present report. (author)

82

Comparative analysis of methods of hardness assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show how it could utilize the statistical methods for the process management.Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology bases on a theoretical analysis and empirical researches. A practical solution is presented to compare measurements methods of hardness and to estimate capability indices of measurement system.Findings: Measurement system analysis (MSA, particularly theory of statistical tests brings correct results for the analysed case.Research limitations/implications: Comparative analysis of measurement methods – interlaboratory studies, delivery control etc. is necessary in the interpretation of results.Practical implications: Described methodology and results can be employed in the industrial practice.Originality/value: The complete statistical comparative analysis of methods of hardness measurement with the help of a stationary and mobile hardness tester.

A. Czarski

2009-12-01

83

Mobile Phone Usage for M-Learning: Comparing Heavy and Light Mobile Phone Users  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Mobile technologies offer the opportunity to embed learning in a natural environment. The objective of the study is to examine how the usage of mobile phones for m-learning differs between heavy and light mobile phone users. Heavy mobile phone users are hypothesized to have access to/subscribe to one type of mobile content than light…

Suki, Norbayah Mohd; Suki, Norazah Mohd

2007-01-01

84

Matrix analysis of the insider threat (MAIT) user's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MAIT is a sophisticated method for the analysis of safeguards or security systems that determines if single or multiple insiders can covertly sabotage a facility or system, or can covertly divert a resource that is present in the facility or system. The MAIT method provides a detailed, organized way to exhaustively examine the safeguards or security system against these covert threats. An evaluation of this broad scope is beyond the reasonable capability of an analyst working without computer assistance. The MAIT analysis is conducted by first manually collecting detailed facility design data and access and control information for each individual safeguard measure. With this information, the MAIT computer code synthesizes every possible situation and returns data to the analyst concerning those particular events that are not adequately protected. This report replaces the previous user's manual (SAI-78-960-LJ). It includes the details that an analyst needs to know to use the upgraded MAIT evaluation method. The major changes incorporated in the present version of the method include the evaluation of scenarios that span two conditions, the consolidation of theft and sabotage versions of the program and the incorporation and consideration of secondary targets in a path

85

Comparative evaluation of user interfaces for robot-assisted laser phonomicrosurgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigates the impact of three different control devices and two visualization methods on the precision, safety and ergonomics of a new medical robotic system prototype for assistive laser phonomicrosurgery. This system allows the user to remotely control the surgical laser beam using either a flight simulator type joystick, a joypad, or a pen display system in order to improve the traditional surgical setup composed by a mechanical micromanipulator coupled with a surgical microscope. The experimental setup and protocol followed to obtain quantitative performance data from the control devices tested are fully described here. This includes sets of path following evaluation experiments conducted with ten subjects with different skills, for a total of 700 trials. The data analysis method and experimental results are also presented, demonstrating an average 45% error reduction when using the joypad and up to 60% error reduction when using the pen display system versus the standard phonomicrosurgery setup. These results demonstrate the new system can provide important improvements in terms of surgical precision, ergonomics and safety. In addition, the evaluation method presented here is shown to support an objective selection of control devices for this application. PMID:22256043

Dagnino, Giulio; Mattos, Leonardo S; Becattini, Gabriele; Dellepiane, Massimo; Caldwell, Darwin G

2011-01-01

86

Primary User Emulation Attacks Analysis for Cognitive Radio Networks Communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cognitive Radio Network is an effective technology and a hot research direction which can solve the problem of deficient resource and revolutionize utilization. And its safety technology attracts more and more researches. Primary user emulation attacks (PUEAs) are typically easy and largely affecting. PUEAs come from both malicious misbehavior secondary users (MMUs) and selfish misbehavior secondary users (SMUs). The former is studied much more deeply than the later one. Distinguishing MMU...

Wang Shan-Shan; Luo Xing-Guo; Li Bai-Nan

2013-01-01

87

Observing Users: An Empirical Analysis of User Interaction with Online Finding Aids  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the results from a usability study of the finding aid Web display at the Southern Historical Collection. The results show that Internet proficiency may be slightly more important than archival expertise when navigating online finding aids, that novice users are able to attain a considerable understanding of finding aids…

Chapman, Joyce Celeste

2010-01-01

88

Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 10) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 20) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author)

89

Methodological proposal for the analysis of user participation mechanisms in online media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of user participation mechanisms, particularly those based in Web 2.0 technologies and applications, based on a sample of fourteen relevant Spanish online media, including the websites of newspapers, radio stations, and television channels. This analysis was conducted in October and November 2010 as part of the research subproject La evolución de los cibermedios en el marco de la convergencia digital. Tecnología y distribución (The evolution of online media in the context of digital convergence. Tecnology and distribution. The study is based on a taxonomy of the different user participation mechanisms, which distinguishes between those that are integrated within the media’s news sections and those that are independent spaces. The analysis also examines the form in which these mechanisms are managed by the media in function of the role they are assigned. Finally, the study aims to compare the different online media and to show examples and trends in the field of user participation.

Jaime Alonso, Ph.D.

2012-01-01

90

Neutron activation analysis-comparative (NAAC)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A software system for the reduction of comparative neutron activation analysis data is presented. Libraries are constructed to contain the elemental composition and isotopic nuclear data of an unlimited number of standards. Ratios to unknown sample data are performed by standard calibrations. Interfering peak corrections, second-order activation-product corrections, and deconvolution of multiplets are applied automatically. Passive gamma-energy analysis can be performed with the same software. 3 figures

91

Analysis of Factors for Incorporating User Preferences in Air Traffic Management: A system Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an analysis of factors that impact user flight schedules during air traffic congestion. In pre-departure flight planning, users file one route per flight, which often leads to increased delays, inefficient airspace utilization, and exclusion of user flight preferences. In this paper, first the idea of filing alternate routes and providing priorities on each of those routes is introduced. Then, the impact of varying planning interval and system imposed departure delay increment is discussed. The metrics of total delay and equity are used for analyzing the impact of these factors on increased traffic and on different users. The results are shown for four cases, with and without the optional routes and priority assignments. Results demonstrate that adding priorities to optional routes further improves system performance compared to filing one route per flight and using first-come first-served scheme. It was also observed that a two-hour planning interval with a five-minute system imposed departure delay increment results in highest delay reduction. The trend holds for a scenario with increased traffic.

Sheth, Kapil S.; Gutierrez-Nolasco, Sebastian

2010-01-01

92

Analysis of Users Web Browsing Behavior Using Markov chain Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In present days of growing information technology, many browsers available for surfing and web mining. A user has option to use any of them at a time to mine out the desired website. Every browser has pre-defined level of popularity and reputation in the market. This paper considers the setup of only two browsers in a computer system and a user prefers to any one, if fails, switches to the other one .The behavior of user is modeled through Markov chain procedure and transition probabilities are calculated. The quitting to browsing is treated as a parameter of variation over the popularity. Graphical study is performed to explain the inter relationship between user behavior parameters and browser market popularity parameters. If rate of a company is lowest in terms of browser failure and lowest in terms of quitting probability then company enjoys better popularity and larger user proportion

Diwakar Shukla

2011-03-01

93

Analysis of Mobile Users’ Perception towards SMS Voting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voting through Short Message Service (SMS technology is fast and reliable as the mobile technology in Malaysia is quite advanced. Most of the SMS voting mechanism is easily understood by the public. There is no need to explain the voting process in detail as almost 80% of the mobile users know how to use the SMS service. SMS voting is just another way of sending a vote to the recipient by using short code instead of using a normal mobile number. SMS voting provides a useful, secure and reliable process as mobile users are informed of the charges incurred and receive a return SMS to acknowledge that their SMS vote has been received. The objective of this study is to study the characteristics of SMS voting adopters in terms of demographic factors as well as to explore the mobile users’ perception towards SMS voting. A survey using questionnaires was conducted to gain information and opinions from a convenience sample of 300 Malaysian mobile users regarding their perceptions on using SMS to vote. The findings revealed that approximately two-thirds of the Malay respondents use SMS voting, most mobile users in the sample are single and female, and that mobile users like to send their votes using SMS. There is a significant difference between the usage of SMS voting among female respondents. Of the respondents 80 per cent perceive that the ease of use factor has greatly influenced mobile users in using SMS for voting purposes.

Ali Hussein Saleh Zolait

2008-12-01

94

Analysis of the Navigation Behavior of the Users' using Grey Relational Pattern Analysis with Markov Chains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally user page visits are sequential in nature. The large number of Web pages on many Web sites has raised navigational problems. Markov chains have been used to model user sequential navigational behavior on the World Wide Web (WWW.The enormous growth in the number of documents in the WWW increases the need for improved link navigation and path analysis models. Link prediction and path analysis are important problems with a wide range of applications ranging from personalization to websites. The complete size of the WWW coupled with the variation in users' navigation patterns makes this a very difficult sequence modeling problem. This paper generalizes the concept of grey relational analysis to develop a technique, called grey relational pattern analysis associated with Markov chains for sequential web data, for analyzing the similarity between given patterns. Based on this technique, a clustering algorithm” Grey Clustering algorithm for Sequential Data” is proposed to finding cluster of a given data set .The problem of determining the optimal number of clusters . We develop an evaluationframework in which the Sum of Squared Error (SSE is calculated to get the efficiency of proposed algorithm. The analyzed behavior of the users used in application areas for Web usage mining Personalization, System Improvement, Site Modification, Business Intelligence, and Usage Characterization.

BINDU MADHURI .Ch,

2010-10-01

95

Comparative Analysis on Constitutional Supervision Modes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Constitution is the fundamental law of a nation and also the general regulations on administering state affairs and ensuring national security. This is why constitutional supervision is so important for a country. However, there are still many problems existing under the supervision mechanism regarding to its operability, materiality, and rationality. This paper tries to give proper suggestions on perfecting Chinese constitutional supervision through comparative analysis and other countries’ advanced experiences.

Key words: Constitutional supervision modes; Comparative study

Wenjing WANG

2012-11-01

96

Command Analysis of End-users in Online Searching  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this artic1e is to analyze the searching behavior of end-users. The subjects are real end-users from National Taiwan University. This article uses the DIALOG command language as its searching tool. It attempts to analyze the commands used in online searching environment and to provide some basic statistic data for use studies.[Article content in Chinese

Mu-hsuan Huan

1996-12-01

97

Social bookmarking: an empirical analysis of connotea users’ perspectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the perspectives of experienced and inexperienced users of Connotea in terms of reported bookmarking behaviors, perceived usefulness of social bookmarking in information discovery and management, and perceived usefulness of particular Connotea features. A convenience sample of experienced (n=30) and inexperienced users (n=32) responded to an online survey. The questionnaire utilized a 4-point Likert scale to examine the respondents’ opinions. The findings showed that bot...

Gorman, Ge; Du, Hs; Chu, Skw

2010-01-01

98

Web User Behavior Analysis Using Improved Naïve Bayes Prediction Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the continued growth and proliferation of Web services and Web based information systems, the volumes of user data have reached astronomical proportions. Analyzing such data using Web Usage Mining can help to determine the visiting interests or needs of the web user. As web log is incremental in nature, it becomes a crucial issue to predict exactly the ways how users browse websites. It is necessary for web miners to use predictive mining techniques to filter the unwanted categories for reducing the operational scope. Markov models& its variations have also been used to analyze web navigation behavior of users. A user's web link transition on a particular website can be modeled using first, second-order or higher-order Markov models and can be used to make predictions regarding future navigation and to personalize the web page for an individual user. All higher order Markov model holds the promise of achieving higher prediction accuracies, improved coverage than any single-order Markov model but holds high state space complexity. Hence a Hybrid Markov Model is required to improve the operation performance and prediction accuracy significantly. Markov model is assumed to be a probability model by which users’ browsing behaviors can be predicted at category level. Bayesian theorem can also be applied to present and infer users’ browsing behaviors at webpage level. In this research, Markov models and Bayesian theorem are combined and a two-level prediction model is designed. By the Markov Model, the system can effectively filter the possible category of the websites and Bayesian theorem will help to predict websites accuracy. The experiments will show that our provided model has noble hit ratio for prediction.

B.Harindra Varma

2013-11-01

99

SALOME. Software for the analysis of lines or multiplets from Extrap. User's guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This user's guide describes the centre piece of spectral analysis programs for Extrap-T1. The method for spectral analysis is presented theoretically. It also presents the actual use of the program PROBESCHUSS and how to work on the multiplet library. The present user's guide is about PROBESCHUSS 2.1 and MULTIFIT 2.0. 7 figs, 5 appendices

100

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRESS OF COMPETITIVE ORGANIZATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we examined the scope for coping with stress levels of the organization. We focused on the evaluation of stress in the Slovenian company A and consequently carried out a comparative analysis to model stress in relation to work with competing company in Italy. Initially, we presented the problem of stress, types of stress effects of stress, stres causes, consequences of stress, ways of management and accounting information relating to the work and stress. We have deepened th...

Kolic?, Marina

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparative analysis of the Borrelia garinii genome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three members of the genus Borrelia (B.burgdorferi, B.garinii, B.afzelii) cause tick-borne borreliosis. Depending on the Borrelia species involved, the borreliosis differs in its clinical symptoms. Comparative genomics opens up a way to elucidate the underlying differences in Borrelia species. We analysed a low redundancy whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly of a B.garinii strain isolated from a patient with neuroborreliosis in comparison to the B.burgdorferi genome. This analysis reveals that...

Glo?ckner, G.; Lehmann, R.; Romualdi, A.; Pradella, S.; Schulte-spechtel, U.; Schilhabel, M.; Wilske, B.; Su?hnel, J.; Platzer, M.

2004-01-01

102

Comparative promoter region analysis powered by CORG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoters are key players in gene regulation. They receive signals from various sources (e.g. cell surface receptors and control the level of transcription initiation, which largely determines gene expression. In vertebrates, transcription start sites and surrounding regulatory elements are often poorly defined. To support promoter analysis, we present CORG http://corg.molgen.mpg.de, a framework for studying upstream regions including untranslated exons (5' UTR. Description The automated annotation of promoter regions integrates information of two kinds. First, statistically significant cross-species conservation within upstream regions of orthologous genes is detected. Pairwise as well as multiple sequence comparisons are computed. Second, binding site descriptions (position-weight matrices are employed to predict conserved regulatory elements with a novel approach. Assembled EST sequences and verified transcription start sites are incorporated to distinguish exonic from other sequences. As of now, we have included 5 species in our analysis pipeline (man, mouse, rat, fugu and zebrafish. We characterized promoter regions of 16,127 groups of orthologous genes. All data are presented in an intuitive way via our web site. Users are free to export data for single genes or access larger data sets via our DAS server http://tomcat.molgen.mpg.de:8080/das. The benefits of our framework are exemplarily shown in the context of phylogenetic profiling of transcription factor binding sites and detection of microRNAs close to transcription start sites of our gene set. Conclusion The CORG platform is a versatile tool to support analyses of gene regulation in vertebrate promoter regions. Applications for CORG cover a broad range from studying evolution of DNA binding sites and promoter constitution to the discovery of new regulatory sequence elements (e.g. microRNAs and binding sites.

Arndt Peter F

2005-02-01

103

Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.

Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas

104

Weighted regression analysis for comparing varietal adaptation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The normally used joint linear regression analysis (OLS) is not appropriate for comparing estimates of stability parameters of varieties when the error variances of site means are heterogeneous. Weighted regression analysis (WLS), in these situations, yields more precise estimates of stability parameters. A comparison of the two analytical methods using the grain yield (kg ha(-1)) data of 12 varieties and one hybrid of pearl millet [Pennisetum typhoides (Burm.) S. & H.], tested at 26 sites in India, revealed that the weighted regression analysis yields more efficient estimates of regression coefficients (b i ) than the ordinary regression analysis, and that the standard errors of b i values were reduced by up to 43%. The estimated b i differed with the two procedures. The number of varieties with b i ssignificantly deviating from unity was not only more (five varieties) with weighted regression analysis than the ordinary regression analysis (one variety), but the classification of varieties as possessing general or specific adaptation differed with the two procedures. PMID:24221324

Virk, D S; Virk, P S; Mangat, B K; Harinarayana, G

1991-04-01

105

Application of Java Technology in the Regional Comparative Advantage Analysis System of Main Grain in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Since no comparative advantage analysis system developed for agricultural products in China counties, this paper discussed how to use comparative advantage theory and Java language to design regional main grain comparative advantage analysis system. The system applies comparative advantage index calculation method to rapidly provide users with relevant data and analysis of grain production comparative advantage in difference region .For future extension, It not only ensures system and data safety but also makes the system run on internet and any computer with Java Virtual Machine.

Yan, Xue; Zhu, Yeping

106

Data oriented job submission scheme for the PHENIX user analysis in CCJ  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RIKEN Computing Center in Japan (CCJ) has been developed to make it possible analyzing huge amount of data corrected by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The corrected raw data or reconstructed data are transferred via SINET3 with 10 Gbps bandwidth from Brookheaven National Laboratory (BNL) by using GridFTP. The transferred data are once stored in the hierarchical storage management system (HPSS) prior to the user analysis. Since the size of data grows steadily year by year, concentrations of the access request to data servers become one of the serious bottlenecks. To eliminate this I/O bound problem, 18 calculating nodes with total 180 TB local disks were introduced to store the data a priori. We added some setup in a batch job scheduler (LSF) so that user can specify the requiring data already distributed to the local disks. The locations of data are automatically obtained from a database, and jobs are dispatched to the appropriate node which has the required data. To avoid the multiple access to a local disk from several jobs in a node, techniques of lock file and access control list are employed. As a result, each job can handle a local disk exclusively. Indeed, the total throughput was improved drastically as compared to the preexisting nodes in CCJ, and users can analyze about 150 TB data within 9 hours. We report this successful job submission scheme and the feature of the PC cluster.

107

Research on Analysis of Hindi language Graphical user Interface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interface between humans and computers is an ever critical issue due to the increased complexity of computerized systems and the wide variety of problems they solve. Controlled natural languages might prove a promising medium between humans and computers, however, they are not easy to design, and humans need time to adapt to them. Authors propose to solve these issues by using a controlled user interface which is powered by an automatically constructed application-oriented natural language. Therefore, any interface in Hindi language will be an asset to these people. This paper discusses the architecture of mapping the Hindi language query entered by the user into SQL query.

Ms. Nikita Bhati

2014-08-01

108

[Comparative analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus natural isolates].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis is performed of the polymorphism of the Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kumm naturally occurring strains isolated from the natural substrates found in two geographically remote Russian natural preserves, the Central Arboreal Biosphere Tver State Preserve (CABTSP) and the Moscow State University Zvenigorod Biological Station (ZBS, Moscow oblast), and within the city of Moscow. The results of the frequency analysis for the isozyme loci alleles and for the sexual and vegetative incompatibility groups are presented; the genetic structure and the interpopulation relations among 58 P. ostreatus dikaryotic strains are estimated. The natural samples from the Moscow and Tver oblasts are shown to have a high degree of polymorphism with a genetic differentiation of 0.743; in spite of their territorial remoteness, they are, however, actively exchanging genetic material. The natural fungal isolates form two reproductively isolated groups. PMID:15938400

Shtaer, O V; Belokon', Iu S; Belokon', M M; Shnyreva, A V

2005-01-01

109

Comparative Analysis of Virtual Education Applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research was conducted in order to make comparative analysis of virtual education applications. The research is conducted in survey model. The study group consists of total 300 institutes providing virtual education in the fall, spring and summer semesters of 2004; 246 in USA, 10 in Australia, 3 in South Africa, 10 in India, 21 in UK, 6 in Japan, 4 in Turkey. The information has been collected by online questionnaire sent to the target mass by e-mail. The questionnaire has been developed ...

Kurt, Mehmet

2006-01-01

110

A comparative dynamical analysis of Hebrew texts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three Hebrew texts, one of them the Hebrew bible, are investigated using dynamical analysis. First, the average mutual information for each of the texts is determined. The first minimum occurs at T=3 in all three cases, suggesting that 3-letter words are sufficient to study the dynamical properties of the texts. Using 3-letter words as the state space for each of the text, we construct a Markov chain model and compute the relative measure–theoretic entropy for each of the texts and use this tool as a means of comparing the information content of the three texts.

Pawel Góra

1999-01-01

111

Performance Analysis of Multi User Detectors for Synchronous Ds-Cdma Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Direct sequence code division multiple access(DS-CDMA) is a popular wireless technology. This system suffersfrom Multiple Access Interference (MAI) caused by DirectSequence users and near –far effect. Multi-User Detectionschemes are used to detect the users’ data in presence of MAI andnear- far problem. In this dissertation, we present comparativestudy between linear multiuser detectors and conventional singleuser matched filter in DS-CDMA system. Analysis andsimulations are conducted i...

Krishna Rao, I.; Santhosh Kumar, K.

2012-01-01

112

Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

Johnson, PE

2003-09-18

113

Comparative Genome Analysis in the Integrated Microbial Genomes(IMG) System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comparative genome analysis is critical for the effectiveexploration of a rapidly growing number of complete and draft sequencesfor microbial genomes. The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system(img.jgi.doe.gov) has been developed as a community resource thatprovides support for comparative analysis of microbial genomes in anintegrated context. IMG allows users to navigate the multidimensionalmicrobial genome data space and focus their analysis on a subset ofgenes, genomes, and functions of interest. IMG provides graphicalviewers, summaries and occurrence profile tools for comparing genes,pathways and functions (terms) across specific genomes. Genes can befurther examined using gene neighborhoods and compared with sequencealignment tools.

Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Markowitz, Victor M.

2006-03-01

114

Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Targeted Sampling Methods of Recruiting Injection Drug Users in San Francisco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this article is to compare demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization among injection drug users (IDUs) recruited from two separate studies in San Francisco in 2005, one which used targeted sampling (TS) and the other which used respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were recruited using TS (n?=?651) and RDS (n?=?534) and participated in quantitative interviews that included demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and service utilization...

Kral, Alex H.; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Vaudrey, Jason; Martinez, Alexis N.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Mcfarland, Willi; Raymond, H. Fisher

2010-01-01

115

HORECA. Hoger onderwijs reactor elementary core analysis system. User`s manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

HORECA is developed at IRI Delft for quick analysis of power distribution, burnup and safety for the HOR. It can be used for the manual search of a better loading of the reactor. HORECA is based on the Penn State Fuel Management Package and uses the MCRAC code included in this package as a calculation engine. (orig./HP).

Battum, E. van; Serov, I.V.

1993-07-01

116

Users' manual for fault tree analysis code: CUT-TD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CUT-TD code has been developed to find minimal cut sets for a given fault tree and to calculate the occurrence probability of its top event. This code uses an improved top-down algorithm which can enhance the efficiency in deriving minimal cut sets. The features in processing techniques incorporated into CUT-TD are as follows: (1) Consecutive OR gates or consecutive AND gates can be coalesced into a single gate. As a result, this processing directly produces cut sets for the redefined single gate with each gate not being developed. (2) The independent subtrees are automatically identified and their respective cut sets are separately found to enhance the efficiency in processing. (3) The minimal cut sets can be obtained for the top event of a fault tree by combining their respective minimal cut sets for several gates of the fault tree. (4) The user can reduce the computing time for finding minimal cut sets and control the size and significance of cut sets by inputting a minimum probability cut off and/or a maximum order cut off. (5) The user can select events that need not to be further developed in the process of obtaining minimal cut sets. This option can reduce the number of minimal cut sets, save the computing time and assists the user in reviewing the result. (6) Computing time is monitored by the CUT-TD code so that it can prevent the running job from abnormally ending due to excessive CPU time and produce an intermediate result. The CUT-TD code has the ability to restart the calculation with use of the intermediate result. This report provides a users' manual for the CUT-TD code. (author)

117

Analysis of telephone network traffic based on a complex user network  

CERN Document Server

The traffic in telephone networks is analyzed in this paper. Unlike the classical traffic analysis where call blockings are due to the limited channel capacity, we consider here a more realistic cause for call blockings which is due to the way in which users are networked in a real-life human society. Furthermore, two kinds of user network, namely, the fully-connected user network and the scale-free network, are employed to model the way in which telephone users are connected. We show that the blocking probability is generally higher in the case of the scale-free user network, and that the carried traffic intensity is practically limited not only by the network capacity but also by the property of the user network.

Xia, Y; Small, M; Tam, W M; Tse, C K; Lau, Francis C. M.; Small, Michael; Tam, Wai Man; Tse, Chi K.; Xia, Yongxiang

2006-01-01

118

Detailed description and user`s manual of high burnup fuel analysis code EXBURN-I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

EXBURN-I has been developed for the analysis of LWR high burnup fuel behavior in normal operation and power transient conditions. In the high burnup region, phenomena occur which are different in quality from those expected for the extension of behaviors in the mid-burnup region. To analyze these phenomena, EXBURN-I has been formed by the incorporation of such new models as pellet thermal conductivity change, burnup-dependent FP gas release rate, and cladding oxide layer growth to the basic structure of low- and mid-burnup fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV. The present report describes in detail the whole structure of the code, models, and materials properties. Also, it includes a detailed input manual and sample output, etc. (author). 55 refs.

Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

1997-11-01

119

Compare containment subcompartment analysis code evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant subcompartment analyses are required to determine the containment pressure distribution that might result from a loss-of-coolant accident. The pressure distribution is used to calculate structural and mechanical design loads. The COMPARE code is used widely to perform subcompartment analysis. However, several simplifying assumptions are utilized to facilitate solution of the complex transient, two-phase, multidimensional flow problem. In particular, it is assumed that the flow is homogeneous, in thermodynamic equilibrium, and one-dimensional. In this study, these assumptions are evaluated by performing simplified transport and relaxation analyses. This results in definition of (a) geometric features and early-time periods that produce significant deviations from reality and (b) specific areas that require further study

120

Comparative Analysis on Visual Cryptographic Schemes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual cryptography is the techniques that deal with providing security to the multimedia data. The main concept behind this is, to encrypt a secret image into some shares. The secret can be revealed only when all the shares are combined. The central theme of visual cryptography is that it doesn’t require any manipulation or tough cryptographic knowledge and the decryption is done by human vision without the help of computers. Thus, visual cryptography is known for its least computational complexity yet much secure. In this work, we compared traditional visual cryptography, extended visual cryptography and colour extended cryptography with respect to PSNR, NCC and MSE. On analysis, it is found that the performance of colour extended visual cryptography is much better than the traditional visual cryptography and extended visual cryptography, in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Normalized Correlation Coefficient (NCC and Mean Square Error (MSE.

T. Anuradha

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

SYNCH: A program for design and analysis of synchrotrons and beamlines -- user`s guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SYNCH is a computer program for use in the design and analysis of synchrotrons, storage rings, and beamlines. It has a large repertoire of commands that can be accessed in a flexible way. The input statements and the results of the calculations they invoke are saved in an internal database so that this information may be shared by other statements. SYNCH is the first accelerator program to organize its input in the form of a language. The statements, which resemble sentences, provide a natural way of describing lattices and invoking relevant calculations. The organization of the program is modular, so that it has been possible to expand its capabilities progressively.

Garren, A.A.; Kenney, A.S.; Courant, E.D.; Russell, A.D.; Syphers, M.J.

1993-12-31

122

Comparative Analysis of Competitive Strategy Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents research findings on Competitive Strategy Implementation which compared the levels of strategy implementation achieved by different generic strategy groups, comprising firms inclined towards low cost leadership, differentiation or dual strategic advantage.  The study sought to determine the preferences for use of implementation armaments and compared how such armaments related to the level of implementation achieved.   Respondents comprised 71 top executives from 59 companies among the top 300 private sector firms in Kenya.  SPSS software was used to conduct t-test, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis, to within 95% confidence interval or 5% statistical significance. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the levels of strategy implementation achieved by any pair set of the three strategic groups.  The study revealed that the predictors of strategy implementation include the firm’s capacity to overcome resistance to change, having incentives based on meeting strictly quantitative targets, adopting a win-lose competitive posture, its effectiveness in strategy implementation, and the environmental rate of change.  The results also indicated that there was no significant difference between the preferences for use of either win-lose or win-win competition by any pair set of the strategic groups. 

Maina A. S. Waweru

2011-09-01

123

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07

124

Synfuel program analysis. Volume 2: VENVAL users manual  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume is intended for program analysts and is a users manual for the VENVAL model. It contains specific explanations as to input data requirements and programming procedures for the use of this model. VENVAL is a generalized computer program to aid in evaluation of prospective private sector production ventures. The program can project interrelated values of installed capacity, production, sales revenue, operating costs, depreciation, investment, dent, earnings, taxes, return on investment, depletion, and cash flow measures. It can also compute related public sector and other external costs and revenues if unit costs are furnished.

Muddiman, J. B.; Whelan, J. W.

1980-07-01

125

Chronic illness and multimorbidity among problem drug users: a comparative cross sectional pilot study in primary care.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Although multimorbidity has important implications for patient care in general practice, limited research has examined chronic illness and health service utilisation among problem drug users. This study aimed to determine chronic illness prevalence and health service utilisation among problem drug users attending primary care for methadone treatment, to compare these rates with matched \\'controls\\' and to develop and pilot test a valid study instrument. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients attending three large urban general practices in Dublin, Ireland for methadone treatment was conducted, and this sample was compared with a control group matched by practice, age, gender and General Medical Services (GMS) status. RESULTS: Data were collected on 114 patients. Fifty-seven patients were on methadone treatment, of whom 52(91%) had at least one chronic illness (other then substance use) and 39(68%) were prescribed at least one regular medication. Frequent utilisation of primary care services and secondary care services in the previous six months was observed among patients on methadone treatment and controls, although the former had significantly higher chronic illness prevalence and primary care contact rates. The study instrument facilitated data collection that was feasible and with minimal inter-observer variation. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity is common among problem drug users attending general practice for methadone treatment. Primary care may therefore have an important role in primary and secondary prevention of chronic illnesses among this population. This study offers a feasible study instrument for further work on this issue. (238 words).

Cullen, Walter

2009-01-01

126

Chronic illness and multimorbidity among problem drug users: a comparative cross sectional pilot study in primary care.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Although multimorbidity has important implications for patient care in general practice, limited research has examined chronic illness and health service utilisation among problem drug users. This study aimed to determine chronic illness prevalence and health service utilisation among problem drug users attending primary care for methadone treatment, to compare these rates with matched \\'controls\\' and to develop and pilot test a valid study instrument. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of patients attending three large urban general practices in Dublin, Ireland for methadone treatment was conducted, and this sample was compared with a control group matched by practice, age, gender and General Medical Services (GMS) status. RESULTS: Data were collected on 114 patients. Fifty-seven patients were on methadone treatment, of whom 52(91%) had at least one chronic illness (other then substance use) and 39(68%) were prescribed at least one regular medication. Frequent utilisation of primary care services and secondary care services in the previous six months was observed among patients on methadone treatment and controls, although the former had significantly higher chronic illness prevalence and primary care contact rates. The study instrument facilitated data collection that was feasible and with minimal inter-observer variation. CONCLUSION: Multimorbidity is common among problem drug users attending general practice for methadone treatment. Primary care may therefore have an important role in primary and secondary prevention of chronic illnesses among this population. This study offers a feasible study instrument for further work on this issue. (238 words).

Cullen, Walter

2012-02-01

127

Dashboard Task Monitor for Managing ATLAS User Analysis on the Grid  

Science.gov (United States)

The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is independent of the operating system and Grid environment. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

Sargsyan, L.; Andreeva, J.; Jha, M.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Saiz, P.; Schovancova, J.; Tuckett, D.; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

128

Dashboard Task Monitor for managing ATLAS user analysis on the Grid  

CERN Document Server

The organization of the distributed user analysis on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) infrastructure is one of the most challenging tasks among the computing activities at the Large Hadron Collider. The Experiment Dashboard offers a solution that not only monitors but also manages (kill, resubmit) user tasks and jobs via a web interface. The ATLAS Dashboard Task Monitor provides analysis users with a tool that is operating system and GRID environment independent. This contribution describes the functionality of the application and its implementation details, in particular authentication, authorization and audit of the management operations.

Sargsyan, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Jha, M; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Saiz, P; Schovancova, J; Tuckett, D

2013-01-01

129

ST-analyzer: a web-based user interface for simulation trajectory analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become one of the key tools to obtain deeper insights into biological systems using various levels of descriptions such as all-atom, united-atom, and coarse-grained models. Recent advances in computing resources and MD programs have significantly accelerated the simulation time and thus increased the amount of trajectory data. Although many laboratories routinely perform MD simulations, analyzing MD trajectories is still time consuming and often a difficult task. ST-analyzer, http://im.bioinformatics.ku.edu/st-analyzer, is a standalone graphical user interface (GUI) toolset to perform various trajectory analyses. ST-analyzer has several outstanding features compared to other existing analysis tools: (i) handling various formats of trajectory files from MD programs, such as CHARMM, NAMD, GROMACS, and Amber, (ii) intuitive web-based GUI environment--minimizing administrative load and reducing burdens on the user from adapting new software environments, (iii) platform independent design--working with any existing operating system, (iv) easy integration into job queuing systems--providing options of batch processing either on the cluster or in an interactive mode, and (v) providing independence between foreground GUI and background modules--making it easier to add personal modules or to recycle/integrate pre-existing scripts utilizing other analysis tools. The current ST-analyzer contains nine main analysis modules that together contain 18 options, including density profile, lipid deuterium order parameters, surface area per lipid, and membrane hydrophobic thickness. This article introduces ST-analyzer with its design, implementation, and features, and also illustrates practical analysis of lipid bilayer simulations. PMID:24638223

Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jo, Sunhwan; Wu, Emilia L; Qi, Yifei; Monje-Galvan, Viviana; Yeom, Min Sun; Gorenstein, Lev; Chen, Feng; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

2014-05-01

130

Comparative genomic analysis of prion genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The homologues of human disease genes are expected to contribute to better understanding of physiological and pathogenic processes. We made use of the present availability of vertebrate genomic sequences, and we have conducted the most comprehensive comparative genomic analysis of the prion protein gene PRNP and its homologues, shadow of prion protein gene SPRN and doppel gene PRND, and prion testis-specific gene PRNT so far. Results While the SPRN and PRNP homologues are present in all vertebrates, PRND is known in tetrapods, and PRNT is present in primates. PRNT could be viewed as a TE-associated gene. Using human as the base sequence for genomic sequence comparisons (VISTA, we annotated numerous potential cis-elements. The conserved regions in SPRNs harbour the potential Sp1 sites in promoters (mammals, birds, C-rich intron splicing enhancers and PTB intron splicing silencers in introns (mammals, birds, and hsa-miR-34a sites in 3'-UTRs (eutherians. We showed the conserved PRNP upstream regions, which may be potential enhancers or silencers (primates, dog. In the PRNP 3'-UTRs, there are conserved cytoplasmic polyadenylation element sites (mammals, birds. The PRND core promoters include highly conserved CCAAT, CArG and TATA boxes (mammals. We deduced 42 new protein primary structures, and performed the first phylogenetic analysis of all vertebrate prion genes. Using the protein alignment which included 122 sequences, we constructed the neighbour-joining tree which showed four major clusters, including shadoos, shadoo2s and prion protein-likes (cluster 1, fish prion proteins (cluster 2, tetrapode prion proteins (cluster 3 and doppels (cluster 4. We showed that the entire prion protein conformationally plastic region is well conserved between eutherian prion proteins and shadoos (18–25% identity and 28–34% similarity, and there could be a potential structural compatibility between shadoos and the left-handed parallel beta-helical fold. Conclusion It is likely that the conserved genomic elements identified in this analysis represent bona fide cis-elements. However, this idea needs to be confirmed by functional assays in transgenic systems.

Gamulin Vera

2007-01-01

131

Comparative analysis of haplotype association mapping algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding the genetic causes of quantitative traits is a complex and difficult task. Classical methods for mapping quantitative trail loci (QTL in miceuse an F2 cross between two strains with substantially different phenotype and an interval mapping method to compute confidence intervals at each position in the genome. This process requires significant resources for breeding and genotyping, and the data generated are usually only applicable to one phenotype of interest. Recently, we reported the application of a haplotype association mapping method which utilizes dense genotyping data across a diverse panel of inbred mouse strains and a marker association algorithm that is independent of any specific phenotype. As the availability of genotyping data grows in size and density, analysis of these haplotype association mapping methods should be of increasing value to the statistical genetics community. Results We describe a detailed comparative analysis of variations on our marker association method. In particular, we describe the use of inferred haplotypes from adjacent SNPs, parametric and nonparametric statistics, and control of multiple testing error. These results show that nonparametric methods are slightly better in the test cases we study, although the choice of test statistic may often be dependent on the specific phenotype and haplotype structure being studied. The use of multi-SNP windows to infer local haplotype structure is critical to the use of a diverse panel of inbred strains for QTL mapping. Finally, because the marginal effect of any single gene in a complex disease is often relatively small, these methods require the use of sensitive methods for controlling family-wise error. We also report our initial application of this method to phenotypes cataloged in the Mouse Phenome Database. Conclusion The use of inbred strains of mice for QTL mapping has many advantages over traditional methods. However, there are also limitations in comparison to the traditional linkage analysis from F2 and RI lines. Application of these methods requires careful consideration of algorithmic choices based on both theoretical and practical factors. Our findings suggest general guidelines, though a complete evaluation of these methods can only be performed as more genetic data in complex diseases becomes available.

Pletcher Mathew T

2006-02-01

132

Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

133

A Comparative Analysis on Mining Frequent Itemsets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research on mining frequent itemsets is one of ` the emerging task in data mining.The purchasing of one product when another product is purchased represents an association rule. Association rules are useful for analyzing the customer behavior. It takes an important part in shopping basket data analysis, clustering. The FP-Growth and Apriori algorithm is the basic algorithm for mining association rules. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for mining frequent itemsets using Two Dimensional Transactions Reduction(TDTR approach which reduces the original database(D transactions to the reduced data base transactions D1 based on the min_sup count. Then for each item it finds the number of transactions that the item present and hence find the largest frequent itemset using the two dimensional approach. Using the largest item set property ,it finds the subset of frequent item sets. Thus TDTR approach reduces the number of scans in the database and hence improve the efficiency & accuracy by finding the number of association rules and reduces time to find the rules.This proposed approach compares the efficiency with traditional Apriori and FP-Growth algorithm.

D.Kerana Hanirex

2012-12-01

134

Comparative analysis of safety related site characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents a comparative analysis of site characteristics related to long-term safety for the two candidate sites for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark (municipality of Oesthammar) and in Laxemar (municipality of Oskarshamn) from the point of view of site selection. The analyses are based on the updated site descriptions of Forsmark /SKB 2008a/ and Laxemar /SKB 2009a/, together with associated updated repository layouts and designs /SKB 2008b and SKB 2009b/. The basis for the comparison is thus two equally and thoroughly assessed sites. However, the analyses presented here are focussed on differences between the sites rather than evaluating them in absolute terms. The document serves as a basis for the site selection, from the perspective of long-term safety, in SKB's application for a final repository. A full evaluation of safety is made for a repository at the selected site in the safety assessment SR-Site /SKB 2011/, referred to as SR-Site main report in the following

Andersson, Johan (ed.)

2010-12-15

135

User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

Brijesh Bakariya

2013-11-01

136

Written versus spoken queries: a qualitative and quantitative comparative analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on an experimental study on the differences between spoken and written queries. A set of written and spontaneous spoken queries are generated by users from written topics. These two sets of queries are compared in qualitative terms and in terms of their retrieval effectiveness. Written and spoken queries are compared in terms of length, duration, and part of speech. In addition, assuming perfect transcription of the spoken queries, written and spoken queries are compared in...

Crestani, Fabio; Du, Heather

2009-01-01

137

Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system 2. Part 2: User's manuals  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerodynamic analysis system based on potential theory at subsonic/supersonic speeds and impact type finite element solutions at hypersonic conditions is described. Three dimensional configurations having multiple nonplanar surfaces of arbitrary planform and bodies of noncircular contour may be analyzed. Static, rotary, and control longitudinal and lateral directional chracteristics may be generated. The analysis has been implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Typical simulation indicates that program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

Divan, P.

1981-01-01

138

Textbooks in transitional countries: Towards a methodology for comparative analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In its first part, the paper analyses the ambiguous nature of the book as a medium: its physical production and its distribution to the end user takes place on a market basis; on the other hand, its content is predominantly consumed in a sector that was at least in the continental Europe traditionally considered as public and non-profit making. This ambiguous nature of the book and with it the impact of the market on the organization of knowledge in book format remains a dark spot in contemporary book research. On the other hand, textbooks are considered as ephemera both in contemporary education and book studies. Therefore, research on textbooks publishing models could be considered as a blind-spot of contemporary social studies. As a consequence, in the majority of European countries, textbook publishing and the organization of the textbook market are considered as self-evident. Throughout a comparative analysis of textbook publishing models in small transitional and developed countries, the paper points out that this self-evident organization of the textbook market is always culturally determined. In its final part, the paper compares different models of textbook publishing and outlines the scenarios for the development of the Slovene textbook market.

Miha Kova?

2004-01-01

139

Investigating and Comparing User Experiences of Course Management Systems: Blackboard vs. Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study is to report the results of a comparative usability study conducted in 2008-2009 on two different course management systems (CMS), BlackBoard and Moodle. 135 students enrolled in the fall 2008 and spring 2009 section of Introduction to Educational Technology participated in the study (72 and 63 respectively). At the…

Unal, Zafer; Unal, Aslihan

2014-01-01

140

FusoBase: an online Fusobacterium comparative genomic analysis platform  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusobacterium are anaerobic gram-negative bacteria that have been associated with a wide spectrum of human infections and diseases. As the biology of Fusobacterium is still not well understood, comparative genomic analysis on members of this species will provide further insights on their taxonomy, phylogeny, pathogenicity and other information that may contribute to better management of infections and diseases. To facilitate the ongoing genomic research on Fusobacterium, a specialized database with easy-to-use analysis tools is necessary. Here we present FusoBase, an online database providing access to genome-wide annotated sequences of Fusobacterium strains as well as bioinformatics tools, to support the expanding scientific community. Using our custom-developed Pairwise Genome Comparison tool, we demonstrate how differences between two user-defined genomes and how insertion of putative prophages can be identified. In addition, Pathogenomics Profiling Tool is capable of clustering predicted genes across Fusobacterium strains and visualizing the results in the form of a heat map with dendrogram. Database URL: http://fusobacterium.um.edu.my. PMID:25149689

Ang, Mia Yang; Heydari, Hamed; Jakubovics, Nick S.; Mahmud, Mahafizul Imran; Dutta, Avirup; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah; Mutha, Naresh V.R.; Tan, Shi Yang; Choo, Siew Woh

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

AUDITOR ROTATION - A CRITICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper starts out from the challenge regarding auditor tenure launched in 2010 by the Green Paper of the European Commission Audit Policy: Lessons from the Crisis. According to this document, the European Commission speaks both in favor of the mandatory rotation of the audit firm, and in favor of the mandatory rotation of audit partners. Rotation is considered a solution to mitigate threats to independence generated by familiarity, intimidation and self-interest in the context of a long-term audit-client relationship. At international level, there are several studies on auditor rotation, both empirical (e.g. Lu and Sivaramakrishnan, 2009, Li, 2010, Kaplan and Mauldin, 2008, Jackson et al., 2008 and normative in nature (e.g. Marten et al., 2007, Muller, 2006 and Gelter, 2004. The objective of the present paper is to perform a critical and comparative analysis of the regulations on internal and external rotation in force at international level, in the European Union and in the United States of America. Moreover, arguments both in favor and against mandatory rotation are brought into discussion. With regard to the research design, the paper has a normative approach. The main findings are first of all that by comparison, all regulatory authorities require internal rotation at least in the case of public interest entities, while the external rotation is not in the focus of the regulators. In general, the most strict and detailed requirements are those issued by the Securities and Exchange Commission from the United States of America. Second of all, in favor of mandatory rotation speaks the fact that the auditor becomes less resilient in case of divergence of opinions between him and company management, less stimulated to follow his own interest, and more scrupulous in conducting the audit. However, mandatory rotation may also have negative consequences, thus the debate on the opportunity of this regulatory measure remains open-ended.

Mocanu Mihaela

2011-12-01

142

A comparative 2D modeling of debris-flow propagation and outcomes for end-users  

Science.gov (United States)

In Alpine regions gravity-driven natural hazards, in particular debris flows, endanger settlements and human life. Mitigation strategies based on hazard maps are necessary tools for land planning. These maps can be made more precise by using numerical models to forecasting the inundated areas after a careful setting of those 'key parameters' (K-P) which directly affect the flow motion and its interaction with the ground surface. Several physically based 2D models are available for practitioners and governmental agencies, but the selection criteria of model type and of the related K-P remain flexible and partly subjective. This remark has driven us to investigate how different models simulate different types of debris flows (from granular to muddy debris flows, going through intermediate types), in particular when the flow is influenced by the presence of deposition basins. Two commercial 2D physical models (RAMMS and FLO-2D) have been tested for five well-documented debris flows events from five Italian catchments were different geology and flow dynamics are observed: 1) a viscous debris flow occurred in 2009 in a catchment with a metamorphic geology (Gadria torrent, Bolzano Province); 2) the 2009 granular debris flow in an granitic geological setting (Rio Dosson, Trento Province); 3-4) two events occurred in the 'rio Val del Lago' and 'rio Molinara' (Trento Province) in 2010 where porphyritic lithology prevails (intermediate granular debris flow); 5) the Rotolon torrent (Vicenza Province) 2009 debris flow containing sedimentary rocks enclosed in an abundant clay-rich matrix (intermediate viscous case). Event volumes range from 5.000 to 50.000 cubic meters. The Gadria, Rotolon and Val del Lago events are also influenced by artificial retention basins. Case study simulations allowed delineation of some practical end-user suggestions and good practices in order to guide the model choice and the K-P setting, particularly related to different flow dynamics. The presence of mitigation structures (e.g. check dams and retention basins) demands both the implementation of a precise topography and the introduction of devices to better model sediment trapping and functionality of open/closed check dams. The study results represent: i) a first support for practitioners to directly manage debris-flow simulations; ii) an help for local authorities to give the right value to simulations carried out by practitioners and scientific community; iii) a warning that hazard maps should not be based just on model simulation results.

Bettella, F.; Bertoldi, G.; Pozza, E.; McArdell, B. W.; D'Agostino, V.

2012-04-01

143

Vegetation Change Analysis User's Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Diagnostic techniques are needed to identify thresholds of sustainable military use. A cooperative effort among U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense, and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on developing new techniques for monitoring and mitigating military impacts in arid lands. This manual focuses on the development of new monitoring techniques that have been implemented at Fort Irwin, California. New mitigation techniques are described in a separate companion manual. This User's Manual is designed to address diagnostic capabilities needed to distinguish between various degrees of sustainable and nonsustainable impacts due to military training and testing and habitat-disturbing activities in desert ecosystems. Techniques described here focus on the use of high-resolution imagery and the application of image-processing techniques developed primarily for medical research. A discussion is provided about the measurement of plant biomass and shrub canopy cover in arid. lands using conventional methods. Both semiquantitative methods and quantitative methods are discussed and reference to current literature is provided. A background about the use of digital imagery to measure vegetation is presented.

D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

2002-10-01

144

Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user`s manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

Suzuki, Motoe [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Saitou, Hiroaki

1997-11-01

145

Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge. For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2008-01-01

146

Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge. For the society (and the user's) it is therefore of great importance that maintenance or replacement of a bridge is performed in such a way that all costs are minimized - not only the owners cost.

Thoft-christensen, Palle

2009-01-01

147

FACTOR ANALYSIS OF USERS PREFERENCE ATTRIBUTES IN USING WEB OPAC IN ACADEMIC LIBRARY: A SURVEY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of the acceptance andpreference attributes of Web-Opac services among the users of Gandhi Group ofInstitutions, Odisha, who uses library regularly. Web OPAC is an online public accesscatalogue provides the full description of the library resources through online. In thisstudy Reliability Analysis was conducted for testing the preference of user on Web-Opacfeatures.

MAHENDRA K SAHU

2013-05-01

148

FACTOR ANALYSIS OF USERS PREFERENCE ATTRIBUTES IN USING WEB OPAC IN ACADEMIC LIBRARY: A SURVEY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of the acceptance andpreference attributes of Web-Opac services among the users of Gandhi Group ofInstitutions, Odisha, who uses library regularly. Web OPAC is an online public accesscatalogue provides the full description of the library resources through online. In thisstudy Reliability Analysis was conducted for testing the preference of user on Web-Opacfeatures.

Sahu, Mahendra K.; SIBA PRASAD PANDA

2013-01-01

149

A computational system for aerodynamic design and analysis of supersonic aircraft. Part 2: User's manual  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated system of computer programs was developed for the design and analysis of supersonic configurations. The system uses linearized theory methods for the calculation of surface pressures and supersonic area rule concepts in combination with linearized theory for calculation of aerodynamic force coefficients. Interactive graphics are optional at the user's request. This user's manual contains a description of the system, an explanation of its usage, the input definition, and example output.

Middleton, W. D.; Lundry, J. L.; Coleman, R. G.

1976-01-01

150

A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks  

CERN Document Server

Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture o...

Li, Ming-Xia; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N

2014-01-01

151

Family of users of a psychosocial attention center: a comprehensive analysis in Schütz - preview note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the recent advances reached by Brazilian Psychiatric Reform movement, it becomes important to evaluate the alternative services, amongst them, the Psychosocial Attention Centers (CAPS, in the family of the user’s point of view about these services. Objective: Understanding the perception of the user’s family about a CAPS, concerning to the team work. Methodology: The study follows a qualitative and phenomenological approach. After the approval of the ethics committee, data collection was made in “CAIS Mental Centro” CAPS, in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande do Sul State, during October and November, 2006, with the following guiding question: “Talk about the work of the team of CAIS Mental Centro - Psychosocial Attention Center.” Results: We carried through 13 interviews with the familiars that were more interested in the treatment of the user. Information analysis will be developed according to the comprehensive interpretation, from the following analysis categories: social everyday, intersubjectivity, typification, social relations and social action. So, we will search for the comprehension on how the familiar one experience the work of the team in a CAPS, using as support the phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schütz. Conclusion: We will deepen the analysis later, however, we can stand out that this research will be important because it will be able to contribute for the improvement of the mental health assistance of the users and families that use the CAPS, beyond serving as knowledge source for the construction of possible actions in mental health.

Marcio Wagner Camatta

2007-09-01

152

Family of users of a psychosocial attention center: a comprehensive analysis in Schütz - preview note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the recent advances reached by Brazilian Psychiatric Reform movement, it becomes important to evaluate the alternative services, amongst them, the Psychosocial Attention Centers (CAPS, in the family of the user’s point of view about these services. Objective: Understanding the perception of the user’s family about a CAPS, concerning to the team work. Methodology: The study follows a qualitative and phenomenological approach. After the approval of the ethics committee, data collection was made in “CAIS Mental Centro” CAPS, in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande do Sul State, during October and November, 2006, with the following guiding question: “Talk about the work of the team of CAIS Mental Centro - Psychosocial Attention Center.” Results: We carried through 13 interviews with the familiars that were more interested in the treatment of the user. Information analysis will be developed according to the comprehensive interpretation, from the following analysis categories: social everyday, intersubjectivity, typification, social relations and social action. So, we will search for the comprehension on how the familiar one experience the work of the team in a CAPS, using as support the phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schütz. Conclusion: We will deepen the analysis later, however, we can stand out that this research will be important because it will be able to contribute for the improvement of the mental health assistance of the users and families that use the CAPS, beyond serving as knowledge source for the construction of possible actions in mental health.

Marcio Wagner Camatta

2007-12-01

153

User-oriented summary extraction for soccer video based on multimodal analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

An advanced user-oriented summary extraction method for soccer video is proposed in this work. Firstly, an algorithm of user-oriented summary extraction for soccer video is introduced. A novel approach that integrates multimodal analysis, such as extraction and analysis of the stadium features, moving object features, audio features and text features is introduced. By these features the semantic of the soccer video and the highlight mode are obtained. Then we can find the highlight position and put them together by highlight degrees to obtain the video summary. The experimental results for sports video of world cup soccer games indicate that multimodal analysis is effective for soccer video browsing and retrieval.

Liu, Huayong; Jiang, Shanshan; He, Tingting

2011-11-01

154

CMS Configuration Editor: GUI based application for user analysis job definition  

CERN Document Server

We present the user interface and the software architecture of the Configuration Editor that is used by CMS physicists to configure their physics analysis tasks. Analysis workflows typically involve execution of a sequence of algorithms, and these are implemented as software modules that are integrated within the CMS software framework (CMSSW). In particular, a set of common analysis tools is provided in the so-called CMS Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT) and these need to be steered and configured during the execution of an analysis job. The Python scripting language is used to define the job configuration that drives the analysis workflow. Configuring analysis jobs can be quite a challenging task, particularly for newcomers, and therefore a graphical tool, called the Configuration Editor, has been developed to facilitate the creation and inspection of these configuration files. Typically, a user-defined analysis workflow can be produced starting from a standard configuration file, applying and configuring PAT ...

De Cosa, Annapaola

2010-01-01

155

User's guide for 10 CFR 61 impact analysis codes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document explains how to use the Impact Analysis Codes used in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) (NUREG-0782, Vol. 1-4) supporting 10 CFR 61, Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste. The mathematical development of the impact Analysis Codes and other information necessary to understand the results of using the Codes is contained in the DEIS, and in a supporting document, Data Base for Radioactive Waste Management (NUREG/CR-1759, Vol. 1-3). This document was prepared with the intention of accompanying a computer magnetic tape containing the Impact Analysis Codes. A form is included at the end of this document which can be used to obtain such a tape

156

User's guide for the Reliability Analysis System (RAS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Reliability Analysis System (RAS) is an integrated package of computer programs for the quantification of fault trees. In particular, RAS has the capacity of performing phased mission analysis. RAS is based upon the MOCUS, POCUS, KITT-1, SRTPRN, and COMCAN programs. Mission cut set cancellation and four methods of bounding mission unreliability have been incorporated into RAS. A new cut set algorithm, FATRAM, is also included in RAS. RAS is written for the CDC Cyber-76 computer system and utilizes external storage devices. The program is available from the Argonne Code Center, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439

157

User Suggestions Extraction from customer Reviews A Sentiment Analysis approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Customer review is a major criterion for the improvement of the quality of services rendered and enhancement of the deliverables. Blogs, articles and discussion forums, provide manufacturers or sellers with a good understanding of the reception level of their products in the competitive market. An interesting area from the business analysis perspective, this paper discusses an opinion based mining technique for the extraction of the relevant data using Natural Language Processing and text analysis, and comprehends suggestions from an actionable feedback.

Vishwanath.J,

2011-03-01

158

A Methodology for Evaluating User Perceptions of the Delivery of ICT Services: a comparative study of six UK local authorities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluating and managing the effective delivery of ICT services is an issue that has been brought into sharper relief recently. This has been particularly prevalent in the UK public sector where the growing emphasis on formalised client-contractor relationships, outsourcing and benchmarking (both between local authorities and between local authorities and private sector organisations has meant that the definition of service standards and agreeing performance criteria has attracted considerable practitioner attention. This research is based on 295 interviews conducted in six UK local authorities. The investigation used both gap analysis and perceptual mapping techniques to develop an understanding of the aspects of ICT service delivery that users' value most in conjunction with an assessment of how well they perceive their ICT department is performing on these criteria. The paper exposes considerable differences in the relative performance of the six local authorities from both the gap analysis and the perceptual mapping elements of the investigation. The methodology is shown to provide an effective way of identifying key performance issues from the user perspective and benchmarking service performance across organisations.

Les Worrall

2000-11-01

159

Human Capital Development: Comparative Analysis of BRICs  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The goal of this article is to conduct macro-level analysis of human capital (HC) development strategies, pursued by four countries commonly referred to as BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China). Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is based on comparisons of macro indices of human capital and innovativeness of the economy and a…

Ardichvili, Alexandre; Zavyalova, Elena; Minina, Vera

2012-01-01

160

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS MODELING SYSTEM (EXAMS): USER MANUAL AND SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) was designed for rapid evaluation of the behavior of synthetic organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems. From the chemistry of a compound and the relevant transport and physical/chemical characteristics of the ecosystem, EXAMS computes...

 
 
 
 
161

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

162

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

163

ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. he model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and...

164

HORECA. Hoger onderwijs reactor elementary core analysis system. User's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HORECA is developed at IRI Delft for quick analysis of power distribution, burnup and safety for the HOR. It can be used for the manual search of a better loading of the reactor. HORECA is based on the Penn State Fuel Management Package and uses the MCRAC code included in this package as a calculation engine. (orig./HP)

165

MANAGEMENT AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATASET ENSEMBLES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary Phase I technical objective was to develop a prototype that demonstrates the functionality of all components required for an end-to-end meta-data management and comparative visualization system.

Geveci, Berk [Senior Director, Scientific Computing

2010-05-17

166

CULTURE AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE: ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE TWITTER USERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twitter, one of the most popular microblogging tools, has been used extensively all around the world. However, up to date, no study has addressed how culture influences the use of this communication platform. In order to close the literature gap and promote cross-cultural understandings, this paper content analyzed 4,000 tweets from 200 college students in Japan and the USA. The results showed that Japanese college students post more self-related messages and ask fewer questions compared to ...

Adam Acar; Ayaka Deguchi

2013-01-01

167

Comparative analysis of selected beta-blockers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suitability and effectiveness of a few spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods (UV, FT-IR, MS, TLC) for differentiating analysis of 6 beta-blockers: acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol and propranolol have been tested. PMID:24147355

Ogrodowczyk, Magdalena; Marciniec, Barbara

2013-01-01

168

How different types of users develop trust in technology: a qualitative analysis of the antecedents of active and passive user trust in a shared technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the antecedents of trust in technology for active users and passive users working with a shared technology. According to the prominence-interpretation theory, to assess the trustworthiness of a technology, a person must first perceive and evaluate elements of the system that includes the technology. An experimental study was conducted with 54 participants who worked in two-person teams in a multi-task environment with a shared technology. Trust in technology was measured using a trust in technology questionnaire and antecedents of trust were elicited using an open-ended question. A list of antecedents of trust in technology was derived using qualitative analysis techniques. The following categories emerged from the antecedent: technology factors, user factors, and task factors. Similarities and differences between active users and passive user responses, in terms of trust in technology were discussed. PMID:24882059

Xu, Jie; Le, Kim; Deitermann, Annika; Montague, Enid

2014-11-01

169

Comparing sound localization deficits in bilateral cochlear-implant users and vocoder simulations with normal-hearing listeners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilateral cochlear-implant (BiCI) users are less accurate at localizing free-field (FF) sound sources than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. This performance gap is not well understood but is likely due to a combination of compromises in acoustic signal representation by the two independent speech processors and neural degradation of auditory pathways associated with a patient's hearing loss. To exclusively investigate the effect of CI speech encoding on horizontal-plane sound localization, the present study measured sound localization performance in NH subjects listening to vocoder processed and nonvocoded virtual acoustic space (VAS) stimuli. Various aspects of BiCI stimulation such as independently functioning devices, variable across-ear channel selection, and pulsatile stimulation were simulated using uncorrelated noise (Nu), correlated noise (N0), or Gaussian-enveloped tone (GET) carriers during vocoder processing. Additionally, FF sound localization in BiCI users was measured in the same testing environment for comparison. Distinct response patterns across azimuthal locations were evident for both listener groups and were analyzed using a multilevel regression analysis. Simulated implant speech encoding, regardless of carrier, was detrimental to NH localization and the GET vocoder best simulated BiCI FF performance in NH listeners. Overall, the detrimental effect of vocoder processing on NH performance suggests that sound localization deficits may persist even for BiCI patients who have minimal neural degradation associated with their hearing loss and indicates that CI speech encoding plays a significant role in the sound localization deficits experienced by BiCI users. PMID:25385244

Jones, Heath; Kan, Alan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

2014-01-01

170

Regression Analysis of Effective Factor on People Participation in Protecting, Revitalizing, Developing and Using Renewable Natural Resources in Ilam Province from the View of Users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study was the regression analysis of effective factor on people participation in protecting, revitalizing, developing and using renewable natural resources in Ilam province. Approach: This study was a casual comparative and applies one. Sample was taken from natural resources users. Results: The sample size of groups was 317 for users respectively. For sample selection, stratified, cluster and multiple sampling were utilized. The main tools for gathering data were questionnaire. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were obtained by experts and pilot study and its Alfa level was 88%. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used and data was analyzed by sp. 15. To test the hypothesis, correlation, multiple regressions were employed. Conclusion: The result indicated that level of education, rate of media using, users trusting on natural resources executive, consulting with users before implementation the plans, number of cattles, kind of occupation, users membership in public institution and organization, social status of users, Technical knowledge of users, present status of natural of natural resources extensive plans, political and low full support of users, amount of loan received by users and organizing nature assistant, have a significant role on people participation on protecting, revitalizing, developing and using renewable natural resources.

Bagher Arayesh

2010-01-01

171

Exploiting Formal Concept Analysis in a Customizing Recommendation for New User and Gray Sheep Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommender systems are becoming an indispensable application and re-shaping the world in e-commerce scopes. This paper reviews the major problems in the existing recommender systems and presents a tracking recommendation approach based on information of user's behavior and two-level property of items. A new recommendation model based the synergistic use of knowledge from repository, which includes user's behavior, and items property was constructed and utilizes the Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) mapping to guide a personalized recommendation for user. We simulate a prototype recommender system that can make the quality recommendation by tracking user's behavior for implementing the proposed approach and testing its performance. Experiments using two datasets show our strategy was more robust against the drawbacks and preponderate over traditional recommendation approaches in cold-start conditions.

Li, Xiaohui; Murata, Tomohiro

172

Empirical analysis of web-based user-object bipartite networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the structure and evolution of web-based user-object networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in e-commerce nowadays. This letter reports the empirical analysis on two large-scale web sites, audioscrobbler.com and del.icio.us, where users are connected with music groups and bookmarks, respectively. The degree distributions and degree-degree correlations for both users and objects are reported. We propose a new index, named collaborative similarity, to quantify the diversity of tastes based on the collaborative selection. Accordingly, the correlation between degree and selection diversity is investigated. We report some novel phenomena well characterizing the selection mechanism of web users and outline the relevance of these phenomena to the information recommendation problem.

Shang, Ming-Sheng; Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

2010-05-01

173

Comparative analysis of the chicken TCR?/? locus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The access to whole genome sequences has provided the opportunity to study the evolution and organization of immunologically related genes on a large scale. The genes encoding the T cell receptor (TCR) ? and ? chains are part of a complex locus that has shown remarkable conserved organization across different amniote lineages. In this study we have examined and annotated the TCR?/? locus in chicken (Gallus gallus) and compared it to that of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and other avian species using the current available genome data. We also analyzed the expressed chicken TCR?/? transcript repertoire and compared it with that previously described for zebra finch. The analyses conducted in this study show that the TCR?/? locus in birds has undergone major rearrangements and expansion of the germ line repertoire in chicken, compared to zebra finch. A major expansion of the chicken variable gene repertoire appears to be driven by selection for genes from a limited number of subgroups. PMID:22592501

Parra, Zuly E; Miller, Robert D

2012-08-01

174

DOA Estimation-a Comparative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the direction of arrival (DOA angle estimation of signals impinging on 3- D array of sensors in cubical arrangement is studied. The results thus obtainedwere compared with the direction of arrivals obtained with a combination of two uniform square arrays which were considered in parallel to form a structure as cube. MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification was used to estimate the directions of arrival (DOA of the signals .Also in this paper cubical array geometry for low signal to noise ratio was tested and the results compared were with that of the two parallel square arrays .Experimental results demonstrate that the cubical geometry has better detection capability as compared to two 2-D square arrays with the same or even a higher SNR.

Ayesha Naaz

2014-03-01

175

CULTURE AND SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE: ANALYSIS OF JAPANESE TWITTER USERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twitter, one of the most popular microblogging tools, has been used extensively all around the world. However, up to date, no study has addressed how culture influences the use of this communication platform. In order to close the literature gap and promote cross-cultural understandings, this paper content analyzed 4,000 tweets from 200 college students in Japan and the USA. The results showed that Japanese college students post more self-related messages and ask fewer questions compared to American college students. It was also found that tweets that refer to TV are more common in Japan, whereas sports and news tweets stand out in the USA. The evidence from this study suggests that there is a subtle and complicated relationship between culture and Twitter use.

Adam Acar

2013-06-01

176

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the study of the implementation of the VAT in various countries around the world. The author analyses the peculiarities of VAT in different taxation models, studies the modern trends in the application of VAT. Based on the carried out analysis the recommendations on the possible improvement of the VAT application in Ukraine are given.

?.?. ??????

2011-06-01

177

Comparative elemental analysis of man's bone tissue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to compare two methods for definition of man's bone elemental composition and to transit from relative to absolute quantity of the elemental contents the comparative study of elemental composition of spongy man's bone has been carried out by using both negative muons and physicochemical methods. As a result, the calibration coefficients have been obtained by multiplying by which of K-series muonic X-ray relative intensities of elements one can determine the weight concentration of these elements in a bone tissue. It is shown that from the muon atomic capture viewpoint the man's spongy bone could be considered within the 7% error as a mechanical mixture of mineral and organic components. The results of this work open wide possibilities for future special studies of alive organisms elemental contents

178

NFAP: the nonlinear finite element analysis program. Users manual; Version 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief outline of the analysis capability together with the input instructions are given for a nonlinear finite element analysis program called NFAP, which is an extended version of the NONSAP Program. Extensions include additional element types, material models and several user's features as further described in the report. Similar to NONSAP, the NFAP program can be used for conducting linear or nonlinear analysis of various structures under static or dynamic loadings. Nonlinearities involve both nonlinear materials and large deformations

179

Neutron activation analysis at the Californium User Facility for Neutron Science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science has been established to provide 252Cf-based neutron irradiation services and research capabilities including neutron activation analysis (NAA). A major advantage of the CUF is its accessibility and controlled experimental conditions compared with those of a reactor environment The CUF maintains the world's largest inventory of compact 252Cf neutron sources. Neutron source intensities of ? 1011 neutrons/s are available for irradiations within a contamination-free hot cell, capable of providing thermal and fast neutron fluxes exceeding 108 cm-2 s-1 at the sample. Total flux of ?109 cm-2 s-1 is feasible for large-volume irradiation rabbits within the 252Cf storage pool. Neutron and gamma transport calculations have been performed using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP to estimate irradiation fluxes available for sample activation within the hot cell and storage pool and to design and optimize a prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA) configuration for large sample volumes. Confirmatory NAA irradiations have been performed within the pool. Gamma spectroscopy capabilities including PGNAA are being established within the CUF for sample analysis

180

Driving an electric vehicle. A sociological analysis on pioneer users  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In most of the western countries, car is the prevalent means of transport for local mobility. At the same time, sensitivity to environmental issues is increasing, correlated to the consciousness that carbon dioxide emissions have to be reduced. In regard to these two trends (individual mobility and public opinions favourable to a reduction of carbon emissions), energy-efficient vehicles will probably develop in the future-car manufacturers actually prepare new offers for the mass market. Comparable cases have occurred during the last decades-probably more modest but full of learning: some local authorities have promoted innovations based on electric vehicles in the 1990s, and some people have chosen this kind of cars for their daily travels. This article deals with these pioneers (This article comes from a communication at the ECEEE Summer Study, June 2009, Panel 6: Energy efficiency in transport and mobility.). Reporting studies carried out in 2006 and 2008, we intend to identify the reasons of this innovative modal choice, to show the difficulties that electric vehicle drivers then encountered and to analyse the patterns of use that governed their mobility and their use of electric vehicles.

Pierre, M. [EDF R and D, Electricite de France, Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Jemelin, C. [6T research bureau, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France); Louvet, N. [EPFL, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
181

[Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].  

Science.gov (United States)

Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients. PMID:25059059

Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

2014-01-01

182

Comparative Analysis of Color Video Enhancment Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contrast enhancement has an important role in image processing applications. This paper presents a color enhancement algorithm based on adaptive filter technique. First, the proposed method is  divided into  three  major  parts:  obtain  luminance  image  and backdrop  image,  adaptive  modification  and  color restoration.  different  traditional  color  image  enhancement algorithms,  the  adaptive  filter  in  the  algorithm  takes  color information  into  consideration.  The algorithm finds the significance of color information in color image enhancement and utilizes color space conversion to obtain a much better visibility.  . In the practical results, the proposed method reproduces better enhancement and reduce the halo distortion compared with the bilateral  methods.

Rajeev Sunakara

2013-10-01

183

A comparative study of descriptions and value added of bibliographic records through MARC, DC and MODS: From the viewpoints of the users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand which bibliographic data are the core elements of the user’s queries? What users’ viewpoints about resource descriptions using different metadata standards? What kinds of value-added items are the users’ favorite when they conduct a bibliographic search? What are users’ viewpoints about bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources through metadata interoperability methods? This research adopted experiments, observation and interviews. The sample subjects are drawn from 14 students of The Graduate Institute of Library and Information Science and College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. First of all, the researcher displayed the bibliographic records using original MARC from the library. Secondly, users compared the images of OPAC from the library with the format of DC and MODS transformed through the MarcEdit software. Additionally, the researcher conducted interviews to understand users’ viewpoints about using three metadata schemas to describe the same book. Finally, the researcher asked the degree of users’ satisfaction about using bibliographic records alone and bibliographic records integrated with the Digital Archival and Institutional Repository resources. The findings suggest that libraries could provide more value-added and comprehensive services of bibliographic records and information retrieval, in order for all kinds of resources to be fully utilized, which helps to meet the users’ information needs.

Huei-Chu Chang

2014-04-01

184

Enabling Semantic Analysis of User Browsing Patterns in the Web of Data  

CERN Document Server

A useful step towards better interpretation and analysis of the usage patterns is to formalize the semantics of the resources that users are accessing in the Web. We focus on this problem and present an approach for the semantic formalization of usage logs, which lays the basis for eective techniques of querying expressive usage patterns. We also present a query answering approach, which is useful to nd in the logs expressive patterns of usage behavior via formulation of semantic and temporal-based constraints. We have processed over 30 thousand user browsing sessions extracted from usage logs of DBPedia and Semantic Web Dog Food. All these events are formalized semantically using respective domain ontologies and RDF representations of the Web resources being accessed. We show the eectiveness of our approach through experimental results, providing in this way an exploratory analysis of the way users browse theWeb of Data.

Hoxha, Julia; Agarwal, Sudhir

2012-01-01

185

Comparative analysis of life insurance market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the comprehensive analysis of statistic insight into development of the world and regional life insurance markets on the basis of macroeconomic indicators. The author located domestic life insurance market on the global scale, analyzed its development and suggested the methods to calculate the marketing life insurance index. There was also approbated the mentioned methods on database of 77 countries all over the world. The author also defined the national rating on the basis of marketing life insurance index.

Malynych, Anna Mykolayivna

2011-05-01

186

A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

187

The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

2008-11-01

188

Comparative chromatin analysis of Trypanosoma congolense  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The chromatin of Trypanosoma congolense was analyzed by electron microscopy. The chromatin is organized as nucleosome filaments but does not form a 30 nm fiber. There are five groups of histones, including a histone H1-like protein, which has a molecular weight within the range of the core histones, [...] and is extremely hydrophilic. Weak histone-histone interaction, a typical feature of trypanosoma chromatin, was found. These results are similar to those for T. cruzi and T. b. brucei, but differ significantly from those for higher eukaryotes. The results confirm the model of trypanosome chromatin, and support the theory of their early separation from the other eukaryotes during the evolution. T. congolensis is an excellent model for chromatin research on trypanosomes, because it is easy to cultivate and its chromatin has, a relatively high stability, compared to that of other trypanosomes.

Wolfram, Schlimme; Markus, Burri; Bruno, Betschart; Hermann, Hecker.

189

Comparative LIBS Analysis Of Calcified Tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Signal enhancement, limits of detection, and relevance to environmental concentration for element in calcified tissues using LIBS with single and double laser pulses will be presented. These measurements were performed on three calcified tissues representing different matrices, namely enamel of human teeth, shells and eggshells. This method depends on the role of the laser induced shock wave on the ionization rate of the ablated target material atoms. The effect of the laser single and double pulse on the ionic to atomic ratio of calcium and magnesium spectral emission lines, CaII/CaI and MgII/MgI, will be presented and compared with the previous results and its relevance to the target material hardness. The results show that in case of single pulse the intensity ratios in calcium are higher than the double pulse while there is no appreciable difference between both in case of magnesium.

190

Comparative analysis of some search engines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN) in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response [...] time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being 'relevant' or 'non-relevant' for evaluation of the search engine's precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70%) and average response time (2 s). Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

J, Edosomwan; TO, Edosomwan.

191

Resilience and electricity systems: A comparative analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity systems have generally evolved based on the natural resources available locally. Few metrics exist to compare the security of electricity supply of different countries despite the increasing likelihood of potential shocks to the power system like energy price increases and carbon price regulation. This paper seeks to calculate a robust measure of national power system resilience by analysing each step in the process of transformation from raw energy to consumed electricity. Countries with sizeable deposits of mineral resources are used for comparison because of the need for electricity-intensive metals processing. We find that shifts in electricity-intensive industry can be predicted based on countries' power system resilience. - Highlights: ? We establish a resilience index measure for major electricity systems. ? We examine a range of OECD and developing nations electricity systems and their ability to cope with shocks. ? Robustness measures are established to show resilience of electricity systems.

192

Comparative analysis of some search engines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN) in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response [...] time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being 'relevant' or 'non-relevant' for evaluation of the search engine's precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70%) and average response time (2 s). Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

J, Edosomwan; TO, Edosomwan.

2010-12-01

193

Comparative analysis of some search engines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We compared the information retrieval performances of some popular search engines (namely, Google, Yahoo, AlltheWeb, Gigablast, Zworks and AltaVista and Bing/MSN in response to a list of ten queries, varying in complexity. These queries were run on each search engine and the precision and response time of the retrieved results were recorded. The first ten documents on each retrieval output were evaluated as being ‘relevant’ or ‘non-relevant’ for evaluation of the search engine’s precision. To evaluate response time, normalised recall ratios were calculated at various cut-off points for each query and search engine. This study shows that Google appears to be the best search engine in terms of both average precision (70% and average response time (2 s. Gigablast and AlltheWeb performed the worst overall in this study.

Taiwo O. Edosomwan

2010-10-01

194

Comparative Analysis of Protein Structure Alignments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methods are currently available for the comparison of protein structures. These methods have been analysed regarding the performance in the identification of structurally/evolutionary related proteins, but so far there has been less focus on the objective comparison between the alignments produced by different methods. Results We analysed and compared the structural alignments obtained by different methods using three sets of pairs of structurally related proteins. The first set corresponds to 355 pairs of remote homologous proteins according to the SCOP database (ASTRAL40 set. The second set was derived from the SISYPHUS database and includes 69 protein pairs (SISY set. The third set consists of 40 pairs that are challenging to align (RIPC set. The alignment of pairs of this set requires indels of considerable number and size and some of the proteins are related by circular permutations, show extensive conformational variability or include repetitions. Two standard methods (CE and DALI were applied to align the proteins in the ASTRAL40 set. The extent of structural similarity identified by both methods is highly correlated and the alignments from the two methods agree on average in more than half of the aligned positions. CE, DALI, as well as four additional methods (FATCAT, MATRAS, C?-match and SHEBA were then compared using the SISY and RIPC sets. The accuracy of the alignments was assessed by comparison to reference alignments. The alignments generated by the different methods on average match more than half of the reference alignments in the SISY set. The alignments obtained in the more challenging RIPC set tend to differ considerably and match reference alignments less successfully than the SISY set alignments. Conclusion The alignments produced by different methods tend to agree to a considerable extent, but the agreement is lower for the more challenging pairs. The results for the comparison to reference alignments are encouraging, but also indicate that there is still room for improvement.

Domingues Francisco S

2007-07-01

195

Comparative Analysis Of Cloud Computing Security Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all the organizations are seriously thinking to adopt the cloud computingservices, seeing its benefits in terms of cost, accessibility, availability, flexibility andhighly automated process of updation. Cloud Computing enhance the current capabilitiesdynamically without further investment. Cloud Computing is a band of resources, applicationsand services. In cloud computing customer’s access IT related services in terms of infrastructure platform and software without getting knowledge of underlying technologies. With the executionof cloud computing, organizations have strong concerns about the security of their data.Organizations are hesitating to take initiatives in the deployment of their businesses due to data security problem. This paper gives an overview of cloud computing and analysis of security issues in cloud computing.

AKRAM MUJAHID

2014-01-01

196

A STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR COST ANALYSIS OF POLLUTION CONTROL OPERATIONS. VOLUME I. USER GUIDE  

Science.gov (United States)

Volume I is a user guide for a standard procedure for the engineering cost analysis of pollution abatement operations and processes. The procedure applies to projects in various economic sectors: private, regulated, and public. The models are consistent with cost evaluation pract...

197

Inventory of activation analysis facilities available in the European Community to Industrial users  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This inventory includes lists of activation equipment produced in the European Community, facilities available for industrial users and activation laboratories existing in the European companies. The aim of this inventory is to provide all information that may be useful, to companies interested in activation analysis, as well as to give an idea on existing routine applications and on the European market in facilities

198

A User-Oriented Interface for Generalised Informetric Analysis Based on Applying Advanced Data Modelling Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a user-oriented interface for generalized informetric analysis and demonstrates how informetric calculations can be specified through advanced data modeling techniques. Topics include bibliographic data; online information retrieval systems; citation networks; query interface; impact factors; data restructuring; and multi-level…

Jarvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter; Niemi, Timo

2000-01-01

199

A comparative analysis of trypanosomatid SNARE proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kinetoplastida are flagellated protozoa evolutionary distant and divergent from yeast and humans. Kinetoplastida include trypanosomatids, and a number of important pathogens. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. inflict significant morbidity and mortality on humans and livestock as the etiological agents of human African trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis respectively. For all of these organisms, intracellular trafficking is vital for maintenance of the host-pathogen interface, modulation/evasion of host immune system responses and nutrient uptake. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are critical components of the intracellular trafficking machinery in eukaryotes, mediating membrane fusion and contributing to organelle specificity. We asked how the SNARE complement evolved across the trypanosomatids. An in silico search of the predicted proteomes of T. b. brucei and T. cruzi was used to identify candidate SNARE sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, including comparisons with yeast and human SNAREs, allowed assignment of trypanosomatid SNAREs to the Q or R subclass, as well as identification of several SNAREs orthologous with those of opisthokonts. Only limited variation in number and identity of SNAREs was found, with Leishmania major having 27 and T. brucei 26, suggesting a stable SNARE complement post-speciation. Expression analysis of T. brucei SNAREs revealed significant differential expression between mammalian and insect infective forms, especially within R and Qb-SNARE subclasses, suggesting possible roles in adaptation to different environments. For trypanosome SNAREs with clear orthologs in opisthokonts, the subcellular localization of TbVAMP7C is endosomal while both TbSyn5 and TbSyn16B are at the Golgi complex, which suggests conservation of localization and possibly also function. Despite highly distinct life styles, the complement of trypanosomatid SNAREs is quite stable between the three pathogenic lineages, suggesting establishment in the last common ancestor of trypanosomes and Leishmania. Developmental changes to SNARE mRNA levels between blood steam and procyclic life stages suggest that trypanosomes modulate SNARE functions via expression. Finally, the locations of some conserved SNAREs have been retained across the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:24269876

Murungi, Edwin; Barlow, Lael D; Venkatesh, Divya; Adung'a, Vincent O; Dacks, Joel B; Field, Mark C; Christoffels, Alan

2014-04-01

200

Comparative Analysis of Various Scheduling Algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scheduling is the technique used for controlling the order of the job which is to be performed by a CPU of a computer. The motive of scheduling is to engage the CPU at its maximum capacity and no process shall wait for longer time and to finish the entire task in minimum possible time. In this paper, we discuss various types of Scheduling algorithms and Compare their performance on terms of throughput and waiting time. First of them is First Come First Served (FCFS which is a non-preemptive and the simplest scheduling. FCFS is good for long job. Second is Shortest Job First (SJF scheduling which selects that job first which has least processing time i.e. the processing demanding the less CPU time is executed first. Next is Round Robin (RR scheduling, it removes the drawbacks of FCFS by preempting running jobs periodically. But if the length of time quantum is too short then more time will waste in context switching. Last one is Priority Based scheduling where each process is assigned a priority (preference to create the order of execution.

Lalit Kishor, Dinesh Goyal

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparative Analysis of Evapotranspiration Using Eddy Covariance  

Science.gov (United States)

The eddy covariance method has been widely used to quantify evapotranspiration. However, independent measurements of energy components such as latent heat flux, sensible heat flux often lead to under-measurements, this is commonly known as a lack of closure of the surface energy balance. In response to this methodological problem, this study is addressed specifically to correction of the latent and heat sensible fluxes. The energy components observed in agricultural and grassland from January 2013 were measured using the eddy covariance method. As a result of the comparison of the available energy (Rn-G) with the sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes, R-Squared values were 0.72 in the agricultural land, 0.78 in the grassland, indicating that the latent and sensible heat fluxes were under-measured. The obtained latent and sensible heat fluxes were then modified using the Bowen-ratio closure method. After this correction process, the values of the sum of the latent and sensible heat fluxes have increased by 39.7 percent in the agricultural land, 32.2 percent in the grassland respectively. Evapotranspiration will be calculated with both the unmodified and modified latent heat flux values, the results will be then thoroughly compared. The results will be finally verified by comparison with evapotranspiration obtained from energy balance based model.

BAE, H.; Ji, H.; Lee, B.; Nam, K.; Jang, B.; Lee, C.; Jung, H.

2013-12-01

202

Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

203

Comparative analysis of mobilizable genomic islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobilizable genomic islands (MGIs) are small genomic islands of less than 35 kbp containing an integrase gene and a sequence that resembles the origin of transfer (oriT) of an integrating conjugative element (ICE). MGIs have been shown to site-specifically integrate and excise from the chromosome of bacterial hosts and hijack the conjugative machinery of a coresident ICE to disseminate. To date, MGIs have been described in three strains belonging to three different Vibrio species. In this study, we report the discovery of 11 additional putative MGIs found in various species of Vibrio, Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, and Methylophaga. We designed an MGI capture system that allowed us to relocate chromosomal MGIs onto a low-copy-number plasmid and facilitate their isolation and sequencing. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses of these mobile genetic elements revealed their mosaic structure and their evolution through recombination and acquisition of exogenous DNA. MGIs were found to belong to a larger family of genomic islands (GIs) sharing a similar integrase gene and often integrated into the same integration site yet exhibiting a different mechanism of regulation of excision and mobilization. We found that MGIs can excise only when an ICE of the SXT/R391 family is coresident in the same cell, while GIs still excise regardless. PMID:23204461

Daccord, Aurélie; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Burrus, Vincent

2013-02-01

204

CARBON SEQUESTRATION: A METHODS COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All human activities are related with the energy consumption. Energy requirements will continue to rise, due to the modern life and the developing countries growth. Most of the energy demand emanates from fossil fuels. Fossil fuels combustion has negative environmental impacts, with the CO2 production to be dominating. The fulfillment of the Kyoto protocol criteria requires the minimization of CO2 emissions. Thus the management of the CO2 emissions is an urgent matter. The use of appliances with low energy use and the adoption of an energy policy that prevents the unnecessary energy use, can play lead to the reduction of carbon emissions. A different route is the introduction of ''clean'' energy sources, such as renewable energy sources. Last but not least, the development of carbon sequestration methods can be promising technique with big future potential. The objective of this work is the analysis and comparison of different carbon sequestration and deposit methods. Ocean deposit, land ecosystems deposit, geological formations deposit and radical biological and chemical approaches will be analyzed

205

A novel R-package graphic user interface for the analysis of metabonomic profiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the plethora of metabolites found in the NMR spectra of biological fluids or tissues requires data complexity to be simplified. We present a graphical user interface (GUI for NMR-based metabonomic analysis. The "Metabonomic Package" has been developed for metabonomics research as open-source software and uses the R statistical libraries. Results The package offers the following options: Raw 1-dimensional spectra processing: phase, baseline correction and normalization. Importing processed spectra. Including/excluding spectral ranges, optional binning and bucketing, detection and alignment of peaks. Sorting of metabolites based on their ability to discriminate, metabolite selection, and outlier identification. Multivariate unsupervised analysis: principal components analysis (PCA. Multivariate supervised analysis: partial least squares (PLS, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor classification. Neural networks. Visualization and overlapping of spectra. Plot values of the chemical shift position for different samples. Furthermore, the "Metabonomic" GUI includes a console to enable other kinds of analyses and to take advantage of all R statistical tools. Conclusion We made complex multivariate analysis user-friendly for both experienced and novice users, which could help to expand the use of NMR-based metabonomics.

Villa Palmira

2009-10-01

206

A critical analysis of user satisfaction surveys in addiction services: opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Joan Trujols,1,2 Ioseba Iraurgi,3 Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes,4,5 Joan Guàrdia-Olmos61Unitat de Conductes Addictives, Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM, Madrid, 3DeustoPsych – Unidad de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Psicología y Salud, Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao, Spain; 4School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 5Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Providence Health Care Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; 6Departament de Metodologia de les Ciències del Comportament, Facultat de Psicologia, Institut de Recerca en Cervell, Cognició i Conducta (IR3C, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Satisfaction with services represents a key component of the user's perspective, and user satisfaction surveys are the most commonly used approach to evaluate the aforementioned perspective. The aim of this discursive paper is to provide a critical overview of user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, with a particular focus on opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case.Methods: We carried out a selective critical review and analysis of the literature on user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services.Results: Most studies that have reported results of satisfaction surveys have found that the great majority of users (virtually all, in many cases are highly satisfied with the services received. However, when these results are compared to the findings of studies that use different methodologies to explore the patient's perspective, the results are not as consistent as might be expected. It is not uncommon to find that “highly satisfied” patients report significant problems when mixed-methods studies are conducted. To understand this apparent contradiction, we explored two distinct (though not mutually exclusive lines of reasoning, one of which concerns conceptual aspects and the other, methodological questions.Conclusion: User satisfaction surveys, as currently designed and carried out in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, do not significantly help to improve service quality. Therefore, most of the enthusiasm and naiveté with which satisfaction surveys are currently performed and interpreted – and rarely acted on in the case of nonoptimal results – should be avoided. A truly participatory approach to program evaluation is urgently needed to reshape and transform patient satisfaction surveys.Keywords: patient satisfaction, substance abuse treatment services, harm reduction services, patient-centered evaluation, service user perspective, user involvement

Trujols J

2014-01-01

207

Sentiment Analysis Based Approaches for Understanding User Context in Web Content?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our day to day lives, we highly value the opinions of friends in making decisions about issueslike which brand to buy or which movie to watch. With the increasing popularity of blogs, online reviews andsocial networking sites, the current trend is to look up reviews, expert opinions and discussions on the Web,so that one can make an informed decision. Sentiment analysis, also known as opinion mining is thecomputational study of opinions, sentiments and emotions expressed in natural language for the purpose ofdecision making. Sentiment analysis applies natural language processing techniques and computationallinguistics to extract information about sentiments expressed by authors and readers about a particularsubject, thus helping users in making sense of huge volume of unstructured Web data. Applications likereview classification, product review mining and trend prediction benefit from sentiment analysis basedtechniques. This paper presents a study of different approaches in this field, the state of the art techniquesand current research in Sentiment Analysis based approaches for understanding user's context.We show that information about social relationships can be used to improve user-level sentiment analysis.The main motivation behind our approach is that users that are somehow "connected" may be more likely tohold similar opinions; therefore, relationship information can complement what we can extract about auser's viewpoints from their utterances. Employing Twitter as a source for our experimental data, andworking within a semi-supervised framework, we propose models that are induced either from the Twitterfollower/follower network or from the network in Twitter formed by users referring to each other using "@"mentions. Our transductive learning results reveal that incorporating social-network information can indeedlead to statistically significant sentiment classification improvements over the performance of an approachbased on Support Vector Machines having access only to textual features.

M. SAKTHIVEL

2013-07-01

208

Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) Users' Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

The tool for turbine engine closed-loop transient analysis (TTECTrA) is a semi-automated control design tool for subsonic aircraft engine simulations. At a specific flight condition, TTECTrA produces a basic controller designed to meet user-defined goals and containing only the fundamental limiters that affect the transient performance of the engine. The purpose of this tool is to provide the user a preliminary estimate of the transient performance of an engine model without the need to design a full nonlinear controller.

Csank, Jeffrey T.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.

2014-01-01

209

Delight2 Daylighting Analysis in Energy Plus: Integration and Preliminary User Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DElight is a simulation engine for daylight and electric lighting system analysis in buildings. DElight calculates interior illuminance levels from daylight, and the subsequent contribution required from electric lighting to meet a desired interior illuminance. DElight has been specifically designed to integrate with building thermal simulation tools. This paper updates the DElight capability set, the status of integration into the simulation tool EnergyPlus, and describes a sample analysis of a simple model from the user perspective.

Carroll, William L.; Hitchcock, Robert J.

2005-04-26

210

Coquelicot: A User-Friendly Library of Real Analysis for Coq  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Real analysis is pervasive to many applications, if only because it is a suitable tool for modeling physical or socio-economical systems. As such, its support is warranted in proof assistants, so that the users have a way to formally verify mathematical theorems and correctness of critical systems. The Coq system comes with an axiomatization of standard real numbers and a library of theorems on real analysis. Unfortunately, this standard library is lacking some widely used results. For instan...

Boldo, Sylvie; Lelay, Catherine; Melquiond, Guillaume

2013-01-01

211

A novel R-package graphic user interface for the analysis of metabonomic profiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Analysis of the plethora of metabolites found in the NMR spectra of biological fluids or tissues requires data complexity to be simplified. We present a graphical user interface (GUI) for NMR-based metabonomic analysis. The "Metabonomic Package" has been developed for metabonomics research as open-source software and uses the R statistical libraries. Results The package offers the following options: Raw 1-dimensional spectra processing...

Villa Palmira; Kyriazis Angelos; Rodríguez Ignacio; Barreiro Pilar; Desco Manuel

2009-01-01

212

Three looks at users: a comparison of methods for studying digital library use. User studies, Digital libraries, Digital music libraries, Music, Information use, Information science, Contextual inquiry, Contextual design, User research, Questionnaires, Log file analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Compares three user research methods of studying real-world digital library usage within the context of the Variations and Variations2 digital music libraries at Indiana University. After a brief description of both digital libraries, each method is described and illustrated with findings from the studies. User satisfaction questionnaires were used in two studies, one of Variations (n=30) and the other of Variations2 (n=12). Second, session activity log files were examined for 175 Variations2...

Mark Notess

2004-01-01

213

Comparative analysis of 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P), an amphetamine-type stimulant precursor, using stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry: presented in part as a poster at the 2nd meeting of the Joint European Stable Isotope User Meeting (JESIUM), Giens, France, September 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The isotope ratios of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) depend as well on the precursor as the synthetic pathway. For clandestine production of amphetamine and methamphetamine, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (P2P, benzylmethylketone) is a commonly used precursor. Our aim was to determine the variation of the isotope ratios within precursor samples of one manufacturer and to compare seized samples of unknown sources to these values. delta13C(V-PDB), delta2H(V-SMOW) and delta118O(V-SMOW) isotope ratios were determined using elemental analysis (EA) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled toan isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The comparison of all seized samples to the data of the samples of one manufacturer revealed considerable differences. The results show that IRMS provides a high potential in differentiating between precursors from different manufacturers for the clandestine production of ATS and identifying corresponding sources. PMID:19606587

Schneiders, S; Holdermann, T; Dahlenburg, R

2009-06-01

214

A multivariate analysis of the factors that influence the modification of sexual desire in oral hormonal contraceptive (OC users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. This work studied the influencing factors of age, level of education, family planning awareness, relationship with partner, the age at which sexual relationships were initiated, parity, the method of contraceptive previously used, the type of contraceptive pill used and the duration of oral hormonal contraception (OC use in relation to the modification of sexual desire in OC users. Materials and Methods. Prospective study of 760 OC users at the Family Planning Center “Marina Alta” in Alicante (Spain. A logistical regression analysis was carried out to study the relative risk of reduction in libido, taking other risk factors into account. Results. In the simple analysis, women who initiated sexual relationships between 18 and 25 years of age had a lower sexual desire in comparison with women who were sexually active before the age of 18 (OR = 2.11; CI: 1.15 - 3.91. Nulliparous women had a reduced sexual desire compared with those women that had given birth (OR = 2.32; CI: 1.41 - 3.82. An OC use of between 6 months and 1 year reduced sexual desire in comparison with a use of less than 6 months (OR = 0.24; CI: 0.09 - 0.64. In the multivariate analysis, age (OR = 1.12; CI: 1.01 - 1.21 and the use of OC within an initial 6 month to a year period (OR = 0.24; CI: 0.09 - 0.64 presented a statistically significant relationship with the modification of sexual desire. The level of education, family planning awareness, relationship with partner, the method of contraception previously used and the type of contraceptive pill prescribed showed no statistical significance with the modification of sexual desire in OC users. Conclusions. Sexual desire in OC users decreases as a woman’s age increases and in an early stage of use in the first six months after beginning OC treatment.

Mariano Martin-Loeches

2011-09-01

215

AITRAC: Augmented Interactive Transient Radiation Analysis by Computer. User's information manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AITRAC is a program designed for on-line, interactive, DC, and transient analysis of electronic circuits. The program solves linear and nonlinear simultaneous equations which characterize the mathematical models used to predict circuit response. The program features 100 external node--200 branch capability; conversional, free-format input language; built-in junction, FET, MOS, and switch models; sparse matrix algorithm with extended-precision H matrix and T vector calculations, for fast and accurate execution; linear transconductances: beta, GM, MU, ZM; accurate and fast radiation effects analysis; special interface for user-defined equations; selective control of multiple outputs; graphical outputs in wide and narrow formats; and on-line parameter modification capability. The user describes the problem by entering the circuit topology and part parameters. The program then automatically generates and solves the circuit equations, providing the user with printed or plotted output. The circuit topology and/or part values may then be changed by the user, and a new analysis, requested. Circuit descriptions may be saved on disk files for storage and later use. The program contains built-in standard models for resistors, voltage and current sources, capacitors, inductors including mutual couplings, switches, junction diodes and transistors, FETS, and MOS devices. Nonstandard models may be constructed from standard models or by using the special equations interface. Time functions may be described by straight-line segments or by sine, damped sine, and exponential functions. 42 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

1977-10-01

216

AITRAC: Augmented Interactive Transient Radiation Analysis by Computer. User's information manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AITRAC is a program designed for on-line, interactive, DC, and transient analysis of electronic circuits. The program solves linear and nonlinear simultaneous equations which characterize the mathematical models used to predict circuit response. The program features 100 external node--200 branch capability; conversional, free-format input language; built-in junction, FET, MOS, and switch models; sparse matrix algorithm with extended-precision H matrix and T vector calculations, for fast and accurate execution; linear transconductances: beta, GM, MU, ZM; accurate and fast radiation effects analysis; special interface for user-defined equations; selective control of multiple outputs; graphical outputs in wide and narrow formats; and on-line parameter modification capability. The user describes the problem by entering the circuit topology and part parameters. The program then automatically generates and solves the circuit equations, providing the user with printed or plotted output. The circuit topology and/or part values may then be changed by the user, and a new analysis, requested. Circuit descriptions may be saved on disk files for storage and later use. The program contains built-in standard models for resistors, voltage and current sources, capacitors, inductors including mutual couplings, switches, junction diodes and transistors, FETS, and MOS devices. Nonstandard models may be constructed from standard models or by using the special equations interface. Time functions may be described by straight-line segments or by sine, damped sine, and exponential functions. 42 figures, 1 table

217

Aggregate Characterization of User Behavior in Twitter and Analysis of the Retweet Graph  

CERN Document Server

Most previous analysis of Twitter user behavior is focused on individual information cascades and the social followers graph. We instead study aggregate user behavior and the retweet graph with a focus on quantitative descriptions. We find that the lifetime tweet distribution is a type-II discrete Weibull stemming from a power law hazard function, the tweet rate distribution, although asymptotically power law, exhibits a lognormal cutoff over finite sample intervals, and the inter-tweet interval distribution is power law with exponential cutoff. The retweet graph is small-world and scale-free, like the social graph, but is less disassortative and has much stronger clustering. These differences are consistent with it better capturing the real-world social relationships of and trust between users. Beyond just understanding and modeling human communication patterns and social networks, applications for alternative, decentralized microblogging systems-both predicting real-word performance and detecting spam-are d...

Bild, David R; Dick, Robert P; Mao, Z Morley; Wallach, Dan S

2014-01-01

218

Chromosomal damage and apoptosis analysis in exfoliated oral epithelial cells from mouthwash and alcohol users  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chromosomal damage and apoptosis were analyzed in users of mouthwash and/or alcoholic beverages, using the micronucleus test on exfoliated oral mucosa cells. Samples from four groups of 20 individuals each were analyzed: three exposed groups (EG1, EG2 and EG3) and a control group (CG). EG1 comprised [...] mouthwash users; EG2 comprised drinkers, and EG3 users of both mouthwashes and alcoholic beverages. Cell material was collected by gently scraping the insides of the cheeks. Then the cells were fixed in a methanol/acetic acid (3:1) solution and stained and counterstained, respectively, with Schiff reactive and fast green. Endpoints were computed on 2,000 cells in a blind test. Statistical analysis showed that chromosomal damage and apoptosis were significantly higher in individuals of groups EG1 and EG3 than in controls (p

Rodrigo dos Santos, Rocha; José Roberto Cardoso, Meireles; Eneida de Moraes Marcílio, Cerqueira.

2014-12-01

219

A Novel Biometric Identification Based on a User’s Input Pattern Analysis for Intelligent Mobile Devices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As intelligent mobile devices become more popular, security threats targeting them are increasing. The resource constraints of mobile devices, such as battery life and computing power, however, make it harder to handle such threats effectively. The existing physical and behavioural biometric identification methods ? looked upon as good alternatives ? are unsuitable for the current mobile environment. This paper proposes a specially designed biometric identification method for intelligent mobile devices by analysing the user’s input patterns, such as a finger’s touch duration, pressure level and the touching width of the finger on the touch screen. We collected the input pattern data of individuals to empirically test our method. Our testing results show that this method effectively identifies users with near a 100% rate of accuracy.

Hojin Seo

2012-07-01

220

Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 2.0 user's guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Also provided in the system is an integrated full-screen editor for use when interfacing with remote mainframe computer systems. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 2.0 and is the subject of this user's guide. Version 2.0 of IRRAS provides all of the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance. 9 refs., 292 figs., 4 tabs

 
 
 
 
221

Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) Version 2. 0 user's guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the user the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification. Also provided in the system is an integrated full-screen editor for use when interfacing with remote mainframe computer systems. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since that time, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 2.0 and is the subject of this user's guide. Version 2.0 of IRRAS provides all of the same capabilities as Version 1.0 and adds a relational data base facility for managing the data, improved functionality, and improved algorithm performance. 9 refs., 292 figs., 4 tabs.

Russell, K.D.; Sattison, M.B. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Rasmuson, D.M. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of Systems Research)

1990-06-01

222

Alice Meets Bob: A Comparative Usability Study of Wireless Device Pairing Methods for a "Two-User" Setting  

CERN Document Server

When users want to establish wireless communication between/among their devices, the channel has to be bootstrapped first. To prevent any malicious control of or eavesdropping over the communication, the channel is desired to be authenticated and confidential. The process of setting up a secure communication channel between two previously unassociated devices is referred to as "Secure Device Pairing". When there is no prior security context, e.g., shared secrets, common key servers or public key certificates, device pairing requires user involvement into the process. The idea usually involves leveraging an auxiliary human-perceptible channel to authenticate the data exchanged over the insecure wireless channel. We observe that the focus of prior research has mostly been limited to pairing scenarios where a single user controls both the devices. In this paper, we consider more general and emerging "two-user" scenarios, where two different users establish pairing between their respective devices. Although a num...

Kumar, Arun; Uzun, Ersin

2009-01-01

223

Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential cos but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

224

Instrumental activation analysis with nichrome comparator of reactor neutron flux  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A neutron flux comparator, made of a nichrome wire, for insrtumental activation analysis has been studied. A formula has been derived for calculation of element contents of a sample from the activities of the sample and comparatoe. Using a nichrome comparator, it is possible to carry out multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis with an error of about 10% rel

225

Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface  

Science.gov (United States)

The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

Teti, Nicholas M.

1993-01-01

226

Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

Teti, N.M. [Swales and Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

227

Langley Stability and Transition Analysis Code (LASTRAC) Version 1.2 User Manual  

Science.gov (United States)

LASTRAC is a general-purposed, physics-based transition prediction code released by NASA for Laminar Flow Control studies and transition research. The design and development of the LASTRAC code is aimed at providing an engineering tool that is easy to use and yet capable of dealing with a broad range of transition related issues. It was written from scratch based on the state-of-the-art numerical methods for stability analysis and modern software technologies. At low fidelity, it allows users to perform linear stability analysis and N-factor transition correlation for a broad range of flow regimes and configurations by using either the linear stability theory or linear parabolized stability equations method. At high fidelity, users may use nonlinear PSE to track finite-amplitude disturbances until the skin friction rise. This document describes the governing equations, numerical methods, code development, detailed description of input/output parameters, and case studies for the current release of LASTRAC.

Chang, Chau-Lyan

2004-01-01

228

An improved method of studying user-system interaction by combining transaction log analysis and protocol analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper reports a novel approach to studying user-system interaction that captures a complete record of the searcher's actions, the system responses and synchronised talk-aloud comments from the searcher. The data is recorded unobtrusively and is available for later analysis. The approach is set in context by a discussion of transaction logging and protocol analysis and examples of the search logging in operation are presented

Jillian R. Griffiths

2002-01-01

229

An Analysis and Knowledge Representation System to attain the genuine web user usage behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the explosive growth of WWW, the web mining techniques are densely concentrated to discover the relevant behaviors of the web user from the web log data. In fact the pattern discovery techniques generate many hundreds, often thousands, of patterns, that are unwanted, unexpected, disputable and unbelievable in nature. The success of representing the real knowledge out of such patterns is highly reliant on the pattern analysis stage in investigating the web user usage behavior. To retain most genuine and interesting patterns it is necessary to filter out unqualified patterns and use moresophisticated visualization techniques to present the knowledge of web user usage effectively. The authors in the present paper propose an Analysis and Knowledge Representation System (AKRS that equally concentrates on both knowledge identification and representation. The key measures are combinedly used for the knowledge identification as a three phase filtering system, to determine the interestingness of patterns in the proposed AKRS. Initially, the objective measures applied on the patterns discovered by pattern discovery techniques to filter out the patterns that do not meet statistical strengths with the frame work of interest factor. Later, subjective measures are applied to identify the patterns that are of most genuine interestingness based on web knowledge. Finally, the heuristic measures evaluate the semantics of patterns based on both user specific objectives and utility of mined patterns. The measures of AKRS efficiently determine the correlation among the most interesting patterns. In addition, to meet the challenges in knowledge representation, like identifying relevant information, finding the depth of information and achieving the visualization competency, the proposed AKRS also designates the recent knowledge visualization techniques like multidimensional and specialized hierarchical. The AKRS amplifies the truthfulness and rate of success in representing final knowledge of web user behavior.

V.V.R. Maheswara Rao

2013-05-01

230

An Irish Cross-Institutional User Needs Analysis of Undergraduate Programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research literature and practical experience of subject experts indicate that teaching programming to novices has proven challenging for both learner and lecturer. A number of difficulties arise when teaching novices to program. These ranges from the inadequacy of the undergraduate students’ problem-solving skills, problems with understanding programming constructs, to the complexity of the environments in which the students develop their solutions. This paper outlines a project which aims to address some of the challenges faced by novice programmers by providing them with an innovative learning tool, incorporating a set of Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs, based on sound pedagogical principles and encapsulated in a Constructivist Learning Environment (CLE. The Learning Objects will focus on the common areas of weaknesses that are determined by an Irish cross-institutional User Needs Analysis. The initial research activity was to conduct a User Needs Analysis, which was carried out in the three third level academic partner institutions and which will inform and direct the remainder of the research project. The User Needs Analysis confirmed that first year undergraduate students find programming the most challenging module they study. Programming constructs such as Arrays, Looping and Selection were shown to be the most problematic in semester one, and Methods and Polymorphism posing difficulties in semester two. Interestingly the students’ actual and perceived difficulties with the concepts were not in-line, with the students perceiving their difficulties to be less than they actually were. The students acknowledge that problem-solving abilities impacted on their performance but only 20% of students in one college admitted to thinking about their approach in designing programming solutions. The results of the User Needs Analysis directs the design and development of the RLOs and the learning tool.

Eileen Mary Costelloe

2006-07-01

231

Radiological Safety Analysis Computer (RSAC) Program Version 7.2 Users’ Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer (RSAC) Program Version 7.2 (RSAC-7) is the newest version of the RSAC legacy code. It calculates the consequences of a release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. A user can generate a fission product inventory from either reactor operating history or a nuclear criticality event. RSAC-7 models the effects of high-efficiency particulate air filters or other cleanup systems and calculates the decay and ingrowth during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment. Doses are calculated for inhalation, air immersion, ground surface, ingestion, and cloud gamma pathways. RSAC-7 can be used as a tool to evaluate accident conditions in emergency response scenarios, radiological sabotage events and to evaluate safety basis accident consequences. This users’ manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for RSAC-7. Instructions, screens, and examples are provided to guide the user through the functions provided by RSAC-7. This program was designed for users who are familiar with radiological dose assessment methods.

Dr. Bradley J Schrader

2010-10-01

232

Radiological Safety Analysis Computer (RSAC) Program Version 7.0 Users’ Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Radiological Safety Analysis Computer (RSAC) Program Version 7.0 (RSAC-7) is the newest version of the RSAC legacy code. It calculates the consequences of a release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. A user can generate a fission product inventory from either reactor operating history or a nuclear criticality event. RSAC-7 models the effects of high-efficiency particulate air filters or other cleanup systems and calculates the decay and ingrowth during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment. Doses are calculated for inhalation, air immersion, ground surface, ingestion, and cloud gamma pathways. RSAC-7 can be used as a tool to evaluate accident conditions in emergency response scenarios, radiological sabotage events and to evaluate safety basis accident consequences. This users’ manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for RSAC-7. Instructions, screens, and examples are provided to guide the user through the functions provided by RSAC-7. This program was designed for users who are familiar with radiological dose assessment methods.

Dr. Bradley J Schrader

2009-03-01

233

GEDI: a user-friendly toolbox for analysis of large-scale gene expression data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mathematical and statistical methods have been proposed in the last few years to analyze microarray data. Most of those methods involve complicated formulas, and software implementations that require advanced computer programming skills. Researchers from other areas may experience difficulties when they attempting to use those methods in their research. Here we present an user-friendly toolbox which allows large-scale gene expression analysis to be carried out by biomedical researchers with limited programming skills. Results Here, we introduce an user-friendly toolbox called GEDI (Gene Expression Data Interpreter, an extensible, open-source, and freely-available tool that we believe will be useful to a wide range of laboratories, and to researchers with no background in Mathematics and Computer Science, allowing them to analyze their own data by applying both classical and advanced approaches developed and recently published by Fujita et al. Conclusion GEDI is an integrated user-friendly viewer that combines the state of the art SVR, DVAR and SVAR algorithms, previously developed by us. It facilitates the application of SVR, DVAR and SVAR, further than the mathematical formulas present in the corresponding publications, and allows one to better understand the results by means of available visualizations. Both running the statistical methods and visualizing the results are carried out within the graphical user interface, rendering these algorithms accessible to the broad community of researchers in Molecular Biology.

Ferreira Carlos E

2007-11-01

234

Transportation Routing Analysis Georgraphic Information System (WebTRAGIS) User's Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the early 1980s, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Both of these models have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) community for a variety of routing needs over the years. One of the primary uses of the models has been to determine population-density information, which is used as input for risk assessment with the RADTRAN model, which is available on the TRANSNET computer system. During the recent years, advances in the development of geographic information systems (GISs) have resulted in increased demands from the user community for a GIS version of the ORNL routing models. In April 1994, the DOE Transportation Management Division (EM-261) held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session with transportation routing experts and users of the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models. As a result of the session, the development of a new GIS routing model, Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS), was initiated. TRAGIS is a user-friendly, GIS-based transportation and analysis computer model. The older HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models are useful to calculate routes, but they cannot display a graphic of the calculated route. Consequently, many users have experienced difficulty determining the proper node for facilities and have been confused by or have misinterpreted the text-based listing from the older routing models. Some of the primary reasons for the development of TRAGIS are (a) to improve the ease of selecting locations for routing, (b) to graphically display the calculated route, and (c) to provide for additional geographic analysis of the route.

Michelhaugh, R.D.

2000-04-20

235

Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (WebTRAGIS) User's Manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early 1980s, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Both of these models have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) community for a variety of routing needs over the years. One of the primary uses of the models has been to determine population-density information, which is used as input for risk assessment with the RADTRAN model, which is available on the TRANSNET computer system. During the recent years, advances in the development of geographic information systems (GISs) have resulted in increased demands from the user community for a GIS version of the ORNL routing models. In April 1994, the DOE Transportation Management Division (EM-261) held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session with transportation routing experts and users of the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models. As a result of the session, the development of a new GIS routing model, Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS), was initiated. TRAGIS is a user-friendly, GIS-based transportation and analysis computer model. The older HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models are useful to calculate routes, but they cannot display a graphic of the calculated route. Consequently, many users have experienced difficulty determining the proper node for facilities and have been confused by or have misinterpreted the text-based listing from the older routing models. Some of the primary reasons for the development of TRAGIS are (a) to improve the ease of selecting locations for routing, (b) to graphically display the calculated route, and (c) to provide for additional geographic analysis of the route

236

PuffinPlot: A versatile, user-friendly program for paleomagnetic analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

PuffinPlot is a user-friendly desktop application for analysis of paleomagnetic data, offering a unique combination of features. It runs on several operating systems, including Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux; supports both discrete and long core data; and facilitates analysis of very weakly magnetic samples. As well as interactive graphical operation, PuffinPlot offers batch analysis for large volumes of data, and a Python scripting interface for programmatic control of its features. Available data displays include demagnetization/intensity, Zijderveld, equal-area (for sample, site, and suite level demagnetization data, and for magnetic susceptibility anisotropy data), a demagnetization data table, and a natural remanent magnetization intensity histogram. Analysis types include principal component analysis, Fisherian statistics, and great-circle path intersections. The results of calculations can be exported as CSV (comma-separated value) files; graphs can be printed, and can also be saved as publication-quality vector files in SVG or PDF format. PuffinPlot is free, and the program, user manual, and fully documented source code may be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/puffinplot/.

Lurcock, P. C.; Wilson, G. S.

2012-06-01

237

Information Retrieval in Domain-Specific Databases: An Analysis To Improve the User Interface of the Alcohol Studies Database.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the methodology and results of the log analysis for the Alcohol Studies Database (ASDB), a domain-specific database supported by the Center of Alcohol Studies at Rutgers University Libraries. The objectives were to better understand user search behavior, to analyze failure rates, and to develop approaches for improving the user

Jantz, Ronald

2003-01-01

238

Discovering Latent Patterns from the Analysis of User-Curated Movie Lists  

CERN Document Server

User content curation is becoming an important source of preference data, as well as providing information regarding the items being curated. One popular approach involves the creation of lists. On Twitter, these lists might contain accounts relevant to a particular topic, whereas on a community site such as the Internet Movie Database (IMDb), this might take the form of lists of movies sharing common characteristics. While list curation involves substantial combined effort on the part of users, researchers have rarely looked at mining the outputs of this kind of crowdsourcing activity. Here we study a large collection of movie lists from IMDb. We apply network analysis methods to a graph that reflects the degree to which pairs of movies are "co-listed", that is, assigned to the same lists. This allows us to uncover a more nuanced grouping of movies that goes beyond categorisation schemes based on attributes such as genre or director.

Greene, Derek

2013-01-01

239

GUARDD: user-friendly MATLAB software for rigorous analysis of CPMG RD NMR data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular dynamics are essential for life, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used extensively to characterize these phenomena since the 1950s. For the past 15 years, the Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion (CPMG RD) NMR experiment has afforded advanced NMR labs access to kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural details of protein and RNA dynamics in the crucial ?s-ms time window. However, analysis of RD data is challenging because datasets are often large and require many non-linear fitting parameters, thereby confounding assessment of accuracy. Moreover, novice CPMG experimentalists face an additional barrier because current software options lack an intuitive user interface and extensive documentation. Hence, we present the open-source software package GUARDD (Graphical User-friendly Analysis of Relaxation Dispersion Data), which is designed to organize, automate, and enhance the analytical procedures which operate on CPMG RD data ( http://code.google.com/p/guardd/). This MATLAB-based program includes a graphical user interface, permits global fitting to multi-field, multi-temperature, multi-coherence data, and implements ? (2)-mapping procedures, via grid-search and Monte Carlo methods, to enhance and assess fitting accuracy. The presentation features allow users to seamlessly traverse the large amount of results, and the RD Simulator feature can help design future experiments as well as serve as a teaching tool for those unfamiliar with RD phenomena. Based on these innovative features, we expect that GUARDD will fill a well-defined gap in service of the RD NMR community. PMID:22160811

Kleckner, Ian R; Foster, Mark P

2012-01-01

240

GUARDD: user-friendly MATLAB software for rigorous analysis of CPMG RD NMR data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molecular dynamics are essential for life, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used extensively to characterize these phenomena since the 1950s. For the past 15 years, the Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion (CPMG RD) NMR experiment has afforded advanced NMR labs access to kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural details of protein and RNA dynamics in the crucial ?s-ms time window. However, analysis of RD data is challenging because datasets are often large and require many non-linear fitting parameters, thereby confounding assessment of accuracy. Moreover, novice CPMG experimentalists face an additional barrier because current software options lack an intuitive user interface and extensive documentation. Hence, we present the open-source software package GUARDD (Graphical User-friendly Analysis of Relaxation Dispersion Data), which is designed to organize, automate, and enhance the analytical procedures which operate on CPMG RD data (http://code.google.com/p/guardd/http://code.google.com/p/guardd/). This MATLAB-based program includes a graphical user interface, permits global fitting to multi-field, multi-temperature, multi-coherence data, and implements ?2-mapping procedures, via grid-search and Monte Carlo methods, to enhance and assess fitting accuracy. The presentation features allow users to seamlessly traverse the large amount of results, and the RD Simulator feature can help design future experiments as well as serdesign future experiments as well as serve as a teaching tool for those unfamiliar with RD phenomena. Based on these innovative features, we expect that GUARDD will fill a well-defined gap in service of the RD NMR community.

 
 
 
 
241

GUARDD: user-friendly MATLAB software for rigorous analysis of CPMG RD NMR data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Molecular dynamics are essential for life, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used extensively to characterize these phenomena since the 1950s. For the past 15 years, the Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion (CPMG RD) NMR experiment has afforded advanced NMR labs access to kinetic, thermodynamic, and structural details of protein and RNA dynamics in the crucial {mu}s-ms time window. However, analysis of RD data is challenging because datasets are often large and require many non-linear fitting parameters, thereby confounding assessment of accuracy. Moreover, novice CPMG experimentalists face an additional barrier because current software options lack an intuitive user interface and extensive documentation. Hence, we present the open-source software package GUARDD (Graphical User-friendly Analysis of Relaxation Dispersion Data), which is designed to organize, automate, and enhance the analytical procedures which operate on CPMG RD data (http://code.google.com/p/guardd/http://code.google.com/p/guardd/). This MATLAB-based program includes a graphical user interface, permits global fitting to multi-field, multi-temperature, multi-coherence data, and implements {chi}{sup 2}-mapping procedures, via grid-search and Monte Carlo methods, to enhance and assess fitting accuracy. The presentation features allow users to seamlessly traverse the large amount of results, and the RD Simulator feature can help design future experiments as well as serve as a teaching tool for those unfamiliar with RD phenomena. Based on these innovative features, we expect that GUARDD will fill a well-defined gap in service of the RD NMR community.

Kleckner, Ian R., E-mail: ian.kleckner@gmail.com [Biophysics Program, Ohio State University (United States); Foster, Mark P., E-mail: Foster.281@osu.edu [Ohio State University, Biochemistry Department (United States)

2012-01-15

242

Alkahest NuclearBLAST : a user-friendly BLAST management and analysis system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sequencing of EST and BAC end datasets is no longer limited to large research groups. Drops in per-base pricing have made high throughput sequencing accessible to individual investigators. However, there are few options available which provide a free and user-friendly solution to the BLAST result storage and data mining needs of biologists. Results - Here we describe NuclearBLAST, a batch BLAST analysis, storage and management system designed for the biologist. It is a wrapper for NCBI BLAST which provides a user-friendly web interface which includes a request wizard and the ability to view and mine the results. All BLAST results are stored in a MySQL database which allows for more advanced data-mining through supplied command-line utilities or direct database access. NuclearBLAST can be installed on a single machine or clustered amongst a number of machines to improve analysis throughput. NuclearBLAST provides a platform which eases data-mining of multiple BLAST results. With the supplied scripts, the program can export data into a spreadsheet-friendly format, automatically assign Gene Ontology terms to sequences and provide bi-directional best hits between two datasets. Users with SQL experience can use the database to ask even more complex questions and extract any subset of data they require. Conclusion - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for requesting, viewing and mining of BLAST results which makes the management and data-mining of large sets of BLAST analyses tractable to biologists.

Burke Mark

2005-06-01

243

GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Several problems exist with current methods used to align DNA sequences for comparative sequence analysis. Most dynamic programming algorithms assume that conserved sequence elements are collinear. This assumption appears valid when comparing orthologous protein coding sequences. Functional constraints on proteins provide strong selective pressure against sequence inversions, and minimize sequence duplications and feature shuffling. For non-coding sequence...

Nix David A; Eisen Michael B

2005-01-01

244

A user`s manual for the program TRES4: Random vibration analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines in turbulent winds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TRES4 is a software package that works with the MSC/NASTRAN finite element analysis code to conduct random vibration analysis of vertical-axis wind turbines. The loads on the turbine are calculated in the time domain to retain the nonlinearities of stalled aerodynamic loadings. The loads are transformed into modal coordinates to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. Power spectra and cross spectra of the loads are calculated in the modal coordinate system. These loads are written in NASTRAN Bulk Data format to be read and applied in a random vibration analysis by NASTRAN. The resulting response is then transformed back to physical coordinates to facilitate user interpretation.

NONE

1994-03-01

245

The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

Fram, Sheila M.

2013-01-01

246

Risk Analysis and Decision-Making Software Package (1997 Version) User Manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This manual provides instructions for using the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) risk analysis and decision making software (1997 version) developed at BDM Petroleum Technologies by BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. for DOE, under contract No. DE-AC22-94PC91OO8. This software provides petroleum producers with a simple, handy tool for exploration and production risk analysis and decision-making. It collects useful risk analysis tools in one package so that users do not have to use several programs separately. The software is simple to use, but still provides many functions. The 1997 version of the software package includes the following tools: (1) Investment risk (Gambler's ruin) analysis; (2) Monte Carlo simulation; (3) Best fit for distribution functions; (4) Sample and rank correlation; (5) Enhanced oil recovery method screening; and (6) artificial neural network. This software package is subject to change. Suggestions and comments from users are welcome and will be considered for future modifications and enhancements of the software. Please check the opening screen of the software for the current contact information. In the future, more tools will be added to this software package. This manual includes instructions on how to use the software but does not attempt to fully explain the theory and algorithms used to create it.

Chung, F.T.H.

1999-02-11

247

User preference comparing a conventional videolaryngoscope blade vs. a novel suction videolaryngoscope blade in simulated hemorrhagic airway intubation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemorrhagic airway makes visualization during laryngoscopy and intubation difficult. A specially designed videolaryngoscope blade with integrated suction was developed and studied in a simulated hemorrhagic airway at the Omaha VA Medical Center. Results show that, if available, many users would choose to include this new suction device in their standard airway carts due to its "always there" design. PMID:22356960

Boedeker, Ben H; Bernhagen, Mary; Miller, David J; Murray, W Bosseau

2012-01-01

248

Inter-Session Network Coding with Strategic Users: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Network Coding  

CERN Document Server

A common assumption in the existing network coding literature is that the users are cooperative and non-selfish. However, this assumption can be violated in practice. In this paper, we analyze inter-session network coding in a wired network using game theory. We assume selfish users acting strategically to maximize their own utility, leading to a resource allocation game among users. In particular, we study the well-known butterfly network topology where a bottleneck link is shared by several network coding and routing flows. We prove the existence of a Nash equilibrium for a wide range of utility functions. We show that the number of Nash equilibria can be large (even infinite) for certain choices of system parameters. This is in sharp contrast to a similar game setting with traditional packet forwarding where the Nash equilibrium is always unique. We then characterize the worst-case efficiency bounds, i.e., the Price-of-Anarchy (PoA), compared to an optimal and cooperative network design. We show that by us...

Mohsenian-Rad, Amir-Hamed; Wong, Vincent W S; Jaggi, Sidharth; Schober, Robert

2009-01-01

249

A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks. PMID:24875444

Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Micciche, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

2014-01-01

250

A comparative analysis of the statistical properties of large mobile phone calling networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile phone calling is one of the most widely used communication methods in modern society. The records of calls among mobile phone users provide us a valuable proxy for the understanding of human communication patterns embedded in social networks. Mobile phone users call each other forming a directed calling network. If only reciprocal calls are considered, we obtain an undirected mutual calling network. The preferential communication behavior between two connected users can be statistically tested and it results in two Bonferroni networks with statistically validated edges. We perform a comparative analysis of the statistical properties of these four networks, which are constructed from the calling records of more than nine million individuals in Shanghai over a period of 110 days. We find that these networks share many common structural properties and also exhibit idiosyncratic features when compared with previously studied large mobile calling networks. The empirical findings provide us an intriguing picture of a representative large social network that might shed new lights on the modelling of large social networks.

Li, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Miccichè, Salvatore; Tumminello, Michele; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mantegna, Rosario N.

2014-05-01

251

User's manual and analysis methodology of probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code PASCAL Ver.2 for reactor pressure vessel (Contract research)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the aging structural integrity research for LWR components, the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis code PASCAL (PFM Analysis of Structural Components in Aging LWR) has been developed in JAEA. This code evaluates the conditional probabilities of crack initiation and fracture of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under transient conditions such as pressurized thermal shock (PTS). The development of the code has been aimed to improve the accuracy and reliability of analysis by introducing new analysis methodologies and algorithms considering the recent development in the fracture mechanics and computer performance. PASCAL Ver.1 has functions of optimized sampling in the stratified Monte Carlo simulation, elastic-plastic fracture criterion of the R6 method, crack growth analysis models for a semi-elliptical crack, recovery of fracture toughness due to thermal annealing and so on. Since then, under the contract between the Ministry of Economy, Trading and Industry of Japan and JAEA, we have continued to develop and introduce new functions into PASCAL Ver.2 such as the evaluation method for an embedded crack, KI database for a semi-elliptical crack considering stress discontinuity at the base/cladding interface, PTS transient database, and others. A generalized analysis method is proposed on the basis of the development of PASCAL Ver.2 and results of sensitivity analyses. Graphical user interface (GUI) including a generalized method as default values has been also developed for PASCAL Ver.2. This report provides the user's manual and theoretical background of PASCAL Ver.2. (author)

252

User Centered Design as a Framework for Applying Conversation Analysis in Hearing Aid Consultations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recurrent issues in applying CA results to change in institutional practices concern the degree to which the CA researcher is involved and what aspects of the change process CA researchers is involved in. This paper presents a methodology from innovation studies called User Centered Design (Buur and Bagger, 1999) and, more recently, Participatory Innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008) which is uniquely compatible with conversation analysis. Designers following this approach study how a ‘user’ of goods or services interacts with products and other interaction partners in order to derive ideas for innovation. Although this methodological convergence of disciplines is rooted in different traditions, it augurs well for successful cooperation. This paper reports on such a collaboration carried out within a federally funded research center for innovation. We present principles of the interdisciplinary collaboration, as well as successes and pitfalls. In particular we focus on the role of conversation analysistsboth from the perspective of the designers and the conversation analysts. To illustrate this, we have selected a project on hearing aid fitting. To understand the perspective of the users (the person with hearing loss and the hearing aid fitter is imperative because the compliance rate for hearing aid use is staggeringly low. One of the barriers of hearing aid use lies in problematic encounters between the person with hearing loss and audiologists. Buur, J and Matthews, B. (2008) ‘Participatory Innovation’ International Journal of Innovation Management. vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 255-273. Buur, J. and Bagger, K. (1999). ‘Replacing usability testing with user dialogue’ Communications of the ACM 42(5), pp. 63-66.

Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

2011-01-01

253

Comparative Analysis of Fragment based and Exemplar based Inpainting Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inpainting is an art of modifying the digital image in such a way that the modifications/alterations are undetectable to an observer who is unknown of the original image. Applications of this technique include restoration of damaged photographs & films, removal of superimposed text, removal/replacement of unwanted objects. After the user selects a region to be inpainted the algorithm automatically fills in these holes by data sampled from remainder of the image. In past the problem of inpainting was addressed by two classes of algorithms (i “diffusion based inpainting” and (ii “texture synthesis”. Further extensive research has undergone in this field which resulted in variety of inpainting techniques. In this paper we will compare Fragment based [2] and Exemplar based [1] inpainting techniques.

J.N.KAZI

2013-03-01

254

Development of the Graphical User Interface for the Fuel Assembly Bow Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEPCO NF, Westinghouse and ENUSA jointly developed a new fuel assembly growth and bow computer code(SAVAN2D), a new fuel assembly analysis and performance model, and a new GUI(Graphical User Interface) for the prediction of incore deformation behaviour of the fuel assemblies. The SAVAN2D code can analyze fuel assembly growth and bow using fuel assembly design data and core conditions. In this paper, the development results and application areas of the SAVAN2D pre-processing and post-processing program are presented

255

Development of the Graphical User Interface for the Fuel Assembly Bow Analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KEPCO NF, Westinghouse and ENUSA jointly developed a new fuel assembly growth and bow computer code(SAVAN2D), a new fuel assembly analysis and performance model, and a new GUI(Graphical User Interface) for the prediction of incore deformation behaviour of the fuel assemblies. The SAVAN2D code can analyze fuel assembly growth and bow using fuel assembly design data and core conditions. In this paper, the development results and application areas of the SAVAN2D pre-processing and post-processing program are presented

Jeon, S. Y.; Baek, H. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.; Hwang, S. T. [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

256

Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basis of theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, description of the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources, reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesis is reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the company is implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air), the mission of the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic side of it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes t he questionnaire offer for effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance (benefits) from the government and EU funds. (authors)

257

Comparative analysis of traditional and alternative energy sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presented thesis with designation of Comparing analysis of traditional and alternative energy resources includes, on basisof theoretical information source, research in firm, internal data, trends in company development and market, descriptionof the problem and its application. Theoretical information source is dedicated to the traditional and alternative energy resources,reserves of it, trends in using and development, the balance of it in the world, EU and in Slovakia as well. Analysis of the thesisis reflecting profile of the company and the thermal pump market evaluation using General Electric method. While the companyis implementing, except other products, the thermal pumps on geothermal energy base and surround energy base (air, the missionof the comparing analysis is to compare traditional energy resources with thermal pump from the ecological, utility and economic sideof it. The results of the comparing analysis are resumed in to the SWOT analysis. The part of the thesis includes he questionnaire offerfor effectiveness improvement and customer satisfaction analysis, and expected possibilities of alternative energy resources assistance(benefits from the government and EU funds.

Adriana Csikósová

2008-11-01

258

ClimatePipes: User-Friendly Data Access, Manipulation, Analysis & Visualization of Community Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of climate change will resonate through a broad range of fields including public health, infrastructure, water resources, and many others. Long-term coordinated planning, funding, and action are required for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Unfortunately, widespread use of climate data (simulated and observed) in non-climate science communities is impeded by factors such as large data size, lack of adequate metadata, poor documentation, and lack of sufficient computational and visualization resources. We present ClimatePipes to address many of these challenges by creating an open source platform that provides state-of-the-art, user-friendly data access, analysis, and visualization for climate and other relevant geospatial datasets, making the climate data available to non-researchers, decision-makers, and other stakeholders. The overarching goals of ClimatePipes are: - Enable users to explore real-world questions related to climate change. - Provide tools for data access, analysis, and visualization. - Facilitate collaboration by enabling users to share datasets, workflows, and visualization. ClimatePipes uses a web-based application platform for its widespread support on mainstream operating systems, ease-of-use, and inherent collaboration support. The front-end of ClimatePipes uses HTML5 (WebGL, Canvas2D, CSS3) to deliver state-of-the-art visualization and to provide a best-in-class user experience. The back-end of the ClimatePipes is built around Python using the Visualization Toolkit (VTK, http://vtk.org), Climate Data Analysis Tools (CDAT, http://uv-cdat.llnl.gov), and other climate and geospatial data processing tools such as GDAL and PROJ4. ClimatePipes web-interface to query and access data from remote sources (such as ESGF). Shown in the figure is climate data layer from ESGF on top of map data layer from OpenStreetMap. The ClimatePipes workflow editor provides flexibility and fine grained control, and uses the VisTrails (http://www.vistrails.org) workflow engine in the backend.

Chaudhary, A.; DeMarle, D.; Burnett, B.; Harris, C.; Silva, W.; Osmari, D.; Geveci, B.; Silva, C.; Doutriaux, C.; Williams, D. N.

2013-12-01

259

LISA package user guide. Part III: SPOP (Statistical POst Processor). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for model output. Program description and user guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This manual is subdivided into three parts. In the third part, the SPOP (Statistical POst Processor) code is described as a tool to perform Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses on the output of a User implemented model. It has been developed at the joint Research Centre of Ispra as part of the LISA package. SPOP performs Sensitivity Analysis (SA) and Uncertainty Analysis (UA) on a sample output from a Monte Carlo simulation. The sample is generated by the User and contains values of the output variable (in the form of a time series) and values of the input variables for a set of different simulations (runs), which are realised by varying the model input parameters. The User may generate the Monte Carlo sample with the PREP pre-processor, another module of the LISA package. The SPOP code is completely written in FORTRAN 77 using structured programming. Among the tasks performed by the code are the computation of Tchebycheff and Kolmogorov confidence bounds on the output variable (UA), and the use of effective non-parametric statistics to rank the influence of model input parameters (SA). The statistics employed are described in the present manual. 19 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs. Note: This PART III is a revised version of the previous EUR report N.12700EN (1990)

260

Three looks at users: a comparison of methods for studying digital library use. User studies, Digital libraries, Digital music libraries, Music, Information use, Information science, Contextual inquiry, Contextual design, User research, Questionnaires, Log file analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compares three user research methods of studying real-world digital library usage within the context of the Variations and Variations2 digital music libraries at Indiana University. After a brief description of both digital libraries, each method is described and illustrated with findings from the studies. User satisfaction questionnaires were used in two studies, one of Variations (n=30 and the other of Variations2 (n=12. Second, session activity log files were examined for 175 Variations2 sessions using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The third method, contextual inquiry, is illustrated with results from field observations of four voice students' information usage patterns. The three methods are compared in terms of expertise required; time required to set up, conduct, and analyse resulting data; and the benefits derived. Further benefits are achieved with a mixed-methods approach, combining the strengths of the methods to answer questions lingering as a result of other methods.

Mark Notess

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Online Social Networks That Connect Users to Physical Activity Partners: A Review and Descriptive Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. Objective The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. Methods In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms “health,” “fitness,” “workout,” or “physical” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” or “activity buddies.” We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword “find” coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms “activity partners” and “activity buddies.” Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Results Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of direct event joining (8/13, 62%) were not as universally present. Largely absent were more sophisticated features that would enable greater usability, such as interactive engagement prompts (3/13, 23%) and system-created best fit activities (3/13, 23%). Conclusions Several major online social networks that connect users to physical activity partners currently exist and use standardized features to achieve their goals. Future research is needed to better understand how users utilize these features and how helpful they truly are. PMID:24936569

Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J

2014-01-01

262

A comparative proteomic analysis during urodele lens regeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine underlying mechanisms of urodele lens regeneration we have employed a proteomic analysis of 650 proteins involved in several signaling pathways. We compared expression of these proteins between the regeneration-competent dorsal iris and the regeneration-incompetent ventral iris in the newt. After a series of screenings we selected several proteins to evaluate their expression quantitatively on immunoblots. We then used these selected proteins to compare their expression between the...

Roddy, Meagan; Fox, Timothy P.; Mcfadden, Jonathan P.; Nakamura, Kenta; Del Rio-tsonis, Katia; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

2008-01-01

263

Flows of the Tycho Crater type, comparative analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Some embeddings of the Tycho Crater type flow or, more generally, of the Tycho Butterfly type flow, are demonstrated, and comparative analysis is given. Additionally, identity of the Earthen World Ocean and the Moon Global Ocean is demonstrated. Supersonic flows (jets, shock waves, Mach stems) are comparatively studied [1]. References: [1] Bratkov Yu.N., Caspian Seas, http://viXra.org/abs/1211.0067, 12 Nov 2012

Bratkov, Yury

264

ANALYSIS OF INTERNET TRAFFIC IN EDUCATIONAL NETWORK BASED ON USERS’ PREFERENCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The demand for Internet services and network resources in Educational networks are increasing rapidly. Specifically, the revolution of web 2.0 “also referred to as the Read-Write Web” has changed the way of information exchange and distribution. Although web 2.0 has gained attraction in all sectors of the education industry, but it results in high-traffic loads on networks which often leads to the Internet users’ dissatisfaction. Therefore, analyzing Internet traffic becomes an urgent need to provide high-quality service, monitoring bandwidth usage. In this study, we focus on analyzing the Internet traffic in Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM main campus. We performed measurement analysis form the application level characteristics based on users’ preferences. A total of three methodological steps are carried out to meet the objective of this study namely data collection, data analysis and data presentation. The finding shows that social networks are the most web applications visited in UUM. These findings lead to facilitate the enhancement of Educational network performance and Internet bandwidth strategies.

Mustafa M.H. Ibrahim

2014-01-01

265

Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evol...

Waterston, Rh; Lindblad-toh, K.; Birney, E.; Rogers, J.; Abril, Jf; Agarwal, P.; Agarwala, R.; Ainscough, R.; Alexandersson, M.; An, P.; Antonarakis, Se; Attwood, J.; Baertsch, R.; Bailey, J.; Barlow, K.

2002-01-01

266

Gap Analysis Comparing LLNL ISMS and ISO 14001  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gap analysis was conducted comparing the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) with the international standard ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1. This analysis was accomplished as part of LLNL's assessment of the impacts of adopting DOE Order 450.1 and comprises a portion of its continuous improvement efforts under ISMS.

Doerr, T B

2004-08-09

267

Security analysis and enhancements of an effective biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, many biometrics-based user authentication schemes using smart cards have been proposed to improve the security weaknesses in user authentication system. In 2011, Das proposed an efficient biometric-based remote user authentication scheme using smart cards that can provide strong authentication and mutual authentication. In this paper, we analyze the security of Das's authentication scheme, and we have shown that Das's authentication scheme is still insecure against the various attacks. Also, we proposed the enhanced scheme to remove these security problems of Das's authentication scheme, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed to an attacker. As a result of security analysis, we can see that the enhanced scheme is secure against the user impersonation attack, the server masquerading attack, the password guessing attack, and the insider attack and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server. PMID:22899887

An, Younghwa

2012-01-01

268

State estimation applications in aircraft flight-data analysis: A user's manual for SMACK  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution in the use of state estimation is traced for the analysis of aircraft flight data. A unifying mathematical framework for state estimation is reviewed, and several examples are presented that illustrate a general approach for checking instrument accuracy and data consistency, and for estimating variables that are difficult to measure. Recent applications associated with research aircraft flight tests and airline turbulence upsets are described. A computer program for aircraft state estimation is discussed in some detail. This document is intended to serve as a user's manual for the program called SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics). The diversity of the applications described emphasizes the potential advantages in using SMACK for flight-data analysis.

Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

1991-01-01

269

Tools for comparative protein structure modeling and analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The following resources for comparative protein structure modeling and analysis are described (http://salilab.org): MODELLER, a program for comparative modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints; MODWEB, a web server for automated comparative modeling that relies on PSI-BLAST, IMPALA and MODELLER; MODLOOP, a web server for automated loop modeling that relies on MODELLER; MOULDER, a CPU intensive protocol of MODWEB for building comparative models based on distant known structures; MODBASE, a comprehensive database of annotated comparative models for all sequences detectably related to a known structure; MODVIEW, a Netscape plugin for Linux that integrates viewing of multiple sequences and structures; and SNPWEB, a web server for structure-based prediction of the functional impact of a single amino acid substitution. PMID:12824331

Eswar, Narayanan; John, Bino; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Fiser, Andras; Ilyin, Valentin A.; Pieper, Ursula; Stuart, Ashley C.; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Yerkovich, Bozidar; Sali, Andrej

2003-01-01

270

Methods to Recruit Hard-to-Reach Groups: Comparing Two Chain Referral Sampling Methods of Recruiting Injecting Drug Users Across Nine Studies in Russia and Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence suggests rapid diffusion of injecting drug use and associated outbreaks of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. There remains a need for research among non-treatment and community-recruited samples of IDUs to better estimate the dynamics of HIV transmission and to improve treatment and health services access. We compare two sampling methodologies “respondent-driven sampling” (RDS) and chain referral sampling using “indigenous field...

Platt, Lucy; Wall, Martin; Rhodes, Tim; Judd, Ali; Hickman, Matthew; Johnston, Lisa G.; Renton, Adrian; Bobrova, Natalia; Sarang, Anya

2006-01-01

271

INSTITUTIONS AND VALUES OF ROMANIANS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL REGIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting from the results of a national survey, a questionnaire on the values of Romanians was applied in April 2008 which was used for a comparative analysis of historical regions of Romania: Moldova, Bucharest, Dobrogea, Transilvania and Muntenia. Ou

Iacobuta Andreea-Oana

2009-05-01

272

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative health risk assessments have been performed for a number of proposed municipal waste combustor (MWC) facilities over the past several years. his article presents the results of a comparative analysis of a total of 21 risk assessments, focusing on seven of the most co...

273

A Comparative Analysis: The Meaning of Home Economics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1899-1908 Lake Placid Conferences' definition of home economics as a professional field of study was compared to the 1979 meaning in Home Economics: A Definition, a paper by Brown and Paolucci, to provide clarity and future direction for the field. A componential analysis was conducted with the following domains: family, religion, politics,…

Jax, Judy

274

Initial Implementation of a comparative Data Analysis Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

Francisco Prosdocimi

2009-01-01

275

Initial Implementation of a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative analysis is used throughout biology. When entities under comparison (e.g. proteins, genomes, species are related by descent, evolutionary theory provides a framework that, in principle, allows N-ary comparisons of entities, while controlling for non-independence due to relatedness. Powerful software tools exist for specialized applications of this approach, yet it remains under-utilized in the absence of a unifying informatics infrastructure. A key step in developing such an infrastructure is the definition of a formal ontology. The analysis of use cases and existing formalisms suggests that a significant component of evolutionary analysis involves a core problem of inferring a character history, relying on key concepts: “Operational Taxonomic Units” (OTUs, representing the entities to be compared; “character-state data” representing the observations compared among OTUs; “phylogenetic tree”, representing the historical path of evolution among the entities; and “transitions”, the inferred evolutionary changes in states of characters that account for observations. Using the Web Ontology Language (OWL, we have defined these and other fundamental concepts in a Comparative Data Analysis Ontology (CDAO. CDAO has been evaluated for its ability to represent token data sets and to support simple forms of reasoning. With further development, CDAO will provide a basis for tools (for semantic transformation, data retrieval, validation, integration, etc. that make it easier for software developers and biomedical researchers to apply evolutionary methods of inference to diverse types of data, so as to integrate this powerful framework for reasoning into their research.

Francisco Prosdocimi

2009-07-01

276

Community Service and User Support for the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) Data Assimilation and Analysis System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system is a unified variational data assimilation and analysis system for both global and regional applications. It is currently used as a data assimilation system by various operational centers, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (e.g., Global Forecasting System (GFS), North American Mesoscale (NAM) system, the Hurricane WRF (HWRF), and the RAPid Refresh (RAP) system), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model), and the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). This analysis system is also used to generate certain analysis products, such as output from NOAA's GFS reanalysis and the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA) (e.g., 2m temperature, 10m winds gust, surface pressure and surface visibility). GSI can also be used to generate analyses for climate studies (e.g., ozone and sea surface temperature (SST) analyses) or assimilate non-'traditional' fields (e.g., aerosol data assimilation) for air quality studies (e.g., dust storms). Lately, an effort was initiated to use GSI for data assimilation throughout the entire atmosphere. One example of such an effort is the development of a data assimilation system for the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) at NCEP. Over the past few years, GSI has been transitioned to a community resource through a joint effort led by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC), in collaboration with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) and other GSI partners. The DTC is a distributed facility with a goal of serving as a bridge between the research and operational communities by transitioning the operational capability to a community resource and committing the contributions from the research community to the operational repository. The DTC has hosted four Community GSI tutorials and released five versions of the community GSI system with a corresponding User's Guide. The DTC has built and continues to maintain a community GSI User's Page to provide GSI code, documentation, and on-line tutorials for the research community. The DTC staff has been providing support to GSI users through the GSI help desk since the release of version 1 of the community code in 2009. This paper will briefly describe the GSI system and emphasize the GSI community services and support available from the DTC and other developers.

Shao, H.; Hu, M.; Stark, D.; Newman, K.; Zhou, C.; Derber, J.; Lueken, M.

2013-12-01

277

Comparative analysis of equalization methods for SC-FDMA  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we introduce comparative analysis for different types of equalization schemes, based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) optimization. The following types of equalizers were compared: linear equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) and turbo equalization. Performance and complexity of these schemes were tested for Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) system with Single Input Single Output (SISO) antenna configuration. SC-FDMA is a common technique, which is used in the UTRA LTE Uplink, so the results of complexity and performance analysis could be applied to find the appropriate equalization algorithm to be used in the Uplink channel of the LTE – the famous standard in 4G telecommunications. Simulation results in the end in this paper show bit error ratio (BER) and modulation error ratio (MER) for compared schemes.

Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Ukhanova, Ann

2010-01-01

278

Linear Inferential Modeling: Theoretical Perspectives, Extensions, and Comparative Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inferential models are widely used in the chemical industry to infer key process variables, which are challenging or expensive to measure, from other more easily measured variables. The aim of this paper is three-fold: to present a theoretical review of some of the well known linear inferential modeling techniques, to enhance the predictive ability of the regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA method, and finally to compare the performances of these techniques and highlight some of the practical issues that can affect their predictive abilities. The inferential modeling techniques considered in this study include full rank modeling techniques, such as ordinary least square (OLS regression and ridge regression (RR, and latent variable regression (LVR techniques, such as principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares (PLS regression, and regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA. The theoretical analysis shows that the loading vectors used in LVR modeling can be computed by solving eigenvalue problems. Also, for the RCCA method, we show that by optimizing the regularization parameter, an improvement in prediction accuracy can be achieved over other modeling techniques. To illustrate the performances of all inferential modeling techniques, a comparative analysis was performed through two simulated examples, one using synthetic data and the other using simulated distillation column data. All techniques are optimized and compared by computing the cross validation mean square error using unseen testing data. The results of this comparative analysis show that scaling the data helps improve the performances of all modeling techniques, and that the LVR techniques outperform the full rank ones. One reason for this advantage is that the LVR techniques improve the conditioning of the model by discarding the latent variables (or principal components with small eigenvalues, which also reduce the effect of the noise on the model prediction. The results also show that PCR and PLS have comparable performances, and that RCCA can provide an advantage by optimizing its regularization parameter.

Muddu Madakyaru

2012-11-01

279

Vertical Guidance Performance Analysis of the L1–L5 Dual-Frequency GPS/WAAS User Avionics Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the potential vertical guidance performance of global positioning system (GPS)/wide area augmentation system (WAAS) user avionics sensor when the modernized GPS and Galileo are available. This paper will first investigate the airborne receiver code noise and multipath (CNMP) confidence (?air). The ?air will be the dominant factor in the availability analysis of an L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor. This paper uses the MATLAB Algorithm Availability Si...

Shau-Shiun Jan

2010-01-01

280

Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) Analysis of Bridges from a User and Social Point of View  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the last two decades, important progress has been made in the life-cycle cost-benefit (LCCB) analysis of structures, especially offshore platforms, bridges and nuclear installations. Due to the large uncertainties related to the deterioration, maintenance, and benefits of such structures, analysis based on stochastic modelling of all significant parameters seems to be the only relevant analysis. However, a great number of difficulties are involved, not only in the modelling, but also in the practical implementation of the models developed at present. The main purpose of this paper is to present and discuss some of these problems from a user and social point of view. A brief presentation of a preliminary study of the importance of including benefits in life-cycle cost-benefit analysis in management systems for bridges is shown. Benefits may be positive as well as negative from the user point of view. In the paper, negative benefits (user costs) are discussed in relation to the maintenance of concrete bridges. A limited number of excerpts from published reports that are related to the importance of estimating user costs when repairs of bridges are planned, and when optimized strategies are formulated, are shown. These excerpts clearly show that user costs in several cases completely dominate the total costs. In some cases, the user costs are more than ten times higher than the repair costs. A simple example of how to relate and estimate user costs to the repair of a single bridge is shown. Finally, how the total maintenance costs (including user costs) may be estimated for a large bridge stock is discussed.

Thoft-Christensen, Palle

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

RKWard: A Comprehensive Graphical User Interface and Integrated Development Environment for Statistical Analysis with R  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available R is a free open-source implementation of the S statistical computing language and programming environment. The current status of R is a command line driven interface with no advanced cross-platform graphical user interface (GUI, but it includes tools for building such. Over the past years, proprietary and non-proprietary GUI solutions have emerged, based on internal or external tool kits, with different scopes and technological concepts. For example, Rgui.exe and Rgui.app have become the de facto GUI on the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X platforms, respectively, for most users. In this paper we discuss RKWard which aims to be both a comprehensive GUI and an integrated development environment for R. RKWard is based on the KDE software libraries. Statistical procedures and plots are implemented using an extendable plugin architecture based on ECMAScript (JavaScript, R, and XML. RKWard provides an excellent tool to manage different types of data objects; even allowing for seamless editing of certain types. The objective of RKWard is to provide a portable and extensible R interface for both basic and advanced statistical and graphical analysis, while not compromising on flexibility and modularity of the R programming environment itself.

Stephan Rödiger

2012-06-01

282

User's guide for the REBUS-3 fuel cycle analysis capability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

REBUS-3 is a system of programs designed for the fuel-cycle analysis of fast reactors. This new capability is an extension and refinement of the REBUS-3 code system and complies with the standard code practices and interface dataset specifications of the Committee on Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). The new code is hence divorced from the earlier ARC System. In addition, the coding has been designed to enhance code exportability. Major new capabilities not available in the REBUS-2 code system include a search on burn cycle time to achieve a specified value for the multiplication constant at the end of the burn step; a general non-repetitive fuel-management capability including temporary out-of-core fuel storage, loading of fresh fuel, and subsequent retrieval and reloading of fuel; significantly expanded user input checking; expanded output edits; provision of prestored burnup chains to simplify user input; option of fixed-or free-field BCD input formats; and, choice of finite difference, nodal or spatial flux-synthesis neutronics in one-, two-, or three-dimensions.

Toppel, B.J.

1983-03-01

283

BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

1996-03-01

284

GRPAUT: a program for Pu isotopic analysis (a user's guide). ISPO task A.76  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GRPAUT is a modular program for performing automated Pu isotopic analysis supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) per ISPO Task A.76. Section I of this user's guide for GRPAUT presents an overview of the various programs and disk files that are used in performing a Pu isotopic analysis. Section II describes the program GRFEDT which is used in creating and editing the analysis parameter file that contains all the spectroscopic information needed at runtime by GRPAUT. An example of the dialog and output of GRFEDT is shown in Appendix B. Section III describes the operation of the various GRPAUT modules: GRPNL2, the peak stripping module; EFFCH2, the efficiency calculation module; and ISOAUT, the isotopic calculation module. (A description of the peak fitting methodology employed by GRPNL2 is presented in Appendix A.) Finally, Section IV outlines the procedure for determining the peak shape constants for a detector system and describes the operation of the program used to create and edit the peak shape parameter files. An output of GRPAUT, showing an example of a complete isotopic analysis, is presented in Appendix C. Source listings of all the Fortran programs supplied to the Agency under ISPO Task A.76 are contained in Appendix E

285

Bitmap indices for fast end-user physics analysis in ROOT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most physics analysis jobs involve multiple selection steps on the input data. These selection steps are called cuts or queries. A common strategy to implement these queries is to read all input data from files and then process the queries in memory. In many applications the number of variables used to define these queries is a relative small portion of the overall data set therefore reading all variables into memory takes unnecessarily long time. In this paper we describe an integration effort that can significantly reduce this unnecessary reading by using an efficient compressed bitmap index technology. The primary advantage of this index is that it can process arbitrary combinations of queries very efficiently, while most other indexing technologies suffer from the 'curse of dimensionality' as the number of queries increases. By integrating this index technology with the ROOT analysis framework, the end-users can benefit from the added efficiency without having to modify their analysis programs. Our performance results show that for multi-dimensional queries, bitmap indices outperform the traditional analysis method up to a factor of 10

286

User guide for data analysis of estimation algorithm of loose parts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally, it is known that loose parts in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) bring serious damage into the system components and impede the normal function of the system. So, it is necessary to rapidly respond when the impact event has occurred. But the existing system is known to only alarm information for the operator. The report presented the user guide of the estimation algorithm needed to diagnosis and proposed how to use the impact test and actual impact of Database. The Database will be used to compare the test data with the actual data when the impact event has occurred. Appendix I include that the estimation algorithm applied to the impact test data and actual impact data is proposed. Appendix II is represented to the report about the actual impact data sent to the operator, until now. Appendix III shows the flowchart of LPMS's Monitoring and diagnosis at each plant.

Kim, Jung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Song, Sun Ja; Kim, Tae Hwane

2001-02-01

287

User guide for data analysis of estimation algorithm of loose parts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally, it is known that loose parts in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) bring serious damage into the system components and impede the normal function of the system. So, it is necessary to rapidly respond when the impact event has occurred. But the existing system is known to only alarm information for the operator. The report presented the user guide of the estimation algorithm needed to diagnosis and proposed how to use the impact test and actual impact of Database. The Database will be used to compare the test data with the actual data when the impact event has occurred. Appendix I include that the estimation algorithm applied to the impact test data and actual impact data is proposed. Appendix II is represented to the report about the actual impact data sent to the operator, until now. Appendix III shows the flowchart of LPMS's Monitoring and diagnosis at each plant

288

An exploratory analysis of communication sources: targeting high risk behavior among injection drug users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, most AIDS education and prevention programs attempt to change the high risk behavior of injection drug users (IDU's) (e.g., sharing needles and engaging in unsafe sex) through the implementation of two distinct strategies. First, empirical-rational strategies suggest that people maximize their rational self-interest. Second, normative re-education strategies suggest that people change their individual behavior when they believe that there has been change in the sociocultural norms, values, and habits around them. Both of these strategies make assumptions about how communication changes IDU's beliefs and behavior. An empirical-rational strategy emphasizes non-personal mass communications (e.g., television, radio, newspaper); while normative re-education strategies make use of personal communications (e.g. friends, family, educational outreach workers, and group discussion). The purpose of this paper is to compare these strategies by examining the impact of AIDS communication sources on the beliefs and behaviors of IDU's. PMID:10172894

Bodkin, C D; La Salvia, T A

1996-01-01

289

COMPARATIVE STUDY AND ANALYSIS OF BER OF CDMA FOR DIFFERENT MODULATION SCHEME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increasing demand in wireless communication, it has become necessary to give better and efficient service to users by using better technique. This paper propose and analyse the bit error rate of CDMA, for different modulation schemes such as BPSK, QPSK and QAM. By Choosing a reliable modulation scheme and better filtration Technique the enhancement of the performance can be obtained in transmitter and receiver of CDMA system. Simulated result is shown to analyse and compare the performance of these systems by using additive white Gaussian noise channel (AWGN.Finally the different modulation schemes is compared on the basis of BER and best modulation scheme is determined.  From analysis of three modulation techniques, the system could use more appropriate modulation technique to suit the channel quality, thus we can deliver the optimum and efficient data rate to mobile terminal.

Arun Kumar

2014-03-01

290

Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

2008-01-01

291

Innovation Process Barriers in Public Sector: a Comparative Analysis in Lithuania and the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Innovation design and implementation becomes one of the essential conditions for the modernization of publicgovernance, but innovation process in public sector is a quite risky and the success is not always guaranteed, so itis important to identify and to prevent innovation barriers. Public sector organizations’ abilities to identify theinnovation barriers and to develop their management instruments, determine the quality and efficiency ofinnovation processes. The most frequently mentioned barriers to public sector innovations are a lack of foundingand human resources, regulatory requirements, a lack of management support and incentives for staff, an uncertainacceptance by users, a risk-averse culture and a staff resistance. The article focuses on the classification of publicsector innovation problems and barriers. The authors, using meta-analysis method, attempt to model interferencesof internal and external barriers to innovation. By a content analysis of secondary data, authors try to finddifferences, similarities and to compare innovation barriers in Lithuania and other countries of the EuropeanUnion.

Alvydas Raipa

2014-09-01

292

Exploiting all phone media? A multidimensional network analysis of phone users' sociality  

CERN Document Server

The growing awareness that human communications and social interactions are assuming a stratified structure, due to the availability of multiple techno-communication channels, including online social networks, mobile phone calls, short messages (SMS) and e-mails, has recently led to the study of multidimensional networks, as a step further the classical Social Network Analysis. A few papers have been dedicated to develop the theoretical framework to deal with such multiplex networks and to analyze some example of multidimensional social networks. In this context we perform the first study of the multiplex mobile social network, gathered from the records of both call and text message activities of millions of users of a large mobile phone operator over a period of 12 weeks. While social networks constructed from mobile phone datasets have drawn great attention in recent years, so far studies have dealt with text message and call data, separately, providing a very partial view of people sociality expressed on p...

Zignani, Matteo; Gaitto, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

2014-01-01

293

The Quantitative Analysis of User Behavior Online - Data, Models and Algorithms  

Science.gov (United States)

By blending principles from mechanism design, algorithms, machine learning and massive distributed computing, the search industry has become good at optimizing monetization on sound scientific principles. This represents a successful and growing partnership between computer science and microeconomics. When it comes to understanding how online users respond to the content and experiences presented to them, we have more of a lacuna in the collaboration between computer science and certain social sciences. We will use a concrete technical example from image search results presentation, developing in the process some algorithmic and machine learning problems of interest in their own right. We then use this example to motivate the kinds of studies that need to grow between computer science and the social sciences; a critical element of this is the need to blend large-scale data analysis with smaller-scale eye-tracking and "individualized" lab studies.

Raghavan, Prabhakar

294

Thermal Insulation System Analysis Tool (TISTool) User's Manual. Version 1.0.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The Thermal Insulation System Analysis Tool (TISTool) was developed starting in 2004 by Jonathan Demko and James Fesmire. The first edition was written in Excel and Visual BasIc as macros. It included the basic shapes such as a flat plate, cylinder, dished head, and sphere. The data was from several KSC tests that were already in the public literature realm as well as data from NIST and other highly respectable sources. More recently, the tool has been updated with more test data from the Cryogenics Test Laboratory and the tank shape was added. Additionally, the tool was converted to FORTRAN 95 to allow for easier distribution of the material and tool. This document reviews the user instructions for the operation of this system.

Johnson, Wesley; Fesmire, James; Leucht, Kurt; Demko, Jonathan

2010-01-01

295

Light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2). Detailed structure and user's manual  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A light water reactor fuel behavior analysis code FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2) was developed as an improved version of FEMAXI-IV. Development of FEMAXI-IV has been already finished in 1992, though a detailed structure and input manual of the code have not been open to users yet. Here, the basic theories and structure, the models and numerical solutions applied to FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), and the material properties adopted in the code are described in detail. In FEMAXI-IV(Ver.2), programming bugs in previous FEMAXI-IV were eliminated, renewal of the pellet thermal conductivity was performed, and a model of thermal-stress restraint on FP gas release was incorporated. For facilitation of effective and wide-ranging application of the code, methods of input/output of the code are also described in detail, and sample output is included. (author)

296

Comparative analysis of microbial DNA extraction protocols for groundwater samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis of four different DNA extraction protocols was performed to determine the best choice for groundwater microbial diversity studies using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis. The methods used were a chelex-based method, a modified salting out procedure (MSOP), and the commercial kits Epicentre and FastDNA. Both commercial kits exhibited the greatest reproducibility in their methods; however, their band patterns were very different. The protocol that showed the highest diversity was the chelex-based method, and the one that showed the lowest diversity was the FastDNA kit. PMID:21683680

Purswani, Jessica; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Reboleiro-Rivas, Patricia; González-López, Jesús; Pozo, Clementina

2011-09-15

297

Development and role of comparative sequence analysis in medical virology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Development of the polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing techniques has enabled precise identification, classification and taxonomy of viruses. Comparative sequence analysis. Comparative sequence analysis methods can be used in medical virology for many practical purposes. They may be classified into three broad categories: I - reconstruction of genealogical relationships between individual viral isolates for detection and monitoring of sources, reservoirs and modes of viral transmission; II - virus genotyping, that is determination of relationships between genetic types of viruses and their phenotypic properties, which has important implications for immuno-prophylaxis, therapy and prognosis of viral diseases; and III -investigation of functional properties of defined viral sequences, of special importance for explanation of viral pathogenesis and design of antiviral drugs. Future prospects. The combination of DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction following reverse transcription with the use of random primers offers a universal means for diagnosis of viral infections. .

Stankov Sr?an

2006-01-01

298

Comparative analysis of radionuclide inventory in sediment 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to test the reliability of methods used in environmental monitoring for radioactive substances, the Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde in 1995 again carried out a comparative analysis ''Radionuclides in sediment'' with correspondingly labelled or conditioned samples. The primary aim of this project - independently of the method used in each instance and the measuring conditions observed - was to establish the extent to which the measuring results of the individual participants deviate from specified supposed values or likeliest contents, and also to valuate these deviations by means of illustrative quality parameters. In so far the aim of this comparative analysis differs from that of a so-called inter-laboratory experiment, where the primary objective is to obtain characteristic data for an analytical method (orig./SR)

299

Reactor neutron activation analysis by single comparator method: Ko measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron activation analysis using single comparator has been adapted for multi element analysis in different matrices. Gold was used as comparator. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was used for measuring radioactivity. Ko factors for fifteen isotopes were measured using this method. Ko values for 111 radioisotopes for the elements from fluorine to uranium were also calculated using latest nuclear data. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated Ko values was obtained. Ratio of the sub-cadmium to epi-cadmium neutron flux which is an important input parameter was measured in different irradiation positions of Apsara reactor. Using this method, macro and micro concentrations of analytes in a geological standard (USGS-W-1) and a few gem samples were determined. (author). 28 refs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix

300

Comparative analysis of the rapid development and its alternatives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with a new criterion “relation to the leader” to classification of development types. According to this feature the development is divided into catching-up, rapid and development at the leader’s level. Authors determine three blocks of characteristics that enhance to understand the nature of these types: economic characteristics, innovation activity and governance. A comparative analysis of these development types is conducted.

N.S. Illiashenko

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses the ‘lens’ of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World’s Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates and waste composition data. A process flow diagram is prepared for each city, as a powerful tool for representing the solid waste system as a whole in a comprehensive but concise way. Benchmark...

Wilson, D. C.; Rodic-wiersma, L.; Scheinberg, A.; Velis, C. A.; Alabaster, G.

2012-01-01

302

Recent national trends in Salvia divinorum use and substance-use disorders among recent and former Salvia divinorum users compared with nonusers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1, George E Woody2, Chongming Yang3, Jih-Heng Li4, Dan G Blazer11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 4College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, TaiwanContext: Media and scientific reports have indicated an increase in recreational use of Salvia divinorum. Epidemiological data are lacking on the trends, prevalence, and correlates of S. divinorum use in large representative samples, as well as the extent of substance use and mental health problems among S. divinorum users.Objective: To examine the national trend in prevalence of S. divinorum use and to identify sociodemographic, behavioral, mental health, and substance-use profiles of recent (past-year and former users of S. divinorum.Design: Analyses of public-use data files from the 2006–2008 United States National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N = 166,453.Setting: Noninstitutionalized individuals aged 12 years or older were interviewed in their places of residence.Main measures: Substance use, S. divinorum, self-reported substance use disorders, criminality, depression, and mental health treatment were assessed by standardized survey questions administered by the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method.Results: Among survey respondents, lifetime prevalence of S. divinorum use had increased from 0.7% in 2006 to 1.3% in 2008 (an 83% increase. S. divinorum use was associated with ages 18–25 years, male gender, white or multiple race, residence of large metropolitan areas, arrests for criminal activities, and depression. S. divinorum use was particularly common among recent drug users, including users of lysergic acid diethylamide (53.7%, ecstasy (30.1%, heroin (24.2%, phencyclidine (22.4%, and cocaine (17.5%. Adjusted multinomial logistic analyses indicated polydrug use as the strongest determinant for recent and former S. divinorum use. An estimated 43.0% of past-year S. divinorum users and 28.9% of former S. divinorum users had an illicit or nonmedical drug-use disorder compared with 2.5% of nonusers. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that recent and former S. divinorum users had greater odds of having past-year depression and a substance-use disorder (alcohol or drugs than past-year alcohol or drug users who did not use S. divinorum.Conclusion: S. divinorum use is prevalent among recent or active drug users who have used other hallucinogens or stimulants. The high prevalence of substance use disorders among recent S. divinorum users emphasizes the need to study health risks of drug interactions.Keywords: alcohol-use disorders, drug-use disorders, ecstasy, lysergic acid diethylamide, major depression, multiple race, nicotine dependence, phencyclidine, prescription drug abuse

Blazer DG

2011-04-01

303

User's manual for seismic analysis code 'SONATINA-2V'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The seismic analysis code, SONATINA-2V, has been developed to analyze the behavior of the HTTR core graphite components under seismic excitation. The SONATINA-2V code is a two-dimensional computer program capable of analyzing the vertical arrangement of the HTTR graphite components, such as fuel blocks, replaceable reflector blocks, permanent reflector blocks, as well as their restraint structures. In the analytical model, each block is treated as rigid body and is restrained by dowel pins which restrict relative horizontal movement but allow vertical and rocking motions between upper and lower blocks. Moreover, the SONATINA-2V code is capable of analyzing the core vibration behavior under both simultaneous excitations of vertical and horizontal directions. The SONATINA-2V code is composed of the main program, pri-processor for making the input data to SONATINA-2V and post-processor for data processing and making the graphics from analytical results. Though the SONATINA-2V code was developed in order to work in the MSP computer system of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the computer system was abolished with the technical progress of computer. Therefore, improvement of this analysis code was carried out in order to operate the code under the UNIX machine, SR8000 computer system, of the JAERI. The users manual for seismic analysis code, SONATINA-2V, including pri- and post-processor is given in the present report. (author)

Hanawa, Satoshi; Iyoku, Tatsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

2001-08-01

304

C language program analysis system (CLAS) part 1: graphical user interface (GUI)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CLAS (C Language Program Analysis System) is a reverse engineering tool intended for use in the verification and validation (V and V) phase of software programs developed in the ANSI C language. From the source code, CLAS generates data pertaining to two conceptual models of software programs viz., Entity-Relationship (E-R) model and Control Flow Graphs (CFG) model. Browsing tools within CLAS, make use of this data, to provide different graphical views of the project. Static analysis tools have been developed earlier for analysing assembly language programs. CLAS is a continuation of this work to provide automated support in analysis of ANSI C language programs. CLAS provides an integrated Graphical User Interface (GUI) based environment under which programs can be analysed into the above mentioned models and the analysed data can be viewed using the browsing tools. The GUI of CLAS is implemented using an OPEN LOOK compliant tool kit XVIEW on Sun SPARC IPC workstation running Sun OS 4.1.1 rev. B. This report describes the GUI of CLAS. CLAS is also expected to be useful in other contexts which may involve understanding architecture/structure of already developed C language programs. Such requirements can arise while carrying out activities like code modification, parallelising etc. (author). 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 appendix

305

Does Offline Political Segregation Affect the Filter Bubble? An Empirical Analysis of Information Diversity for Dutch and Turkish Twitter Users  

CERN Document Server

From a liberal perspective, pluralism and viewpoint diversity are seen as a necessary condition for a well-functioning democracy. Recently, there have been claims that viewpoint diversity is diminishing in online social networks, putting users in a "bubble", where they receive political information which they agree with. The contributions from our investigations are fivefold: (1) we introduce different dimensions of the highly complex value viewpoint diversity using political theory; (2) we provide an overview of the metrics used in the literature of viewpoint diversity analysis; (3) we operationalize new metrics using the theory and provide a framework to analyze viewpoint diversity in Twitter for different political cultures; (4) we share our results for a case study on minorities we performed for Turkish and Dutch Twitter users; (5) we show that minority users cannot reach a large percentage of Turkish Twitter users. With the last of these contributions, using theory from communication scholars and philoso...

Bozdag, Engin; Houben, Geert-Jan; Warnier, Martijn

2014-01-01

306

GATA: a graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several problems exist with current methods used to align DNA sequences for comparative sequence analysis. Most dynamic programming algorithms assume that conserved sequence elements are collinear. This assumption appears valid when comparing orthologous protein coding sequences. Functional constraints on proteins provide strong selective pressure against sequence inversions, and minimize sequence duplications and feature shuffling. For non-coding sequences this collinearity assumption is often invalid. For example, enhancers contain clusters of transcription factor binding sites that change in number, orientation, and spacing during evolution yet the enhancer retains its activity. Dot plot analysis is often used to estimate non-coding sequence relatedness. Yet dot plots do not actually align sequences and thus cannot account well for base insertions or deletions. Moreover, they lack an adequate statistical framework for comparing sequence relatedness and are limited to pairwise comparisons. Lastly, dot plots and dynamic programming text outputs fail to provide an intuitive means for visualizing DNA alignments. Results To address some of these issues, we created a stand alone, platform independent, graphic alignment tool for comparative sequence analysis (GATA http://gata.sourceforge.net/. GATA uses the NCBI-BLASTN program and extensive post-processing to identify all small sub-alignments above a low cut-off score. These are graphed as two shaded boxes, one for each sequence, connected by a line using the coordinate system of their parent sequence. Shading and colour are used to indicate score and orientation. A variety of options exist for querying, modifying and retrieving conserved sequence elements. Extensive gene annotation can be added to both sequences using a standardized General Feature Format (GFF file. Conclusions GATA uses the NCBI-BLASTN program in conjunction with post-processing to exhaustively align two DNA sequences. It provides researchers with a fine-grained alignment and visualization tool aptly suited for non-coding, 0–200 kb, pairwise, sequence analysis. It functions independent of sequence feature ordering or orientation, and readily visualizes both large and small sequence inversions, duplications, and segment shuffling. Since the alignment is visual and does not contain gaps, gene annotation can be added to both sequences to create a thoroughly descriptive picture of DNA conservation that is well suited for comparative sequence analysis.

Nix David A

2005-01-01

307

SAS (Statistical Analysis System) by forms: Putting statistical power into the hands of an end-user  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software provides a high level programming tool for data analysis, presumably with little effort. However, the flexibility of the language and its multitudinous options can both intimidate and confuse a casual user of SAS. How can the full power of SAS be integrated in such a way that end-users with limited training can perform their own analyses without sacrificing flexibility. This paper describes how SAS has been integrated into a menu-driven system which can be adapted to an extensible set of SAS procedures in a dynamic data environment. The system operates under VMS and utilizes the DIGITAL FMS Forms Management System. 1 ref., 8 figs.

Lee, J.W.

1987-09-01

308

Spatial analysis of HIV positive injection drug users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987-1995) and late period (1996-2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

Martinez, Alexis N; Mobley, Lee R; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P; Lopez, Andrea; Kral, Alex H

2014-04-01

309

Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914. HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995 and late period (1996–2005. We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time.

Alexis N. Martinez

2014-04-01

310

Wordom: A User-Friendly Program for the Analysis of Molecular Structures, Trajectories, and Free Energy Surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wordom is a versatile, user-friendly, and efficient program for manipulation and analysis of molecular structures and dynamics. The following new analysis modules have been added since the publication of the original Wordom paper in 2007: assignment of secondary structure, calculation of solvent accessible surfaces, elastic network model, motion cross correlations, protein structure network, shortest intra-molecular and inter-molecular communication paths, kinetic grouping analysis, and calcu...

Seeber, Michele; Felline, Angelo; Raimondi, Francesco; Muff, Stefanie; Friedman, Ran; Rao, Francesco; Caflisch, Amedeo; Fanelli, Francesca

2011-01-01

311

Comparative transcriptomic analysis of streptococcus pseudopneumoniae with viridans group streptococci  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, is a novel member of the genus Streptococcus, falling close to related members like S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, and S. oralis. Its recent appearance has shed light on streptococcal infections, which has been unclear till recently. In this study, the transcriptome of S. pseudopneumoniae CCUG 49455T was analyzed using the S. pneumoniae R6 microarray platform and compared with those of S. pneumoniae KCTC 5080T, S. mitis KCTC 3556T, and S. oralis KCTC 13048T strains. Results Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed the extent of genetic relatedness among the species, and implies that S. pseudopneumoniae is the most closely related to S. pneumoniae. A total of 489, 444 and 470 genes were upregulated while 347, 484 and 443 were downregulated relative to S. pneumoniae in S. pseudopneumoniae, S. oralis and S. mitis respectively. Important findings were the up-regulation of TCS (two component systems and transposase which were found to be specific to S. pseudopneumoniae. Conclusions This study provides insight to the current understanding of the genomic content of S. pseudopneumoniae. The comparative transcriptome analysis showed hierarchical clustering of expression data of S. pseudopneumoniae with S. pneumoniae and S. mitis with S. oralis. This proves that transcriptional profiling can facilitate in elucidating the genetic distance between closely related strains.

Park Hee

2012-07-01

312

A Comparative Analysis of Global Cropping Systems Models and Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the land cover of the Earth, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million km2 of the Earth's land cover - amounting to 12% of the Earth's ice-free land surface - yet information on the distribution and performance of specific crops is often available only through national or sub-national statistics. While remote sensing products offer spatially disaggregated information, those currently available on a global scale are ill-suited for many applications due to the limited separation of crop types within the area classified as cropland. Recently, however, there have been multiple independent efforts to incorporate the detailed information available from statistical surveys with supplemental spatial information to produce a spatially explicit global dataset specific to individual cropss for the year 2000. While these datasets provide analysts and decision makers with improved information on global cropping systems, the final global cropping maps differ from one another substantially. This study aims to explore and quantify systematic similarities and differences between four major global cropping systems products: the monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000 (MIRAC2000) dataset, the spatial production allocation model (SPAM), the global agro-ecological zone (GAEZ) dataset, and the dataset developed by Monfreda et al., 2008. The analysis explores not only the final cropping systems maps but also the interdependencies of each product, methodological differences and modeling assumptions, which will provide users with information vital for discerning between datasets in selecting a product appropriate for each intended application.

Anderson, W. B.; You, L.; Wood, S.; Wood-Sichra, U.; Wu, W.

2013-12-01

313

Shape Analysis of 3D Head Scan Data for U.S. Respirator Users  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 2003, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH conducted a head-and-face anthropometric survey of diverse, civilian respirator users. Of the 3,997 subjects measured using traditional anthropometric techniques, surface scans and 26 three-dimensional (3D landmark locations were collected for 947 subjects. The objective of this study was to report the size and shape variation of the survey participants using the 3D data. Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA was conducted to standardize configurations of landmarks associated with individuals into a common coordinate system. The superimposed coordinates for each individual were used as commensurate variables that describe individual shape and were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA to identify population variation. The first four principal components (PC account for 49% of the total sample variation. The first PC indicates that overall size is an important component of facial variability. The second PC accounts for long and narrow or short and wide faces. Longer narrow orbits versus shorter wider orbits can be described by PC3, and PC4 represents variation in the degree of ortho/prognathism. Geometric Morphometrics provides a detailed and interpretable assessment of morphological variation that may be useful in assessing respirators and devising new test and certification standards.

Stephanie Lynch

2010-01-01

314

Randomized Trial Comparing Two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-Based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine and Opiate Users  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N = 29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one…

Preston, Kenzie L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Schmittner, John P.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Epstein, David H.

2008-01-01

315

DNA sequence copy number analysis by Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) uses the kinetics of in situ hybridization to compare the copy numbers of different DNA sequences within the same genome and the copy numbers of the same sequences among different genomes. In a typical application genomic DNA from a tumor and from normal cells are differentially labeled and simultaneously hybridized to normal metaphase chromosomes, and detected with different fluorochromes. Properly registered images of each fluorochrome are obtained using a microscope equipped with multi-band filters and a CCD camera. Digital image analysis permits measurement of intensity ratio profiles along each of the target chromosomes. Studies of cells with known aberrations indicate that the intensity ratio at each position is proportional to the ratio of the copy numbers of the sequences that bind there in the tumor and normal genomes. Analytical challenges posed by the need to efficiently obtain copy number karyotypes are discussed.

Pinkel, D.; Kallioniemi, A.; Kallioniemi, O.; Waldman, F.; Sudar, D.; Gray, I. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States)); Rutovitz, D.; Piper, I. (MRC Edinburgh (United Kingdom))

1993-01-01

316

Comparative sensitivity analysis of four distributed erosion models  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a previously defined framework, we performed a comparative sensitivity analysis of four very different distributed erosion models (MHYDAS, STREAM, PESERA, and MESALES). We investigated their sensitivities to input fluxes, hydrological submodels, and specific erosion parameters gathered into equivalent slope and equivalent erodibility for each model, thus allowing explicit comparisons between models. Tests involved multiple combinations of rain intensities and runoff conditions for selected screenings of the equivalent parameter space, resorting to one-at-a-time displacements and Latin hypercube samples. Sensitivity to spatial distributions of erosion parameters was calculated as a normalized index of numerical spread of soil loss results, obtained at the outlet of a nine-cell virtual catchment endowed with a fixed flow pattern. Spatially homogeneous or distributed parameterizations yielded responses of comparable magnitudes. Equivalent erodibility was often the key parameter, while sensitivity trends depended on input fluxes and the propensity of soils for runoff, affecting continuous and discrete models in clearly dissimilar ways.

Cheviron, B.; Le Bissonnais, Y.; Desprats, J. F.; Couturier, A.; Gumiere, S. J.; Cerdan, O.; Darboux, F.; Raclot, D.

2011-01-01

317

Comparative transcriptome analysis of the metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metal hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens is an established model to study the adaptation of plants to metalliferous soils. Various comparators have been used in these studies. The choice of suitable comparators is important and depends on the hypothesis to be tested and methods to be used. In high-throughput analyses such as microarray, N. caerulescens has been compared to non-tolerant, non-accumulator plants like Arabidopsis thaliana or Thlaspi arvense rather than to the related hypertolerant or hyperaccumulator plants. An underutilized source is N. caerulescens populations with considerable variation in their capacity to accumulate and tolerate metals. Whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) is revealing interesting variation in their gene expression profiles. Combining physiological characteristics of N. caerulescens accessions with their RNA-Seq has a great potential to provide detailed insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms, including entirely new gene products. In this review we will critically consider comparative transcriptome analyses carried out to explore metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance of N. caerulescens, and demonstrate the potential of RNA-Seq analysis as a tool in evolutionary genomics. PMID:24904610

Halimaa, Pauliina; Blande, Daniel; Aarts, Mark G M; Tuomainen, Marjo; Tervahauta, Arja; Kärenlampi, Sirpa

2014-01-01

318

Vertical Guidance Performance Analysis of the L1-L5 Dual-Frequency GPS/WAAS User Avionics Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential vertical guidance performance of global positioning system (GPS/wide area augmentation system (WAAS user avionics sensor when the modernized GPS and Galileo are available. This paper will first investigate the airborne receiver code noise and multipath (CNMP confidence (?air. The ?air will be the dominant factor in the availability analysis of an L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor. This paper uses the MATLAB Algorithm Availability Simulation Tool (MAAST to determine the required values for the ?air, so that an L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor can meet the vertical guidance requirements of APproach with Vertical guidance (APV II and CATegory (CAT I over conterminous United States (CONUS. A modified MAAST that includes the Galileo satellite constellation is used to determine under what user configurations WAAS could be an APV II system or a CAT I system over CONUS. Furthermore, this paper examines the combinations of possible improvements in signal models and the addition of Galileo to determine if GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor could achieve 10 m Vertical Alert Limit (VAL within the service volume. Finally, this paper presents the future vertical guidance performance of GPS user avionics sensor for the United States’ WAAS, Japanese MTSAT-based satellite augmentation system (MSAS and European geostationary navigation overlay service (EGNOS.

Shau-Shiun Jan

2010-03-01

319

Vertical guidance performance analysis of the L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the potential vertical guidance performance of global positioning system (GPS)/wide area augmentation system (WAAS) user avionics sensor when the modernized GPS and Galileo are available. This paper will first investigate the airborne receiver code noise and multipath (CNMP) confidence (?air). The ?air will be the dominant factor in the availability analysis of an L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor. This paper uses the MATLAB Algorithm Availability Simulation Tool (MAAST) to determine the required values for the ?air, so that an L1-L5 dual-frequency GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor can meet the vertical guidance requirements of APproach with Vertical guidance (APV) II and CATegory (CAT) I over conterminous United States (CONUS). A modified MAAST that includes the Galileo satellite constellation is used to determine under what user configurations WAAS could be an APV II system or a CAT I system over CONUS. Furthermore, this paper examines the combinations of possible improvements in signal models and the addition of Galileo to determine if GPS/WAAS user avionics sensor could achieve 10 m Vertical Alert Limit (VAL) within the service volume. Finally, this paper presents the future vertical guidance performance of GPS user avionics sensor for the United States' WAAS, Japanese MTSAT-based satellite augmentation system (MSAS) and European geostationary navigation overlay service (EGNOS). PMID:22319263

Jan, Shau-Shiun

2010-01-01

320

Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism. PMID:12466850

Waterston, Robert H; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R; Brown, Daniel G; Brown, Stephen D; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T; Church, Deanna M; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S; Cook, Lisa L; Copley, Richard R; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M; Eddy, Sean R; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N; Fulton, Lucinda A; Fulton, Robert S; Furey, Terrence S; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A; Green, Eric D; Gregory, Simon; Guigó, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B; Johnson, L Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S; Kulbokas, Edward J; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J P; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; Li, Jia; Li, Ming; Lloyd, Christine; Lucas, Susan; Ma, Bin; Maglott, Donna R; Mardis, Elaine R; Matthews, Lucy; Mauceli, Evan; Mayer, John H; McCarthy, Megan; McCombie, W Richard; McLaren, Stuart; McLay, Kirsten; McPherson, John D; Meldrim, Jim; Meredith, Beverley; Mesirov, Jill P; Miller, Webb; Miner, Tracie L; Mongin, Emmanuel; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Michael; Mott, Richard; Mullikin, James C; Muzny, Donna M; Nash, William E; Nelson, Joanne O; Nhan, Michael N; Nicol, Robert; Ning, Zemin; Nusbaum, Chad; O'Connor, Michael J; Okazaki, Yasushi; Oliver, Karen; Overton-Larty, Emma; Pachter, Lior; Parra, Genís; Pepin, Kymberlie H; Peterson, Jane; Pevzner, Pavel; Plumb, Robert; Pohl, Craig S; Poliakov, Alex; Ponce, Tracy C; Ponting, Chris P; Potter, Simon; Quail, Michael; Reymond, Alexandre; Roe, Bruce A; Roskin, Krishna M; Rubin, Edward M; Rust, Alistair G; Santos, Ralph; Sapojnikov, Victor; Schultz, Brian; Schultz, Jörg; Schwartz, Matthias S; Schwartz, Scott; Scott, Carol; Seaman, Steven; Searle, Steve; Sharpe, Ted; Sheridan, Andrew; Shownkeen, Ratna; Sims, Sarah; Singer, Jonathan B; Slater, Guy; Smit, Arian; Smith, Douglas R; Spencer, Brian; Stabenau, Arne; Stange-Thomann, Nicole; Sugnet, Charles; Suyama, Mikita; Tesler, Glenn; Thompson, Johanna; Torrents, David; Trevaskis, Evanne; Tromp, John; Ucla, Catherine; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Vinson, Jade P; Von Niederhausern, Andrew C; Wade, Claire M; Wall, Melanie; Weber, Ryan J; Weiss, Robert B; Wendl, Michael C; West, Anthony P; Wetterstrand, Kris; Wheeler, Raymond; Whelan, Simon; Wierzbowski, Jamey; Willey, David; Williams, Sophie; Wilson, Richard K; Winter, Eitan; Worley, Kim C; Wyman, Dudley; Yang, Shan; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zody, Michael C; Lander, Eric S

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Comparative analysis of nonverbal interpersonal communication of schizophrenics and normals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nonverbal communications of schizophrenics and normals in dyadic interactions were analyzed and compared. Twelve purposively selected women were videotaped in normal-normal, normal-schizophrenic, and schizophrenic-schizophrenic communication acts for 30 minutes. Using a PLATO IV computer program and a modified Kendon Kinesic Notation System, a priori sets of nonverbal behaviors were recorded at 1-second intervals. Frequency and duration scores for the sets of nonverbal behaviors with corresponding communication meanings were totaled. A nested analysis of variance showed that the three groups differed significantly (p less than .05) in engagement and defensiveness and that the normal interactors were the least imitative of the three groups. An analysis and description of the patterns of nonverbal communication also revealed differences, lending support to the theory of dysjunctive schizophrenic communication. PMID:6901546

Hardin, S B

1980-06-01

322

Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.

Waterston, Robert H.; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Birney, Ewan; Rogers, Jane; Abril, Josep F.; Agarwal, Pankaj; Agarwala, Richa; Ainscough, Rachel; Alexandersson, Marina; An, Peter; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Attwood, John; Baertsch, Robert; Bailey, Jonathon; Barlow, Karen; Beck, Stephan; Berry, Eric; Birren, Bruce; Bloom, Toby; Bork, Peer; Botcherby, Marc; Bray, Nicolas; Brent, Michael R.; Brown, Daniel G.; Brown, Stephen D.; Bult, Carol; Burton, John; Butler, Jonathan; Campbell, Robert D.; Carninci, Piero; Cawley, Simon; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Church, Deanna M.; Clamp, Michele; Clee, Christopher; Collins, Francis S.; Cook, Lisa L.; Copley, Richard R.; Coulson, Alan; Couronne, Olivier; Cuff, James; Curwen, Val; Cutts, Tim; Daly, Mark; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Delehaunty, Kimberly D.; Deri, Justin; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dewey, Colin; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Diekhans, Mark; Dodge, Sheila; Dubchak, Inna; Dunn, Diane M.; Eddy, Sean R.; Elnitski, Laura; Emes, Richard D.; Eswara, Pallavi; Eyras, Eduardo; Felsenfeld, Adam; Fewell, Ginger A.; Flicek, Paul; Foley, Karen; Frankel, Wayne N.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Furey, Terrence S.; Gage, Diane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glusman, Gustavo; Gnerre, Sante; Goldman, Nick; Goodstadt, Leo; Grafham, Darren; Graves, Tina A.; Green, Eric D.; Gregory, Simon; Guigo, Roderic; Guyer, Mark; Hardison, Ross C.; Haussler, David; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hinrichs, Angela; Hlavina, Wratko; Holzer, Timothy; Hsu, Fan; Hua, Axin; Hubbard, Tim; Hunt, Adrienne; Jackson, Ian; Jaffe, David B.; Johnson, L. Steven; Jones, Matthew; Jones, Thomas A.; Joy, Ann; Kamal, Michael; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Karolchik, Donna; Kasprzyk, Arkadiusz; Kawai, Jun; Keibler, Evan; Kells, Cristyn; Kent, W. James; Kirby, Andrew; Kolbe, Diana L.; Korf, Ian; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Kulbokas III, Edward J.; Kulp, David; Landers, Tom; Leger, J.P.; Leonard, Steven; Letunic, Ivica; Levine, Rosie; et al.

2002-12-15

323

Comparative analysis of control circuits for charge-coupled devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different variants of plotting control circuits of charge-coupled devices (CCD) are considered. The problem of control over a numerous class of devices on CCD is connected with formation of multiphase pulse consequences on bars with large capacities as well as regulation of the control signal level. The results of comparative analysis of quick response and economy of the control circuits assembled on the following elements-MDS-transistors CMOS devices and bipolar transistors are presented. The analysis has shown that control circuits on MDS-transistors are most uneconomical though their technology is compatible with the technology of CCD construction and they permit to construct finished complex devices on one crystal. Circuits on CMOS- transistors are most economical. But when it is necessary to use powerful (on amper orders currents) transistors the application of bipolar transistors (BT) can be more effective. High speed of response of the control circuits on mutually adding BT should be also marked

324

Comparative Analysis of Edge Based Single Image Superresolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Super-resolution image reconstruction provides an effective way to increase image resolution from a single or multiple low resolution images. There exists various single image super-resolution based on different assumptions, amongst which edge adaptive algorithms are particularly used to improve the accuracy of the interpolation characterizing the edge features in a larger region. A recent algorithm for image iterative curvature based interpolation (ICBI performs iterative procedure of the interpolated pixels obtained by the 2nd order directional derivative of the image intensity. ICBI in comparison with bicubic interpolation and the other interpolation algorithm such as improved new edge directed interpolation (INEDI provides notably higher values in terms of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Comparative analysis of these algorithms performed on number of test images on the basis of PSNR and RMSE metrics show effectiveness of edge based techniques.

Sonali Shejwal

2014-04-01

325

[Comparative analysis of spatial organization of myoglobins. II. Secondary structure].  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of probability of distribution curves of alpha-helical sites and bends of polypeptide chains of myoglobins in half-water mammals (beaver, nutria, muskrat, otter) carried out in comparison with those of myoglobins of the horse and Sperm whale (X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed their tertiary structure) has revealed a coincidence of the secondary structure sites end bends of the chain in the studied respiratory hemoproteins of muscles. Despite a considerable number of amino acid substitutions the profiles of alpha-helicity and B-bends of the compared proteins are practically identical. This indicates to the "resistance" of the probability curves to amino acid substitutions and to retention of the tertiary structure of myoglobins in evolutionary remote species of the animals. PMID:1413113

Korobov, V N; Nazarenko, V I; Radomski?, N F; Starodub, N F

1992-01-01

326

Comparative analysis of some soil compaction measurement techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a need to properly define soil compaction as one of the complex soil characteristics relevant to agriculture since it greatly influences plant growth and energy consumption. The level of soil compaction may be described by many, well known, parameters, which also can be comparatively analysed according to its sensitivity and ability to describe soil reaction to the applied load. This paper presents a specific analysis of soil compaction measurement methods based on laboratory testing. The sensitivity of usual compaction parameters such as tire sinkage, cone index and soil bulk density, as well as needle penetration were taken into consideration. The paper also includes the critical analysis of different measurement techniques and its possibility to be a source of valuable agricultural information.

I. Shmulevich

1995-09-01

327

STATISTICAL AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION IN MELILLA (SPAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We describe the main results obtained in a statistical study carried out at the request of the Economy,Employment and Tourism Council of Melilla (Spain. These results were used in drawing up the firstphase of the Strategic Plan: Diagnosis and Analysis of the Situation of Melilla. The data analyzed wereobtained from the National Educational Council, the Ministry of Education and Science and the SpanishNational Institute of Statistics (INE, and the conclusions reached are set out in the present article. Forpurposes of comparison, we also made a comprehensive analysis of the real situation of the populationin the education sector, including a comparative study of Ceuta (Spain. These two Spanish enclaves inthe north of Africa in general present similar characteristics.

Juan Antonio Marmolejo Martín, Miguel Ángel Montero Alonso

2009-04-01

328

Comparative analysis of selected radiative transfer approaches for aquatic environments  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative analysis is presented of simple approaches to radiative transfer in plane-parallel layers, such as the self-consistent Haltrin approach, the Chandrasekhar-Klier exact solution for isotropic scatters, an extended version of two-flux radiative Kubelka-Munk theory, the neutron-diffuse Gate-Brinkworth theory, and different versions of the delta-Eddington theory. It is shown that the Haltrin approach is preferable to others and can be used for the solution of an inverse optical problem of the estimation of absorption and backscattering coefficients of aquatic environments from measured apparent optical properties. Two different methods of transformation from measured irradiance reflectance at combined illumination to irradiance reflectance induced by diffuse illumination only are developed. An analysis of the use of the different models for estimation of the effect of the bottom albedo is also presented.

Sokoletsky, Leonid

2005-01-01

329

Comparative Analysis of Numerical Methods for Parameter Determination  

CERN Document Server

We made a comparative analysis of numerical methods for multidimensional optimization. The main parameter is a number of computations of the test function to reach necessary accuracy, as it is computationally "slow". For complex functions, analytic differentiation by many parameters can cause problems associated with a significant complication of the program and thus slowing its operation. For comparison, we used the methods: "brute force" (or minimization on a regular grid), Monte Carlo, steepest descent, conjugate gradients, Brent's method (golden section search), parabolic interpolation etc. The Monte-Carlo method was applied to the eclipsing binary system AM Leo.

Andronov, Ivan L

2013-01-01

330

Comparative Analysis of Uncertainties in Urban Surface Runoff Modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present paper a comparison between three different surface runoff models, in the numerical urban drainage tool MOUSE, is conducted. Analysing parameter uncertainty, it is shown that the models are very sensitive with regards to the choice of hydrological parameters, when combined overflow volumes are compared - especially when the models are uncalibrated. The occurrences of flooding and surcharge are highly dependent on both hydrological and hydrodynamic parameters. Thus, the conclusion of the paper is that if the use of model simulations is to be a reliable tool for drainage system analysis, further research in improved parameter assessment for surface runoff models is needed.

Thorndahl, SØren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

2007-01-01

331

Comparative Analysis of Methods to Denoise CT Scan Images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical images are generally noisy due to the physical mechanisms of the acquisition process. In CT Scan there is a scope to adapt patient image quality and dose. Reduction in radiation dose (i.e the amount of X-rays) affects the quality of image and is responsible for image noise in CT. Most of the denoising algorithms assume additive white Gaussian noise but however most medical images may contain non Gaussian noise like poisson noise in CT. This paper contains the comparative analysis of a...

Tarandeep Chhabra, Geetika Dua

2013-01-01

332

Comparative Analysis of the Value Added Tax Evolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The impact of indirect taxes is analysed in the study of evolution, especially the VAT for the economic activity of the company studied. During the reporting period, namely January 2009 – December 2011 the supporting documents were checked which records on VAT deductible and collected were based on, in compliance with legal norms and principles of financial accounting. Also the data processed were the basis for an analysis to compare the evolution of VAT. VAT shall be paid for the entire activity of the company.

Mirela Anca Postole

2013-06-01

333

A comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T1 oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin. (Author)

334

Comparative analysis of evaluation techniques for transport policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to examine and compare the use of a number of policy evaluation tools, which can be used to measure the impact of transport policies and programmes as part of a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) or sustainability appraisal. The evaluation tools that were examined include cost-benefit analysis (CBA), cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). It was concluded that both CEA and CBA are useful for estimating the costs and/or benefits associated with transport policies but are constrained by the difficulty in quantifying non-market impacts and monetising total costs and benefits. Furthermore, CEA is limited to identifying the most 'cost-effective policy' for achieving a single, narrowly defined objective, usually greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and is, therefore, not suitable for evaluating policy options with ancillary costs or a variety of potential benefits. Thus, CBA or CEA evaluation should be complemented by a complete environmental and socio-economic impact assessment approach such as MCDA. This method allows for participatory analysis and qualitative assessment but is subject to caveats such as subjectivity and value-laden judgments.

335

Creating an Efficient User Interface for the Analysis and Download of SPICE Spacecraft and Planet Kernel (SPK) Files  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's SPICE ancillary information system deals with observation geometry, time, and events which support the planning for and analysis of science instrument data. Since its development, SPICE has proven to be an invaluable tool to a variety of users involved in mission planning, pre-flight mission evaluation, detailed science observation planning, mission operations engineering functions, science data analysis, data archiving, and education and public outreach. SPICE users now range from scientists and engineers in the Space Science Community to researchers in the Earth Sciences. A need has been established for a utility program where users of SPICE data files-called kernels-can efficiently choose specific kernel files to download for use in analyzing data returned from instruments onboard planetary exploration spacecraft. This interface would provide the user with a way of selecting kernels, specifically Spacecraft and Planet Kernels (SPK) containing ephemeris data of target bodies from these missions, which satisfy a user's search criteria. This project chronicles the research and development of a tool that utilizes graphical representations of SPK files to help a user search for, analyze, and select SPK files to download from the SPICE server at JPL directly to the user's own workstation. These graphs would represent the time-coverage and continuity of SPKs, and even further, the epochs, called segments, contained within these SPKs. This utility includes interactive features such as buttons, that when selected can either narrow the scope of the SPK files requested, show a more detailed representation of the selected kernels, or present a summary and/or comments about each kernel. These tools are all intended to streamline the search and selection process of SPK files containing spacecraft parameters important for the scientific interpretation of planetary data. This work is funded by NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) College Student Investigator (CSI) program.

Bulalacao, John Matthew; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA; Navigation; Information Facility, Ancillary; Data System, Planetary; Maryland, University of; County, Baltimore

2007-10-01

336

An Empirical Study on User-oriented Association Analysis of Library Classification Schemes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Library classification schemes are mostly organized based on disciplines with a hierarchical structure. From the user point of view, some highly related yet non-hierarchical classes may not be easy to perceive in these schemes. This paper is to discover hidden associations between classes by analyzing users’ usage of library collections. The proposed approach employs collaborative filtering techniques to discover associated classes based on the circulation patterns of similar users. Many associated classes scattered across different subject hierarchies could be discovered from the circulation patterns of similar users. The obtained association norms between classes were found to be useful in understanding users' subject preferences for a given class. Classification schemes can, therefore, be made more adaptable to changes of users and the uses of different library collections. There are implications for applications in information organization and retrieval as well. For example, catalogers could refer to the ranked associated classes when they perform multi-classification, and users could also browse the associated classes for related subjects in an enhanced OPAC system. In future research, more empirical studies will be needed to validate the findings, and methods for obtaining user-oriented associations can still be improved.[Article content in Chinese

Hsiao-Tieh Pu

2002-12-01

337

Comparative analysis among sampling methods of underground water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The monitoring of the underground water quality assumes importance because of the increasing use of it for the different purposes of the contemporaneous society. Different methods for sampling and monitoring of underground water can take to very distinct results. In this way, the present work has as objective to carry out comparative studies among three methods of sampling of underground waters. Bailer, Electric pump of high flowing and pump of low flowing. Quantitative and qualitative sampling techniques of water quality were opted through monitoring wells. The research involved the identification and analysis of the differences in the results obtained by the methods of sampling of underground waters; the geologic and hydrologic description of the monitoring well, on which the sampling was taken from; and the comparative analysis among the three methods of sampling, determining which ones present the best efficiency. There were made mensurations at the site, collection of samples and interpretation of the chemical analyses. At the end of the works, with the integration of the geologic and hydrologic data and analytic results was possible to indicate that the most precise method of sampling of underground water is the low flowing one.

Fábio Augusto Gomes Vieira Reis

2005-06-01

338

Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

2009-12-19

339

2004/2008 labour market information comparative analysis report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity sector has entered into a phase of both challenges and opportunities. Challenges include workforce retirement, labour shortages, and increased competition from other employers to attract and retain the skilled people required to deliver on the increasing demand for electricity in Canada. The electricity sector in Canada is also moving into a new phase, whereby much of the existing infrastructure is either due for significant upgrades, or complete replacement. The increasing demand for electricity means that increased investment and capital expenditure will need to be put toward building new infrastructure altogether. The opportunities for the electricity industry will lie in its ability to effectively and efficiently react to these challenges. The purpose of this report was to provide employers and stakeholders in the sector with relevant and current trend data to help them make appropriate policy and human resource decisions. The report presented a comparative analysis of a 2004 Canadian Electricity Association employer survey with a 2008 Electricity Sector Council employer survey. The comparative analysis highlighted trends and changes that emerged between the 2004 and 2008 studies. Specific topics that were addressed included overall employment trends; employment diversity in the sector; age of non-support staff; recruitment; and retirements and pension eligibility. Recommendations were also offered. It was concluded that the electricity sector could benefit greatly from implementing on-going recruitment campaigns. refs., tabs., figs

340

New Software Product Feature Identification: An Analysis of E-mail User Characteristics and Functional Requirements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improving the product development process is becoming more important as business environment gets more competitive. This study aims at understanding and characterizing potential users of a software product through idea sharing of users. It also targets to create a new product concept through understanding the common features users prefer most. During this product conceptualization stage, the customer ideas are captured through use of a questionnaire. The target users, priority of product functions and features are investigated and the details of the existing e-mail systems as well as of the ideal e-mail systems are identified. Some of the key results included users with demographic differences having different usage and requirements characteristics, expectations of females being higher than those of males and the software functions used and characteristics required being different for those with different job categories or educational backgrounds.

Ecehan Sofuoglu

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Massive comparative genomic analysis reveals convergent evolution of specialized bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome size and gene content in bacteria are associated with their lifestyles. Obligate intracellular bacteria (i.e., mutualists and parasites have small genomes that derived from larger free-living bacterial ancestors; however, the different steps of bacterial specialization from free-living to intracellular lifestyle have not been studied comprehensively. The growing number of available sequenced genomes makes it possible to perform a statistical comparative analysis of 317 genomes from bacteria with different lifestyles. Results Compared to free-living bacteria, host-dependent bacteria exhibit fewer rRNA genes, more split rRNA operons and fewer transcriptional regulators, linked to slower growth rates. We found a function-dependent and non-random loss of the same 100 orthologous genes in all obligate intracellular bacteria. Thus, we showed that obligate intracellular bacteria from different phyla are converging according to their lifestyle. Their specialization is an irreversible phenomenon characterized by translation modification and massive gene loss, including the loss of transcriptional regulators. Although both mutualists and parasites converge by genome reduction, these obligate intracellular bacteria have lost distinct sets of genes in the context of their specific host associations: mutualists have significantly more genes that enable nutrient provisioning whereas parasites have genes that encode Types II, IV, and VI secretion pathways. Conclusion Our findings suggest that gene loss, rather than acquisition of virulence factors, has been a driving force in the adaptation of parasites to eukaryotic cells. This comparative genomic analysis helps to explore the strategies by which obligate intracellular genomes specialize to particular host-associations and contributes to advance our knowledge about the mechanisms of bacterial evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Nicolas Galtier, and Jeremy Selengut.

Raoult Didier

2009-04-01

342

Rice fortification: a comparative analysis in mandated settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Legal mandates can play an important role in the success of rice fortification programs that involve the private sector. However, merely enacting mandatory legislation does not guarantee success; it requires a coordinated, multidimensional cross-sector effort that addresses stewardship, develops an appropriate rice fortification technology, enables sustainable production and distribution channels through a range of private-sector players, ensures quality, generates consumer demand, and monitors progress. Furthermore, economic sustainability must be built into the supply chain and distribution network to enable the program to outlast government administrations and/or time-limited funding. Hence, mandates can serve as valuable long-term enablers of cross-sector mobilization and collaboration and as catalysts of civil society engagement in and ownership of fortification programs. This paper compares the rice fortification experiences of Costa Rica and the Philippines--two countries with mandates, yet distinctly different industry landscapes. Costa Rica has achieved national success through strong government stewardship and active market development--key elements of success regardless of industry structure. With a comparatively more diffuse rice industry structure, the Philippines has also had success in limited geographies where key stakeholders have played an active role in market development. A comparative analysis provides lessons that may be relevant to other rice fortification programs. PMID:24913356

Forsman, Carmen; Milani, Peiman; Schondebare, Jill A; Matthias, Dipika; Guyondet, Christophe

2014-09-01

343

Texture analysis of multiple sclerosis: a comparative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The difficulty of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support early diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) stems from the subtle pathological changes in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, texture analysis was performed on MR images of MS patients and normal controls and a combined set of texture features were explored in order to better discriminate tissues between MS lesions, normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal white matter (NWM). Features were extracted from gradient matrix, run-length (RL) matrix, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), autoregressive (AR) model and wavelet analysis, and were selected based on greatest difference between different tissue types. The results of the combined set of texture features were compared with our previous results of GLCM-based features alone. The results of this study demonstrated that (1) with the combined set of texture features, classification was perfect (100%) between MS lesions and NAWM (or NWM), less successful (88.89%) among the three tissue types and worst (58.33%) between NAWM and NWM; (2) compared with GLCM-based features, the combined set of texture features were better at discriminating MS lesions and NWM, equally good at discriminating MS lesions and NAWM and at all three tissue types, but less effective in classification between NAWM and NWM. This study suggested that texture analysis with the combined set of texture features may be equally good or more advantageous than the commonly used GLCM-based features alone in discriminating MS lesions and NWM/NAWM and in supporting early diagnosis of MS. PMID:18513908

Zhang, Jing; Tong, Longzheng; Wang, Lei; Li, Ning

2008-10-01

344

Extreme storm surges: a comparative study of frequency analysis approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

In France, nuclear facilities were designed around very low probabilities of failure. Nevertheless, some extreme climatic events have given rise to exceptional observed surges (outliers) much larger than other observations, and have clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme water levels calculated with the current statistical methods. The objective of the present work is to conduct a comparative study of three approaches to extreme value analysis, including the annual maxima (AM), the peaks-over-threshold (POT) and the r-largest order statistics (r-LOS). These methods are illustrated in a real analysis case study. All data sets were screened for outliers. Non-parametric tests for randomness, homogeneity and stationarity of time series were used. The shape and scale parameter stability plots, the mean excess residual life plot and the stability of the standard errors of return levels were used to select optimal thresholds and r values for the POT and r-LOS method, respectively. The comparison of methods was based on (i) the uncertainty degrees, (ii) the adequacy criteria and tests, and (iii) the visual inspection. It was found that the r-LOS and POT methods have reduced the uncertainty on the distribution parameters and return level estimates and have systematically shown values of the 100 and 500-year return levels smaller than those estimated with the AM method. Results have also shown that none of the compared methods has allowed a good fit at the right tail of the distribution in the presence of outliers. As a perspective, the use of historical information was proposed in order to increase the representativeness of outliers in data sets. Findings are of practical relevance, not only to nuclear energy operators in France, for applications in storm surge hazard analysis and flood management, but also for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, with an appropriate level of risk.

Hamdi, Y.; Bardet, L.; Duluc, C.-M.; Rebour, V.

2014-08-01

345

Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

Ussery, David

2011-01-01

346

Comparative QTL analysis and its application to cereal breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following the construction of comprehensive genetic maps for almost all the major crop species, application of marker assisted selection can become a major tool in plant breeding. However, successful application of this approach requires that a portfolio of the tagged genes that control the traits of interest be established within each individual species. Since many of the important agronomic traits are quantitative in nature, this first requires the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using established and new statistical approaches. However, QTL analysis can now be considered in a wider context, since the great advantage of molecular markers over conventional markers is that DNA probes hybridize across crosses within the same species, across genomes within polyploid species, and frequently across independent genomes of taxonomically related species. Thus, comparative genetic analysis allows a new approach to gene location, provides new insights into gene action and gives breeders access to a wider spectrum of genes. Two major uses of comparative mapping approaches to map QTL within and between cereal genomes are discussed. First, it is shown that within many polyploid and genome duplicated species the homology of marker loci and the collinearity of maps allow QTL locations in one genome to be extrapolated to another, for example, in bread wheat and maize. Second, it is shown that genetic analysis in one species can be indicative of the presence of homologous gendicative of the presence of homologous genes in another species and that hitherto undetected genes in a related species can be identified. Examples from studies of the QTL that control grain quality in wheat, and adaptation and responses to abiotic stress, in particular low temperatures, in wheat and barley, are presented. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

347

Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species. PMID:21396338

Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

2011-01-01

348

TADS--A CFD-Based Turbomachinery Analysis and Design System with GUI: User's Manual. 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based turbomachinery airfoil analysis and design system, controlled by a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The computer codes resulting from this effort are referred to as TADS (Turbomachinery Analysis and Design System). This document is intended to serve as a User's Manual for the computer programs which comprise the TADS system, developed under Task 18 of NASA Contract NAS3-27350, ADPAC System Coupling to Blade Analysis & Design System GUI and Task 10 of NASA Contract NAS3-27394, ADPAC System Coupling to Blade Analysis & Design System GUI, Phase II-Loss, Design and, Multi-stage Analysis. TADS couples a throughflow solver (ADPAC) with a quasi-3D blade-to-blade solver (RVCQ3D) in an interactive package. Throughflow analysis and design capability was developed in ADPAC through the addition of blade force and blockage terms to the governing equations. A GUI was developed to simplify user input and automate the many tasks required to perform turbomachinery analysis and design. The coupling of the various programs was done in such a way that alternative solvers or grid generators could be easily incorporated into the TADS framework. Results of aerodynamic calculations using the TADS system are presented for a highly loaded fan, a compressor stator, a low speed turbine blade and a transonic turbine vane.

Koiro, M. J.; Myers, R. A.; Delaney, R. A.

1999-01-01

349

White matter degeneration in schizophrenia: a comparative diffusion tensor analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling mental disorder. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed on schizophrenia have demonstrated white matter degeneration either due to loss of myelination or deterioration of fiber tracts although the areas where the changes occur are variable across studies. Most of the population based studies analyze the changes in schizophrenia using scalar indices computed from the diffusion tensor such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and relative anisotropy (RA). The scalar measures may not capture the complete information from the diffusion tensor. In this paper we have applied the RADTI method on a group of 9 controls and 9 patients with schizophrenia. The RADTI method converts the tensors to log-Euclidean space where a linear regression model is applied and hypothesis testing is performed between the control and patient groups. Results show that there is a significant difference in the anisotropy between patients and controls especially in the parts of forceps minor, superior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule and genu of corpus callosum. To check if the tensor analysis gives a better idea of the changes in anisotropy, we compared the results with voxelwise FA analysis as well as voxelwise geodesic anisotropy (GA) analysis.

Ingalhalikar, Madhura A.; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Kim, Jinsuh; Alexander, Andrew L.; Magnotta, Vincent A.

2010-03-01

350

Multiple comparative studies of Green Supply Chain Management : Pressures analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Environmental sustainability is of great concern among world organizations and enterprises due to recent trends in global warming. Many developed nations have put in place stricter environmental regulations. Industries in such nations have established full-fledged systems to adopt environment friendly operation strategies to lower their overall carbon footprint. Currently, there is increased awareness among customers even in developing countries about eco friendly manufacturing solutions. Multi-national firms have identified economies of developed nations as a potential market for their products. Such organizations in developing countries like India and China are under pressure to adopt green concepts in supply chain operations to compete in the market and satisfy their customers' increasing needs. This paper offers a comparative study of pressures that impact the adoption of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). Thirty two pressures are identified from extensive literature reviews and they are classified into five distinct groups based on their similarities. A detailed questionnaire is prepared and circulated among industries in various sectors. Industries were requested through this survey to rate the impact of each pressure. Two independent hypotheses were formulated from literature to test the nature of impact and the differences affecting Indian industries. Statistical data analysis through one-way single factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), followed by pair-wise comparison of means using Tukey's test was used. The analysis was performed for different sectors and different scales of production categories. The results and their implications are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Xu, Lihui; Mathiyazhagan, K.

2013-01-01

351

Transit Analysis Package (TAP and autoKep): IDL Graphical User Interfaces for Extrasolar Planet Transit Photometry  

CERN Document Server

We present an IDL graphical user interface-driven software package designed for the analysis of extrasolar planet transit light curves. The Transit Analysis Package (TAP) software uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to fit light curves using the analytic model of Mandel and Agol (2002). The package incorporates a wavelet based likelihood function developed by Carter and Winn (2009) which allows the MCMC to assess parameter uncertainties more robustly than classic chi-squared methods by parameterizing uncorrelated "white" and correlated "red" noise. The software is able to simultaneously analyze multiple transits observed in different conditions (instrument, filter, weather, etc). The graphical interface allows for the simple execution and interpretation of Bayesian MCMC analysis tailored to a user's specific data set and has been thoroughly tested on ground-based and Kepler photometry. AutoKep provides a similar GUI for the preparation of Kepler MAST archive data for analysis by TAP or any other a...

Gazak, J Zachary; Tonry, John; Eastman, Jason; Mann, Andrew W; Agol, Eric

2011-01-01

352

User centric approach to itemset utility mining in Market Basket Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business intelligence is information about a company's past performance that is used to help predict the company's future performance. It can reveal emerging trends from which the company might profit [31]. Data mining allows users to sift through the enormous amount of information available in data warehouses; it is from this sifting process that business intelligence gems may be found [31]. Within the area of data mining, the problem of deriving associations from data has received a great deal of attention. This problem is referred as “market-basket problem”. Association Rule Mining (ARM, a well-studied technique in the data mining field, identifies frequent itemsets from databases and generates association rules by assuming that all items have the same significance andfrequency of occurrence in a record. However, items are actually different in many aspects in a number of real applications such as retail marketing, nutritional pattern mining, etc [26]. Rare items are less frequent items [32]. For many real world applications, however, utility of rare itemsets based on cost, profit or revenue is of importance. For extracting rare itemsets, the equal frequency based approaches like Apriori approach suffer from “rare item problem dilemma”. Utility mining aims at identifying rare itemsets with high utility. The main objective of Utility Mining is to identify the itemsets with highest utilities, by considering profit, quantity, costor other user preferences [40]. Also valuable patterns cannot be discovered by traditional non-temporal data mining approaches that treat all the data as one large segment, with no attention paid to utilizing the time information of transactions. Now, as increasingly complex real-world problems are addressed, temporal rare itemset utility problem, are taking center stage. In many real-life applications, high-utility itemsets consist of rare items. Rare itemsets provide useful information in different decision-making domains such as business transactions, medical, security, fraudulenttransactions, and retail communities. For example, in a supermarket, customers purchase microwave ovens or frying pans rarely as compared to bread, washing powder, soap. But the former transactions yield more profit for the supermarket. A retail business may be interested in identifying its most valuable customers i.e. who contribute a major fraction of overall company profit [40]. In this paper, these problems of analyzing market-basket data are considered and important contributions are presented. It is assumed that the utilities of itemsets may differ and determine the high utility itemsets based onboth internal (transaction and external utilities.

Jyothi Pillai

2011-01-01

353

TEXCAD: Textile Composite Analysis for Design. Version 1.0: User's manual  

Science.gov (United States)

The Textile Composite Analysis for Design (TEXCAD) code provides the materials/design engineer with a user-friendly desktop computer (IBM PC compatible or Apple Macintosh) tool for the analysis of a wide variety of fabric reinforced woven and braided composites. It can be used to calculate overall thermal and mechanical properties along with engineering estimates of damage progression and strength. TEXCAD also calculates laminate properties for stacked, oriented fabric constructions. It discretely models the yarn centerline paths within the textile repeating unit cell (RUC) by assuming sinusoidal undulations at yarn cross-over points and uses a yarn discretization scheme (which subdivides each yarn not smaller, piecewise straight yarn slices) together with a 3-D stress averaging procedure to compute overall stiffness properties. In the calculations for strength, it uses a curved beam-on-elastic foundation model for yarn undulating regions together with an incremental approach in which stiffness properties for the failed yarn slices are reduced based on the predicted yarn slice failure mode. Nonlinear shear effects and nonlinear geometric effects can be simulated. Input to TEXCAD consists of: (1) materials parameters like impregnated yarn and resin properties such moduli, Poisson's ratios, coefficients of thermal expansion, nonlinear parameters, axial failure strains and in-plane failure stresses; and (2) fabric parameters like yarn sizes, braid angle, yarn packing density, filament diameter and overall fiber volume fraction. Output consists of overall thermoelastic constants, yarn slice strains/stresses, yarn slice failure history, in-plane stress-strain response and ultimate failure strength. Strength can be computed under the combined action of thermal and mechanical loading (tension, compression and shear).

Naik, Rajiv A.

1994-01-01

354

Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Gastric Cancer Stem Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for cancer progression, metastasis, and recurrence. To date, the specific markers of CSCs remain undiscovered. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of gastric CSCs for clinical diagnosis using proteomics technology. CSC-like SP cells, OCUM-12/SP cells, OCUM-2MD3/SP cells, and their parent OCUM-12 cells and OCUM-2MD3 cells were used in this study. Protein lysates from each cell line were analyzed using QSTAR Elite Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry, coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technology. Candidate proteins detected by proteomics technology were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of 300 gastric cancers. Based on the results of LC-MS/MS, eight proteins, including RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, were up-regulated in both OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells when compared to their corresponding parent cells. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of RBBP6, HSPA4, DCTPP1, HSPA9, VPS13A, ALDOA, GLG1, and CK18 was high in OCUM-12/SP and OCUM-2MD3/SP, in compared with the control of parent OCUM-12 and OCUM-2MD3. These proteins were significantly associated with advanced invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or advanced clinical stage. RBBP6, DCTPP1, HSPA4, and ALDOA expression in particular were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in the 300 gastric cancer patients. RBBP6 was determined to be an independent prognostic factor. The motility-stimulating ability of OCUM-12/SP cells and OCUM-2MD3/SP cells was inhibited by RBBP6 siRNA. These findings might suggest that the eight proteins, RBBP6, GLG1, VPS13A, DCTPP1, HSPA9, HSPA4, ALDOA, and KRT18, utilizing comparative proteomics analysis, were perceived to be potential CSC markers of gastric cancer. Of the eight candidate proteins, RBBP6 was suggested to be a promising prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:25379943

Morisaki, Tamami; Yashiro, Masakazu; Kakehashi, Anna; Inagaki, Azusa; Kinoshita, Haruhito; Fukuoka, Tatsunari; Kasashima, Hiroaki; Masuda, Go; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Kubo, Naoshi; Muguruma, Kazuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Hirakawa, Kosei

2014-01-01

355

Behind HumanBoost: Analysis of Users’ Trust Decision Patterns for Identifying Fraudulent Websites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes users’ trust decision patterns for detecting phishing sites. Our previous work proposed HumanBoost [1] which improves the accuracy of detecting phishing sites by using users’ Past Trust Decisions (PTDs. Web users are generally required to make trust decisions whenever their personal information is requested by a website. Human-Boostassumed that a database of Web user’s PTD would be transformed into a binary vector, representing phishing or not-phishing, and the binary vector can be used for detecting phishing sites, similar to the existing heuristics. Here, this paper explores the types of the users whose PTDs are useful by running a subject experiment, where 309 participants- browsed 40 websites, judged whether the site appeared to be a phishing site, and described the criterion while assessing the credibility of the site. Based on the result of the experiment, this paper classifies the participants into eight groups by clustering approach and evaluates the detection accuracy for each group. It then clarifies the types of the users who can make suitable trust decisions for HumanBoost.

Daisuke Miyamoto

2012-11-01

356

Comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in photosynthetic eukaryotes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinesins, a superfamily of molecular motors, use microtubules as tracks and transport diverse cellular cargoes. All kinesins contain a highly conserved ~350 amino acid motor domain. Previous analysis of the completed genome sequence of one flowering plant (Arabidopsis has resulted in identification of 61 kinesins. The recent completion of genome sequencing of several photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic eukaryotes that belong to divergent lineages offers a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive comparative analysis of kinesins in plant and non-plant systems and infer their evolutionary relationships. Results We used the kinesin motor domain to identify kinesins in the completed genome sequences of 19 species, including 13 newly sequenced genomes. Among the newly analyzed genomes, six represent photosynthetic eukaryotes. A total of 529 kinesins was used to perform comprehensive analysis of kinesins and to construct gene trees using the Bayesian and parsimony approaches. The previously recognized 14 families of kinesins are resolved as distinct lineages in our inferred gene tree. At least three of the 14 kinesin families are not represented in flowering plants. Chlamydomonas, a green alga that is part of the lineage that includes land plants, has at least nine of the 14 known kinesin families. Seven of ten families present in flowering plants are represented in Chlamydomonas, indicating that these families were retained in both the flowering-plant and green algae lineages. Conclusion The increase in the number of kinesins in flowering plants is due to vast expansion of the Kinesin-14 and Kinesin-7 families. The Kinesin-14 family, which typically contains a C-terminal motor, has many plant kinesins that have the motor domain at the N terminus, in the middle, or the C terminus. Several domains in kinesins are present exclusively either in plant or animal lineages. Addition of novel domains to kinesins in lineage-specific groups contributed to the functional diversification of kinesins. Results from our gene-tree analyses indicate that there was tremendous lineage-specific duplication and diversification of kinesins in eukaryotes. Since the functions of only a few plant kinesins are reported in the literature, this comprehensive comparative analysis will be useful in designing functional studies with photosynthetic eukaryotes.

Reddy Anireddy SN

2006-01-01

357

Comparative Analysis and Implementation of Image Encryption Algorithms?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of digital communication and multimedia application, security becomesan important issue of communication and storage of images. Image security has found a great need in manyapplications where the information (in the form of image is to be protected from unauthorized access.Encryption is one of the ways to ensure high security. In recent years, encryption technology has beendeveloped and many image encryption methods have been used. These methods produce randomness in theimage so that the content is not visible. Encryption and decryption consume a considerable amount of time.So there is a need for an efficient algorithm. This paper proposed three different image encryptiontechniques for color image. Simulation results are presented and a comparative analysis of the differentmethods is discussed.

Rajinder Kaur

2013-04-01

358

Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of IAX and RSW  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP is a technology to transport media over IP networks such as the Internet. VoIP has the capability of connecting people over packet switched networks instead of traditional circuit switched networks. Recently, the InterAsterisk Exchange Protocol (IAX has emerged as a new VoIP which is gaining popularity among VoIP products. IAX is known for its simplicity, NAT-friendliness, efficiency, and robustness. More recently, the Real time Switching (RSW control criterion has emerged as a multimedia conferencing protocol. In this paper, we made a comparative evaluation and analysis of IAX and RSW using Mean Opinion Score rating (MOS and found that they both perform well under different network packet delays in ms. Keywords-VoIP; MOS; InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol and Real Time Switching Control Criteria.

Manjur S Kolhar

2009-12-01

359

Comparative Analysis of Visco-elastic Models with Variable Parameters  

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Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical comparative study for computational behaviour analysis of vibration isolation elements based on viscous and elastic models with variable parameters. The changing of elastic and viscous parameters can be produced by natural timed evolution demo-tion or by heating developed into the elements during their working cycle. It was supposed both linear and non-linear numerical viscous and elastic models, and their combinations. The results show the impor-tance of numerical model tuning with the real behaviour, as such the characteristics linearity, and the essential parameters for damping and rigidity. Multiple comparisons between linear and non-linear simulation cases dignify the basis of numerical model optimization regarding mathematical complexity vs. results reliability.

Silviu Nastac

2010-01-01

360

Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

 
 
 
 
361

Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)

362

Comparative analysis of heat transfer correlations for forced convection boiling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A critical survey was conducted of the most relevant correlations of boiling heat transfer in forced convection flow. Most of the investigations carried out on partial nucleate boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling have led to the formulation of correlations that are not able to cover a wide range of operating conditions, due to the empirical approach of the problem. A comparative analysis is therefore required in order to delineate the relative accuracy of the proposed correlations, on the basis of the experimental data presently available. The survey performed allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the different calculating procedure; the results obtained, moreover, indicate the most reliable heat transfer correlations for the different operating conditions investigated. This survey was developed for five pressure range (up to 180bar) and for both saturation and subcooled boiling condition

363

Urban street networks: a comparative analysis of ten European cities  

CERN Document Server

We compare the structural properties of the street networks of ten different European cities using their primal representation. We investigate the properties of the geometry of the networks and a set of centrality measures highlighting differences and similarities among cases. In particular, we found that cities share structural similarities due to their quasi planarity but that there are also several distinctive geometrical proprieties. A Principal Component Analysis is also performed on the distributions of centralities and their respective moments, which is used to find distinctive characteristics by which we can classify cities into families. We believe that, beyond the improvement of the empirical knowledge on streets network proprieties, our findings can open new perspectives in the scientific relation between city planning and complex networks, stimulating the debate on the effectiveness of the set of knowledge that statistical physics can contribute for city planning and urban morphology studies.

Strano, Emanuele; Cardillo, Alessio; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito

2012-01-01

364

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

2011-04-01

365

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

Mihaela Andreea STROE

2011-08-01

366

Comparative analysis of CT and DSA in traumatic splenic salvage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To explore the better diagnostic method for acute splenic artery injury through comparative analysis of CT and DSA. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with acute splenic injury were examined by CT and DSA, treated with splenic arterial embolization and then undertook follow up. Results: CT examination possessed higher sensitivity and accuracy than DSA in demonstrating splenic parenchymal laceration, intrasplenic hematoma, subcapsular hematoma, rupture of splenic capsule and combined injury of intra-abdominal organs, especially in localizing splenic laceration. And there was a high significant difference statistically between the two kinds of examination (?2=10.71, P2=12.57, P<0.005). Conclusions: CT and DSA are complementary in the diagnosis of splenic injury. After CT confirmation of splenic injury and the patient vital signs being stable, DSA should be referred to as soon as possible for further detail information as well as for possible interventional embolization and reduction of surgical complications. (authors)

367

A Review on Comparative Analysis of Routing Protocols of MANET?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks is an emerging field of networking. This system has some distinct characteristics than existing networking technologies. This system is builds up by the collection of mobile nodes come in contact of each other to work together or serve each other. If a payload is not related to a node it is sent to next node. So a node acts as a router. MANET has its own set of routing protocols. It has different Proactive nature, Reactive nature and Hybrid nature routing protocols. In this paper those journals are selected for review which considered OPNET as simulator and performed comparative analysis on different MANET routing protocols. Here it is checked which type of traffic is considered for routing purpose and which routing protocol performed well, which parameters were considered? So that after reviewing this paper, an idea about MANET routing protocols, their working can be developed.

Umara Urooj

2014-08-01

368

Phylogeny and comparative genome analysis of a Basidiomycete fungi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota, make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important from the perspectives of forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, plant pathogenic rusts and smuts, and some human pathogens. To better understand these important fungi, we have undertaken a comparative genomic analysis of the Basidiomycetes with available sequenced genomes. We report a phylogeny that sheds light on previously unclear evolutionary relationships among the Basidiomycetes. We also define a `core proteome? based on protein families conserved in all Basidiomycetes. We identify key expansions and contractions in protein families that may be responsible for the degradation of plant biomass such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Finally, we speculate as to the genomic changes that drove such expansions and contractions.

Riley, Robert W.; Salamov, Asaf; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

2011-03-14

369

Comparative Analysis of Congestion Control Algorithms Using ns-2  

CERN Document Server

In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management techniques such as Random Early Detection (RED) have come into picture. Flow Random Early Drop (FRED) keeps state based on instantaneous queue occupancy of a given flow. FRED protects fragile flows by deterministically accepting flows from low bandwidth connections and fixes several shortcomings of RED by computing queue length during both arrival and departure of the packet. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marking) REM, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay). Stabilized RED (SRED) is another approach of detecting nonresponsive flows. In this paper, we have shown a comparative analysis of throughput, delay and queue length for the various congestion control algorithms RED, SFQ and REM...

Patel, Sanjeev; Garg, Arjun; Mehrotra, Prateek; Chhabra, Manish

2012-01-01

370

Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

2011-01-01

371

Explaining the judicial independence of international courts: a comparative analysis.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What factors allow some international courts (ICs) to rule against the express preferences of powerful member states, whereas others routinely defer to governments? While judicial independence is not the only factor explaining the strength of a given international institution, it is a necessary condition. The paper first develops three sets of competing explanatory variables that potentially can explain variations in the judicial independence of ICs. The causal effects of these explanatory variables upon variance in judicial independence are investigated in a comparative analysis of the ACJ, ECJ, ECtHR and IACHR. It is found that the threat of governmental noncompliance and the strength of the constituency possessed by an IC have the most explanatory power, although there is still a significant residual that can only be explained by looking at factors relating to judicial choices and agency.

Beach, Derek

372

Comparative Analysis of Fare Collection System on Bus Operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a comparative analysis of fare collection systems for inter-city bus operation. One of the important issues in the bus scheduling model is stops of buses in the bus stations (called dwell time -where buses have to stop for boarding and alighting passengers in the bus station. This issue has a direct impact on increased travel time. Subsequently, increased travel time for one bus mission can cause delay in the loops of bus scheduling. This article describes a survey of fare collection systems for bus operations, covering two fare collection systems: paying cash and using the touch-n-go card. We studied this issue in a real case inter-city bus operation. It has been highlighted that a fare collection system using the touch-n-go card has higher efficiency than other the cash method in relation to reducing dwell time of buses in the bus station.

M.H. Hafezi

2012-01-01

373

Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

374

Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)

Morozov, Andrey [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering by A.I. Leypunsky, 1 Bondarenko sq. Obninsk, 249033 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-01

375

Comparative Analysis of Probabilistic Models for Activity Recognition with an Instrumented Walker  

CERN Document Server

Rollating walkers are popular mobility aids used by older adults to improve balance control. There is a need to automatically recognize the activities performed by walker users to better understand activity patterns, mobility issues and the context in which falls are more likely to happen. We design and compare several techniques to recognize walker related activities. A comprehensive evaluation with control subjects and walker users from a retirement community is presented.

Omar, Farheen; Truszkowski, Jakub; Poupart, Pascal; Tung, James; Caine, Allen

2012-01-01

376

Subchannel Notching and Channel Bonding: Comparative Analysis of Opportunistic Spectrum OFDMA Designs  

CERN Document Server

We present an analytical model that enables a comparison of multiple design options of Opportunistic Spectrum Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OS-OFDMA). The model considers continuous and non-continuous subchannel allocation algorithms, as well as different ways to bond separate non-continuous frequency bands. Different user priorities and channel dwell times, for the Secondary Users and the Primary Users of the radio spectrum, are studied. Further, the model allows the inclusion of different types of Secondary User traffic. Finally, the model enables the study of multiple two-stage spectrum sensing algorithms. Analysis is based on a discrete time Markov chain model which allows for the computation of network characteristics such as the average throughput. From the analysis we conclude that OS-OFDMA with subchannel notching and channel bonding could provide, under certain network configurations, almost seven times higher throughput than the design without those options enabled.

Park, Jihoon; Grønsund, Pål; ?abri?, Danijela

2010-01-01

377

EDGAR: A software framework for the comparative analysis of prokaryotic genomes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of next generation sequencing approaches has caused a rapid increase in the number of completely sequenced genomes. As one result of this development, it is now feasible to analyze large groups of related genomes in a comparative approach. A main task in comparative genomics is the identification of orthologous genes in different genomes and the classification of genes as core genes or singletons. Results To support these studies EDGAR – "Efficient Database framework for comparative Genome Analyses using BLAST score Ratios" – was developed. EDGAR is designed to automatically perform genome comparisons in a high throughput approach. Comparative analyses for 582 genomes across 75 genus groups taken from the NCBI genomes database were conducted with the software and the results were integrated into an underlying database. To demonstrate a specific application case, we analyzed ten genomes of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas, for which phylogenetic studies were awkward due to divergent taxonomic systems. The resultant phylogeny EDGAR provided was consistent with outcomes from traditional approaches performed recently and moreover, it was possible to root each strain with unprecedented accuracy. Conclusion EDGAR provides novel analysis features and significantly simplifies the comparative analysis of related genomes. The software supports a quick survey of evolutionary relationships and simplifies the process of obtaining new biological insights into the differential gene content of kindred genomes. Visualization features, like synteny plots or Venn diagrams, are offered to the scientific community through a web-based and therefore platform independent user interface http://edgar.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de, where the precomputed data sets can be browsed.

Vorhölter Frank-Jörg

2009-05-01

378

Comparing G: multivariate analysis of genetic variation in multiple populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The additive genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) summarizes the multivariate genetic relationships among a set of traits. The geometry of G describes the distribution of multivariate genetic variance, and generates genetic constraints that bias the direction of evolution. Determining if and how the multivariate genetic variance evolves has been limited by a number of analytical challenges in comparing G-matrices. Current methods for the comparison of G typically share several drawbacks: metrics that lack a direct relationship to evolutionary theory, the inability to be applied in conjunction with complex experimental designs, difficulties with determining statistical confidence in inferred differences and an inherently pair-wise focus. Here, we present a cohesive and general analytical framework for the comparative analysis of G that addresses these issues, and that incorporates and extends current methods with a strong geometrical basis. We describe the application of random skewers, common subspace analysis, the 4th-order genetic covariance tensor and the decomposition of the multivariate breeders equation, all within a Bayesian framework. We illustrate these methods using data from an artificial selection experiment on eight traits in Drosophila serrata, where a multi-generational pedigree was available to estimate G in each of six populations. One method, the tensor, elegantly captures all of the variation in genetic variance among populations, and allows the identification of the trait combinations that differ most in genetic variance. The tensor approach is likely to be the most generally applicable method to the comparison of G-matrices from any sampling or experimental design. PMID:23486079

Aguirre, J D; Hine, E; McGuigan, K; Blows, M W

2014-01-01

379

Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J; Paterson, Andrew H

2014-09-01

380

A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features. Methods A comparative metal transporter inventory was built for the following four Pseudomonas species: P.putida (Ppu KT2440, P.aeruginosa (Pae PA01, P.fluorescens (Pfl Pf-5 and P.syringae (Psypv.tomato DC3000 using TIGR-CMR and Transport DB. Genomic analysis of essential and toxic metal ion transporters was accomplished from the above inventory. Metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features were identified using Islandpath analysis. Results Dataset cataloguing has been executed for 262 metal transporters from the four spp. Additional metal ion transporters belonging to NiCoT, Ca P-type ATPase, Cu P-type ATPases, ZIP and MgtC families were identified. In Psy DC3000, 48% of metal transporters showed strong GI features while it was 45% in Ppu KT2440. In Pfl Pf-5 and Pae PA01 only 26% of their metal transporters exhibited GI features. Conclusion Our comparative inventory of 262 metal transporters from four versatile Pseudomonas spp is the complete suite of metal transportomes analysed till date in a prokaryotic genus. This study identified differences in the basic composition of metal transportomes from Pseudomonas occupying diverse ecological niches and also elucidated their novel features. Based on this inventory we analysed the role of horizontal gene transfer in expansion and variability of metal transporter families.

Rodrigue Agnes

2008-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Binge Drinkers, Illicit Drug Users, and Polydrug Users: An Epidemiological Study of American Collegians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares four subgroups of young adult drug users based on secondary analysis of data originally collected in 1993. Consistent with results from clinical studies, polydrug users were far more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors. Findings demonstrate the need to offer a full complement of drug rehabilitation and education services to…

Feigelman, William; Gorman, Bernard S.; Lee, Julia A.

1998-01-01

382

Digital video analysis of health professionals' interactions with an electronic whiteboard : A longitudinal, naturalistic study of changes to user interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As hospital departments continue to introduce electronic whiteboards in real clinical settings a range of human factor issues have emerged and it has become clear that there is a need for improved methods for designing and testing these systems. In this study, we employed a longitudinal and naturalistic method in the usability evaluation of an electronic whiteboard system. The goal of the evaluation was to explore the extent to which usability issues experienced by users change as they gain more experience with the system. In addition, the paper explores the use of a new approach to collection and analysis of continuous digital video recordings of naturalistic "live" user interactions. The method developed and employed in the study included recording the users' interactions with system during actual use using screen-capturing software and analyzing these recordings for usability issues. In this paper we describe and discuss both the method and the results of the evaluation. We found that the electronic whiteboard system contains system-related usability issues that did not change over time as the clinicians collectively gained more experience with the system. Furthermore, we also found user-related issues that seemed to change as the users gained more experience and we discuss the underlying reasons for these changes. We also found that the method used in the study has certain advantages over traditional usability evaluation methods, including the ability to collect analyze live user data over time. However, challenges and drawbacks to using the method (including the time taken for analysis and logistical issues in doing live recordings) should be considered before utilizing a similar approach. In conclusion we summarize our findings and call for an increased focus on longitudinal and naturalistic evaluations of health information systems and encourage others to apply and refine the method utilized in this study.

Rasmussen, Rasmus; Kushniruk, Andre

2013-01-01

383

Comparative analysis as a management tool for broiler breeder farms: simulated individual farm analysis (IFAS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to develop a management information system to evaluate the tactical management of a breeder flock using individual farm analysis with a deterministic simulation model (IFAS). Individual farm analysis is a method that evaluates the performance of individual farms by comparing them with standards. In the first step of IFAS, a farm accounting system is used to compare performance indicators of a flock with the same performance indicators of the average of a group ...

Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A. G. J.; Giesen, G. W. J.; Oude Lansink, A. G. J. M.

2012-01-01

384

The comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim. To perform the comparative cost-efficacy analysis of various antihypertensive therapies in hypertensives patients.Material and methods. 140 hypertensive patients with history of ineffective antihypertensive therapy were randomized in to 4 groups, 35 patients in each one. Patients of Group A received indapamide retard plus perindopril; group B - indapamide retard plus amlodipine; group C - amlodipine plus lisinopril; group D - amlodipine plus bisoprolol. The Russian version of general questionnaire MOS-SF-36 was applied for quality of a life estimated. Endothelium function was evaluated with B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson 128 ??/10.Albuminuria level was detected by immunoturbometric method (Integra-700, Roche.Results. The drug combination B had the least cost. The drug combination C was the most effective. The drug combination C was the most economically rational. The drug combination A was the least economically rational for BP reduction. However the drug combination A was comparable with drug combination C in effects on quality of life and on endothelium function, and it was the most economically rational for albuminuria reduction.Conclusion. Indapamide retard plus perindopril combination is the most economically rational in patients with target-organ lesions (nephropathy. Lisinopril plus amlodipine combination is economically rational in patients without target-organ lesions.

S.V. Malchikova

2009-01-01

385

Comparative analysis of the mammalian WNT4 promoter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background WNT4 is a critical signalling molecule in embryogenesis and homeostasis, but the elements that control its transcriptional regulation are largely unknown. This study uses comparative cross species sequence and functional analyses between humans and a marsupial (the tammar wallaby,Macropus eugenii to refine the mammalian Wnt4 promoter. Results We have defined a highly conserved 89 bp minimal promoter region in human WNT4 by comparative analysis with the tammar wallaby. There are many conserved transcription factor binding sites in the proximal promoter region, including SP1, MyoD, NF?B and AP2, as well as highly conserved CpG islands within the human, mouse and marsupial promoters, suggesting that DNA methylation may play an important role in WNT4 transcriptional regulation. Conclusion Using a marsupial model, we have been able to provide new information on the transcriptional regulators in the promoter of this essential mammalian developmental gene, WNT4. These transcription factor binding sites and CpG islands are highly conserved in two disparate mammals, and are likely key controlling elements in the regulation of this essential developmental gene.

Shaw Geoffrey

2009-09-01

386

Comparative analysis of regulatory information and circuits across distant species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the large evolutionary distances between metazoan species, they can show remarkable commonalities in their biology, and this has helped to establish fly and worm as model organisms for human biology. Although studies of individual elements and factors have explored similarities in gene regulation, a large-scale comparative analysis of basic principles of transcriptional regulatory features is lacking. Here we map the genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription regulatory factors, generating a total of 1,019 data sets from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions in the three species, of which 498 (48.9%) are presented here for the first time. We find that structural properties of regulatory networks are remarkably conserved and that orthologous regulatory factor families recognize similar binding motifs in vivo and show some similar co-associations. Our results suggest that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors are general principles of metazoan regulation that are remarkably well-preserved despite extensive functional divergence of individual network connections. The comparative maps of regulatory circuitry provided here will drive an improved understanding of the regulatory underpinnings of model organism biology and how these relate to human biology, development and disease. PMID:25164757

Boyle, Alan P; Araya, Carlos L; Brdlik, Cathleen; Cayting, Philip; Cheng, Chao; Cheng, Yong; Gardner, Kathryn; Hillier, LaDeana W; Janette, Judith; Jiang, Lixia; Kasper, Dionna; Kawli, Trupti; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kundaje, Anshul; Li, Jingyi Jessica; Ma, Lijia; Niu, Wei; Rehm, E Jay; Rozowsky, Joel; Slattery, Matthew; Spokony, Rebecca; Terrell, Robert; Vafeados, Dionne; Wang, Daifeng; Weisdepp, Peter; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Xie, Dan; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael J; Huang, Haiyan; Bickel, Peter J; Brenner, Steven E; Reinke, Valerie; Waterston, Robert H; Gerstein, Mark; White, Kevin P; Kellis, Manolis; Snyder, Michael

2014-08-28

387

Comparative analysis of mapping burned areas from landsat TM images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remote sensing is a major source of mapping the burned area caused by forest fire. The focus in this application is to map a single class of interest, i.e. burned area. In this study, three different data combinations were classified using different classifiers and quantitatively compared. The adopted classifiers are Support Vector Data Description (SVDD), a one-class classifier, Binary classifier Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and traditional Maximum Likelihood classifier (ML). At first, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract the best possible features form the original multispectral image (OMI) and calculated spectral indices (SI). Then the resulting subset of features was applied to the classifiers. The comparative study has undertaken to find firstly, the best possible set of features (data combination) and secondly, an effective classifier to map the burned areas. The best possible set of features was attained by data combination- II (i.e., OMI information). Furthermore, the results of the SVM showed the high classification accuracies than ML. Experimental results demonstrate that even though the SVDD for mapping the burned areas doesn't showed the higher classification accuracy than SVM, but it shows the suitability for the cases with few or poorly represented labelled samples available. The parameters should be further optimized through the use of intelligent training for improving the accuracy of SVDD. SVDD.

388

Molecular organization in liquid crystals: A comparative computational analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative computational analysis of molecular organization in four-nematogenic acids (nOCAC) having two, four, six, and eight carbon atoms in the alkyl chain is carried out with respect to translatory and orientational motions. The evaluation of the atomic charge and dipole moment at each atomic center is performed through the complete neglect differential overlap (CNDO/2) method. The Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, along with the multicentered-multipole expansion method, is employed to evaluate the long-range interactions, while the '6-exp' potential function is assumed for short-range interactions. The total interaction-energy values obtained through these computations are used to calculate the probability of each configuration at the phase transition temperature via the Maxwell-Boltzmann formula. Further, the flexibility of various configurations is studied in terms of variation of probability due to small departures from the most probable configuration. A comparative picture of molecular parameters, such as the total energy, binding energy, and total dipole moment, is given. An attempt is made to explain the nematogenic behavior of these liquid crystals in terms of their relative order and, thereby, to develop a molecular model for the liquid crystallinity.

389

Juvenile spondylolysis: a comparative analysis of CT, SPECT and MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate whether MRI correlates with CT and SPECT imaging for the diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis, and to determine whether MRI can be used as an exclusive image modality. Juveniles and young adults with a history of extension low back pain were evaluated by MRI, CT and SPECT imaging. All images were reviewed blindly. Correlative analyses included CT vs MRI for morphological grading and SPECT vs MRI for functional grading. Finally, an overall grading system compared MRI vs CT and SPECT combined. Statistical analysis was performed using the kappa statistic. Seventy-two patients (mean age 16 years) were recruited. Forty pars defects were identified in 22 patients (31%), of which 25 were chronic non-union, five acute complete defects and ten acute incomplete fractures. Kappa scores demonstrated a high level of agreement for all comparative analyses. MRI vs SPECT (kappa: 0.794), MRI vs CT (kappa: 0.829) and MRI vs CT/SPECT (kappa: 0.786). The main causes of discrepancy were between MRI and SPECT for the diagnosis of stress reaction in the absence of overt fracture, and distinguishing incomplete fractures from intact pars or complete defects. MRI can be used as an effective and reliable first-line image modality for diagnosis of juvenile spondylolysis. However, localised CT is recommended as a supplementary examination in selected cases as a baseline for assessment of healing and for evaluation of indeterminate cases. (orig.)

Campbell, R.S.D. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Grainger, A.J. [Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom); Hide, I.G. [Freeman Hospital, Department of Radiology, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Papastefanou, S. [James Cook University Hospital, Department Radiology, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Greenough, C.G. [James Cook University Hospital, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

2005-02-01

390

Novel index for micromixing characterization and comparative analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most basic micromixer is a T- or Y-mixer, where two confluent streams mix due to transverse diffusion. To enhance micromixing, various modifications of T-mixers are reported such as heterogeneously charged walls, grooves on the channel base, geometric variations by introducing physical constrictions, etc. The performance of these reported designs is evaluated against the T-mixer in terms of the deviation from perfectly mixed state and mixing length (device length required to achieve perfect mixing). Although many studies have noticed the reduced flow rates for improved mixer designs, the residence time is not taken into consideration for micromixing performance evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel index, based on residence time, for micromixing characterization and comparative analysis. For any given mixer, the proposed index identifies the nondiffusive mixing enhancement with respect to the T-mixer. Various micromixers are evaluated using the proposed index to demonstrate the usefulness of the index. It is also shown that physical constriction mixer types are equivalent to T-mixers. The proposed index is found to be insightful and could be used as a benchmark for comparing different mixing strategies. PMID:20689773

Jain, Mranal; Nandakumar, K

2010-01-01

391

Comparative methods for the analysis of continuous variables: geometric interpretations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is concerned with statistical methods used for the analysis of comparative data (in which observations are not expected to be independent because they are sampled across phylogenetically related species). The phylogenetically independent contrasts (PIC), phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS), and phylogenetic autocorrelation (PA) methods are compared. Although the independent contrasts are not orthogonal, they are independent if the data conform to the Brownian motion model of evolution on which they are based. It is shown that uncentered correlations and regressions through the origin using the PIC method are identical to those obtained using PGLS with an intercept included in the model. The PIC method is a special case of PGLS. Corrected standard errors are given for estimates of the ancestral states based on the PGLS approach. The treatment of trees with hard polytomies is discussed and is shown to be an algorithmic rather than a statistical problem. Some of the relationships among the methods are shown graphically using the multivariate space in which variables are represented as vectors with respect to OTUs used as coordinate axes. The maximum-likelihood estimate of the autoregressive parameter, p, has not been computed correctly in previous studies (an appendix with MATLAB code provides a corrected algorithm). The importance of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the connection matrix, W, for the distribution of p is discussed. The PA method is shown to have several problems that limit its usefulness in comparative studies. Although the PA method is a generalized least-squares procedure, it cannot be made equivalent to the PGLS method using a phylogenetic model. PMID:11794776

Rohlf, F J

2001-11-11

392

Comparative analysis of face recognition techniques with illumination variation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Illumination variation is one of the major challenges in the face recognition. To deal with this problem, this paper presents comparative analysis of three different techniques. First, the DCT is employed to compensate for illumination variations in the logarithm domain. Since illumination variation lies mainly in the low frequency band, an appropriate number of DCT coefficients are truncated to reduce the variations under different lighting conditions. The nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance is employed for classification. Second, the performance of PCA is checked on normalized image. PCA is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to a lower dimension for analysis. Third, LDA based methods gives a satisfactory result under controlled lighting condition. But its performance under large illumination variation is not satisfactory. So, the performance of LDA is checked on normalized image. Experimental results on the Yale B and ORL database show that the proposed approach of application of PCA and LDA on normalized dataset improves the performance significantly for the face images with large illumination variations.

393

Evaluating Variable Length Markov Chain Models for Analysis of User Web Navigation Sessions  

CERN Document Server

Markov models have been widely used to represent and analyse user web navigation data. In previous work we have proposed a method to dynamically extend the order of a Markov chain model and a complimentary method for assessing the predictive power of such a variable length Markov chain. Herein, we review these two methods and propose a novel method for measuring the ability of a variable length Markov model to summarise user web navigation sessions up to a given length. While the summarisation ability of a model is important to enable the identification of user navigation patterns, the ability to make predictions is important in order to foresee the next link choice of a user after following a given trail so as, for example, to personalise a web site. We present an extensive experimental evaluation providing strong evidence that prediction accuracy increases linearly with summarisation ability.