WorldWideScience
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Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

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Integrated random measurements in King Saud University Girl's Campus,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This residential site consisting of three buildings was chosen because itis highly populated and in the center of the city of Riyadh. The dosimeterswere kept in the buildings for a period of nine months from January toOctober, 2001. The radon average concentration per room in buildings one, twoand three are found as (32+-2) Bqm-3, (40+-3) Bqm-3 and (59+-6) Bqm-3respectively. In this study a consisted trend of high radon concentration insmall rooms than large ones may indicate poor ventilation in small rooms. Thestatistical analysis shows that 75% of the values are equal or less than 50Bqm-3. It is also seen that 98% of the measured values are less than the safelimit of 148 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S.A.It can therefore be concluded that these buildings may have no potentialhealth hazard of Radon. (author)

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Perceptions and Attitudes of Riyadh University Students towards Products Derived from Genetically Modified Crops in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the prod...

Dalal Hamad Al-jebreen

2010-01-01

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Perceptions and Attitudes of Riyadh University Students towards Products Derived from Genetically Modified Crops in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn’t know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products.

Dalal Hamad Al-jebreen

2010-01-01

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Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days....

Al-assaf, Abdullah H.

2007-01-01

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Learning style preferences of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: influence of gender and GPA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students. PMID:24098042

Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad

2013-10-01

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Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

B. H. Alharbi

2014-08-01

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Influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m?3, with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m?3, the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m?3. The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems

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Heavy metals in cooler waters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water samples were collected from 400 coolers in Riyadh area. From each cooler, one feed and one cooled water samples were collected. These samples were analyzed for trace metals like Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrophotometer equipped with ultrasonic nebulizer. Out of 400 coolers, water from 382 (95.50%) were found to meet World Health Organization (WHO), Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards whereas water from 18 coolers (4.50%) were found to have elevated levels of Fe, Pb, and Ni metals. In one cooler, water was allowed to stand for 12 h and a 1 L sample collected every 2 h. All the metals mentioned above with the exception of Pb were found to increase due to standing time. PMID:18696235

Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Khan, Mujahid A

2009-10-01

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Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...

Sa, Al-aqeel; Jf, Al-sabhan; Ny, Sultan

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

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Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

Suaad S. Alwakeel

2011-01-01

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Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.Keywords: test blueprinting, psychiatry, residency program, summative assessment, documentary and content analysis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Gaffas EM

2012-05-01

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Characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection in patients presenting to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives : A national plan of management for flu-like illnesses was developed by the Saudi Ministry of Health after the first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in June. We describe the clinical presentation of the H1N1 cases attending King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH between July through September 2009 and identify the high-risk age groups. Methods : All patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses (ILI in the H1N1 clinics during the specified period were clinically examined and tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Those who were clinically diagnosed and confirmed positive for novel influenza A (H1N1 were included in the study. Results : Over a 6-week period, 117 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in KKUH with a mean (SD age of 19.6 (16.7 years, of whom 72 (62.1% were males. Most reported cases were Saudis (n=99, 85.3%; 94 (81% had no travel history outside the country; 100 (86.2% had had no contact with an H1N1-identified patient; 33% were aged 5-14 years and 28.4% were aged 15-29 years. The most commonly reported symptoms were fever in 99 (85.3%, cough in 9 (81%, runny nose (33.6% and sore throat (21.3%. All 117 cases were confirmed positive using real time RT-PCR testing. Thirty-one cases (26% were admitted and 22 of those (71% recovered after receiving oseltamivir. Two deaths were attributed to the 2009 pandemic. One patient died of chronic pulmonary disease. The other cause of death was unknown. Conclusion : These findings indicate indigenous influenza A (H1N1 transmission, and confirm the urgent need for prevention strategies which specifically target children and young adults, who appear to have a higher risk of infection and hospitalization. Such measures include immunization, improved personal hygiene, and increased ventilation in habitations.

BinSaeed Abdulaziz

2010-01-01

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Distribution of ultraviolet solar radiation at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultraviolet UV solar radiation flux is monitored over a fixed time interval to study the daily, monthly and annual variations for a nearly one decade in Riyadh. Mathematical expressions will be presented based on a comparison between theoretical and experimental values. It is believed that the present analysis of UV radiation suggest that the environmental effects led to a better understanding of UV scattering, UV reflection, ozone and clouds layers in Riyadh and other selected areas in the mid-east region. PMID:16897517

Elani, U A

2007-01-01

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Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular ...

Alwakeel, Suaad S.

2013-01-01

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A study of hospital and medical libraries in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

The study reported examined the status of hospital libraries, their sponsoring organizations, their staff, the academic qualifications of the head of the library, collection size, available space, buildings, and services. The study was limited to the hospitals with libraries for staff in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The data were collected through questionnaires sent to a sample of fifteen hospitals with medical libraries. Twelve libraries responded. This is the first study of its kin...

Al-ogla, S.

1998-01-01

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The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate ...

Am, Al-bedah; Na, Qureshi

2011-01-01

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Fungi of the house dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species. PMID:2330766

Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A

1990-01-01

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Population dynamics of Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Hanifah Valley Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

A survey of sand flies was conducted in the Hanifah Valley, Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Four species of sand flies were identified, Phlebotomus papatasi, P. beregeroti, P. sergenti and Sergentomiya antennatus. Among those species, P. papatasi accounted for 97% of the total catch. Sand flies had two peaks, one in the middle of July and the other in the middle of October. More sand flies were caught in the southern part of the Valley compared to the northern one due to the presence of water stre...

Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Alahmed, Azzam M.; Kheir, Salah M.; Hussein, Saied M.

2004-01-01

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An up close and personal look at Saudi Arabia (Jeddah and Riyadh): history, culture, and health care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia was one of the greatest travel destinations that I have had the opportunity to experience. I made this pilgrimage to Jeddah and Riyadh, and was truly welcomed into the kingdom. After almost three years of caring for those precious gems (the five surviving babies of the famous Saudi Arabian Septuplets) born July 2001 in the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, I was issued a visa and asked to serve as the Nurse Escort in taking these babies home. Through a detailed glimpse of everyday life, I was privileged to enter an arena of not only forming lifelong friendships, but exploring how a country so difficult to gain entry, is also a land of astonishing natural beauty. A visit to that famous King Faisal Hospital made me a believer that Saudi Arabia has one of the best medical facilities in the Middle East, with well-trained nurses and physicians, who many are from other countries, including the United States. Observing health care professionals providing competent nursing and medical care in that environment was unique, because it evolved a culture based on an amalgam of religion and politics. PMID:16144148

Brown, Geraldine

2005-01-01

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New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically [...] important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

AK, Al-Asmari; AA, Al-Saief; NM, Abdo; KR, Al-Moutaery.

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New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02% and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%. The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%, Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%, Androctonus bicolor (64.60%, Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%, Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%, Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%, Buthacusleptochelys (3.24% and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%. The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

AK Al-Asmari

2009-01-01

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Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from outpatient clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired or direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)

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Hydrochemical and quality of water resources in Saudi Arabia groundwater: A comparative study of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions  

OpenAIRE

Due to the arid climate of the Saudi Arabia, groundwater is a most precious natural resource, providing reliable water supplies for population of these areas. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources in the selected study areas of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions. This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available groundwater resources in these two areas of Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor and trace elements) i...

Anwar Aly; Abdulrasoul Alomran; Mohamed Alwabel, Et Al

2013-01-01

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Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

2015-01-01

27

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

2015-01-01

28

Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

Nora A. ALFaris

2015-03-01

29

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

30

Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a cohortcommunity--based study in Riyadh and hail regions of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The file...

Al-Faleh Faleh; Al-Jeffri Mohammed; Al-Rashed Rashed; Aref Mohammed

2002-01-01

31

Measurements of environmental radiation doses due to natural radiation sources at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and the directional dose equivalent, H'(0.07), for indoor and outdoor natural exposure are measured in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The indoor H*(10) rate varies from 61 to 135 nSv h-1, while it is in the range of 57-105 nSv h-1 for the outdoor. The indoor and outdoor rates of H'(0.07) are in the range of 67-142 nSv h-1 and 59-110 nSv h-1, respectively. The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of H*(10) is between 0.92 and 1.39, and it is 0.90-1.54 for H'(0.07). The ratio H'(0.07) to H*(10) lies between 1.0 and 1.22 for indoor, while it is 0.97-1.20 for the outdoor. (authors)

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Community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728

Alkharfy, K M

2010-09-01

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Characterisation of MRSA strains isolated from patients in a hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microarray-based assay. Results Five major MRSA strains from four clonal complexes were identified CC8/ST239-III (20.75%, PVL-positive as well as -negative CC22-IV (18.87% and 9.43%, respectively, PVL-positive CC30-IV (12.26% and PVL-positive CC80-IV (17.92%. Minor strains, which accounted for less than 3% each, included CC1-IV/SCCfus, PVL-positive CC1/ST772-V, PVL-positive as well as- negative CC5-IV, CC5-IV/SCCfus, CC5-V, CC6-IV, CC45-IV, PVL-negative CC80-IV, PVL-positive CC88-IV, CC97-V and a CC9/ST834-MRSA strain. Conclusions Typing of MRSA strains from Riyadh revealed a high diversity of clonal complexes. The prevalence of the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was surprisingly high (54.21%, and a significant rate of resistance markers was detected also in strains considered as community-associated.

Monecke Stefan

2012-07-01

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Molecular identification of isolated fungi from stored apples in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

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Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular identification of the fungal isolates. Thus, we collected 30 samples of red delicious and Granny Smith apples with obvious spoilage from different supermarkets between February and March of 2012 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Each apple was placed in a sterile plastic bag in room temperature (25-30 °C) for six days or until fungal growth was evident all over the sample. Growth of fungal colonies on PDA was counted and sent for molecular confirmation by PCR. Six fruit spoilage fungi were isolated, including Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium adametzii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium steckii, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus oryzae. P. chrysogenum was the most frequent isolate which was seen in 14 of a total of 34 isolates (41.2%), followed by P. adametzii and A. oryzae with seven isolates each (20.6%) and the least was P. steckii with six isolates (17.6%). Penicillium species comprised 27 of the total 34 (79.4%) isolates. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions of the nuclear encoded rDNA showed significant alignments for P. chrysogenum, P. adametzii and A. oryzae. Most of these fungal isolates are useful and are rarely pathogenic; however they can still produce severe illness in immune-compromised individuals, and sometimes otherwise healthy people may also become infected. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the possible production of mycotoxins by these fungi to determine a potential danger and to establish its epidemiology in order to develop adequate methods of control. PMID:24235866

Alwakeel, Suaad S

2013-10-01

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Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

Al-Haqwi Ali

2010-01-01

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Water exploration using Magnetotelluric and gravity data analysis; Wadi Nisah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.

Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad

2014-12-01

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The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia 

Al-Bedah AM

2011-11-01

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Applying a SERVQUAL Model to Measure the Impact of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty among Local Saudi Banks in Riyadh  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates the impact of service quality underlying the SERVQUAL model on customer loyalty, with customer satisfaction mediating these variables. This analytical study is mainly based on the primary data collected through a questionnaire that was personally administered to 422 individuals selected from five local banks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings indicate that improving service quality can help to enhance customer loyalty. Empathy, assurance, and rel...

Albarq, Abbas N.

2013-01-01

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The Impact of Service Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reli...

Ghalib Sanjuq

2014-01-01

40

Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included BacillusOther bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

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Budd chiari syndrome: Experience at King Faisal specialist hospital and research centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Budd-chiari syndrome (BCS is rare disorder, varied in etiology, inconsistent in presentation, unpredictable in progression, and challenging in therapy. Aim of study: The aim of this study is to review experience of Budd-Chiari syndrome at KFSH, Riyadh; over a ten-year period. Methods: In a retrospective study using a computer data search of the medical records from May 1990 to May 2000, 43 patients? charts suspected of BCS were reviewed. 29 patients were found to have BCS, diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound, venography, MRI, or CT with or without liver biopsy. Findings: Of the 29 patients, 18 were male (62.1% and I 1 were female (37.9%; mean age was 35.4 (range 17-69 years. Nine patients had Behcet?s disease; seven patients had malignancy (five HCC, one melanoma and one hypernephroma. Eight patients had antiphospholipid syndrome, two patients had no known cause and three (one related to trauma, the other related to protein C deficiency and the third related nephrotic syndrome. Nineteen patients presented acutely with abdominal pain, progressive ascites and hepatomegaly. Ten patients had subacute presentation mimicking cirrhosis of liver. Five patients had web in the intrahepatic IVC or ostium HV and the remaining 24 patients had thrombosis of hepatic veins. Five patients received surgical shunts, three had balloon dilatation of webs, 11 had anticoagulant therapy and seven patients had symptomatic treatment. Eleven patients died, six of them had malignancy, two died while awaiting liver transplantation and three died with fulminant hepatic failure. Fourteen patients are still on follow-up. Conclusion: Budd Chiari syndrome in Saudi Arabia is related to a defined cause in majority of patients (92%. Behcet?s disease is a dominant cause of BCS in Saudi Arabia. This is in contrast to world literature where around 50% of patients are of unknown etiology

Al Himali Shadia

2003-01-01

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A preliminary study on HTGR with air-cooled condenser at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical

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Bacterial and Aspergillus spp. Contamination of Domestic Kitchens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)

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Role of primary health care in the control of schistosomiasis. The experience in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The control programme for schistosomiasis in Saudi Arabia was started in 1975 as a central vertical programme. With the adoption of the primary health care approach a pilot scheme that integrated the control of all endemic diseases, including schistosomiasis, within the functions of primary health care centres was carried out. In Riyadh, the scheme was started in 1984 when subcentres for the control programme were established as a first step for complete integration. A training programme was extended to personnel in primary health care centres, including physicians, nurses, and health inspectors with the help of experts from World Health Organization (WHO). A survey of the population at risk in areas with high prevalence was done regularly accompanied by treatment of cases. Snail control was an important activity of the health inspectors with a three months repeat of the control procedures. The result of this programme is a significant reduction in the prevalence of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, from 13.2% in 1983 to 0.17% in 1989. Among the 7453 water sources surveyed in 1989, only 7 were positive for snails (0.1%). About two thirds of those who were affected were expatriates coming from areas of high prevalence of schistosomiasis. Details of the control programme and its impact on the control of the disease are presented in this paper. PMID:8116063

Jarallah, J S; al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T A; al-Sheikh, M

1993-01-01

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Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a cohortcommunity--based study in Riyadh and hail regions of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The files of 303 children from Riyadh and Hail, who were investigated in 1991 retrieved and only 119, were available for testing. Fifty percent of the children have still a protective anti-HBs tittre. One vaccinated child was found to be positive for HBsAg. According to this study, the efficacy rate against HBsAg carriage is 88%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the tremendous effect of HB vaccine on the HBV infection of Saudi children in these two regions

Al-Faleh Faleh

2002-01-01

46

Improving the care of sepsis: Between system redesign and professional responsibility: A roundtable discussion in the world sepsis day, September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the re...

Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M.

2014-01-01

47

Radioactivity concentration in surface soil samples from al-mezahmiah area, southwest of riyadh, kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity contents of collected natural surface soils samples from different sites of Al-mezahmiah region (southwest of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) have been identified using gamma ray spectroscopy technique. The detector used is a hyper pure germanium detector of active volume 156.6 cm . The results showed that the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th series along with the non-series element 40K are the main sources of radiation in soil. In general, the radioactivity in Al-mezahmiah area is to great extent lower than the world average and also the minimum detectable radioactivity content was found in the surface soil from the plain land

48

Attitude of parents of disabled children towards dental visits in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to determine the attitude of parents of disabled children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia towards dental visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. A total of 315 parents, 70 (22.2%) fathers and 245 (77.8%) mothers completed the questionnaire. Almost all (99.0%) the parents were aware that regular dental check-ups are important in maintaining good dental health. Two-thirds (66.7%) of the parents were of the opinion that one must visit a dentist every six months for dental check-up; and some (17.8%) even every three months. However, 83 (26.3%) children had never visited a dentist. Only nine (2.8%) children had visited a dentist for first dental check-up by the age of three years. A significantly (p or = 11 years old) made their last visit to a dentist due to pain as compared with about one in every ten children (11.1%) in younger age group. The children with mental retardation had the highest percentage (81.5%) among those who had visited a dentist followed by cerebral palsy children (79.2%) and Downs syndrome children (68.4%). It can be concluded that the parents' attitude towards importance of regular visit in their disabled children is positive. However, there is a need to inform them about the importance of early first dental visit, and establishing a support mechanism to utilize their positive attitude. PMID:17933357

Wyne, Amjad H

2007-06-01

49

Impact of Breakfast Eating Pattern on Nutritional Status, Glucose Level, Iron Status in Blood and Test Grades among Upper Primary School Girls in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between breakfast consumers and non consumers), on nutritional status (body mass index), glucose level, iron status and test grades (school performance) among Saudi school children (girls). A total of 120 female students aged 9-13.9 years from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia Participated in this cross-sectional study. A pre-designed questioner was used to collect information on their breakfast eating habits. Body weight and...

Al-oboudi, Latifah M.

2010-01-01

50

The Quality of Medicines in Community Pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS-Based Survey  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To classify community pharmacies (CPs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in terms of the quality of medicines sold by them, using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS technique with a predefined threshold. Methods: Riyadh CPs were divided into 2 categories (“lots” for the purpose of LQAS, i.e., chain and independent CPs. Upper and lower rate thresholds for CPs that sell low-quality medicines were predefined as 20% and 5%, respectively. Consumer and provider risks were predefined as 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. The calculated number of randomly selected CPs required in each lot was 36; then, sale of low-quality medicines in >3 CPs implies a prevalence of >20% of such CPs according to LQAS. A randomly selected brand of amoxicillin (selected as a quality indicator of medicines because it is both widely counterfeited and heat-sensitive was purchased from each pharmacy by a “mystery shopper”, checked for authenticity, and analyzed for drug content and content uniformity using a validated HPLC method. Results: Substandard amoxicillin was purchased in 9 pharmacies (4 chains and 5 independent. Both lots were thus rejected as unacceptable, which may indicate that consumers in Riyadh are at risk of purchasing substandard medicines at CPs. Conclusions: The quality of medicines sold in CPs in Riyadh did not meet our acceptability criterion, and appropriate intervention by decision makers is recommended. LQAS proved to be a practical, economical, and statistically valid sampling method for surveying the quality of medicines. It should enable decision makers to allocate resources for improvement more efficiently.

Hani M. J. Khojah

2013-10-01

51

Female employment and family commitment in Saudi Arabia : a case study of Riyadh City  

OpenAIRE

This study argues that ideological rather than material constraints are the major obstacles that limit full female participation in the Saudi Arabian labour force and hinder Saudi working women from combining their double roles as mothers and paid workers. As a developing country, Saudi Arabia is facing multiple problems. One of these challenges is the great shortage of human resources. In 1984/85, 59.8 per cent of the labour force in Saudi society was foreign. Female ...

Al-khateeb, S. A. H.

1987-01-01

52

Human parainfluenza virus type 2 hemagglutinin-neuramindase gene: sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the Saudi strain Riyadh 105/2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.

Almajhdi Fahad N

2012-12-01

53

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats’ liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhi...

Al-quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Abdel-baki, Abdel-azeem S.

2013-01-01

54

Adherence of Community Pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to Optimal Conditions for Keeping and Selling Good-Quality Medicines  

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Full Text Available Exposure to excessive temperature during distribution or storage has unfavorable consequences on the quality of medicines, particularly in hot climates. This could be one of the possible reasons behind the existence of substandard amoxicillin in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study explored the conditions under which medicines were kept in a random sample of 181 community pharmacies in Riyadh. The pharmacist in charge in each pharmacy was interviewed and our observations about the quality of storage were recorded. The inspection revealed that in 9% of the sample the readings of the existing room thermometers were >25?, and that 13% of the sample lacked thermometers. Also in 33% of the sample the readings of the refrigerator thermometers were outside the accepted range, and 7% of the sample lacked refrigerator thermometers. About 15% of pharmacists were not informed about the local regulations of community pharmacy practice, neither before nor after taking up their current positions. Surprisingly, incorrect answers to simple questions about the system were frequently given by the informed pharmacists. Certain aspects of substandard storage conditions existed, in varying degrees, in significant percentages of pharmacies regardless of the pharmacists’ qualifications, experience, or awareness about the local regulations of community pharmacy practice. Stricter monitoring by the authorities regarding the adherence of community pharmacies to optimal conditions of storing medicines is recommended. Continuing education of community pharmacists must also be improved.

Hani M. J. Khojah

2013-08-01

55

The Impact of Service Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reliability coefficient (alpha was determined. Regression analysis found a positive relationship among assurance, empathy, and responsiveness, but that this relationship has no significant effect (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. Reliability was found to have a negative relationship to customer satisfaction, but no significant effect on the same. Only tangibles were found to have a positive relationship and a significant impact (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. The results show that, in the retail banking sector, the servqual model remains an effective way of measuring customer satisfaction. Because customer value is an asset to organizations, organizations must ensure that they provide the right products and services, supported by the right promotion, at the right time for their customers.

Ghalib Sanjuq

2014-06-01

56

Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designe...

Al-Haqwi Ali I

2010-01-01

57

Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-, remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L, then Co (0.03 mg/L. However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L, and then Cd (8.02 ug/L. The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.

Abdullah S. Al-Farraj

2013-09-01

58

Osteoporosis: a study of knowledge, attitude and practice among adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporosis is a growing chronic health problem that could result in mortalities and poor living quality. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of adults in Riyadh about this disease and its associated factors as well as compare KAP levels of men and women. A cross sectional study including 505 participants was conducted in several malls of Riyadh city during March 2012, selected by stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. 86% of the participants had heard of osteoporosis. Media was the main source for Participants' knowledge; the mean knowledge score was 56.6% of the maximum achievable score. There was significant differences in knowledge scores by educational level, employment, income and residence (P = 0.005), (P = 0.008) (P = 0.0122) and (P = 0.009), respectively. Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices, especially females who had a mean total score equivalent to 48.8% of the maximum score, while males' mean score was 54.7% (P = 0.000). Perceived susceptibility was higher among females (83 vs. 74%, P = 0.000), and thus had less perception of the barriers to preventive actions, than men (49.6 vs. 55.5%, P = 0.000). Self-efficacy and perceived benefits had the highest scores (95% of the maximum achievable scores). Considerable number of adult males and females are unaware about osteoporosis. Since there is deficiency in the knowledge, and poor application of the preventive actions. Therefore, Education programs are needed to improve awareness and motivating healthy behaviours. PMID:23780302

Barzanji, Afraa Talal; Alamri, Fahad Abdulrahman; Mohamed, Ashry Gad

2013-12-01

59

Facial esthetics in a selected Saudi population.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze the soft tissue cephalometric norms of the Saudi population and to evaluate whether significant cephalometric soft tissue differences exist between Saudi and Caucasian population. METHODS Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 40 selected Saudis with esthetically pleasing faces (20 males and 20 females). The study was carried out in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1999 - 2001. The...

Al-jasser, Nasser M.

2003-01-01

60

Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of t...

Al-sadoon, Mohammed K.; Al-otaibi, Fahed S.

2014-01-01

61

Childhood obesity: Referred cases to a tertiary health center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objective: To show the pattern of etiology of childhood obesity referred to our endocrinology clinic between December 1989 and December 1994. Subject and Methods: All the children referred to our clinic at the above stipulated dates were studied. This is a retrospective medical records review of these patients. The patients? height and weight were measured by trained staff of the clinic. The Quetelet index also known as Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated as weight (kg/height (m2 for each patient. Laboratory data as well as results of clinical investigations were also obtained from the records of the patients. Results: 52 patients with ages ranging between 2 years and 16 years (median 8 years were studied. Male : female ratio was 1:1. 35 (67.3% of the patients were Saudis while 17 (32.7% were non-Saudis. The etiology of obesity among the series were nutritional 46 (88.5%, Prader-Willi Syndrome 3 (5.8%, Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome 1 (1.9%, pseudohypoparathyroidism 1 (1.9% and hypothyroidism 1 (1.9%. The study showed that the majority of the patients had simple nutritional obesity.

Al Herbish Abdullah

1999-01-01

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Heavy Metals Accumulation in Rhazya stricta L. Plant Growing on Industrial Wastewater of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the potential of Rhazya stricta L. growing on a surrounding area of the second industrial zone (24°39.8’ N; 46°57’ E, east of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Plant and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentration. The degree of contamination by those heavy metals in soil and transfer to Rhazya stricta has been estimated. The results showed a medium contamination of soil heavy metal content with respect to Cd and Pb. The total concentration of Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu in shoots of Rhazya stricta was 275, 5.30, 10.5, 27.5 and 8.30 mg kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the total concentration of heavy metals in the roots was as follows (mg kg-1: Fe: 0.1; Cr: 0.5; Ni: 3.0; Zn: 0.8 and Cu: 1.6. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn tended to be accumulated in the roots Rhazya stricta rather than the stems and leaves expect for Zn. The calculated accumulation coefficient of heavy metals in the roots was higher than that in stems or leaves. The Rhazya stricta plant exhibiting Translocation Factor (TF values less than one except for total Zn (1.10-1.60. The results indicated that, Rhazya stricta plant could not suitable for heavy metals extraction from the contaminated studied soil but can be used as an indicator for soil contamination with some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and also to minimize heavy metals mobility in contaminated soils.

Adel M. Ghoneim

2014-01-01

63

Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%). PMID:25313272

Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S

2014-11-01

64

Determination of some Heavy Metals in the Soils of Schools Playground in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of the total content of fifteen elements in soil samples collected from 29 different schools playgrounds in Riyadh metropolitan environment was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave digestion technique. According to the results of the concentration at 29 school's playgrounds in the selected districts, the average concentrations of the heavy metals were determined at 25.91, 29.36, 147.73, 8.02, 17.45, 9.92, 43.72, 2.83, 0.64, 0.5, 0.12, 0.92, 0.45, 27.95 and 1.04 mg/kg (dry soil) for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb and U respectively. Most school playgrounds with elevated heavy metals concentrations were found in Manfuah, Al Shifa, Al Yamamah, Sultanah, An Namuthajiyah, Al-Wurud and Al-Shimaisi residential districts due to their proximity to main traffic roads, industrial areas and high density residential areas. On the other hand schools playgrounds with lower heavy metals levels were found in An Nuzhah, Al-Aqiq and Al-Jazirah districts which may be attributed to less traffic emissions, low residential density, and their distant location from the industrial areas. The measured concentrations levels of the heavy metals in the soil, except for Pb, were below the allowable concentration limits. The Pb concentration exceeded these limits in Manfuhah school playground. The enrichment coefficient values for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu were less than unity at 0.32, 0.47, 0.25, 0.51, 0ss than unity at 0.32, 0.47, 0.25, 0.51, 0.44 and 0.36 respectively, suggesting that the origin of these elements is mostly the local soil. The enrichment coefficient values for Zn and Pb were more than unity at 1.66 and 8.47, respectively, suggesting that these elements are anthropogenic in origin, for example, from the traffic emissions. (author)

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The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

2014-09-01

66

Aluminum, Cadmium and Microorganisms in Female Hair and Nails from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

1A.R. Hashem and 2K.F. Abed  

OpenAIRE

Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9) and done according to Ellis, Ramirez, Buchana...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2007-01-01

67

Levels of acceptance of Asthma Control Test questionnaire among Saudi patients attending 5 tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To explore the levels of acceptance of asthma control test (ACT) among Saudi patients. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 5 hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, namely; Security Forces Hospital, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Khalid University Hospital, King Faisal Specialist Hospital, and Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, from the first of September to the 30th of November 2006. Patients attending the pulmonary clinic were asked to answer the ACT...

Mohammed Alanezi; Al-jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Zeitoni, Mohamed O.; Al-tasan, Turki H.

2009-01-01

68

Trends in antibiotic susceptibility patterns and epidemiology of MRSA isolates from several hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates with rapid development of resistance. Methods A total of 512 MRSA isolates were procured from 6 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and antibiotic susceptibilities and MICs were documented against several antibiotics and vancomycin. SPSS version 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of MRSA in the study hospitals ranged from 12% to 49.4%. Mean patient age was 44 years with males constituting 64.4% and females 35.6%. Approximately 41.5% of the isolates came from patients in the extreme age groups. MIC for vancomycin was in the susceptible range for all isolates ranging from 0.25 to 3 ug/ml. The overall susceptibility of MRSA to the various antibiotics tested was: fusidic acid 4.3%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 33.8%, gentamicin 39.6%, mupirocin 77.0%, gatifloxacin 78.9%, chloramphenicl 80.7%, linezolid 95.1%, quinupristin/dalfopristin 100%. Some differences were noted in the resistance of isolates among the participating hospitals reflecting antibiotic usage. On the whole, inpatient isolates (accounting for 77.5% of the isolates were more resistant than outpatient isolates (22.5% except for linezolid. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are the most effective antibiotics tested against inpatient isolates while quinupristin-dalfopristin and gatifloxacin seem to be the most effective against outpatient isolates. Approximately one forth of the isolates are no longer susceptible to mupirocin used for eradication of the carrier state reflecting resistance developing after widespread use. Trends over time show a tendency towards decreased susceptibility to gatifloxacin and linezolid with increasing susceptibility to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Conclusion Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are two valuable additions to our antimicrobial armamentarium, but resistance has already been described. To preserve their value, their use should be limited to those rare cases where they are clearly needed. Fusidic acid, the local antibiotic, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole should not be relied upon for treatment of MRSA infections, at least empirically as the percentage of susceptible isolates is very low.

Abuelkheir Manal M

2006-12-01

69

Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among patients attending primary care clinics at a university hospital in Riyadh.  

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Full Text Available Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450. Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306 compared to males (71.5%, 103/144 (P< .001. The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405, which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441 of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. Conclusion: Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.

AlQuaiz Aljoharah

2009-01-01

70

Insecticide resistance of Culex pipiens (L.) populations (Diptera: Culicidae) from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia: Status and overcome  

OpenAIRE

Three field populations of Cx. pipiens (L.) mosquitoes were collected from three different localities in Riyadh city. They were tested for developing resistance against commonly used insecticides to control mosquitoes in Riyadh. Two populations from Wadi Namar (WN1 and WN2) were highly resistant to deltamethrin (187.1- and 161.4-folds respectively). The field population from AL-Wadi district (AL-W) showed low resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin (3.8-folds) and moderate resistance to beta-cyfluth...

Al-sarar, Ali S.

2010-01-01

71

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Al-Kadeeb A. Siham

2007-01-01

72

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

73

The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

Al-Kassimi FA

2013-05-01

74

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia / Análisis del material escrito de propaganda distribuido a través de farmacias comunitarias en Riyadh, Arabia Saudita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: La propaganda es un componente crucial de la promoción de la industria farmacéutica. La investigación indica que la información de los materiales de propaganda puede ser inadecuada, imprecisa, sesgada y engañosa. Objetivo: Analizar y evaluar críticamente la información presentada en lo [...] s anuncios impresos en Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se recogió propaganda farmacéutica de 280 farmacias comunitarias en la ciudad de Riyadh, Arabia Saudita. Los anuncios fueron evaluados usando los criterios derivados de la reglamentación de la Autoridad Saudita de Medicamentos y Alimentos (SFDA), y de los criterios éticos de promoción de productos medicinales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Los datos fueron extraídos independientemente por dos de los investigadores utilizando un formulario de evaluación estandarizado. Resultados: Se incluyeron en la muestra final 185 anuncios escritos. Aproximadamente la mitad de los anuncios (n=94; 51%) eran de medicamentos OTC y 71 (38%) eran de medicamentos de prescripción. Información tal como nombre de los principios activos estaba disponible en 168 (90,8%) de los anuncios, usos terapéuticos aparecían en 156 (98,7%). Información sobre la seguridad relacionada con los efectos secundarios, precauciones e interacciones serias estaba presente en 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), y 33 (16.5%) anuncios, respectivamente. Sólo 119 anuncios (64%) proporcionaban referencias para la información presentada. Conclusiones: Nuestro hallazgos sugieren que los anuncios escritos no contienen toda la información necesaria para una prescripción segura. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones para la reglamentación de la propaganda de medicamentos y la formación continuada de los farmacéuticos. Abstract in english Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical a [...] dvertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Sinaa AbdulMohsen, Al-Aqeel; Jawza Fahad, Al-Sabhan; Noha Yahia, Sultan.

2013-08-01

75

Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among p...

Al Jumah K; Ma, Hassali; Al Qhatani D; El Tahir K

2014-01-01

76

Usage of Social Network Sites amongst Saudis: Why do Saudi University Students Have Multiple Facebook Accounts?  

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Full Text Available This study, undertaken as part of a wider study of Facebook usage in Saudi Arabia, uses a self-report survey to understand Facebook usage by Saudi university students. The participants were 372 students (188 male and 184 female at one university in Saudi Arabia. The study sorts to understand gender differences and the reasons why students have more than one Facebook account and what this says about Saudi culture. The study has revealed significant issues that contribute to the current knowledge of social network sites in Saudi Arabia.

Shuaa

2014-07-01

77

Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives  

OpenAIRE

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universitie...

Reem Alebaikan; Salah Troudi

2010-01-01

78

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...

Aleem Aamer

2008-01-01

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Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students  

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Full Text Available Anastasia Samara,1 Anne Nistrup,1 Tamader Y AL-Rammah,2 Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion and Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Faculty of Rehabilitation and Health Sciences, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females.Patients and methods: Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1 socioeconomic status, 2 physical activity, 3 self-efficacy 4 social factors, and 5 barriers and facilitators related to physical activity.Results: The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14. Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%. Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10. Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity.Conclusion: The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students’ physical activity, at least young Saudi students.Keywords: physical activity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, females, barriers and facilitators, self-efficacy

Samara A

2015-03-01

80

Soft tissue facial profile of adult Saudis. Lateral cephalometric analysis.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To develop cephalometric measurements of soft tissue facial profile for a sample of adult Saudi males and females and compare it with European-Americans` norms for any significant differences. METHODS Sixty-one lateral cephalometric radiographs (31 males and 30 females; mean age 23 years) were selected from the archives of cephalometric radiograph files at College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June 2009 and June 2010. Thirteen ...

Albarakati, Sahar F.

2011-01-01

81

Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among patients attending primary care clinics at a university hospital in Riyadh  

OpenAIRE

Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in...

AlQuaiz Aljoharah; Tayel Salwa

2009-01-01

82

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

83

Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their ...

Al Abiky, Waleed B.

2014-01-01

84

Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences  

OpenAIRE

Abdullah Foraih AlanaziCollege of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss...

Af, Alanazi

2012-01-01

85

Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. METHODS Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (pro...

Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Gadelrab, Mohamed O.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Zahraa, Jihad N.

2006-01-01

86

Lack of facilities rather than sociocultural factors as the primary barrier to physical activity among female Saudi university students  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing a dramatic increase in physical inactivity, with women having higher levels of inactivity than men among all age groups. It is assumed that factors such as dress codes, restrictions on going outdoors, and conservative norms are the main reasons for women’s low physical activity. Our aim was to explore the different parameters related to physical activity, including self-efficacy, as well as the perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity in young Saudi females. Patients and methods Ninety-four first-year female Saudi university students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in the present study in 2014. The students were from eight bachelor’s programs in health and well-being, and each completed a questionnaire with questions divided into five parts as follows: 1) socioeconomic status, 2) physical activity, 3) self-efficacy 4) social factors, and 5) barriers and facilitators related to physical activity. Results The students exercised at home and alone, and there was low self-efficacy for physical activity (mean score =42±14). Among social factors, attending university was the only factor that hindered physical activity (32%). Physical activity was positively perceived overall (mean score =131±10). Students showed awareness of the benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. The most important barrier was the lack of designated areas available for physical activity. Students disagreed that family or the Islamic community were barriers to physical activity. Conclusion The lack of facilities and lack of encouragement from the university, but not a lack of knowledge (a high level of knowledge is to be expected given their health and well-being studies backgrounds) and/or restrictions from families and society, seem to hinder female students’ physical activity, at least young Saudi students. PMID:25834468

Samara, Anastasia; Nistrup, Anne; AL-Rammah, Tamader Y; Aro, Arja R

2015-01-01

87

Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

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Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Dicronychus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891

Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

89

Characteristics and sources of organic matter in Desert Sand Samples from Riyadh and Al-Qasim Areas of Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sand samples from Riyadh and Al-Qasim areas were collected, extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v: v), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to characterize the contents and sources of their organic compounds. The major components of the total extracts were the straight chain aliphatic compounds from vegetation waxes, fossil fuel combustion and anthropogenic and agricultural activities. The results showed that the anthropogenic inputs had a significant contribution to the organic content of sands near populated areas. The urban component consisted mainly of n-alkanes, n-alkonic acids, n-alkyl amides, hopane and sterane biomarkers and pesticide residues. Organic inputs from natural sources include n-alkanes, n-alkonic acids, n-alkanols, methyl alkanoates, sterols and n-alkanones. (author)

90

Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Etest Methods to Determine the Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Circulating in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to Fusidic Acid  

OpenAIRE

Fusidic acid is a common therapy for staphylococcal infections in Saudi Arabia, but reports have suggested high rates of resistance among clinical isolates. Susceptibility testing of S. aureus to fusidic acid is further complicated by the lack of consensus on mean inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and disk diffusion cutoffs to determine resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between disk diffusion and Etest determined MIC susceptibility results in clinical isolat...

Somily, Ali M.; Peaper, David R.; Elijah Paintsil; Murray, Thomas S.

2012-01-01

91

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

92

Aeropuerto Internacional King Khaled. Riyadh/Arabia Saudita  

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Full Text Available King Khaled International Airport in Riyadh is the new access to the Saudi Arabia capital and to the heart of the Kingdom. It is the center of the national air transport and it has been planned to attend all the needs of the national and International air traffic, which has a fast growth in Riyadh zone. Its design is adapted to the Islamic traditions and harmonizes with the natural beauty of the desert.El aeropuerto internacional King Khaled de Riyadh es el nuevo acceso aéreo a la capital de Arabia Saudita y al corazón del reino. Es el centro del sistema de transporte aéreo nacional y está proyectado para atender las demandas de tráfico aéreo nacional e internacional, de crecimiento rápido, en la región de Riyadh. Su diseño se adapta a las tradiciones islámicas y armoniza con la belleza natural del desierto.

Dahman, Mohammed N.

1984-11-01

93

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

94

High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

95

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia in Saudi children  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To examine the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in children. Methods: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2011 to December 2011. The study population consisted of 22 children with symptoms suggestive of PCD and the diagnosis was confirmed by c...

Al Saadi, Muslim M.; Habib, Syed S.; Al Muqhem, Badar A.; Abdulamajeed AlDrees; Al Zamil, Jawad F.; Alsadoon, Hammad A.

2013-01-01

96

Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in ...

Al-numair, Khalid S.

2004-01-01

97

Nutritional and health status of medical students at a university in Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessments was conducted from January to May 2011 on 194 randomly selected Saudi medical students at Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The adequacy of nutrient intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) per the National Research Counc...

Allam, Abdulkader R.; Taha, Inass M.; Al-nozha, Omar M.; Sultan, Intessar E.

2012-01-01

98

Patients awareness of their medical conditions in multi-specialty outpatient clinics in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To assess the patients awareness of their medical conditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness, and assess patient's satisfaction with their doctors explanations of medical conditions. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in the outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The statistical package for Social Science was use...

Al-khowaiter, Saad S.; Al-maawi, Abdulaziz M.; Al-obaidy, Mamdoh S.; Al-ali, Abdulaziz S.; Al-rukban, Mohammed O.; Al-sedrani, Yasser A.; Abdo, Ayman A.

2008-01-01

99

Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212

Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.

2014-01-01

100

Effects of passive smoking on students at College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Despite the recent campaigns to eliminate smoking, the rates are still increasing world-wide. Exposure to passive smoking (PS) is associated with morbidity and mortality from awful diseases. Although many college students smoke, little is known about their exposure to PS, common places and sources of exposures in Saudi Arabia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to identify prevalence and magnitude of PS among college students, exposure time, locations, sources of exposure, investigate the effects and make recommendations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to identify factors associated with PS exposure among students of College of Applied Medical Sciences, Riyadh. Results: Out of 61 students included in the study, 91.8% were found exposed to PS. Exposure in Hospitality venues (Estirah) was the most common followed by other areas. Among the sources of exposure, the highest was among friends and the least were parents and guests. The frequency of highest exposure per month was >15 times and the lowest was 10-15 times. Levels of annoyance varied between 18% and 37.7%, respectively. Since the values obtained for different markers in the pulmonary function test are more than the predicted values, the observed spirometry is normal. The percent oxygen saturation in hemoglobin and blood pressure of PS were in normal range. Conclusion: Since the properties of mainstream smoke and environmental tobacco smoke are quite different, risk extrapolation from active to PS is uncertain, especially during a short period. Nevertheless, it can be deteriorating during a longer duration, hence; the administrators, policy makers and tobacco control advocates may endorse policies to restrict smoking in shared areas, particularly working environment. PMID:25810644

Alanazi, Abdullah; Al Enezi, Farhan; Alqahtani, Mohammd Mesfer; Alshammari, Turki Faleh; Ansari, Mumtaz Ahmed; Al-Oraibi, Saleh; Qureshi, Shoeb

2015-01-01

101

Positional Accuracy Assessment of Googleearth in Riyadh  

Science.gov (United States)

Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that is controlled by Google corporation. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. With millions of users all around the globe, GoogleEarth® has become the ultimate source of spatial data and information for private and public decision-support systems besides many types and forms of social interactions. Many users mostly in developing countries are also using it for surveying applications, the matter that raises questions about the positional accuracy of the Google Earth program. This research presents a small-scale assessment study of the positional accuracy of GoogleEarth® Imagery in Riyadh; capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results show that the RMSE of the GoogleEarth imagery is 2.18 m and 1.51 m for the horizontal and height coordinates respectively.

Farah, Ashraf; Algarni, Dafer

2014-06-01

102

Radon levels in riyadh ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A national ground water surveillance program was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels. This paper presents 222Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located only in Riyadh area of Saudi Arabia. The 222Rn radioactivity levels were measured in water samples of 146 water wells. These were collected from six locations in Riyadh Area. The analyses were performed by ultra low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a 226Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with the cocktail and used after certain period to assure radon equilibrium. Most of these wells are deep wells with about 1000 meter depth. The range of 222Rn activities measured in these deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.04 to 4.63±0.38 BqL-1 with an average of 1.82±0.19 BqL-1, while the activities in shallow wells (?300 meters) ranged from 1.27±0.14 to 6.49±0.45 BqL-1 with an average value of 3.32±0.31BqL-1. The values of 222Rn concentrations were found to be dependant on the water sources. The radioactivity levels of 222Rn in the groundwater are in compliance with the national limits of 300 BqL-1. (author)

103

Awareness of interventional radiology among final-year medical students and medical interns at a University in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

 Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st  December 2012).  One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3...

Alshumrani, Ghazi A.

2013-01-01

104

Measurement of the natural radiation background level of Riyadh City  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A gamma spectroscopy system was used to analyze the radionuclides in soil samples and to determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in the Riyadh City area. Minimal work has been done in the 1980s to measure the natural background radiation level in Saudi Arabia by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measurement of the natural radioactivity in the Riyadh area for the radionuclide concentration in becquerels per kilogram, the exposure rate arising from radionuclides in grays per hour, and the equivalent dose rate in sieverts per hour are the goals of this work. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in Riyadh City. Each site was sampled for two depth profiles, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm. These measurements were taken before the Chernobyl accident, and in the absence of any measurements for that area in the past, this work can be considered in future work for a reference 137Cs concentration in Riyadh soil to determine the 137Cs increase in the soil after the Chernobyl accident

105

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2014-08-01

106

Education and training programs for expatriate and Saudi nurses at KKESH.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this second article in a series of "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with the education and training programs for the expatriate nursing staff and Saudi nurses at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PMID:8301179

Astle, B J

1993-10-01

107

Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out to determine lead contamination in 104 of the representative food items in the Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary lead intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples of each selected food items were purchased from the local markets of Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate by ICP-AES after thorough homogenization. Sweets (0.011–0.199 ?g/g), vegetables (0.002–0.195 ?g/g), legumes (0.014–0.094 ?g/g), eggs (0.079 ?...

Al Othman, Zeid A.

2010-01-01

108

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRIVACY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN SAUDI ARABIAN UNIVERSITIES AND TOP 10 UNIVERSITIES OF THE WORLD  

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Full Text Available Information privacy defines the collection, usage and disclosure of the data acquired from the user by an organisation. It has been one of the areas of extended discussion over a past decade. There hasbeen a lot of discussion and research conducted about the information privacy online. One way of ensuring privacy is the presence privacy policy page in the websites. This paper is concerned with privacy policy implementation in Saudi Arabian universities and top 10 universities of world. The top 10 universities for this study were selected on the basis of authentic ranking source and all theuniversities in Saudi Arabia both the government and the private ones were selected for this study. In this paper we present the result of study of privacy policy between Saudi Arabian universities andtop 10 universities of world.

ALHOMOD, S.M.

2013-01-01

109

Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: a western expatriate's perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this first article in a series "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with Saudi Arabia and the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh. In subsequent articles, the various challenges which face both the expatriate nursing staff and the local Saudi nurses in this setting will be addressed. The King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital presents an unique and challenging ophthalmic nursing experience for the expatriate with an adventurous spirit! PMID:8301174

Astle, B J

1993-06-01

110

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and indepe...

Raouf, Tarek A.; Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi; Nassef, Shereen L.

2013-01-01

111

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The Saudi experience.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, biochemical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological findings of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. METHODS Retrospective study evaluating the data of 10 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS The common presenting symptoms were deterioration in school performance, vision and hearing, behavioral changes, and seizures. Eight patients su...

Al-essa, M. A.; Sakati, N. A.; Bakheet, S. M.; Patay, Z. J.; Dabbagh, O.; Chaves-carbello, E.; Ozand, P. T.

2000-01-01

112

Stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared thies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

113

Teachers’ Perceptions about the Use of Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL University Classrooms: A Gender-line Investigation  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the awareness about the use of the mother tongue (MT in the Saudi EFL university classrooms. The use of MT can be a cause of encouraging or de-motivating source in the discourse of Saudi EFL Preparatory Year Program (PYP classrooms. This phenomenon is investigated from the teachers’ viewpoint in the present study. Focusing on the perceptual nature of the study, a survey was conducted to assess the significance of MT use amongst male and female teachers in EFL classes within the context of Saudi PYP. The participants consisted of 100 EFL teachers [males & females] drawn from PYP Taif University English Language Centre (TUELC. A 22-item Likert-scale questionnaire was developed to elicit their perceptions of various academic uses of MT in an EFL context of Saudi universities. The findings of the present study reflect that EFL teachers within the context of Saudi PYP represented by the cohort of this study bears quite positive perceptions towards the use of MT. It is also concluded that they believe that teaching/learning a foreign language is easier if teaching is not merely limited to the target language (TL. Moreover, the results of the present study reflected that the cohort of both groups approved the significance of different functions of MT in the Saudi EFL university classrooms. However, male and female EFL teachers’ perceptions about the use of MT were not on the same-line.

AbdulRahman Al Asmari

2014-10-01

114

The cultural challenges of educating Saudi ophthalmic patients at KKESH.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this final article in a three-part series "Ophthalmic nursing in Saudi Arabia: A western expatriate's perspective" is to acquaint readers with some of the cultural challenges confronting the expatriate nursing staff when educating Saudi ophthalmic patients at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The foreign nurse is able to plan and provide patient education that is culturally compatible, by possessing an increased awareness and understanding of the diversity in Saudi culture and how it influences their healthcare beliefs. PMID:8301188

Astle, B J

1993-12-01

115

Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life  

OpenAIRE

In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were me...

Al-daghri, Nasser M.; Abdulaziz Al-Othman; Abdulmajeed Albanyan; Al-attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Shaun Sabico; Chrousos, George P.

2014-01-01

116

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

117

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative evaluation, whereas 15% perform only formative evaluations of their residents, and the remaining 22% conduct both summative and formative evaluations of their residents’ technical skills. Operative portfolios are kept by 53% of programs. The percentage of programs with mechanisms for remediation is 29% (19 of 65.Conclusion: The survey showed that surgical training programs use different tools to assess surgical skills competency. Having a clear remediation mechanism was highly associated with reporting remediation, which reflects the capability to detect struggling residents. Surgical training leadership should invest more in standardizing the assessment of surgical skills.Keywords: objective assessment, program directors, surgical skills, surgical residency

Alkhayal A

2012-10-01

118

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifett time prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of women who underwent hysterectomies for benign gynecological conditions between January 1990 and December 2002, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, comparing patient characteristics, indications for hysterectomy and the rate of complications in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy (AH versus vaginal hysterectomy (VH. Results: Of 251 women, 199 (79% underwent AH and 52 (21% underwent VH. An estimated blood loss of 2500 mL occurred in 104 patients (52.3% in the AH group and in 20 patients (38.5% in the VH group (differtt ence not statistically significant. The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine fibroids (n=107, 41.6% and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (n=68, 27.1%. The most common indication for VH was uterine prott lapse (n=45, 86.5%. The overall complication rates were 33.5%, 15.4% and 30.4% in women who underwent AH, VH and both, respectively. Intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred in 24 (9.7% patients in the AH group and in 51 patients in the VH group (20.3%. Postoperative infection occurred in 42/199 (21.6% in the AH group and 5/52 (9.6% in the VH group (difference not statistically significant. Conclusions: We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected rate of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We found that the rate of complitt cations was not significantly higher than other centers internationally.

Sait Khalid

2008-01-01

119

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifetime prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. We reviewed the records of women who underwent hysterectomies for benign gynecological conditions between January 1990 and December 2002, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, comparing patient characteristics, indications for hysterectomy and the rate of complications in women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy (AH) versus vaginal hysterectomy (VH). Of 251 women 199 (79%) underwent AH and 52 (21%) underwent VH. An estimated blood loss of >=500 mL occurred in 104 patients (52.3%) in the AH group and in 20 patients (38.5%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). The most common indications for hysterectomy were uterine fibroids (n=107, 41.6%) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (n=68, 27.1%). The most common indication for VH was uterine prolapsed (n=45, 86.5%). The overall complication rates were 33.5%, 15.4% and 30.4% in women who underwent the AH group and in 51 patients in the VH group (20.3%). Postoperative infection occurred in 42/199 (21.6%) in the AH group and 5/52 (9.6%) in the VH group (difference not statistically significant). We describe a large tically significant). We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We describe a large series of hysterectomies, which provides information for surgeons on the expected rate of complications following hysterectomy for benign conditions. We found that the rate of complications was not significantly higher than other centers internationally. (author)

120

The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

Alghamdi IG

2013-10-01

121

Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder patients in Saudi Arabia. Medication-taking behavior among depressed patients is influenced by several factors, mainly patients’ beliefs regarding antidepressants. This study has improved the understanding of the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants. Keywords: patient compliance, predictors, antidepressants, patients’ beliefs, depression, psychiatry

Al Jumah K

2014-10-01

122

Atherosclerotic disease and risk factor modification in Saudi Arabia: a call to action  

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Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD and peripheral artery disease (PAD.Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed.Keywords: coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis

Al-Omran M

2012-05-01

123

The ICT Proficiencies of University Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Case Study to Identify Challenges and Encouragements  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…

Ageel, Mohammed

2011-01-01

124

It Is Better to Light a Candle than to Ban the Darkness: Government Led Academic Development in Saudi Arabian Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

At first glance, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's current multi-billion dollar investment in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities, seems to have as its primary aim the preparation of the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a 100 years. However,…

Onsman, Andrys

2011-01-01

125

Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

126

Outcome of stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one ave died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating persistent neurologic or cognitive deficits. Primary prevention for recurrences is feasible through informed genetic counseling. (author)

127

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

128

Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid

2013-01-01

129

Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2013-07-01

130

Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exctors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

131

Infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is higtice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)

132

Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author) sources. (author)

133

Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake  

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Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine lead contamination in 104 of the representative food items in the Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary lead intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples of each selected food items were purchased from the local markets of Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate by ICP-AES after thorough homogenization. Sweets (0.011–0.199 ?g/g, vegetables (0.002–0.195 ?g/g, legumes (0.014–0.094 ?g/g, eggs (0.079 ?g/g, meat and meat products (0.013–0.068 ?g/g were the richest sources of lead. Considering the amounts of each food consumed, the major food sources of lead intake for Saudi can be arranged as follows: vegetables (25.4%, cereal and cereal products (24.2%, beverages (9.7% sweets (8.2%, legumes (7.4%, fruits (5.4% milk and milk products (5.1%. The daily intake of lead was calculated taking into account the concentration of this element in the edible part of the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources, (a the KSA food sheet provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO and (b from questionnaires distributed among 300 families in Riyadh city. The results showed that the daily intakes of lead according to the two sources are 22.7 and 24.5 ?g/person/day respectively, which are lower than that mentioned by The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, whereas it is comprabale with that of other countries.

Zeid A. Al Othman

2010-10-01

134

Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)

135

Hysolar - German-Saudi Arabian solar hydrogen research, development and demonstration program. Hysolar - Deutsch-Saudi Arabisches Forschungs-, Entwicklungs- und Demonstrationsprogramm Solarer Wasserstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hysolar project is carried out in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia. In a 350 kW pilot plant in Riyadh, hydrogen is produced by water decomposition in an electrolytic process. The electrical power required for this is supplied by a solar generator equipped with solar cells. (Sauter).

1991-01-01

136

Investigating the Interaction Between Cognitive Complexity and Amount of L2 Exposure in Saudi College Students in the English Department at King Faisal University  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the relationship between Saudi EFL students writing competence and their Arabic writing proficiency. The study also examined the possible relationship between Saudi students' first language (Arabic) and second language (English) writing competence and their self-regulatory abilities. Participants included 35 college-level students majoring in English at King Faisal University. The participants wrote English and Arabic argumentative essays on the same topic during two s...

Faizah Saleh Al-Hammadi

2011-01-01

137

State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review  

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Full Text Available Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles.Methods: A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years.Results: The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions.Conclusion: This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the local economic evidence available to decision-makers is not very useful. Thus, building research capability in health economics is warranted.Keywords: cost-effective analysis, pharmacoeconomics, economic evaluation, quality assessment, Saudi Arabia

Al-Aqeel SA

2012-07-01

138

Risk factors for drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To identify rates of primary and secondary drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their risk factors from a tertiary-care center in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Review of microbiological and clinical data of all patients with positive isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between 1995 and 2000 at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Susceptibility to antituberculosis agents was tested in 320 iso...

Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Shahab Abdulwahab; Edna Almodovar; Al-abdely, Hail M.

2002-01-01

139

Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities and Association with Obesity among Saudi College Students  

OpenAIRE

Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Al-alwan, Ibrahim A.; Al-rowaily, Mohammed A.

2012-01-01

140

Chronic hepatitis C. Genotypes and response to anti-viral therapy among Saudi patients.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to compare the response of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 with other genotypes to anti-viral treatment among Saudi patients in a prospective randomized trial. METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Hepatobiliary Sciences at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 1997 to January 2000. Sixty-two patients (33 males and 29 females) aged > or =18 with chronic hepa...

Ibrahim Al-Traif; Handoo, Fayaz A.; Abdulrahman Al-Jumah; Mohammed Al-Nasser

2004-01-01

141

The ability of the pre-admission criteria to predict performance in a Saudi medical school.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the ability of preadmission criteria used in most health professional schools in Saudi Arabia to predict the in-program performance. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Fahd Medical City, Faculty of Medicine, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July and September 2008. Four sets were used to examine the predictive power of preadmission variables. The variables are the academic abilities (high school grades), aptitude test, achievem...

Al-rukban, Mohammad O.; Munshi, Fadi M.; Abdulghani, Hamza M.; Ibrahim Al-Hoqail

2010-01-01

142

Eruption time of permanent first molars and incisors among female primary school children of riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)

143

The Pattern of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Saudi University Students  

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Full Text Available The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming <5 servings/day of fruit and vegetable with only 22% of them consuming >=5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively. Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000, but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group.

Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi

2013-11-01

144

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and independent sample T-test were used to assess gender difference. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of the body shape dissatisfaction. Overall, 65% of students had normal BMI, more males then females overweight (23%, while more females underweight (16.8%. Females have higher body shape dissatisfaction (33.5% then males (21.4%, half of males inactive and this percentage increased in females to (73.8%. Overweight males were more dissatisfied with their body shape (10.7% than females (6.3%. Almost one fifth of inactive males dissatisfied comparable to quarter inactive females dissatisfied with their body shape. Younger age is predictor for body shape dissatisfaction in both genders, also weight in males. BMI and being married female was predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. Collectively results indicate that body shape dissatisfaction and inactive lifestyle were prevalent among females than male’s age, weight; BMI and marital status was the most predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. However developing educational program to promote body shape satisfaction and active lifestyle will be very useful especially among females.

Tarek A. Raouf

2013-06-01

145

NSR project in Saudi Arabia. Implementation of the longest ERTMS network in the world; NSR-Projekt in Saudi Arabien. Errichtung der laengsten ERTMS-Strecke der Welt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)

Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-03-15

146

Visual outcome and complications after cataract extraction in Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in Saudi Arabia. The author studied 1383 patients who had undergone cataract extraction (total of 1520 procedures) from October 1985 to March 1986 at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients were observed for at least two months. Of 1520 eyes 555 (37%) achieved a visual acuity of 20/40 or better, 309 (20%) a visual acuity of 20/50-20/60 after surgery, and 656 (43%) eyes a visual acuity of 20/70 or less. The number o...

Al Faran, M. F.

1990-01-01

147

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity

Alghamdi IG

2014-08-01

148

Osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women using dual x-ray bone densitometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A pilot study to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi woman. Lumbarspine bone density was measured in 830 postmenopausal Saudi women 50-80 years of age (average 59 years), using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the King Khalid University Hospital,Riyadh,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1989 and 1999. The result of the bone mineral density (BMD) in gram/cm2 were compared to the peak bone density (PBD) in healthy young women (T-score). Based on the definition of World Health Organization (WHO),the T-score value was considerd for analysis. Accordingly 248 (29.9%) subjects showed normal results,mean MBD of 1.117+-0.13 and T-score of-0.66SD; whlie 254(30.6%) subjects showed osteopenia ,mean BMD of 0.983+-0.11and T-score of -2.4 SD and 328( 39.5%) subjects showed osteoporosis,mean BMD of 0.767+-0.11and T-score of -3.4SD. when 830 subjects were analyzed by decades ,there were 42.3% normal , 33.4% osteopenia and 24.3% osteoporosis in age 50-59 years; 11% normal, 27% with osteopenia and 62% with osteoporosis in age 60-69 years while in older age 70-79 years only 4.6 had normal BMD, 21.5% had osteopenia and73.8% had osteoporosis. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common among postmenopausal Saudi women and should be considerd as a matter of public health .Bone densitometry should be used to acess the severity of bone loss, identify those who need therapy and for follow up and early diagnosis of those with osteopenia in order to institutehose with osteopenia in order to institute proper therapy and avoid future osteoporosis. (author)

149

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2012-07-01

150

Utero-vaginal packing. Seven years review in the management of post partum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta at a maternity hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To study the effectiveness of utero-vaginal packing in the management of primary postpartum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta. METHODS We conducted this study in the Maternity Hospital, Riyadh Medical Complex, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study covering 7 years from January 2001 to December 2007. Utero-vaginal packing was carried out by placing gauze soaked in normal saline solution approximately 2 meters long and 10 cm in width into the lower uter...

Al-harbi, Nawal A.; Al-abra, Eman S.; Alabbad, Nasser S.

2009-01-01

151

Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors mbined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

152

Female University Students’ Physical Activity Levels and Associated Factors—A Cross-Sectional Study in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.

Atika Khalaf

2013-08-01

153

Drivers' behaviour at roundabouts in Riyadh.  

Science.gov (United States)

As is the case in many cities, roundabouts are used extensively in Riyadh. However, instead of improving safety, driving through roundabouts in Riyadh can be a dangerous experience as many drivers do not follow regulations. Unfortunately, no official statistics exist on accidents or violations at roundabouts and no studies have been done to assess this problem. A field study to collect data on drivers' behaviour at five roundabouts in Riyadh was done and a questionnaire was randomly distributed to drivers to explore this issue. Results showed that the percentage of drivers breaching at least one traffic regulation is approximately 90% of all drivers driving through these roundabouts, with leaving without flashing and entering the roundabout without giving way being the most frequent violation types. Questionnaire results from 384 respondents showed that there is a lack of information among most drivers on roundabout driving regulations and that driver training and licensing process does not include enough information related to this matter. Finally, practical suggestions as how to tackle this issue in terms of education, training and policing are given. PMID:21660796

Al-Saleh, K; Bendak, S

2012-01-01

154

Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year

155

Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

2009-01-01

156

Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life  

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Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

Nasser M. Al-Daghri

2014-04-01

157

The utility of helical CT in assessing the frequency of ureterolithiasis in Saudi patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to identify 650 patients who underwent Ct for renal colic and review them for age and gender in Saudi Arabia. Scans were performed on a 16 multislice scanner. A total of 650 patients with the clinical suspicion of ureteric colic were reviewed; 220 females (33.8%) and 430 males (66.2%), with a female to male ratio of 1:2. Examinations were carried out from January 2005 to November 2006, at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and ninety five patients out of 650 had stones; 2 of 395 (0.5%) had stones in the 5-15 years age group, 28 (7.%) in the 16-25 years age group, 99 (25.1%) in the 26-35 years, 106 (26.8%) in the 36-45 age group, 84 (21.9%) in the 46-55 age group, 51 (12.9%) in the 56-65 age group, and 25 (6.3%) in the above 66 years age group. The most significant finding in our study is that as the patients age increases so does the percentage of stones up to the age of 56, with a peak at age group of 26-35 where stone percentage reaches 26.8%. Unenhanced helical CT is useful for the diagnosis of ureterolithiasis. (author)

158

Association of physicians' knowledge and behavior with prostate cancer counseling and screening in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of iases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).

159

Crystal chemistry and Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of clays around Riyadh for brick industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.

Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: mkhalil@ksu.edu.sa [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)

2013-04-15

160

Measurements of natural and man-made radioactivities in the soil in Riyadh region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides together with some man-made deposited ones in soil have been carried out in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Soil samples from more than one hundred locations have been studied. Concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides from both uranium and thorium series, 40K and 137Cs have been measured using hyper pure germanium spectrometers. Concentrations of 238U in soil samples have been evaluated using laser fluorimetry, while 90Sr has been measured after chemical separation using a liquid scintillation counter. Gamma-ray doses have been measured in the same sites where soil samples were collected and the measured values are given together with calculated doses based on the measured concentrations of natural gamma emitters in soil

161

The prevalence of sickle cell disease in Saudi children adolescents: Acommunity based survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to determine the prevalence and regional distribution ofsickle cell disease in Saudi children. A sample size of 45,682 children andadolescents from newborn to 19 years of age was selected by multistage randomprobability sampling of the Saudi households from each of the 13 regions ofthe country. The study is cross-sectional, community based and conducted over2 years from 2004 to 2005. Data including history and clinical examinationwere collected with house-to-house survey of all selected households. Datamanagement and analysis was carried out at King Saud University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. Sickle cell disease was detected in 108 of 45,682 children andadolescents with a prevalence of 24 per 10,000. The regional distribution ofsickle cell disease showed eastern region dominance with a prevalence of 145per 10,000, followed by the southern region with a prevalence of 24 per10,000, western region 12 per 10,000and central region with 6 per 10,000. Nocases were found in the northern region. The male to female ratio wasapproximately 1:1. The results of this national wide community-based surveyshow a high prevalence of sickle cell disease. In the community and thedisease is more common in eastern and southern regions of the country.National or regional newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease usinghematological tests should be planned. This study shows that the populationat risk has an uneven geographical distribution. For this reason, selectiverather thanion. For this reason, selectiverather than universal neonatal screening is likely to be more appropriate inthe country. (author)

162

Advancing adolescent health and health services in Saudi Arabia: exploring health-care providers' training, interest, and perceptions of the health-care needs of young people  

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Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have specific health-care needs that are different than children or adults (82.3% and 84.0%, respectively. With respect to health services, the majority (85.8% believed that adolescents should be hospitalized in adolescent-specific wards. Only 26.7% of health-care providers believed that patients should be transferred from child to adult health-care services at 12–13 years of age, as is currently practiced in the country. Conclusion: A gap exists between the training, knowledge and skills of health-care providers, and the needs to address health-care issues of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This coupled with the fact that health-care providers are interested in gaining more knowledge and skills and are supportive of changes in the health-care system provides an opportunity for building local capacity and instituting medical and nursing education and health-care reform that can better serve the needs of the country's young population. Keywords: medical education, young population, knowledge transfer

AlBuhairan FS

2014-09-01

163

Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, whichur children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)

164

Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)lex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

165

Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in a large sample of Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea  

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Objectives: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in a large sample of Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This prospective observational study consisted of 1693 patients who were diagnosed to have sleep-disordered breathing using type I attended polysomnography (PSG) between January 2002 and December 2012 in the University Sleep Disorders Center (USDC) at King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 1693 OSA patients, OHS was identified in 144 (8.5%) (women 66.7%). Compared with the pure OSA patients, the OHS patients were significantly older (57.4±13.4 years versus 46.8±13.7 years), had a higher body mass index (44.6±10.8 versus 35.7±9.2 kg/m2), a higher daytime partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (56.5±12.7 versus 41.6±6.7 mmHg), a longer duration of nocturnal oxygen saturation (nSaO2) Sleep Disorders Center. Serum bicarbonate and duration of nSaO2 <90% are independent predictors of OHS among patients with OSA. PMID:25719582

BaHammam, Ahmed S.

2015-01-01

166

Resting heart rate and its relationship with general and abdominal obesity in young male Saudi university students  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)

167

Prevalence and Predictors of Anxiety and Depression among Female Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University Jeddah Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out during 2010-2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale was used.Results: The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001. Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.85-5.82, P < 0.001. Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi & having emotional failure.Conclusion: Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.

2013-07-01

168

New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  

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A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M

2011-01-15

169

New Records of Eriophyoid Mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea, fig (Ficus carica, grapes (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, citrus (Citrus spp., pomegranate (Punica granatum and pear (Pyrus communis. Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah, Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad, Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer, belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.

Fahad J. Al-Atawi

2011-01-01

170

Effect of submersion injury on water safety practice after the event in children, Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To bring to light issues surrounding water safety practices and the impact of such incidents on these practices in our community. METHODS We conducted a prospective observational study at King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of all children <12 years of age presenting with submersion injury in the period between January 1999 through December 2004 noting the demographics and the pattern of water safety practices prior to and after event. RESUL...

Hijazi, Omar M.; Shahin, Amr A.; Haidar, Nasser A.; Sarwi, Muna F.; Musawa, Eman S.

2007-01-01

171

Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients us...

Al Momani, M.; Al Korashy, H.

2012-01-01

172

Using the theory of planned behavior to predict infant restraint use in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted intent of child restraint system (CRS) use among pregnant women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, KSA during June-July 2013, 196 pregnant women completed surveys assessing their beliefs regarding CRS. Simultaneous observations were conducted among a different sample of 150 women to determine CRS usage at hospital discharge following m...

Anna Nelson; Modeste, Naomi N.; Marshak, Helen H.; Hopp, Joyce W.

2014-01-01

173

Nutritional assessment and obesity in Down syndrome children and their siblings in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and prevalence of obesity among children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: The study group comprised pre-pubertal children, with clinically and cytogenetically proven DS. Healthy siblings, closest in age to the DS children, were used as a control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), and macro- and micronutrient intakes were measured in both groups. The study was conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ...

Mohamed, Badreldin A.; Samarkandy, Manal M.; Al-hamdan, Adel A.

2012-01-01

174

Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflections from the 2010 Census  

OpenAIRE

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the largest nation in the Arabian Peninsula is divided into 13 regions, which are of different development levels in terms of both population and public utility infrastructure. More than the other regions, population is high in Al-Riyadh, Makkah Al-Mokarramah, and the Eastern Region, due to urbanization. The current analysis of census results is aimed at understanding (i) regional variations in population and households and (ii) house ownership, type of housing, a...

Abdul Salam, Asharaf; Elsegaey, Ibrahim; Khraif, Rshood; Al-mutairi, Abdullah

2014-01-01

175

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-01-01

176

Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138

1986-12-01

177

The Incidence Rate of Thyroid Cancer Among Women in Saudi Arabia: An Observational Descriptive Epidemiological Analysis of Data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.  

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This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-05-25

178

Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included haemostatic assays, microbiological and serological tests. Neuroimaging included cranial CT, MRI magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan. Of the 104 Saudi children with stroke, seen during the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory systems were identified risk factors in 18 (17.3%). Five children had stroke following acute bacterial meningitis at ages ranging between 5-21 months. The causative organism was identified in 3 of them and consisted of Haemophilus influenza (in a 5-months-old girl), Streptococcus pneumonia (in a 21-months-old girl complicated by subdural empyema and sinovenous thrombosis), and Staphylococcus aureus in a 6-months-old boy who had an underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Unspecified meningitis/meningoencephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas encephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas 3 children had an underlying congenital infection as a cause for their stroke. Two of the latter 3 children were diagnosed to have congenital toxoplasmosis, and the third had congenital rubella syndrome. Two girls had stroke following septicemia at ages of one and 2 months. Neurobrucellosis caused stroke in 2 boys at the ages of 4 1/2 and 4 years. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed lacunar and other infects involving mainly the deep cerebral nuclei, secondary to occlusion of small penetrating end arteries. Two patients presented with cerebrovascular disease following systemic lupus erythematosus. These were a 12-year-old girl and a 5-year-old boy. Several of the infectious diseases that caused stroke in this cohort of Saudi children are children are potentially preventable through childhood immunization programs or other maternity health programs. In particular, immunogenic conjugate vaccines against 3 most common organisms causing acute bacterial meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neissaria meningitides and defined serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae) are needed to protect the young (<2 years) who are mostly affected. (author)

179

A cross-cultural comparison of health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents living in urban areas: gender by country analyses.  

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This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p cultural phenomenon. PMID:24300072

Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

2013-12-01

180

Social Connectedness, Academic, Non-Academic Behaviors Related To Self-Regulation among University Students in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Studies dedicated to examination of self-regulation posit a bi-directional association between self-regulation and other variables including social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control. However, to date, studies of this caliber have only evidenced that self-regulation is a predictor of other variables. In the present study, the factors that predict self-regulation are examined among 209 undergraduate students in their preparatory year in the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Collection of data was conducted in the school year’s second semester. Based on the results, significant positive relations exist between social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control, with self-regulation. Moreover, the results revealed that social connectedness and self-control are predictors of students’ self-regulation, but not self-efficacy. Added to this, the result revealed a significant difference in the relationship between self-control and self-regulation among female students, with the other variables insignificant for both genders. Hence, it can be stated that higher education practitioners and academicians may focus on the assessment and the development of the students’ skills in terms of self-regulation.

Malek Jdaitawi

2015-01-01

181

Adjustment factors for the ASHRAE clear-sky model based on solar-radiation measurements in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar-radiation variation over horizontal surfaces calculated by the ASHRAE clear-sky model is compared with measurements for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both model results and measurements are averaged on an hourly basis for all days in each month of the year to get a monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. The measured data are further averaged over the years 1996-2000. The ASHRAE model implemented utilizes the standard values of the coefficients proposed in the original model. Calculations are also made with a different set of coefficients proposed in the literature. The results show that the ASHRAE model calculations generally over-predict the measured data particularly for the months of October ? May. A daily total solar-flux is obtained by integrating the hourly distribution. Based on the daily total flux, a factor PHI (<1) is obtained for every month to adjust the calculated clear-sky flux in order to account for the effects of local weather-conditions. When the ASHRAE model calculations are multiplied by this factor, the results agree very well with the measured monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. It is recommended that these adjustment factors be employed when the ASHRAE clear-sky model is used for solar radiation calculations in Riyadh and localities of similar environmental conditions. Instantaneous, daily and yearly solar-radiation on various surfaces, such as building walls and flat-plate solar collectors, can then be convenite solar collectors, can then be conveniently calculated using the adjusted model for different orientations and inclination angles. The model also allows the beam, diffuse and ground-reflected solar-radiation components to be determined separately. Sample results characterizing the solar radiation in Riyadh are presented by using the 'adjusted' ASHRAE model

182

Cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to ascertain the role of cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in a cohort of Saudi children who were evaluated in a retrospective and prospective study. Children with cardiac diseases were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who presented with stroke. They were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards or evaluated at the Outpatient Clinics of the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). A comprehensive form for clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological and laboratory data retrieval was designed and completed for each patient. Cardiac evaluation included 12-lead ECG and serial echocardiograms. Cardiac catheterization and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were conducted on clinical discretion. Cardiac diseases were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). The patients (4males and 2 females) were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 5.3 years (range=1-8 years; median 6.5 years). Onset of stroke was at a mean age of 34 months (range= 4 months - 8 years; median = 30 months). Five patients had stroke in association with congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas the sixth had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The identified CHD consisted of membranous ventriculfied CHD consisted of membranous ventricular septal defect in a 5-year-old boy who had moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell b-thalassemia, asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 17-months-old girl, atrioventricular canal defect and PDA in an 8-year-old boy who also had Down syndrome, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a one-year-old boy. The latter patient developed hemiparesis secondary to a septic embolus, which evolved into brain abscess involving the right fronto-preital region. This was successfully managed surgically. The sixth patient was an 8 1/2-year-old girl who had hemiparesis and complex partial seizure in association with restrictive cardiomyopathy. Serial echocardiograms depicted resolution of the cardiac abnormalities within 5 years and subsequent normal findings. Cardiac diseases, as, a group constitute a significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Early diagnosis of these diseases is important to prevent further recurrences of stroke, and because some of them are potentially curable. (author)

183

Bone mineral density: What normative data should we use to report Saudi female patients?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was a pioneer in developing its bone mineral density (BMD) reference population (RP), BMD is still reported in most Saudi dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) centers according to Lebanese RP. The aim of the current work was to assess the implication of using normal ranges other than Saudi female normal range in reporting BMD of Saudi female patients (SFP). This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. The current use of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discse of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discontinued and instead SFRP should be used. Further national studies are needed to reassure the Saudi RP and to resolve the differences between the current 2 SFRP at the second and fifth age decades. (author)

184

A prospective study of congenital malformations among live born neonates at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to estimate the incidence of major and minor congenital malformations among live born infants at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Estimation of risk factors was also evaluated. Between March 2004 and May 2005, a total of 5356 babies born at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, were enrolled in this study for malformations. Details of cases were recorded after parent's interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. One hundred and forty-seven (27.06/1000 livebirth) and 13 (2.39/1000 birth) stillbirth have congenital anomalies. In all livebirth, incidences of major anomalies were 93.9% and minor were 6.1%. Mothers of 95.9% with congenital malformation were healthy, 3.4% were diabetic and 0.7% had cardiac malformation. In 38.8% of cases parents were consanguineous. Among the liveborn births, the most common system involved was cardiovascular (7.1/1000), followed by musculoskeletal/limb (4.1/1000), external genitilia (2.8/1000), urinary (2.6/1000),multiple chromosomal (2.2/1000), orofacial (1.9/1000), central nervous system (1.9/1000), skin (1.7/1000), multiple single gene (1.3/1000), multiple sequence (0.75/1000), eyes (0.56/1000), unclassified (0.19/1000), musculoskeletal/abdominal (0.19/1000), endocrine (0.19/1000). High incidence of major malformation was found in Jeddah. Importance of Genetic Counseling is revealed in our study since more than three quarters of mothers were under 36 years and may well plan future e under 36 years and may well plan future pregnancies. (author)

185

Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in saudi population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)

186

Dyspnea, pulmonary function and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The died for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)

187

Prevalence of Sleep Deprivation and Relation with Depressive Symptoms among Medical Residents in King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Sleep deprivation is common among medical residents of all specialties. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms among medical residents in King Fahd University Hospital (KFUH) in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the association between sleep deprivation, sleepiness and depressive symptoms was examined. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and April 2012 and involved 171 KFUH medical residents of different specialties. Data were collected using a specifically designed questionnaire eliciting demographic information, working hours and number of hours of sleep. In addition, validated Arabic versions of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-2 (BDI-2) were used. Results: The prevalence of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep deprivation among residents in KFUH was 85.9% and 63.2%, respectively. The prevalence of overall sleepiness was 52%; 43.3% reported being excessively sleepy in certain situations while 8.8% reported being excessively sleepy regardless of the situation. Based on the BDI-2, the prevalence of mild, moderate and severe depressive symptoms was 43.3%, 15.2% and 4.7%, respectively. Significant associations were found between sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms; depressive symptoms and sleepiness, and depressive symptoms and being a female resident. Conclusion: The vast majority of medical residents had acute sleep deprivation, with more than half suffering from chronic sleep deprivation. The number of hours and quality of sleep among the residents were strongly associated with depressive symptoms. New regulations are recommended regarding the number of working hours and night duties for medical residents. Further studies should assess these new regulations on a regular basis. PMID:25685390

Al-Maddah, Esraa M.; Al-Dabal, Badria K.; Khalil, Mohammad S.

2015-01-01

188

Clinical features of culture-proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective This retrospective chart review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of 40 patients with culture-proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Patients with positive M. pneumoniae cultures from respiratory specimens from January 1997 through December 1998 were identified through the Microbiology records. Charts of patients were reviewed. Results 40 patients were identified, 33 (82.5% of whom required admission. Most infections (92.5% were community-acquired. The infection affected all age groups but was most common in infants (32.5% and pre-school children (22.5%. It occurred year-round but was most common in the fall (35% and spring (30%. More than three-quarters of patients (77.5% had comorbidities. Twenty-four isolates (60% were associated with pneumonia, 14 (35% with upper respiratory tract infections, and 2 (5% with bronchiolitis. Cough (82.5%, fever (75%, and malaise (58.8% were the most common symptoms, and crepitations (60%, and wheezes (40% were the most common signs. Most patients with pneumonia had crepitations (79.2% but only 25% had bronchial breathing. Immunocompromised patients were more likely than non-immunocompromised patients to present with pneumonia (8/9 versus 16/31, P = 0.05. Of the 24 patients with pneumonia, 14 (58.3% had uneventful recovery, 4 (16.7% recovered following some complications, 3 (12.5% died because of M pneumoniae infection, and 3 (12.5% died due to underlying comorbidities. The 3 patients who died of M pneumoniae pneumonia had other comorbidities. Conclusion our results were similar to published data except for the finding that infections were more common in infants and preschool children and that the mortality rate of pneumonia in patients with comorbidities was high.

Al-Ghamdi Aisha A

2001-07-01

189

A Consensus-Based Framework for the Sustainable Urban Planning Development: “As an Approach for Saudi Arabian Cities”  

OpenAIRE

Cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid and in many cases unsustainable growth. This paper analyses the importance of sustainable urban planning in the context of the capital city of Saudi Arabia, which is Riyadh. It provides a comprehensive review of the historical growth of the city and critically discusses its urban planning development phases, informed by strategies and schemes adopted during this development process. This critical review is based on a proposed framework of ...

Ali AlQahtany; Yacine Rezgui; Haijiang Li

2014-01-01

190

Patient's awareness of their medical conditions in multi-specialtyoutpatient clinics in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to assess the patient's awareness of their medicalconditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness and assesspatient's satisfaction with their doctor's explanations of medicalconditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in theoutpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.The statistical package for Social Science was used for analysis. Fivehundred and one patients were included in the study. The mean age was45.6+-16.8. Fifty-five percent were female and 29% were highly educated. Mostof the patients (64.1%) knew their diagnoses. This was significantlyassociated with educational level; chronicity of the disease and theawareness of other issues related to their illness such as complications andname of their medications (p>0.05). Few patients (20%) knew complications oftheir diseases. Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with theirdoctor's explanation of their disease. Knowing the diagnosis (p=0.001) andthe disease complications (p=0.014) were associated significantly withpatient's satisfaction. These figures are less than what they should be.Physicians must be advised of the importance of proper patient education. Inaddition, the lack of proper education by physicians demonstrated in thisstudy should be compensated for by an increase in non-physician basededucation tools. (author) (author)

191

Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were deployed for twenty eight days (based on the memory available with the recorder) continuously collecting data at all three potential sites. This continuous data collection was done as part of a larger study where microtremor measurements were made to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises over a non-producing reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Papoola and Kaka, 2011). The new station at KFUPM will be equipped with a 3-component 120s to 50Hz Trillium120 broad band seismometer, Taurus 24-bit data acquisition system along with a large LCD to display the waveform data in real-time. The KFUPM community will have an opportunity to observe daily seismic activity in real-time and to monitor/record both regional and teleseismic events. Moreover, students will gain the opportunity to identify P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves and learn how to locate an earthquake. The station will also play an important role in providing a source of information about seismic activity for the general public. The new station is expected to be operational in a few months time.

Kaka, S. I.

2012-04-01

192

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP)  

OpenAIRE

To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following l...

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-01-01

193

College of Computers and Information Technology Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Due to the increasing of complexity in software projects, group work is becoming more important in order to ensure quality software products can be delivered on time. Thus, in universities, group work is seen as a good preparation for students to enter industry because by working in group, it can reduce the individual workload, improve the ability to manage a project and enhance the problem solving skills. However, due to lack of programming skills especially in Javaprogramming language, most...

Zhamri Che Ani; Azman Yasin; Mohd Zabidin Husin,; Zauridah Abdul Hamid

2010-01-01

194

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2011-12-01

195

The etiology and symptoms of endodontic cases treated in a university clinic in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)

196

The Effect of High Altitude on Blood Hormones in Male Westar Rats in South Western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Living in high altitude areas results in chronic hypoxia, which induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. The current study investigated the endocrine responses of male Westar rats chronically exposed to high altitude-induced hypoxia in Abha City, in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Approach: The rats were separated in to 2 groups of 10 rats. The first group was kept at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in the King Saud University animal house in Riyadh City and designated the low altitude group; the second group of rats was transferred to the King Khalid University animal house in Abha City, which is 2800 m height above sea level and was designated the high altitude group. All rats were housed under the same laboratory conditions and fed the same diet. Blood samples were collected from both groups of animals 45 days after transferring the high altitude group to Abha City. Results: The data revealed that the rats transferred to the high altitude area had significant decreases in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and testosterone levels and significant increases in the levels of serum cortisol, free Triiodothyronine (T3 and free Thyroxin (T4 compared to rats kept at low altitude. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that rats chronically exposed to high altitude hypoxia experienced alternations in various hormones. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.

Fahaid H. Al-Hashem

2010-01-01

197

College of Computers and Information Technology Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Due to the increasing of complexity in software projects, group work is becoming more important in order to ensure quality software products can be delivered on time. Thus, in universities, group work is seen as a good preparation for students to enter industry because by working in group, it can reduce the individual workload, improve the ability to manage a project and enhance the problem solving skills. However, due to lack of programming skills especially in Javaprogramming language, most of the students’ software project cannot be delivered successfully. To solve this problem, systematic group formation is one of the initial factors that should be considered to ensure that every group consists of quality individuals who are good in programming. This paper presents a method for group formation using genetic algorithm, where the members for each group will begenerated based on the students’ programming skill.

Zhamri Che Ani

2010-12-01

198

Intervention Strategies in a Saudi English Classroom at Majma'ah University  

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Full Text Available Verbal reports and English teachers’ classroom experience at   Community College of Majma'ah University (MU warn that underachievement is an educational crisis in the making. And in the paucity of research findings to raise the institutional awareness of the phenomenon, coupled with the lack of relevant professional training programs to deal with the situation, the crisis could be further aggravated. This study is an attempt to address underachievement among English students at Community College; it particularly reports a tripartite teaching strategy comprising three intervention methods: orientation, use of the students' first language (L1 and multiple mid-term exams. This teaching strategy has been devised to achieve two objectives: to motivate the students to improve their performance; and to help them acquire new (college-related study skills. In the light of what has so far been done, it can be concluded that the majority of the students are able to excel academically provided that they are properly informed   and guided to discover these abilities.

El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

2013-06-01

199

Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosoaneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours after onset of headache, vomiting, drowsiness, and dizziness. Following drainage of the IVH and stabilization of the patient, the AVM was successfully emboli zed 6 weeks latter. As a group, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies constitute significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Recognition of these diseases is important since some are treatable and because other family members may be at risk. (author)

200

Planktonic biomass and physico-chemical parameters in Wa di Haneefah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative and qualitative study of phytoplankton and zooplankton community and physico-chemical condition of water at two sites in Wa di Haneefah Stream was carried out on a monthly basis from November, 1993 to October, 1994. Water temperature fluctuated between (13.0 deg. - 40.0 deg.) with ph values (7.1 - 7.4). High concentrations (11.3) and 10.13 mgI-1) of dissolved oxygen in two sites were recorded in April. The contents of chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate and sulphate were max mum in March-May. Different phyto planktonic genera present at the two sites belong to the families, Caryophyllaceae, Cacophony, Decasodium and Bacillanophyceae. Bacillariphyceae was the dominating group throughout the study. These plank tons were more prominent in summer and less in winter months. Zoo planktonic genera consisted mainly of protozoa ns, Rotifers and Crustaceans. These zooplankton s were prominent forming a peak in July and trough in January. the distribution of the generic composition of phyto-and-zooplankton was correlated with some of the physico-chemical changes in the environment. (authors). 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

201

Aetiological factors contributing to road traffic accidents in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study analysed 13,390 police records of road traffic accidents (RTAs) covering a three and a half year period according to different suspected aetiological factors. The majority of the accidents were recorded for vehicles in good condition on well-paved straight roads with well-operating traffic light systems. Adverse weather conditions such as precipitation, fog and dust were of minimal importance, with most of the accidents being reported during sunny days during the rush period of 12 noon to 3 pm. Driver's error was identified as the main contributing factor in about two thirds of all RTAs mainly as reckless driving and excess speeding. About 27% of the drivers were professional drivers and 41% were in the age group 25-35 years in good health with no alcohol or drug intake. Hence, human errors may be attributed to carelessness, experience, lack of knowledge or attention, over-exhaustion or fatigue. The effects of physical stressors on performance of drivers need to be further explored and clarified but this need not underestimate the importance of vehicle and environment since most accidents are multifactoral and a slight change in them may effectively enhance perception and minimise personal error. Recommendations for remedial measures adopting an interdisciplinary approach are presented. PMID:8936950

Nofal, F H; Saeed, A A; Anokute, C C

1996-10-01

202

Knowledge and practice of spirometry among pediatricians in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Spirometry is the most basic, widely used and effort-dependent pulmonary function test. It assesses the lung volumes and flows, and is ideally suited to describe the effects of restriction or obstruction on lung function. Therefore, keeping in view the clinical applications of spirometry, this study attempts to explore the knowledge and practice about spirometry among pediatricians. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was conducted across multiple centers in vari...

Al-Saadi Muslim

2008-01-01

203

Hypertension control in a community health centre at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES This study was carried out to determine the degree of control of hypertension and the most commonly used drugs for hypertensive patients attending our community health center. METHODS A cross sectional study carried out by randomly examining the case notes of patients attending our primary care clinics. RESULTS Case notes of 3747 patients were examined, 2064 (55%) females (mean age 23.76 years) and 1683 (45%) males (mean age 24.63 years). Prevalence of hypertension w...

Siddiqui, S.; Ogbeide, D. O.; Karim, A.; Al-khalifa, I.

2001-01-01

204

Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

205

Measurement of natural radiation background level of Riyadh city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-spectroscopy system is used to analyze the radionuclides in the soil samples and determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in Riyadh city area. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in the city with 2 depth profiles (0-5, 5-15 cm) for each site. the average concentrations of U-238 series, Th-232 series, K-40, and Cs-137 are found to be 26, 23, 315 and 14 beequerel/kg respectively. Exposure rate arising from these radionuclides as the average annual equivalent dose rate is estimated at 0.57 mSv/yr. The average annual equivalent dose-rate in the Riyadh area is less than the average world level. 44 Ref

206

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators - A pilot study  

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Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

2010-01-01

207

Assessment of patient safety culture in Saudi Arabian hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Healthcare organisations in Saudi Arabia are striving to improve patient safety and quality of care through implementation of safety systems and creating a culture of safety. Objective The purpose of this study to evaluate the extent to which the culture supports patient safety at Saudi hospitals. Data Collection A survey questionnaire was distributed hospital-wide in 13 general hospitals in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia, to 223 health professionals including nurses, technicians, managers and medical staff. Measurement The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to identify dimensions of patient safety culture. Results Overall Patient Safety Grade was rated as excellent or very good by 60% of respondents, acceptable by 33% and failing or poor by 7%. More than half of respondents thought that managers overlook safety problems that happen over and over. Areas of strength for most hospitals were organisational learning/continuous improvement, teamwork within units, feedback and communication about errors. Areas with potential for improvement for most hospitals were under-reporting of events, non-punitive response to error, staffing, teamwork across hospital units. Conclusion Leadership is a critical element to the effectiveness of patient safety initiatives. Response to errors is an important determinant of safety culture in healthcare organisations. In order for healthcare organisations to create a culture of safety and improvement, they must eliminate fear of blame and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20430929

Alahmadi, H A

2010-10-01

208

Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation.

Roberts, J. [Platts Energy Group, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

209

Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

210

Temporary central line related thrombosis in a pediatric intensive care unit in central Saudi Arabia. Two-year incidence and risk factors  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To estimate the incidence of temporary central venous line (CVL) related thrombosis among the pediatric population of critical care units, and to determine the possible predictors for developing CVL thrombosis. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients ?14 years of age who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 2009 to 2011 was performed. The patients were recruited using the PICU admission data...

Altassan, Ruqaiah S.; Hala Al Alem; Talal Al Harbi

2014-01-01

211

Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

212

Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hyperteno improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

213

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2002-01-01

214

Medical and dental health status of orphan children in central Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To evaluate the medical and dental health status of orphan children from 4 to 12-years-old, and compare them with children living with their parents. Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional study took place in 3 government orphanages and 3 ordinary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2011 to January 2012. All orphans aged 4-12 year were selected (N=90). Ninety children living with their parents were selected randomly to serve as the controls. Demographic data, medical, a...

Al-jobair, Asma M.; Al-sadhan, Salwa A.; Al-faifi, Areej A.; Andijani, Reem I.; Al-motlag, Sarah K.

2013-01-01

215

Factors influencing Saudi medical students and interns' choice of future specialty: a self-administered questionnaire  

OpenAIRE

Mohammed Alshahrani, Bander Dhafery, Mohammed Al Mulhim, Faisal Alkhadra, Doaa Albagshi, Noor BukhamsinKing Fahad Hospital of the University, Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: This study explores the most influential factors affecting Saudi medical students and interns' choice of specialty at the University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during the period from June 1 to June 14, 2013. Chi-square...

Alshahrani M; Dhafery B; Al Mulhim M; Alkhadra F; Al Bagshi D; Bukhamsin N

2014-01-01

216

Prevalence of stress in junior doctors during their internship training: a cross-sectional study of three Saudi medical colleges’ hospitals  

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Full Text Available Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of  Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Medical science is perceived as a stressful educational career, and medical students experience monstrous stress during their undergraduate studies, internship, and residency training, which affects their cognitive function, practical life, and patient care. In the present study, an assessment of the prevalence of self-perceived stress among new medical graduates during their internship training has been performed, and correlations of self-perceived stress with sex, marital status, and clinical rotations have been evaluated.Patients and methods: Interns of the King Khalid, King Abdulaziz, and King Fahd University hospitals in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a stress inventory known as the Kessler 10, which is used for stress measurement. Apart from stress evaluation, the questionnaire collected personal data, such as age, sex, and marital status, in addition to information relevant to hospital training, assigned duties, and clinical training rotations.Results: Our results showed that nearly 73.0% of interns were under stressed conditions. Most of the interns were affected by a severe level of stress (34.9%, followed by mild (19.3% and moderate (18.8% levels of stress. The stress level was significantly higher (84.0% among female interns in comparison with male interns (66.5% (odds ratio =2.64; confidence interval =1.59–4.39; P<0.0002. There were statistically significant differences between the percentages of male and female interns (P?0.047 at mild, moderate, and severe stress levels. Marital status had no role in causing stress. The highest stress level was reported by interns during the clinical rotations of medicine (78.8%, followed by surgery (74.7%, pediatrics (72.4%, obstetrics and gynecology (70.1%, and emergency (58.3%. The prevalence of stress among the interns and their corresponding clinical rotations in all three hospitals had significant linear correlations (r?0.829, P?0.041. Conclusion: We found a significantly high level of stress among the medical interns. High stress may have negative effects on cognitive functioning, learning, and patient care. Hence, medical interns need support and subsequent interventions to cope with stress. Keywords: medical education, clinical rotation, medicine, surgery, pediatrics

Abdulghani HM

2014-09-01

217

Distribution of Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns Among Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Saudi Arabia  

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Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and febrile bacteremia, particularly in young children. The increasing number of drug-resistant isolates has highlighted the necessity for intervening and controlling disease. To achieve this, information is needed on serotype distribution and patterns of antibiotic resistance in children. Methods All cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged less than 15 yr recorded at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed for serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Isolates were collected from 78 consecutive patients with IPD between 2009 and 2012. All collected isolates were subjected to serotyping by co-agglutination, sequential multiplex PCR, and single PCR sequetyping as previously described. Results The most frequently isolated IPD serotypes were 23F, 6B, 19F, 18C, 4, 14, and 19A, which are listed in decreasing order and cover 77% of total isolates. The serotype coverage for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7, PCV10, and PCV13 was 77%, 81%, and 90%, respectively. Results from sequential multiplex PCR agreed with co-agglutination results. All serotypes could not be correctly identified using single PCR sequetyping. Minimum inhibitory concentration showed that 50 (64%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas 70 (90%) isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusions The most common pneumococcal serotypes occur with frequencies similar to those found in countries where the PCV has been introduced. The most common serotypes in this study are included in the PCVs. Addition of 23A and 15 to the vaccine would improve the PCV performance in IPD prevention. PMID:24790908

A. Al-Sherikh, Yazeed; K. Gowda, Lakshmana; John, James; Khaled Homoud Mohammed, Dabwan; Chikkabidare Shashidhar, Pradeep

2014-01-01

218

Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

Syed Shahid Habib

2013-05-01

219

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in children 16 years of age or younger  

OpenAIRE

Sultan AL-Zaaidi,1 Saba AL-Rashaed,2 Essam AL-Harthi,3 Eman AL-Kahtani,2 Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar41Prince Sultan Medical Military City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3AL-Hokama Eye Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: To study the anatomical and visual outcomes and prognostic factors that may predict the outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in childr...

AL-Zaaidi S; Al-rashaed S, Al-kahtani E.; AL-Harthi E; Abu El-Asrar A

2013-01-01

220

CHALLENGES TO SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM  

OpenAIRE

Medical education began in Saudi Arabia in 1969 when King Saud University, the first medical school was established. Since then globalization has brought numerous challenges. In this paper, we review the status of medical education and its expected future projects.

Al-muhanna, Fahad A.

2009-01-01

221

Human papilloma virus-16/18 cervical infection among women attending a family medical clinic in Riyadh  

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Full Text Available Background: Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18 in-fection in cervical tissues of women residing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. Subjects and Methods: Pap smear and HPV-16/18 DNA detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals during routine gynecological examination.Some HPV-positive subjects were followed for 4 years, by Pap smear every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of 4 years. Results: Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15%, and all HPV-16 was 28.3%. HPV-18 alone was 3.3%, HPV-18 as a mixed infection with HPV-16 was 15%, and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18, and 4 with a mixed infec-tion of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for 4 years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. Conclusion: A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with a low rate of progression to CIN. A signifi-cant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patients with HPV-16/18 mixed infection.

Al-Muammar Tarfah

2007-01-01

222

One hundred and thirty-seven living donor pediatric liver transplants at Riyadh Military Hospital. Results and outlook for future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To review the results of 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants performed at Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH). Retrospective analysis of the in- and out-patient case notes was carried out. Data were collected regarding age, gender, nationality, diagnosis, type of procedure, complications and survival of the grafts and the recipients. The first 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants were performed in 113 months. The age range was 4.5 months to 14 years. Eighty-four recipients (61%) were male. One hundred and twelve children were Saudi. Left lateral segment was used as allograft in 135 cases. One child each received full left lobe and full right lobe. Six auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplants were carried out. Familial metabolic liver disorders made the largest group of children needing transplant. The most common indications were progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia (45 cases each). The numbers of major complications are: hepatic artery thrombosis (n=8); portal vein thrombosis (n=3); portal vein stenosis (n=3); hepatic vein stenosis (n=3) and biliary strictures (n=4). Fifteen patients died. Three further allografts have been lost. Thus, the overall patient survival rate is 89% and graft survival rate is 86.8%. Living donor liver transplantation is a viable option for children with end-stage liver disease. Metabolic liver disease is the most common indication in Saudi Arabia. The cadaveric donor supply is in shortage and ladaveric donor supply is in shortage and living donation is a practical alternative. The incidence of complications and recipient and graft survival rates of the program at RMH are acceptable, (author)

223

Human papilloma virus-16/18 cervical infection among women attending a family medical clinic in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)

224

Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights  

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Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

Salwa B. El-Sobkey

2014-08-01

225

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a general intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author). pneumoniae (Author).

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Measurement of radon levels in groundwater supplies of Riyadh with liquid scintillation counter and the associated radiation dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

A national groundwater surveillance programme was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels in the year 2007. This paper presents (222)Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located in and around the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from 171 wells in six different locations. Most of these deep wells have an approximate depth of 1000 m, while shallow wells have a depth of 300 m. The analyses were performed by an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a (226)Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with a cocktail (high efficiency mineral oil scintillator) which was used after a certain period of time to assure radon equilibrium. The measured (222)Rn activities of deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.05 to 3.52±0.30 Bq l(-1) (average: 1.01±0.10 Bq l(-1)), whereas those of shallow wells ranged from 0.72±0.08 to 7.21±0.58 Bq l(-1) (average: 2.74±0.24 Bq l(-1)). The (222)Rn concentrations levels were found to be in compliance with the proposed national limits of 11.1 Bql(-1) and depend on the water source. PMID:22887118

Aleissa, Khalid Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Abdulrahman Sayeed; Almasoud, Fahad Ibrahim; Islam, Md Shafiqul

2013-04-01

227

Measurement of radon levels in groundwater supplies of riyadh with liquid scintillation counter and the associated radiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A national groundwater surveillance programme was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels in the year 2007. This paper presents 222Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located in and around the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from 171 wells in six different locations. Most of these deep wells have an approximate depth of 1000 m, while shallow wells have a depth of 300 m. The analyses were performed by an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a 226Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with a cocktail (high efficiency mineral oil scintillator) which was used after a certain period of time to assure radon equilibrium. The measured 222Rn activities of deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.05 to 3.52±0.30 Bql-1 (average: 1.01±0.10 Bql-1), whereas those of shallow wells ranged from 0.72±0.08 to 7.21±0.58 Bql-1 (average: 2.74±0.24 Bql-1). The 222Rn concentrations levels were found to be in compliance with the proposed national limits of 11.1 Bql-1 and depend on the water source. (authors)

228

Clinico pathological pattern of malignant parotid gland tumors in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report our experience of varied presentations and diverse histopathological spectrum of parotid gland malignancies. This retrospective analysis incorporated patients with histological evidence of malignant parotid tumors at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 20-year period from 1984 through 2004. The medical records of these patients were analyzed for their demographic characteristics, clinical features, operations performed and pathological diversity. Thirty-two patients comprised this study group. There is a male preponderance over females with a ratio of 2.2:1 (22 men and 10 women) and mean age of 51.8 (range 28-81 years). A painless lump was the most frequent clinical manifestation observed in 23(71.8%) patients followed by facial nerve dysfunction in 14 (43.7%) patients. Parotidectomy was performed in 22 (68.7%) patients: 16 superficial and 6 totals. A partial facial nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice in 9 (28.1%) patients. Four (12.5%) patients presented with cervical lymph node metastases necessitating radical neck dissection. Nine (28.1%) patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 8(25%) adenoid cystic carcinoma, 6 (18.7%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified and 2 (6.2%) were reported to have carcinoma in plemorphic adenoma. Twenty (62.5%) specimens revealed high grade aggressive lesions and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients pres and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients presented with stage III/IV disease. Malignant parotid tumors are exceedingly rare, occurring at earlier group with male preponderance and invariably declare at a late clinical stage in our community. Histopathological features hallmark a locally advanced disease with an aggressive behavior. (author)

229

Assessment of lipid profile in Saudi type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic periodontal patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic phis study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)

230

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

231

Research-oriented series: a portal into the culture of biomedical research for junior medical students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a research-oriented series (ROS) on undergraduate students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia. The ROS was designed to comprise eight sessions. Each session addressed core principles and the practice of research concepts and was based on theoretical morning sessions supplemented by afternoon practical sessions delivered by experienced senior medical students and faculty members. Students were assessed comprehensively by the end of the ROS. The series was conducted twice, and 35 students were involved each time. A total of 70 enrolled students (35 men and 35 women) with grade point averages of >3.5 and perception of knowledge, skills, and confidence after attending the ROS and evaluating their senior peers. Ninety percent of the medical students responded to the online survey and rated the ROS highly in improving their research knowledge, skills, and confidence. Male students reported significant gains compared with their female peers (P student gains after attending the ROS. Qualitative responses were in support of three recurring themes favoring the unique learning environment in the ROS. In conclusion, the ROS offers a short-term systematic approach to fundamental steps and concepts of biomedical research. PMID:25727467

Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M; Abu-Dawas, Reema B; Chamseddin, Ranim A; Albali, Nawaf H; Ali, Alaa A; Khan, Tehreem A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A

2015-03-01

232

Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).

233

Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

234

Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2012-05-01

235

Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)

236

Level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in saudi patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events and it predicts risk of incident hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the serum levels of the circulating acute-phase reactant high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in Saudi patients with chronic stable Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology and Department of Cardiology, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh between August 2006 and December 2007. One hundred and seven individuals with chronic stable CAD and 33 healthy, age and BMI-matched individuals were studied. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected, and analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and hsCRP in patients with chronic stable CAD. TC (Control 4.41+-0.57 vs CAD 4.28+-1.40, p=0.8394) and LDL levels (Control 2.70+-0.52 vs CAD 2.71+-1.20, p=0.7963) did not differ significantly between the two groups. While there were significant differences in TG (Control 1.13+-0.47 vs CAD 1.84+-1.10, p=0.0135) and HDL levels (Control 1.06+-0.30 vs CAD 0.71+-0.25, p=0.0000). hsCRP levels were significantly higher in patients with CAD (5.0+-4.4) compared to healthy individuals (2.7+-2.7, p=0.0166). Frequency of low risk levels was significantly higher in Controls than Cas significantly higher in Controls than CAD patients (24.2% vs 8.4%, p=0.0332) and vice versa for high risk levels (24.2% vs 51.4%, p=0.0110). At average risk levels frequency did not differ significantly (51.5% vs 40.1%, p=0.3429) between control and CAD groups. Saudi patients with stable chronic CAD have higher hsCRP levels compared to healthy individuals. Moreover the prevalence of undesirable risk levels of hsCRP is also higher in CAD patients. (author)

237

Inter-Species Differences Between Lead Concentration in the Feathers of Pycnonotus leucogenys and Streptopelia seneglenses from Different Cities of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to determine lead accumulation in feathers of wild white-cheeked bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys and wild palm dove (Streptopelia seneglenses in order to find which is more suitable to monitor the lead environmental pollution. Feather samples of 270 of Pycnonotus leucogenys and 309 of Streptopelia seneglenses were collected from three different cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Riyadh and Al-Kharj and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study revealed that the feathers of Streptopelia seneglenses have more capacity to retain lead than Pycnonotus leucogenys in Jeddah and Riyadh (pStreptopelia seneglenses is more suitable as a biological monitor for environmental lead exposure than Pycnonotus leucogenys.

Mansour I. Almansour

2007-01-01

238

Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

2006-01-01

239

The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students  

OpenAIRE

Cooperative language learning (CLL) approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled i...

Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

2014-01-01

240

Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

241

Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25776094

Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

2015-12-01

242

Nursing: Attitudes, perceptions and strategies for progress in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western countries are experiencing a nursing shortage which will impact on future nurse manpower supply in Saudi Arabia because the Kingdom is dependent on expatriate nurses. The young people of Saudi Arabia are the Kingdom's most valuable resources but are reluctant to enter nursing. Therefore, a random survey was administered to 1,131 secondary and university students to determine attitudes and general knowledge of Saudi nationals toward the health care system, perceived role of the nurse and recommendations for improving Saudization of the nursing profession. The majority of those surveyed preferred hospitalization within the Kingdom with Saudi nationals delivering the nursing care rather than expatriates. The nurse was perceived as being a caring person who was responsible for giving more than custodial care. Moreover, the role of the nurse was perceived as an extension of the physician with little or no role in disease detection and prevention. The low image and status of nursing, traditional and social values were identified as major inhibiting factors that affect the Saudi nationals' reluctance to enter nursing. Increasing financial rewards, utilizing the media and segregation of hospitals into male and female were the most frequently cited recommendations to promote Saudization of nursing. Data from this study provided insight into the current perception of nursing as a potential career for Saudi nationals and could provide direction for future concerns in the development of nursing in the Kingdom. PMID:17590766

Jackson, C L; Gary, R

1991-07-01

243

Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

Al Ghobain Mohammed

2011-01-01

244

Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

245

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

2013-12-01

246

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP  

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Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-12-01

247

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia: experience at three hospitals in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Lung specimens have to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were reviewed. Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well documented clinical and radiograph data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age 58 years; range 42-78). The clinical presentation f BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%), fever (70%) dyspnea, (85%) and crackles (80%). The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14) was a restrictive pattern (11 patients). Most patients (70%) had no underlying cause (idiopathic BOOP). Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner's granulomatosis. Ten patients (50%) had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30%) had a partial response and 3 (15.8) with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcto other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease. (author)

248

Communication with Saudis  

OpenAIRE

People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-01-01

249

Saudi License Plate Recognition  

OpenAIRE

Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPR)can help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage....

Saleh Basalamah

2013-01-01

250

Communication with Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-02-01

251

The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students  

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Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.

Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

2014-05-01

252

Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest. PMID:25581182

Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

2015-01-01

253

Adult Education in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Religion pervades all aspects of Saudi Arabia, the conservative home of Islam, where the constitution is the Quran and law is interpreted by religious scholars. A formal adult basic education program was initiated in 1960. As part of the country's modernization since the early 1970s, the Saudi government has begun an enormous nation-building plan…

Griffin, Tim D.; Algren, Mark S.

254

Klebsiella pneumoniae LO10 producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase SHV-12 in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Klebsiella pneumoniae LO10 was responsible for an outbreak that occurred in the neonatal unit at Security Forces Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Over a period of eight months nine cases of bacteremia resulted in two deaths. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was transferred from strain LO10 to E. coli by both conjugation and transformation. Sequence determination of the plasmid gene from two transconjugants and one transformant indicated that resistance was carried by a ca.100-kb plasmid encoding beta-lactamase SHV-12. This is the first description of a K. pneumoniae producing a type SHV-12 extended spectrum beta-lactamase in Riyadh. Long term exposure to antibiotics, prolonged stay, and heavy use of third generation cephalosporins contributed to the spread of the resistant strain in the unit. Strict infection control measures led to control of the outbreak. PMID:19129068

Al-Obeid, S; Bremont, S; Jabri, L; Massoudi, N; Haddad, Q

2008-12-01

255

The energy supply of the European Union, the Saudi proposal of Riyadh and the 'Green paper' of the Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both as to oil and gas, Europe will ever more have to rely on external supplies. By the year 2020, 79% of its gas consumption and 90% of its oil consumption will be imported. In addition, this dependence will be characterised by a concentration of supplies among a limited number of producers, a process which, certainly for the EU, requires a permanent dialogue and a close co-operation with its suppliers. On the level of the European Union the debate on main energy issues to be faced in the future, including a secure supply, has been launched by the Commission in its 'Green paper - Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. Within this context, the proposal of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz to set up a permanent secretariat for the International Energy Forum seems most opportune. Indeed, this initiative aims at strengthening the co-operation and the dialogue between producers and consumers of commodities which are essential for the world economic development. Besides the ministers and official representatives from energy-producing and energy consuming countries, the Secretariat also wants to involve the major energy companies in those meetings, thus benefiting from their technical expertise, more than is the case now, thanks to the introduction of the said permanent dialogue. (authors)

256

Characteristics of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis patients in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: In this retrospective study conducted between June 2012 and November 2013 at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, we evaluated pediatric DKA admissions from 1995-2008 (Phase 1). From the case files, we obtained information related to patients’ age, gender, weight, presenting complaints, serum biochemical profile, and management. Results: This study included 373 DKA admissions with a median age of 11 years (interquartile range [IQR]:8-13). The patients in the subgroup of age more than 10 years old had the highest proportion of admissions (n=250, 67%, p<0.000). The median duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 3 years (IQR:2-6). New-onset DM was 47%. Predominant precipitating cause was acute illness, mostly viral syndrome in 22% of all cases, and non-compliance to insulin regimen was in 79% of the diagnosed diabetic cases. Blood glucose, pH, anion gap, serum osmolality, serum potassium, and serum phosphate showed the highest change during the initial 6 hours of management, while trends of serum bicarbonate and blood urea nitrogen demonstrated a predominant change in the initial 12 hours. Conclusion: The notable findings in this study, such as, higher mean age of presentation, high rate of non-compliance to insulin as the cause of precipitation, and a high prevalence of abdominal pain at presentation should be followed up with further comparative studies. PMID:25630000

Naeem, Mohammed A.; Al-Alem, Hala A.; Al-Dubayee, Mohammed S.; Al-Juraibah, Fahad N.; Omair, Amir; Al-Ruwaili, AbdulKarim S.; Al-Saleh, Abdullah M.

2015-01-01

257

Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

2008-01-01

258

Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita  

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Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

Dannatt, Trevor

1980-11-01

259

Capacity building in radiopharmaceuticals: Saudi Arabia experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present

260

Correlation of Hormone Receptors with Her 2/neu Protein Expression and the Histological Grade in Invasive Breast Cancers in a Cohort of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Data on hormone receptor and Her2/neu expression in breast cancers from Saudi Arabia and Gulf Region is sparse. We undertook this study to describe the patterns of hormone receptor and Her2/neu protein expression in breast carcinoma and compared them with the histological grade at a university hospital in Riyadh.Material and Method: We conducted a retrospective hormone receptor and Her2/neu study on 164 histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast between the year 2002 and 2008. Immunohistochemical analysis for estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor and Her2/neu was done in all the cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for Her2/neu gene amplification was performed in all 2+ cases and a few equivocal 1+ and 3+cases by immunohistochemistry. The results were then compared in a blinded fashion. Correlation between Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her2/neu amplification and grade of tumour were calculated.Result: The prevalence of estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor and Her2/neu overexpression were 64.6%, 57.3% and 35.3% respectively. The expression of estrogen receptor and progestrone receptor were significantly correlated (p<0.001. There was also a significant negative correlation between expression of hormone receptor and Her2/neu amplification. The histological grade of the tumour was also significantly correlated to the expression of both estrogen receptor and progestrone receptor. However, the relationship between Her2/neu amplification and grade of tumour was not significant and many of the grade III tumours were Her2/neu negative. In addition Her2/neu gene amplification by FISH was observed in 84.6% of breast cancers that were 3+ and in 18.75% of the cases that were 2+ by immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The revalence of estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor expression and Her2/neu amplification in breast cancers in Saudi Arabian population is similar to that reported internationally. There is a negative correlation between hormone receptors expression and Her2/neu amplification. However, not all high-grade breast cancers showed Her2/neu positive status.

Maha ARAFAH

2010-09-01

261

Receptor modelling study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been made in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, with a view to establishing the concentrations in this major city, and quantifying the contributions of major sources. Particulate and vapour forms have been sampled and analysed separately. The concentrations are compared to measurements from other sites in the Middle Eastern region and are towards the lower end of the range, being far lower than concentrations reported from Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Assiut (Egypt) and Tehran (Iran) but broadly similar to those measured in Damascus (Syria) and higher than those measured in Kuwait. The partitioning between vapour and particle phases is similar to that in data from Egypt and China, but with many compounds showing a higher particle-associated percentage than in Birmingham (UK) possibly reflecting a higher concentration of airborne particulate matter in the former countries. Concentrations in Jeddah were significantly higher at a site close to the oil refinery and a site close to a major ring road than at a suburban site to the north of the city. Application of positive matrix factorisation to the pooled data elicited three factors accounting respectively for 17%, 33% and 50% of the measured sum of PAH and these are interpreted as arising from gasoline vehicles, industrial sources, particularly the oil refinery, and to diesel/fuel oil combustion. PMID:25460975

Alghamdi, Mansour A; Alam, Mohammed S; Yin, Jianxin; Stark, Christopher; Jang, Eunhwa; Harrison, Roy M; Shamy, Magdy; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I

2015-02-15

262

Risk factors in transmission of brucellosis from animals to humans in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case-control study was undertaken to determine for the first time the specific aetiology of animal to human transmission of brucellosis in Saudi Arabia. Cases consisted of all patients with brucellosis attending the primary care clinic of the Riyadh Al-Kharj Hospital programme in central Saudi Arabia. A sample of individually matched controls was selected concurrently from patients attending the same clinic for unrelated problems. Cases and controls responded to a 48 item questionnaire on exposure to established risk factors for brucellosis. Greatest risk was found to be associated with indirect contact with animals (the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products), as opposed to direct contact with animals. When specific animal products were considered, greatest risk was associated with the consumption of milk and laban (buttermilk), as opposed to cheese or uncooked liver. When specific animal species were considered, greatest risk was associated with products derived from sheep and goats as opposed to camels and cattle. When direct contact with animals was considered, the study found a very high risk associated with assisting in animal parturition, but no significant risk associated with other direct (unspecified) animal contact. PMID:1440791

Cooper, C W

1992-01-01

263

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

2013-02-01

264

Patients' expectations, satisfaction and future behavior in hospitals in Riyadh City.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this study are to assess patient satisfaction at both Ministry of Health and private hospitals in Riyadh city, to compare the perceived satisfaction of patients to their expectations prior to admission at both sectors, and to determine the variables that influence the patient's future intention. METHODS A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 500 patients (392 were returned fully completed) in 7 private and Ministry of He...

Al-omar, B. A.

2000-01-01

265

Evaluating the Urban Sustainable Development on the Basis of AHP: A Case Study for Riyadh City  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate the urban sustainable development for Riyadh city on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This process is very important to the future development of the urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, indicators of sustainability were defined according to the urban level; and then categorized into three indexes (level of development, development coordination extent, and development potential). The results indicated that the index of Development potentia...

Abdulaziz Aldegheishem

2014-01-01

266

Language Learning Strategy Use of Saudi EFL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Saudi EFL students. The subjects were 701 male and female Saudi EFL students enrolled in an intensive English language program at the University of Ha’il. The Oxford Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) was used with some modifications. The study seeks to extend our knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and proficiency level. T...

Eid Alhaisoni

2012-01-01

267

The clinicopathologic patterns of prostatic diseases and prostate cancer in Saudi patients.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the clinicopathologic patterns of prostatic diseases in Saudi patients, with special emphasis on prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS The records of patients who underwent histopathological examinations of their prostatic specimens in King Abdulaziz University Medical City and King Faisal Specialist Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between June 2003 and June 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. The age, indications for biopsy, histological diagnosis, and Gl...

Mosli, Hisham A.; Abdel-meguid, Taha A.; Al-maghrabi, Jaudah A.; Kamal, Wisam K.; Saadah, Hisham A.; Farsi, Hasan M.

2009-01-01

268

Gene expression profiling in woman with women with breast cancer in a Saudi population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to generate consensus gene expression profiles of invasive breast tumors from a small cohort of Saudi females and to explore the possibility that they may be broadly conserved between Caucasian and Middle Eastern populations. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2005 to January 2007. Gene expression profiles were generated from 38 invasive breast tumors and 8 tumor adjacent tissues (TATs) using BD Atlas cDNA expression arrays containing 1176 genes. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by 2-dimensional unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The analysis identified 48 differentially expressed genes in tumors from which 25 are already reported by various western studies. Forty-three of these genes were also differentially expressed in TATs. The same data set has been able to distinguish between tumors and the TAT's, interestingly by using only 4 of the differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we were able to group the patients according to prognosis to an extent by hierarchical clustering. Our results indicate that expression profiles between Saudi females with breast cancer and the Caucasian population are conserved to some extent, and can be used to classify patients according to prognostic groups. We also suggest 3 differentially expressed genes (IGHG3, CDK3 and RPS9) in tumors may have a novel role in breast cancer.rs may have a novel role in breast cancer. In addition, the role of TATs is much more essential in breast cancer and needs to be explored thoroughly. (author)

269

Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (4as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions. (author)

270

The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population  

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Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

Mokhtar HA

2015-01-01

271

A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  - Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network.  It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks.  It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006).  Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events.   To counter the information scarcity, we at Software Intelligence Security Research Center, Aalborg University Esbjerg Denmark designed and developed terrorism knowledge base by harvesting information from authenticated websites.   In this paper we discuss data collection and analysis results on our on-going research of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network as a test bed.

Memon, Nasrullah

2007-01-01

272

HIV-Care Outcome in Saudi Arabia; a Longitudinal Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Clinical characteristics of HIV-1 infection in people inhabiting Western, Sub-Saharan African, and South-East Asian countries are well recognized. However, very little information is available with regard to HIV-1 infection and treatment outcome in MENA countries including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states. Methods Clinical, demographic and epidemiologic characteristics of 602 HIV-1 infected patients followed in the adult Infectious Diseases Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a tertiary referral center were longitudinally collected from 1989 to 2010. Results Of the 602 HIV-1 infected patients in this observation period, 70% were male. The major mode of HIV-1 transmission was heterosexual contact (55%). At diagnosis, opportunistic infections were found in 49% of patients, most commonly being pneumocysitis. AIDS associated neoplasia was also noted in 6% of patients. A hundred and forty-seven patients (24%) died from the cohort by the end of the observation period. The mortality rate peaked in 1992 at 90 deaths per 1000 person-year, whereas the mortality rate gradually decreased to <1% from 1993-2010. In 2010, 71% of the patients were receiving highly active retroviral therapy. Conclusions These data describe the clinical characteristic of HIV-1-infected patients at a major tertiary referral hospital in KSA over a 20-year period. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy resulted in a significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality. Future studies are needed in the design and implementation of targeted treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-1 infection in KSA. PMID:25750760

Al-Mozaini, Maha A.; Mansour, Michael K.; Al-Hokail, Abdullah A.; Mohmed, Magid A.; Daham, Munirah A. Bin; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Frayha, Husn H.; Al-Rabiah, Fahad A.; Alhajjar, Sami H.; Keshavjee, Salmaan; Adra, Chaker N.; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.

2015-01-01

273

Amputee population in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14 year retrospective study was conducted of 3210 amputees who attended during the period 1977-1990 at Riyadh Medical Rehabilitation Centre (RMRC), the first and the largest rehabilitation centre in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The mean age was 30.5 years, male slightly older than female. The mean age of the lower limb amputees was 32.6 and of the upper limb amputees 21.8 years. An overall predominance of male to female with a ratio of 6.1:1 was observed. Males outnumbered females by 5 to 1 in the upper limb and 6.3 to 1 in lower limb amputees. The ratio of lower limb to upper limb and multiple limb amputees was 15:3.7:1. Trauma was the leading cause of upper limb amputations (86.9%). In the lower limb, although trauma (52.9%) was the prominent cause, 35.9% was due to disease. Major specific causes of trauma were road traffic accidents, machine accidents, and falls from height. The most common site of unilateral amputations was trans-tibial (45.2%), followed by trans-femoral (21.6%), trans-radial (7.6%), partial hand (4.8%), and trans-humeral (4.7%). Comparison with other studies shows a higher mean age and fewer trans-tibial amputees than in Australia and other Western countries, while studies in Asia show greater similarities to the present investigation as regards trauma and disease incidence which occur in similar patterns. These patterns of amputee population indicate the demand for prosthetic service and provide guidelines for future development. PMID:8134274

al-Turaiki, H S; al-Falahi, L A

1993-12-01

274

Stress management in dental students: a systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T Van der Molen,2 Arwa H Alaujan,3 Benjamin J De Boer4 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Dental Services, Central Region, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora...

Am, Alzahem; Ht, Molen; Ah, Alaujan; Bj, Boer

2014-01-01

275

Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis following keratoconjunctivitis  

OpenAIRE

Samir S Shoughy,1 Khalid F Tabbara1–31The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Endophthalmitis due to endogenous or exogenous bacteria is a rare infection of the eye. We report a case of endophthalmitis following Listeria monoc...

Ss, Shoughy; Kf, Tabbara

2014-01-01

276

Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia in school children and adolescents.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To review experiences of nutritional rickets and osteomalacia in school children and adolescents at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Records of children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, seen at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period January 1994 through to December 1999, who were diagnosed to have rickets or osteomalacia were reviewed. The diagnosis was based on clinical, biochemical and ...

Al-jurayyan, Nasir A.; El-desouki, Mahmoud E.; Al-herbish, Abdullah S.; Al-mazyad, Abdullah S.; Al-qhtani, Maha M.

2002-01-01

277

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

OpenAIRE

Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study...

Ig, Alghamdi; Ii, Hussain; Ss, Almalki; Ms, Alghamdi; Mm, Alghamdi; Ma, El-sheemy

2014-01-01

278

Abdullah reshapes Saudi oil policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current oil market is having numerous remarkable effects. Mergers and meetings between hitherto unlikely partners have been the order of the day. More obscurely, the lack of the usual income has also been having some strange results in Saudi Arabia. Crown Prince Abdullah has been making his presence felt. (UK)

279

Prevalence of hearing loss among Saudi type 2 diabetic patients.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To compare hearing impairment and audiometric shapes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with an age-matched control group in the Saudi population. METHODS This is an observational case-control study at a tertiary academic referral center. We recruited 196 individuals (age; 29-69 years) attending the Department of Otolaryngology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital between January 2005 to December 2009, and grouped them into T2DM (n=109) and control (n=87) group...

Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.

2011-01-01

280

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...

Khater, Ashraf E. M.; Asma Al-Jaloud; El-taher, A.

2014-01-01

281

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

282

Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse  

OpenAIRE

Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

Am, Al-sharqi; Ks, Sherra; Aa, Al-habeeb; Na, Qureshi

2012-01-01

283

Adaptation and validation of a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction with pharmacy services in general hospitals  

OpenAIRE

Khalaf Ali Al-Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Ibrahem Al-Zaagi31Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population.Methods: The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used ...

Ka, Al-jumah; Ma, Hassali; Al-Zaagi I

2014-01-01

284

Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis  

OpenAIRE

Majid Alfadhel,1,3 Neam Saleh,2 Helal Alenazi,2 Henry Baffoe-Bonnie21Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, 2Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway....

Alfadhel M; Saleh N; Alenazi H; Baffoe-Bonnie H

2014-01-01

285

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD, have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010 released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN. This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis.

Yusuf A. Aina

2014-10-01

286

Spatial and temporal variations of satellite-derived multi-year particulate data of Saudi Arabia: an exploratory analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001-2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A; van der Merwe, Johannes H; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M

2014-11-01

287

Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

2014-05-01

288

Education as a Tool for Peace? The King Abdullah Scholarship Program and Perceptions of Saudi Arabia and UAE post 9/11  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 9/11, Saudi Arabia has made significant attempts to change its public image because of its alleged association with global terrorism. Given its charitable interests in promoting education as a tool for peace within the Arab region, it has established the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP, considered to be the most heavily endowed overseas scholarship program ever offered by a nation-state. Since 2005, over 120,000 Saudi university students have been financed by this scholarship to pursue their university studies abroad. This investigation concerns student perceptions of Saudi and Emirati students studying abroad ten years after the tragedy of 9/11. It draws from 35 face-to-face interviews of international students in Australia about their perceptions and viewpoints of Saudi Arabia and the Arab World pre- and post 9/11. It centers on Saudi and Emirati students and suggests that education can be a tool for peace.

Kholoud T. Hilal

2013-03-01

289

Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity,...

Majeed Khan

2013-01-01

290

The Saudi Initiative for asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

Al-Moamary Mohamed

2009-01-01

291

Prevalence of and risk factors for peripheral arterial disease in Saudi Arabia. A pilot cross-sectional study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of and the risk factors for Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a primary health care setting in Saudi Arabia. METHODS We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of Saudi patients aged >or= 45 years, who attended the primary health care center at King Khalid University Hospital between February 2006 and March 2006. A pre-designed questionnaire was used for each patient. Peripheral arterial disease was diagnosed, if the Ankle-Brachial i...

Al-sheikh, Sultan O.; Aljabri, Badr A.; Al-ansary, Lubna A.; Al-khayal, Laila A.; Al-salman, Musaad M.; Al-omran, Mohammed A.

2007-01-01

292

On the Contribution of Student Experience Survey Regarding Quality Management in Higher Education: An Institutional Study in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

We appraise comparatively and analytical data under Student Experience Survey (SES) to discuss the possible generalizability of related College level differentials in Saudi Arabia. For this, data collected from students of two academic programs namely Bachelor of Dental Surgery, College of Dentistry; and B.Sc. Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were considered. These data relate to experience of students halfway of respective academic program. The percent...

Abdullah Al Rubaish

2010-01-01

293

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

294

Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

1997-01-01

295

Linguistic Analysis of Saudi Pidginized Arabic as Produced by Asian Foreign Expatriates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds – Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.Keywords: Pidgin, simplification, reduction, SPA, AFEs, SA.

Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry

2015-03-01

296

The thermal performance of a roof-pond integrated to a building for heating during cold-winter desert climate conditions in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports an experiment to investigate the feasibility of a passive heating roof-pond system on an existing room in the cold winter conditions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Statistical analyses of data recorded during the winter season of 1996-97, are carried out to evaluate the thermal performance of the proposed system. Total effective heating and the heating power of the roof pond system are computed and analysed. Results indicate that the roof-pond system is capable of maintaining warm indoor air temperature conditions. The statistical formulae for this system are presented and used to estimate the indoor daily average air Dry Bulb Temperature (DBTAAvg-indoor) created by the system. Validation of the proposed formulae is also presented. (author)

297

Genetic association between the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism and the recurrent spontaneous abortions in Saudi Arabian women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The non-classical class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule was found to be predominately expressed in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts at the fetal-maternal interface during pregnancy. This molecule is critically important for successful implantation during human pregnancy. The polymorphic insertion-deletion (indel) 14-base pair (bp) site localized at the 3' untranslated region was associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform alternative splicing patterns, and thus may influence HLA-G function during pregnancy. We studied the association between the 14-bp indel polymorphism (rs16375) at the 3' untranslated region with recurrent spontaneous abortions in a Saudi population living in Riyadh. A group of 64 women with 2-11 successive abortions were included in this study. The control group included 62 women without reported abortions and at least 2 pregnancies, all visiting the King Khaled Hospital in Riyadh. The 14-bp indel was genotyped in the case and control groups. The frequency of the genotype +14/+14 was slightly higher in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions, but no significant differences were observed in the distribution of alleles and genotypes. PMID:25729961

Al Omar, S Y; Mansour, L; Alkhuriji, A F; Alwasel, S; Al-Qahtani, S

2015-01-01

298

Effect of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women; results from a nested case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins (related); unions beyond second cousins (distant relatives) were considered unrelated for this study. RESULTS: During the 3-year study (July 2010 through June 2013), there were 28,646 total births; of these, we included 1,179 babies with major birth defects, and 1,262 babies as their controls. The consanguinity prevalence for all included women was 49.6%. The consanguinity among babies with major Birth Defects (BDs) was 54.5% and 45.2% for controls (P?

Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N

2015-01-01

299

Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

300

Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of<=-2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5SD were taken as osteopenic. One hundred fifteen patients (mean age 61.8+-0.75 years; range 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7+-0.35 (range 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteopoprosis among Saudi Arabain males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteoporosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures. (author)-related fractures. (author)

301

Open-Heart surgery and cerebrovascular accident: retrospective study at King Khalid University Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stroke after coronary by-pass grafting (CABG) is often disabling. The incidence of ischemic stroke may approach 3% to 5%. Several risk factors have been identified including previous history of stroke, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of neurological deficit after open heart surgery. Retrospective study was done during the period 1992-1995 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were 350 patients who were subjected to (CABG), 10 patients (2.8%) found to suffer from cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following open-heart surgery. In 8 patients, the complaint lasted more than 24 hours (stroke), while 2 patients developed transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Five factors were found to be associated with increased risk of post cardiac surgery CVA. These factors are postoperative atrial fibrillation, carotid bruit, past history of heart failure, past history of CVA and smoking. The authors concluded that it is necessary to start a prospective study to verify the area of improvement with regards to technique, selection of patients and mode of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Arabia. (author)

302

Wavelet based hurst exponent and fractal dimensional analysis of Saudi climatic dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper utilizes wavelets technique to calculate the Hurst exponent, the fractal dimensions and finally the climate predictability indices of daily average time series of air temperature, surface pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed for nine meteorological stations (Dhahran, Gizan, Jeddah, Yanbu, Abha, Hail, Guryat, Turaif and Riyadh) spread over different parts of Saudi Arabia. The meteorological data (daily means of temperature, pressure, relative humidity and wind speed and daily totals for precipitation) used in this study covers a period of 16 years starting from 1990 to 2005. The Hurst exponents, calculated using wavelet method, were used to find the fractal dimensions for each of the meteorological parameters. Finally, the predictability indices of temperature, pressure, precipitation and wind speed were used to establish the climate predictability indices. The climate predictability indices of precipitation and wind speed time series were found to be independent of the temperature and pressure. The predictability indices of individual parameters were found to have persistence behavior for entire data set while anti-persistence, in most of the cases, for winter and summer data sets.

303

Patient Experience of Nursing Quality in a Teaching Hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011 from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42- items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization.Results: On a four-point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree. The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81, the information about the laboratory results (2.76 and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72. A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01, and the types of department (0.004.Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients' perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care.

M Al Momani

2012-08-01

304

Barriers to TQM Implementation within a Private Medical Services Organizations in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the barriers that private medical services organizations have faced while trying to implement Total Quality Management (TQM. The study employed a quantitative methodology involving 220 questionnaires that were validated and structured and consisted of 21 items identifying barriers faced by organizations during the implementation of TQM. Using convenience sampling techniques, we distributed the questionnaires to targeted employees of a four private medical services organization in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All statistical analysis was conducted in SPSS version 18 using descriptive data, reliability, and factor analysis to explore the barriers to the implementation of TQM. This analysis showed the most significant barriers to implementation were frequent employee turnover, resistance to change among employees, and a lack of understanding about TQM and a shortage of motivation among management. The results provide new impetus for findings from previous studies and offer human resource practitioners, quality managers, and professionals an opportunity to develop plans that addresses the challenges they face when implementing TQM, as well as intervention strategies with which to minimize the impact these challenges.

Abdulrahman Alsughayir

2014-04-01

305

Wavelet based hurst exponent and fractal dimensional analysis of Saudi climatic dynamics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper utilizes wavelets technique to calculate the Hurst exponent, the fractal dimensions and finally the climate predictability indices of daily average time series of air temperature, surface pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed for nine meteorological stations (Dhahran, Gizan, Jeddah, Yanbu, Abha, Hail, Guryat, Turaif and Riyadh) spread over different parts of Saudi Arabia. The meteorological data (daily means of temperature, pressure, relative humidity and wind speed and daily totals for precipitation) used in this study covers a period of 16 years starting from 1990 to 2005. The Hurst exponents, calculated using wavelet method, were used to find the fractal dimensions for each of the meteorological parameters. Finally, the predictability indices of temperature, pressure, precipitation and wind speed were used to establish the climate predictability indices. The climate predictability indices of precipitation and wind speed time series were found to be independent of the temperature and pressure. The predictability indices of individual parameters were found to have persistence behavior for entire data set while anti-persistence, in most of the cases, for winter and summer data sets.

Rehman, S. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KPUPM Box 767, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: srehman@kfupm.edu.sa; Siddiqi, A.H. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2009-05-15

306

Examining Theory of Reasoned Action in Internet Banking Using SEM among Saudi Consumers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of theory of reasoned action (TRA in a context of internet banking intention using structural equation modeling (SEM, hence it is intended to test whether the theory is acceptable or not in a newly context among none western culture, thus, emic measures of etic latent constructs are required. The simplified theory is tested using survey data from 350 respondents. Out of these, only 304 questionnaires are found to be usable whilst the rest are omitted owing to the incomplete responses or due to statistical circumstances. Results suggest that Compared to the TRA model, our generating model can create a much better understanding of actual internet banking behavior among Saudi consumers in Riyadh. The results indicated that direct paths from attitude to actual behavior and when adding a path from SN to attitude would improve the predictive power of the model and convincing improvement in fit, more so than what had been established by the original TRA model.

Abbas N. Albarq

2013-01-01

307

MobiQiyas: A Mobile Learning Standardized Test Preparation for Saudi Arabian Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mobile learning system, called MobiQiyas, for preparing Saudi Arabian students for one of the standardized tests, given by the National Center for Assessment in Higher Education (NCAHE, has been developed, using ready-made commercial products and tools. The learning material of MobiQiyas consists of practice questions with their answers, both provided by NCAHE, to be loaded by the students into their own mobile phones; after installation, the students can interact with MobiQiyas any number of times, as desired, without incurring any additional cost, other than the initial airtime cost for downloading. From total number of students taken the test, 20,000 students were randomly selected to use MobiQiyas and information was collected from them to measure their attitudes and participation of MobiQiyas. It was found that 36.1% of students had actually downloaded MobiQiyas successfully. Furthermore, a telephone survey was conducted, after the test period, on a class of 40 students in a secondary school in Riyadh, taking the same test, to measure their acceptance of MobiQiyas, using a 9-item questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale. The responses of the 40 students reflected high acceptance and satisfaction levels of MobiQiyas as an effective test prep tool.

Mohssen Mohammed Alabbadi

2010-10-01

308

Online conductivity monitoring of dialysis adequacy versus Kt/V derived from urea reduction ratio: A prospective study from a Saudi center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Khalid Al Saran1, Alaa Sabry2, Mamdouh Abdulghafour1, Ahmed Yehia11Prince Salman Center for Kidney Disease, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Ad equate delivered dose of solute removal (as assessed by urea reduction and calculation of Kt/V is an important determinant of clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. This requires both prescription of an adequate dose of HD and regular assessment that the delivered treatments are also adequate. Online conductivity monitoring using sodium flux as a surrogate for urea allows the repeated noninvasive measurement of Kt/V on each HD treatment.Methods: We prospectively studied 17 (9 males, 8 females established chronic HD patients over an eight-week period (408 treatments. A pre- and post-dialyzer measurement of the conductivity is performed by two mutually independent temperature-compensated conductivity cells equipped with Fresenius 4008 S® dialysis machines. Urea reduction was measured (once a week by a single pool calculation using immediate post-treatment sampling. No changes were made to any of the dialysis prescriptions over the study period. Values of calculated Kt/V and simultaneously obtained online Kt/V were compared.Results: There was a statistically significant difference between calculated Kt/V and online Kt/V over the study period. The mean calculated Kt/V was 1.37 ± 0.09, and mean online Kt/V 1.02 ± 0.15 (P = 0.000, calculated Kt/V ? 1.2 was achieved in all our patients while online Kt/V ? 1.2 was achieved in only 17.64 %. Yet there was moderate correlation between calculated Kt/V and online Kt/V (r2 = 0.48.Conclusions: Online conductivity monitoring results underestimates dialysis efficiency compared to calculated Kt/V readings. This difference has to be considered when applying Kt/V to clinical practice.Keywords: Kt/V, hemodialysis, online conductivity monitoring

Khalid Al Saran

2009-10-01

309

ARAMCO Education: Teaching Speech Communication to a Sub-Culture in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on experiences gained by an educator from Indiana University who taught a speech communication course in Saudi Arabia, this paper details the adaptations the educator had to make in order to teach Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) employees and their spouses in the politically difficult period of 1981-82. Following a brief background…

Dick, Robert C.

310

Estimation of MERS-Coronavirus Reproductive Number and Case Fatality Rate for the Spring 2014 Saudi Arabia Outbreak: Insights from Publicly Available Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was initially recognized as a source of severe respiratory illness and renal failure in 2012. Prior to 2014, MERS-CoV was mostly associated with sporadic cases of human illness, of presumed zoonotic origin, though chains of person-to-person transmission in the healthcare setting were reported. In spring 2014, large healthcare-associated outbreaks of MERS-CoV infection occurred in Jeddah and Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To date the epidemiological information published by public health investigators in affected jurisdictions has been relatively limited. However, it is important that the global public health community have access to information on the basic epidemiological features of the outbreak to date, including the basic reproduction number (R0) and best estimates of case-fatality rates (CFR). We sought to address these gaps using a publicly available line listing of MERS-CoV cases. Methods: R0 was estimated using the incidence decay with exponential adjustment (“IDEA”) method, while period-specific case fatality rates that incorporated non-attributed death data were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results: 707 cases were available for evaluation. 52% of cases were identified as primary, with the rest being secondary. IDEA model fits suggested a higher R0 in Jeddah (3.5-6.7) than in Riyadh (2.0-2.8); control parameters suggested more rapid reduction in transmission in the former city than the latter. The model accurately projected final size and end date of the Riyadh outbreak based on information available prior to the outbreak peak; for Jeddah, these projections were possible once the outbreak peaked. Overall case-fatality was 40%; depending on the timing of 171 deaths unlinked to case data, outbreak CFR could be higher, lower, or equivalent to pre-outbreak CFR. Conclusions: Notwithstanding imperfect data, inferences about MERS-CoV epidemiology important for public health preparedness are possible using publicly available data sources. The R0 estimated in Riyadh appears similar to that seen for SARS-CoV, but CFR appears higher, and indirect evidence suggests control activities ended these outbreaks. These data suggest this disease should be regarded with equal or greater concern than the related SARS-CoV. PMID:25685622

Majumder, Maimuna S.; Rivers, Caitlin; Lofgren, Eric; Fisman, David

2014-01-01

311

Medication burden of Saudi Arabian women receiving antiresorptive therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other diseases requiring medications, which increases the medication burden and ends up in drug noncompliance on the part of patients, making them vulnerable to osteoporosis-related fractures. We decided to undertake this study to analyze the concomitant medications that osteoporotic patients are receiving at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar.Methods: Osteoporotic patients receiving antiresorptive therapy (ART at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, were identified through the database of the QuadraMed Patient Care system and cross-checked with the radiology database of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and pharmacy drug-dispensing system between January 2009 and December 2009. Concomitant medication is defined as the use of other drugs for $30 days with oral bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D. Medication burdens are defined as mild (?1 concomitant medication, moderate (?2 and ?4 medications, and severe (?5 medications. The demographic data, such as age, sex, and diagnosis, were collected from the medical records. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.Results: During the study period, 516 patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis, and 473 were on ART while the rest were using anabolic Teriperatide. Sixty-eight (14.4% of the patients, with an average age of 50.15 ± 2.4 years, were on one medication besides ART, vitamin D, and elemental calcium; 129 (27.3% of the patients, with an average age of 51.6 ± 9.7 years, were taking 3.32 medications, and 276 (58.3% of the patients, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 10.7 years, were on 8.02 concomitant medications. The most common concomitant medications in use were cardiac, endocrine, systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, in that order. This study suggests that the majority of Saudi women who are osteoporotic and undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy have a concomitant medication burden of $5 other medications. For full compliance with the therapy, the patients' medication burden should be considered prior to selecting the treatment route.Keywords: osteoporosis, concomitant medications, polypharmacy, compliance

Sadat-Ali M

2012-08-01

312

Reading Strategy Instruction in Saudi Schools  

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Full Text Available This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient. Qualitative data from a semi-structured interview were also analyzed to explore teachers'knowledge about reading strategy instruction. The results of this study show that Saudi teachers believestrongly in the importance of cognitive reading strategies and that they have insufficient knowledge of theimportance of metacognitive reading strategies. The study ends with recommendations for training Saudi EFLteachers in some of the most effective metacognitive reading strategies to help students plan, monitor, evaluate,and regulate their learning.

Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani

2012-09-01

313

Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...

Pazheri, F. R.

2014-01-01

314

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

315

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.

El-Gilany Abdel-Hady

2008-01-01

316

Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves thoselved. The decree apparently resolves those questions

317

Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions.

Roberts, M.

1993-02-24

318

The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

Fahad M. Alsultan

2013-09-01

319

The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making  

OpenAIRE

When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

Alsultan, Fahad M.

2013-01-01

320

Developing a Framework for Classroom Lesson Delivery to Improve English Teachers’ Performance in the Foundation Year Programme at a Saudi University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current English programme provided to foundation year students at King Abdulaziz University is failing to equip learners with the desired level of English language. This paper assesses the teaching materials and proposes a teaching framework to improve teachers’ lesson delivery. The framework was designed to overcome some of the shortfalls in the mandatory course book series (Headway Plus. The framework adopted Kumaravadivelu’s (2010 principles for lesson delivery: diagnosis, treatment and assessment, and advocates the development of cognitive ability, encourages collaborative learning, problem solving, emphasizes process rather than product, communication skills, and self-inquiry. Fifteen English teachers participated in a pilot study by implementing the new lesson delivery framework over a 14-week course. A peer observation strategy was used to help the teachers reflect on their teaching methods and improve the quality of their teaching. Also, during the last two weeks of the course the head of the English unit and an external observer conducted observations to monitor and assess teachers’ development. The findings of the study revealed the new framework helped teachers improve their lesson delivery and encouraged them to use new teaching techniques such as problem solving and a student-centred approach. However, the results also indicated there was a need for teacher training courses to help teachers understand the principles behind the different teaching methodology. In addition, a cultural factor was found to be influential, as some teachers were reserved about criticizing other teachers’ performance.

Saeed J. Aburizaizah

2013-12-01

321

Bacterial meningitis in Saudi children.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the four years period from 1988 to 1991, 50 pediatric patients were diagnosed to have bacterial meningitis, out of a total number of 9057 pediatric admissions at Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif, Saudi Arabia, and 82% were less than two years of age. The causative organisms were isolated in 27 (54%) patients. The bacteria grown included Haemophilus influenzae type B in 8 patients (29.6%), Neisseria meningitidis in 8 patients (29.6%), Streptococcus pneumonia in 6 (22%) patients, and other bacteria in 5 patients (18.5%). Cerebro spinal fluid cultures from twenty three patients (46%) showed no organisms, however their clinical and C.S.F. findings were compatible with bacterial meningitis. One case of H. influenzae type B was resistant to ampicillin. Six patients died with an over all mortality of 12%, and 10 patients (20%) developed some kind of C.N.S. sequelae. Partially treated meningitis formed a large percentage of our sample. PMID:1340860

Srair, H A; Aman, H; al-Madan, M; al-Khater, M

1992-01-01

322

Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)

323

Measurements of radiation level in petroleum products and wastes in Riyadh City Refinery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas facilities. Twenty-seven petroleum samples were collected from Riyadh Refinery. Fourteen samples were products and 13 were waste samples; three of them were scale samples and 10 were sludge samples. The specific radioactivities of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 224Ra, 40K, and 235U for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples was estimated. It ranged between 0.574 and 0.154. The age of two scale samples was determined and found to be 2.39 and 3.66 years. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence analysis (XRF) and Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca and Fe were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum wastes were higher than that of the petroleum products

324

Measurements of natural radioactivity in some kinds of marble and granite used in Riyadh Region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty seven samples of marble and twenty samples of granite from both local and foreign locations were collected from different factories in Riyadh Region. The samples were crushed, dried in controlled furnace for around twenty four hours, and then stored for four weeks in 1/2 plastic Marinelli beakers. The gamma radiation of the samples was measured, employing high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy with an accumulating time for about 80000 sec. each. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations were determined for marble samples 238U (0.71- 44.1 Bq/kg), 232Th (0.10-32.0 Bq/kg), 226Ra (0.36-32.4 Bq/kg) and 40K (0.68-897.1 Bq/kg) while for granite 238U (0.03-314.4 Bq/kg) , 232Th (0.02-186.4 Bq/kg), 226Ra (0.03-147.0 Bq/kg) and 40K (0.28 - 1531.7 Bq/kg). The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate for all samples were estimated

325

Measurements of radiation level in petroleum products and wastes in Riyadh City Refinery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent concern has been devoted to the hazard arising from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas facilities. Twenty-seven petroleum samples were collected from Riyadh Refinery. Fourteen samples were products and 13 were waste samples; three of them were scale samples and 10 were sludge samples. The specific radioactivities of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 40}K, and {sup 235}U for all samples were determined using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, radiation hazard indices and absorbed dose rate in air for all waste samples were estimated. The radon emanation coefficient of the waste samples was estimated. It ranged between 0.574 and 0.154. The age of two scale samples was determined and found to be 2.39 and 3.66 years. The chemical structure of the waste samples was investigated using X-ray florescence analysis (XRF) and Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca and Fe were found in all samples. From this study, it was noticed that the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the petroleum wastes were higher than that of the petroleum products.

Al-Saleh, F.S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education, Riyadh University for Women, Al-rowdah, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh, Central 11417 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com; Al-Harshan, G.A. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education, Riyadh University for Women, Al-rowdah, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh, Central 11417 (Saudi Arabia)

2008-07-15

326

Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD

327

Veiled Delusions: Gender, Education, and Employment in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the oppression endured by Saudi Arabian women, and discusses the state of education, higher education, and employment for them. States that it will be difficult for Saudi women to achieve their aspirations brought about by higher education due to the growing number of unemployed Saudi males and the heavy rule of the monarchist…

Somers, Patricia; Caram, Chris A.

1998-01-01

328

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH. Men who had high (>4?ng/mL or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P?1·g?1, respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2?ng/mL, 64.5?g, and 0.08?ng·mL?1·g?1, respectively, for KSUH patients (P

O.Z. Al-Abdin

329

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Ser [...] um prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P

O.Z., Al-Abdin; D.M., Rabah; G., Badr; A., Kotb; A., Aprikian.

2013-06-25

330

Effectiveness of an infant oral health care educational intervention on knowledge of dental students  

OpenAIRE

Nouf S AlHammad1, Fouad S Salama21Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Department, King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Growth and Development Department, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NEBackground: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an infant oral health care educational intervention on the knowledge of female dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh city.Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight studen...

Ns, Alhammad; Fs, Salama

2011-01-01

331

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-10-01

332

Exploring COBIT Processes for ITG in Saudi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT has become one of the most important guidelines for information technology governance (ITG, which provides organizations with a useful tool to start evaluating their own ITG systems. COBIT introduces an ITG framework and supporting toolset that allows IT managers to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The objective of this study is to investigate the formality, auditing, responsibility and accountability of implementing COBIT processes for ITG in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve these objectives. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Saudi organizations in a selected number of Saudi cities. One hundred and twenty seven valid questionnaires – representing a 25.4 percent response rate –were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. While the results of the study reveal that the majority of respondents reported that implementing ITG COBIT processes and domains is the responsibility of IT departments in Saudi organizations, most of the respondents reported that the COBIT processes and domains are neither audited nor formally conducted in their organizations. From a practical standpoint, managers and practitioners alike stand to gain from the findings of this study. The study provides useful information for senior management, IT managers, accountants, auditors, and academics to understand the implementation phase and the impact ofCOBIT on ITG in Saudi organizations.

Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

2009-02-01

333

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS. Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI individual-based questionnaires were distributed after modification to include the age, sex, marital status, nationality, unit working and number of years on the job. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant . Results : One hundred and ninety-eight nurses (77.2% completed the questionnaire. Their average age was 34.46 ± 5.36 years. Forty-five percent (89 had high emotional exhaustion (EE and 28.9% (57 had moderate suffering with EE. Staffs who were on the job for longer duration had a lesser frequency of EE (P ? 0.001. The frequency of depersonalization (DP was 83 (42% and was graded as high and 61 (30.8% were moderately affected. Personal accomplishment (PA was moderate to low in the majority of the nurses (71.5%. Married nurses were prone to EE (28.17 ± 12.1 versus 22.3 ± 9.6 than unmarried nurses (P = 0.003, CI 95% and OR 2.4. The nurses in the patients? wards and clinics were more emotionally exhausted with higher DP compared to nurses in the high stress and high activity areas (P < 0.001, OR ?11.1; and P < 0.001, CI 95% and OR 9.65. Non-Saudi nurses were significantly more prone to EE (27.3 ± 12.1 versus 21.6 ± 2.9 than Saudi nurses (P = 0.004; 95% CI: <9.64. Conclusion : We found that majority of the nursing staff at our hospital were in a state of burnout with high frequency of EE and DP. Only a quarter of the surveyed staff felt that they had some level of PA. Age and working away from their home countries were the important predictors in the development of BS in nurses. We believe that working conditions have to be improved to develop strategies to cope and alleviate stressful situations.

Al-Turki Haifa

2010-12-01

334

Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

F. R. Pazheri

2014-09-01

335

Socio-demographic Determinants of Compliance among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Objectives: Saudi Arabia has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) To study the socio-demographic profile of diabetic patients in Abha. (2) To find the socio-demographic determinants of compliance among diabetic patients in Abha. Material and Methods: A self administered questionnaire which had detailed the socio-demographic features and various aspects of compliance was used on a random sample of registered diabetics at two primary health care centres of Abha. Results: Most of the patients (70.4 percent) were between 40-60 years age. Most of the patients were men (about 60 percent) and Saudis. Majority of patients did not have a university education. Young patients (age<40) were more compliant with all aspects of management, except medication (23.8 percent). Women were significantly more compliant with exercise (49.7 percent), while men were significantly more compliant with follow up (81.1 percent). Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication (79.2 percent), while non Saudis were compliant with exercise (62.9 percent). All single patients were diet compliant. Smokers were significantly less compliant with exercise. Patients with normal BMI were significantly more compliant with diet and exercise. Conclusion: Patients were found to be generally less compliant towards the regimen. Socio-demographic factors which were significantly associated with non compliance were age, gender, nationality, educational status, marital status, smoking status and BMI. PMID:24551644

Salam, Mohammad Abdul; Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen

2013-01-01

336

A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

2004-01-01

337

Carotid Plaques in Saudi Smokers  

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Full Text Available Background: Smoking has been found to be associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Since smoking is an important public health problem, because it may be an essential risk factor for carotid artery plaques. Therefore the researchers tried to explore the powerful of this association, the researchers investigated smokers as unique suspected risk factor for carotid plaques beside the age. Methods: In observational cross-sectional study, 31 smokers with mean age of 56, were studied by B- mode ultrasound. Carotid arteries for all participants were examined by using 7MHrz linear transducer. Both saggital and transverse views were applied to evaluate the right and left common carotid arteries. Results: The frequency of carotid plaque was 35.5%. 54.5 % of these occurred in population group that smoke > 20 cigarettes per day. All plaques were presented in population of age above 53 years old. There was association between smoking frequency and age with the increases of plaque size. Conclusion and recommendations: The study suggested that there is a significant association between carotid plaques and smoking in Saudi smokers. In addition it showed that carotid plaque may present at age of 54 years old in smokers. The researchers recommended that further studies were needed. Moreover intensive health promotion against smoking in the KSA. represents an essential issue.

Mahmoud S. Babiker

2013-03-01

338

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

339

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

Ashraf E.M. Khater

2014-01-01

340

The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

341

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distribution in serum of Saudi children using HPLC-FLD: marker elevations in children with asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diesel exhaust consists of a complex mixture of chemicals which contain known genotoxicants, one of which is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which may be associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution patterns of PAHs (anthracene, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, cyclopentaphenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, benzanthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzoacephenanthrylene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in serum collected from asthmatic and healthy control children. PAH serum levels were measured in samples collected from children who lived in 11 different locations in/round Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Al-yarmouk, Usaibi, Sultana Al-kadema, Omrrojam, Kof, Janoob Dawdmi, Guberah, Arabbuah, Al-mozahemyah, Iskan Al-mazzer, and Al-gharabi) during the period 2010-2011. Our results showed that the highest total mean concentrations of PAH were found in serum samples collected from people who lived in Sultana Aljadhida, Almozahemyah, Guberah, and Omrrojam and were 663.9, 486.17, 412.18, and 258.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. The most prevalent PAHs in serum samples were naphthalene, bezanthracene, benzoacephenanthrylene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene with a frequency that ranged from 54.5 to 90.9 % positive samples. A close monitoring of PAH pollution is strongly recommended, especially in food and plant samples, because of their high bioaccumulation capacity. PMID:24923226

Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alokail, Majed S; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Draz, Hossam M

2014-10-01

342

Asthma control assessment using asthma control test among patients attending 5 tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was the evaluation of asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The ACT was used to assess asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma visiting pulmonary clinics in 5 major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each hospital had target of 300 patients to recruit over the period of the study from 1st September to 30th November 2006. The total number of patients studied was 1060 patients. Males constituted 442 (42%) and the females constituted 618 (58%), the median age was 38.56 years range 15-75. One-third of the patients had no formal education. The ACT score revealed uncontrolled asthma in 677 (64%), well controlled asthma in 328 (31%) and complete controlled in 55 (5%). There were no significant correlation between the age below 40 and above 40 years and level of asthma control p=0.12. However, the younger age group less than 20 had better control of asthma in comparison with older patients p=0.0001. There was significant correlation between level of asthma control and gender, males 44% had better asthma control than females (30%, p=0.0001). Control of bronchial asthma is still major concern in our population. Further studies are needed to explore the factors leading to poor asthma control. (author)

343

Lead concentrations in some organs of the rat Meriones libycus and its parasite Hymenolepis diminuta from Riyadh City, KSA.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the tape worm Hymenolepis diminuta was chosen to estimate lead bioaccumulation in an urban area highly polluted with lead (the industrial area) and another less polluted one (Al-Karj road) at Riyadh City, K.S.A. Lead concentrations were found 38 to be 32 and 15 times in the parasite (H. diminuta) than in the intestine, liver and kidney of the host (Meriones libycus). Thus, the proposed model of cestode parasite-rat as bio-indicator of lead pollution seems to be promising in the terrestrial habitat. PMID:18853610

Al-Qureishy, Saleh

2008-08-01

344

9th May 2008 - Members of Saudi government visiting ATLAS control room and cavern with Technical Coordinator M. Nessi and Adviser to the Director-General D. Blechschmidt.  

CERN Multimedia

CERN-HI-0804043 05: from left to right 1st row Mrs. Ibtesam Badhrees, ATLAS Collaboration user Mr. Nadhmi Al-Nassr, Interim President, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST H.E. Dr. Khaled S. Al-Sultan, Rector, King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals Mr. Abdallah S. Jum’ah, President and Chief Executive Officer, Saudi Aramco H.E. Dr. Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf, Minister of Finance H.E. Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Tuwaijri, Chairman of Capital Markets Authority H.E. Dr. Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel, President, King Abdul Aziz City for Science & Technology KACST; 2nd row Mr. Salim S. Al-Aydh, Senior Vice President – Engineering & Project Management, Saudi Aramco Mr. Khalid A. Al-Falih, Executive Vice President – Operations, Saudi Aramco Mr. A. Othman, Saudi Aramco Mr. Peter Woicke, Member of the Saudi Aramco Board of Directors Mr. Abdulaziz F. Al-Khayyal, Senior Vice President – Industrial Relations, Saudi Aramco Mr. James W. Kinnear, Retired President & Chief Executive Office...

Mona Schweizer

2008-01-01

345

The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was cond...

Hassan Bella; Khalil, Mohamed S.; Al-almaie, Sameeh M.; Kurashi, Nabil Y.; Saeed Wahas

2005-01-01

346

Cerebral venous thrombosis in Saudi Arabia. Clinical variables, response to treatment, and outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVTR) clinical presentations, risk factors, and response to treatment in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective analysis of the King Farad Medical City, Riyadh, acute stroke database from April 2005 through February 2008 revealed 22 patients with CVTR. Hyper coagulable work-up and neuroimaging were performed. Sixteen patients were female (72.7%), and the median age was 35 years. Clinical presentations included: headache (77.3%), seizures (54.5%), focal neurological signs (54.5%), and decreased level of consciousness (50%). Over two-thirds (n=11; 69%) of female patients had a history of oral contraceptive use, which was the most common risk factor. Protein S deficiency (n=3), anti phospholipid antibody syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=1), rhinocerebral mucormycosis (n=1), leukemia (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), sepsis (n=1), and unknown (n=6) were causes. Affected areas included superior sagittal (n=13), transverse (n=16), sigmoid (n=14), straight (n=6), and cavernous sinus (n=1); internal cerebral vein (n=2); vein of Galen (n=3); cortical veins (n=10); and internal jugular vein (n=12). Two patients had quadriparesis, and 2 patients died. The remainder (n=18, 81.8%) improved. Bilateral hemorrhagic presentation or venous infarction, deep venous system thrombosis, and underlying malignancy had less favorable results. Presentations in our series were similar to those in other reports, although altered consci in other reports, although altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Cortical vein involvement was also higher than commonly reported. Oral contraceptive use was a primary risk factor in female patients. Outcomes were favorable in 81.8% of patients. (author)

347

Extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Etiology at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the etiology of extremely elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in adolescents and adults at a tertiary care center. This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using the Westergren method of determining ESR in adolescents and adults aged >/=12 years. The patients included inpatients and outpatients with medical, surgical, and gynecological problems. During a period from June 2007 to October 2008, consecutive, non-repetitive patients with ESR >/=100 mm/hour were evaluated for possible etiology by checking the electronic and paper data file of each patient. During the study period, out of the 44,366 ESR tests carried out at this center, 1864 (4.2%) had an ESR >/=100 mm/hour belonging to 567 patients. Out of 508 patients fulfilling the study criteria, the main associated causes included: infections (38.6%), autoimmune diseases (15.9%), malignancy (15.4%), miscellaneous causes (10.2%), ischemic tissue injury or trauma (8.7%), and renal diseases (8.4%). Ten common individual causes included: rheumatoid arthritis (7.3%), osteomyelitis (6.9%), tuberculosis (5.5%), trauma (5.3%), lymphoma and sepsis of unknown origin (5.1%) each, urinary tract infection (4.7%), septic arthritis (3.1%), abscesses (2.8%), and pregnancy (2.2%). Fourteen (2.4%) patients had no known cause. Most of the patients with extreme ESR elevation have an underlying cause and a focused evaluation of such pg cause and a focused evaluation of such patients needs to be carried out to reach a diagnosis.

348

Prostate cancer screening in a Saudi population: an explanatory trial study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to explore the actual situation of prostate cancer in a cohort of healthy population in Saudi Arabia and to show the feasibility of screening for this disease using the internationally agreed criteria. This study was conducted in the city of Riyadh, in the outpatient clinics of four different health facilities. All men presented to the outpatient clinics during the period of study, from January 2008 to December 2008, were invited to participate in the study, in which they were subjected to PSA blood testing and digital rectal examination (DRE). When either test was abnormal, transrectal ultrasound and multiple prostatic biopsies were performed for confirmation of the results. A total of 2100 healthy males who met the inclusion criteria of the study were evaluated. The highest percentage of men with PSA>/=4 ng ml(-1) was in the age group 61-70, 51-60 years (42.7 and 31.8%, respectively). The number of subjects with an elevated PSA only was 172 (8.1%). Those having both elevated PSA and an abnormal DRE were 51 (2.4%). The total number referred to biopsy was 223. Fifty two subjects had a positive diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma, which compromised 2.5% of the cohort studied. The cancer in 27 (52%) persons was organ confined, whereas in 14 (26.9%), it was metastatic. The prevalence rate of prostate cancer detected by screening was higher than expected and the disease was advanced. Larger community-based larger studies are highly warranted specially among high-risk groups. PMID:20066007

Rabah, D M; Arafa, M A

2010-06-01

349

Criteria of acceptance in the Saudi program of anesthesia and intensive care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The scientific congress of Anesthesia and Intensive Care of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties aims to review and improve the guidelines for the selection process of trainees [1] , a selection process that is based on equal opportunity and upholds the principles of consistency, objectiveness, transparency, and procedural fairness. The study represents a step toward the goal of fostering quality patient care, by adopting a selection process that would result in graduating good, committed, and competent specialists. Materials and Methods: Reports of admission examinations in Jeddah, Riyadh, and the Eastern region have been collected, and they contain detailed lists of names, scores, and percentages of the criteria of admissions, that is, MB BS 25%, General Examination 50%, Interview 25%, and overall score of 100%. Results: Mean MB BS scores, average general examination scores, average interview scores, and average overall scores were not statistically different between candidates from different regions. The leading predictor was the ?Interview Score?. 49.5% of variation in the dependent variable (overall score could be significantly explained (F = 69.4, P < 0.05 by the independent variable ?Interview Score?. The second predictor was the ?MBBS score?. Conclusion: The three components MB BS, General Examination, and Interview, were significant predictors of the overall score. The leading predictor was the ?Interview Score?. The author recommended that the selection process should be under continuous review. The general interview guide approach is recommended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewer. Questions of a personal or discriminatory nature should be avoided.

Tashkandi Jamal

2009-01-01

350

Serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and its association with abortion in sheep in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate serological prevalence and titers of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ewes following waves of abortion and stillbirths in a commercial flock in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 168 aborted ewes and 52 breeding rams, were tested for toxoplasmosis using an indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams were also tested, which served as controls. 149 (88.7% ewes and 42 (80.8% breeding rams from the flock where abortions and stillbirths occurred were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. 155 ewes (92.3% and 44 rams (84.6%, including all of the ELISA positive cases, were also positive by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. More than 80% of the ELISA positive ewes had O.D. exceeding 100% and nearly 25% of them had O.D. of ?150%. The IHA results, on the other hand, indicated that more than 75% of the seropositive ewes had antibody titers ?1:1024, including 58 (37.4% ewes with IHA titer ranging between 1:4096-1:8192 Pyrexia, depression and vaginal discharge were recorded in some ewes shortly prior to abortion. Post-mortem examination of 5 aborted fetuses revealed blood-stained fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and small inflammatory and necrotic foci in the brain, liver and lungs while the placenta was reddish and friable, and its cotyledons were speckled with small whitish foci of necrosis and mineralization. T. gondii tachyzoites were demonstrated in placental sections of two ewes. By contrast, only 7 (9.9% out of 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams, were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and 6 (8.5% by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test and most of these had significantly lower titers compared to the flock where abortions and stillbirths were recorded. These results constitute the first detailed serological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabia and strongly implicate toxoplasmosis as the cause of the abortions and stillbirths in these sheep.

Hussein M.F.

2011-01-01

351

The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

1991-01-01

352

Patterns of Caffeinated Energy Drinks Consumption among Adolescents and Adults in Hail, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Caffeinated energy drinks have become more popular in the last decades, especially amongst adolescents and young adults in different parts of the globe. The study aims to investigate the frequency of energy-drink consumption and associated factors in an arbitrary group of adults and adolescents living in Hail/Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted and included which randomly selected 1062 participants (867 males and 195 females) from universities, colleges, mi...

Mo’ez Al-Islam Ezzat Faris

2014-01-01

353

Learning style preferences of medical students: a single-institute experience from Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...

Ayesha Nuzhat; Salem, Raneem O.; Quadri, Mohammed S. A.; Nasir Al-Hamdan

2011-01-01

354

Developing a generic model for total quality management in higher education in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is badly needed in the country. PMID:25803588

Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid; Al-Qumaizi, Khalid I; El-Mardi, Abdelmoniem S

2015-04-01

355

Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, es...

Al-Sisi A; Shawky N; Mf, El-bab; Akhtar M

2012-01-01

356

Uveal melanoma in the Saudi Arabian population: Two decades of management at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To present the experience of King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) with uveal melanoma over the last two decades in a fashion similar to the result of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). Retrospective, non-comparative, interventional, case series. All patients were diagnosed with uveal melanoma at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 1983 to July 2005 and met the inclusion criteria of the COMS. A medical record review of clinical history, imaging studies, surgical procedures and treatment outcome was performed. Forty patients (24 males and 16 females) with uveal melanoma (average age 50 years; range 24-77 years) were included in the study; 28 (70%) were of Saudi Arabian descent and the remaining 12 (30%) patients were from neighboring Arab countries. Decreased vision was the main presenting complaint of 29 (72.5%) patients; the duration of this symptom was 3 months or more in 27 (67.5%) patients. The apical height of the tumor was 10 mm or more in nine (22.5%) of the affected eyes and the largest basal dimension was more than 16 mm in nine (22.5%) of the affected eyes. The posterior border of the tumor was 1-2 mmfrom the optic disc in three (7.5%) affected eyes. Primary enucleation was performed for 33 (82.5%) eyes, episcleral radiation plaque therapy for six (15%) of the eyes and endo resection of the uveal melanoma in one (2.5%) eye. Adjunct external beam radiation therapy was performed in two (5%) orbits therapy was performed in two (5%) orbits for extrascleral extension. The histopathological diagnosis was available for 34 (84%) eyes in which surgery had been performed (33 patients underwent primary enucleation and one patient underwent endo resection of the uveal melanoma); 24 (70.6%) eyes had spindle cell and the remaining 10 (29.4%) had epithelioid or mixed cell types. Evidence of extraocular tumor extension was found in three eyes. The average follow-up was 33.7 months with a median of 19 months (range 0.5 months to 10 years). Two (5%) patients developed metastasis after 2 years and 5 years from the initial treatment of large and medium-sized uveal melanomas, respectively. Individuals of Saudi Arabian ancestry appear to have a low incidence of uveal melanoma. Further studies are required to estimate the true incidence of uveal melanoma in the larger Arab population. Early detection is essential for improving the patient outcomes. Regular communication between the tertiary care eye centers and the local ophthalmic care providers is required to enhance the understanding about uveal melanoma behavior in Arab population. (author)

357

Saudi Arabian seismic deep-refraction profiles; final project report  

Science.gov (United States)

In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat-Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used: five on land, with most charges placed below the water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and detonated from a ship. Slightly more than 61 metric tons of explosives were used in 19 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by 100 newly-developed portable seismic stations deployed in approximately 200 km-long arrays for each firing. Each station consisted of a standard 2-Hz vertical component geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. In this final report, we fully document the field and data-processing procedures and present the final seismogram data set as both a digital magnetic tape and as record sections for each shot point. Record sections include a normalized set of seismograms, reduced at 6 km/s, and a true-amplitude set, reduced at 8 km/s, which have been adjusted for amplifier gain, individual shot size, and distance from the shot point. Appendices give recorder station and shot information, digital data set descriptions, computer program listings, arrival times used in the interpretation, and a bibliography of reports published as a result of this project. We used two-dimensional ray-tracing techniques in the data analysis, and our interpretation is based primarily on horizontally layered models. The Arabian Shield is composed, to first-order, of two layers, each about 20 km thick, with average velocities of 6.3 km/s and 7.0 km/s, respectively. At the western shield margin the crust thins to less than 20 km total thickness, beyond which the Red Sea shelf and coastal plain are interpreted to be underlain by oceanic crust. A major crustal lateral velocity inhomogeneity northeast of Sabhah in the Shammar Tectonic Province is interpreted as the suture zone of two crustal blocks of different composition. Several high-velocity anomalies in the upper crust correlate with mapped gneissic dome structures. Two intra-crustal reflectors at13 km depth are interpreted as the tops of mafic intrusives. The Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the shield varies from 43 km depth in the northeast with 8.2 km/s mantle velocity to 38 km depth in the southwest with 8.0 km/s mantle velocity. Two velocity discontinuities are identified in the upper mantle, at 59 and 70 km depth. We suggest further work, including refined analyses of the data employing filtering and synthetic seismogram techniques, as well as consideration of attenuation properties. Extension of the seismic refraction profile to the Arabian Gulf and some short profiles perpendicular to the existing profile would be fruitful areas for future field work.

Healy, J.H.; Mooney, W.D.; Blank, H.R.; Gettings, M.E.; Kohler, W.M.; Lamson, R.J.; Leone, L.E.

1983-01-01

358

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

359

Carcinoid tumors of the appendix: our experience in a university hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital. Complex symptomatology, varied biochemical affections and different surgical therapeutic modalities are discussed. The medical records of all the patients who underwent consecutive appendectomies at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered. During the study period 1547 appendectomies were performed and out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of appendix. There were 4 male and 5 female patients, age range 17-51 years (29.8 years). Seven subjects had a clinical evidence of appendicitis while 2 presented with chronic abdominal pain. there were 6 open and 3 laparoscopic appendectomies. Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, two at the midportion and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (rang 4-19 mm). One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later. All patients remained disease free during a mean follow-up of 7 years (range, 4-10 years). Carcinoid tumors of the appen4-10 years). Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic. Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristic and dissemination. Despite an excellent prognosis, all reported patients should be followed up with urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and abdominal ultrasonography. (author)

360

Trabasa - Traditional Architecture Recorded by Means of Building Archaeology in Saudi Arabia: Workshop in Jeddah  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.

Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Ayd?n, G.

2013-07-01

361

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi nationa...

Alzahrani Khalid; Fida Nadia; Al-Sultan Mohammad; Al-Sheikh Mona; Al-Habib Amro; Al-Omran Mohammad; Al-Zalabani Abdulmohsen; Boker Abdulaziz; Aly Syed; Al-Rukban Mohammad; Abuznadah Wesam; Zaini Rania; Bajammal Sohail; Hamad Bashir; Al Shehri Mohammad

2008-01-01

362

Saudi Aramco as a national development agent: recent shifts  

OpenAIRE

Saudi Arabia’s national oil company, Saudi Aramco, has been a critical agent for the social, economic and infrastructural development of Saudi Arabia; its managerial capacities are unrivalled in the Kingdom – and, indeed, the Gulf region. After it played a rather limited role outside the hydrocarbons sector in the 1980s and 1990s, its range of tasks and ambitions has recently again expanded drastically into a number of new policy sectors, including heavy industry, renewable energy, educat...

Hertog, Steffen

2013-01-01

363

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of ch...

El Mouzan Mohammad; Foster Peter; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Salloum Abdullah; Al Omer Ahmad; Qurachi Mansour; Kecojevic Tatjana

2010-01-01

364

The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD  

OpenAIRE

The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome...

Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; Al-jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-hajjaj, Mohamed S.

2014-01-01

365

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P<0.0001). Median serum PSA, prostate volume, and PSA density values were 6.1'ng/mL, 47.3 g, and 0.12'ng · mL(-1) · g(-1), respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2'ng/mL, 64.5'g, and 0.08'ng · mL(-1) · g(-1), respectively, for KSUH patients (P<0.0001, t-test followed by one-way ANOVA). In addition, the KSUH group had a significantly lower PCa detection rate among patients younger than 60 years of age and with PSA values <10'ng/mL. PMID:23802226

Al-Abdin, O Z; Rabah, D M; Badr, G; Kotb, A; Aprikian, A

2013-06-01

366

Morphological forms of Trypanosoma evansi from blood of Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) in the Riyadh metropolitan areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi is commonly referred to as haemoflagellate infesting camels and other vertebrates. It is causative agent of number of diseases. T. evansi has several morphological forms. We have detected three forms in the blood of camels, slender, transitional and intermediate. The present study is the first investigation on the morphological forms of T. evansi in Arabian camels in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21634239

Amoudi, Mikky A; Al-Yousif, Mohamed S; Al-Shawa, Yaser

2011-04-01

367

Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tänavail ühtegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2011-01-01

368

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: ? How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? ? How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? ? What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? ? What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

369

Impact of the March 2009 dust event in Saudi Arabia on aerosol optical properties, meteorological parameters, sky temperature and emissivity  

Science.gov (United States)

On 10th March 2009 a widespread and severe dust storm event that lasted several hours struck Riyadh, and represented one of the most intense dust storms experienced in Saudi Arabia in the last two decades. This short-lived storm caused widespread and heavy dust deposition, zero visibility and total airport shutdown, as well as extensive damage to buildings, vehicles, power poles and trees across the city of Riyadh. Changes in Meteorological parameters, aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent ?, infrared (IR) sky temperature and atmospheric emissivity were investigated before, during, and after the storm. The analysis showed significant changes in all of the above parameters due to this event. Shortly after the storm arrived, air pressure rapidly increased by 4 hPa, temperature decreased by 6 °C, relative humidly increased from 10% to 30%, the wind direction became northerly and the wind speed increased to a maximum of 30 m s -1. AOD at 550 nm increased from 0.396 to 1.71. The Angstrom exponent ? rapidly decreased from 0.192 to -0.078. The mean AOD at 550 nm on the day of the storm was 0.953 higher than during the previous clear day, while ? was -0.049 in comparison with 0.323 during the previous day. Theoretical simulations using SMART software showed remarkable changes in both spectral and broadband solar radiation components. The global and direct radiation components decreased by 42% and 68%, respectively, and the diffuse components increased by 44% in comparison with the previous clear day. IR sky temperatures and sky emissivity increased by 24 °C and 0.3, respectively, 2 h after the arrival of the storm. The effect of aerosol loading by the storm on IR atmospheric emission was investigated using MODTRAN software. It was found that the effect of aerosols caused an increase of the atmospheric emission in the atmospheric window (8-14 ?m) such that the window emissions resembled those of a blackbody and the atmospheric window was almost closed.

Maghrabi, A.; Alharbi, B.; Tapper, N.

2011-04-01

370

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice

371

Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

372

Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)

373

Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

374

Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds  

OpenAIRE

Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge...

Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

2013-01-01

375

Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

Enok, Romet

2008-01-01

376

Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

377

Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and thirty-four cases of confirmed malaria seen in the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-two of these (84.4%) were Saudis and the majority (72.2%) were living in the lowlands of Tihama. Transmission was found to occur throughout the year, with peaks following the rainy season and in the summer. In Saudis, falciparum malaria is more common than vivax (97.2% vs. 2.8%), while vivax malaria is more commonly seen in expatriates (46.2%). Poor response of falciparum malaria to chloroquine was more prevalent in expatriates than in Saudis (46.4% vs. 23%). Most of the expatriates gave a history of recent travel to countries known to be endemic with resistant malaria. The possibility of the emergence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia was discussed. PMID:17341908

Malik, G M; Seidi, O; El-Taher, A; Mohammed, A S

1998-01-01

378

Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In English as a foreign language (EFL contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students’ limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students’ English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of Saudi students’ low proficiency in English communication and provide some recommendations to address these issues. The most significant findings of the paper were: (1 reforming specific Ministry of Education and Higher Education policies in Saudi Arabia is crucial; (2 the Saudi education system should reinforce the use of contemporary approaches to teaching that emphasise problem solving and critical thinking skills and put students in charge of their own learning; and (3 the ministry should consider converting some Saudi public schools into bilingual schools.

Heba Awadh Alharbi

2015-01-01

379

Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

Baki, Roula

2004-01-01

380

Interactions of mineral dust with pollution and clouds: An individual-particle TEM study of atmospheric aerosol from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerosol particles from desert dust interact with clouds and influence climate on regional and global scales. The Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) aerosol campaign was initiated to study the effects of dust particles on cloud droplet nucleation and cloud properties. Here we report the results of individual-particle studies of samples that were collected from an aircraft in April 2007. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron diffraction, and imaging techniques for the morphological, chemical, and structural characterization of the particles. Dust storms and regional background conditions were encountered during four days of sampling. Under dusty conditions, the coarse (supermicrometer) fraction resembles freshly crushed rock. The particles are almost exclusively mineral dust grains and include common rock-forming minerals, among which clay minerals, particularly smectites, are most abundant. Unaltered calcite grains also occur, indicating no significant atmospheric processing. The particles have no visible coatings but some contain traces of sulfur. The fine (submicrometer) fraction is dominated by particles of anthropogenic origin, primarily ammonium sulfate (with variable organic coating and some with soot inclusions) and combustion-derived particles (mostly soot). In addition, submicrometer, iron-bearing clay particles also occur, many of which are internally mixed with ammonium sulfate, soot, or both. We studied the relationships between the properties of the aerosol and the droplet microphysics of cumulus clouds that formed above the aerosol layer. Under dusty conditions, when a large concentration of coarse-fraction mineral particles was in the aerosol, cloud drop concentrations were lower and droplet diameters larger than under regional background conditions, when the aerosol was dominated by submicrometer sulfate particles.

Pósfai, Mihály; Axisa, Duncan; Tompa, Éva; Freney, Evelyn; Bruintjes, Roelof; Buseck, Peter R.

2013-03-01

381

Characteristics of autism spectrum disorders in a sample of egyptian and saudi patients: transcultural cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family concern. Conclusion Cultural context may significantly influence the age of noticing abnormality, the age of starting intervention, developmental and perinatal problems, family concerns about managing the problem as well as familial tendency for neurodevelopmental disorders, all of which have important impact on clinical symptomatology and severity of autism. Culture also influences significantly the ways of investigating and treating autism.

Hussein Hanan

2011-11-01

382

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

383

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. Howevere of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

384

Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. (author)

385

Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods: A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. Conclusion: This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents.

El Mouzan Mohammad

2009-01-01

386

The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the “Capacity to Aspire” and the “Capacity to Remember”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a Saudi Arabian way to knowledge society, which will be a product of the “capacity to aspire” and the “capacity to remember” (UNESCO, 2002 of the Saudi nation.

Annalisa Pavan

2014-09-01

387

Effect of Habitats on Both the Phenotypic Characters and Mineral Contents of Five Wild Species in El-Riyadh City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fourteen taxonomic characters have been studied in five wild species in El-Riyadh city, Salsola baryosma, Zygophyllum migahidii, Francoeuria crispa, Zilla spinosa and Rumex vesicarius, collected from three different habitats throughout three seasons. In the same time mineral contents (P, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in these species have been measured during the periods of study. The results of this study revealed that the habitats have insignificant effect on the leaf characters in spite of the slightly effect on the general status, fruiting stage and colour of the plants. Whereas the mineral contents have great variations within the three habitats as well as within the same habitat throughout the different seasons. Analysis of the data revealed that the variations were within the confidence limits. From this study it can be concluded that leaf characters can be used as an effective taxonomic ones, while the chemical composition of the species are greatly affected by both habitats and seasonal variations.

W.K. Taia

2004-01-01

388

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

Alzahrani Khalid

2008-11-01

389

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

2013-09-01

390

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

2008-01-01

391

Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tülli / Marek Laane  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

Laane, Marek, 1969-

2002-01-01

392

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of individuals at high risk of disease progression is the right approach. Treatment of those patients with LTBI can diminish the risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease in the majority of treated patients. This statement is the first Saudi guideline for testing and treatment of LTBI and is a result of the cooperative efforts of four local Saudi scientific societies. This Guideline is intended to provide physicians and allied health workers in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care for testing and treatment of LTBI.

Al Jahdali Hamdan

2010-01-01

393

CYP2C9 polymorphism studies in the Saudi population.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphism in normal Saudis (controls), in Saudi patients with venous thrombosis, in patients requiring low dose warfarin (study group) for anticoagulation, and to compare our results to those from other populations. METHODS Blood from the control and study groups was collected from November 2001 to November 2008. The DNA was extracted, stored at -70°C and later tested for the CYP2C9 polymorphism using established methods. Clinical ...

Saour, Jalal N.; Shereen, Atia W.; Saour, Basil J.; Mammo, Layla A.

2011-01-01

394

THE PUBLIC HEALTH BURDEN OF PHYSICAL INACTIVITY IN SAUDI ARABIA  

OpenAIRE

Because of the enormous changes in the lifestyle of Saudis in the last three decades, the risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD), including physical inactivity, are increasingly becoming prevalent in the society. This paper provides an overview of the importance of physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention, and discusses the public health burden of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia. Available evidence clearly indicates that physical inactivity is extremely prevalent...

Al-hazzaa, Hazzaa M.

2004-01-01

395

Synovial biopsy : A comparative study from Saudi Arabia and Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

A comparative study of synovitis in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia was made with a view to determining any geographic variation in the incidence and pattern of the arthritides. The diagnostic spectrum in both series included pyogenic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, brucellar and tubercular arthritis, gout, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and acute rheumatic fever. Date-palm thorn synovitis was observed only in the Saudi Arabian series. While brucellar and tuberculous art...

Sankaran-kutty, M.; Das, P. K.; Kannan Kutty, M.

1998-01-01

396

Maternal knowledge and use of folic acid among Saudi females  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To explore and find out the level of awareness regarding folic acid’s (FAs) importance, current use, and timing of administration among pregnant Saudi females. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted  randomly among women aged 18-45 years old, attending the Antenatal and Gynecology Clinics at the Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to November 2012. A total of 1250 subjects were approached, and 1000 women expressed the...

Alakhfash, Ali A.; Abdulla, Abdelmagid M.; Osman, Amani M.; Abdulgafar, Julnar I.; Almesned, Abdulrahman A.

2013-01-01

397

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November ...

Mashael Al Saud

2010-01-01

398

Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis and its relation to dental care. One hundred randomly selected healthy Saudis attending the dental clinic were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination. Information about the use of toothpaste, chewing stick, smoking and dentures was obtained. Samples of dental plaque were collected after scoring it according to the plaque index. Presence of H. ...

Contractor Qais; Tahir Mohammed; Naseem Shahzad; Ahmad Shamweel

1998-01-01

399

Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers  

OpenAIRE

Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. P...

Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-zuhair, Shatha Z.

2013-01-01

400

A case of unilocular hydatid disease imported from Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

A 39-year-old Korean man with general malaise was found to have two hepatic cysts by computed tomography. He had the history of close contact with domesticated wild dog in Saudi Arabia in 1976. Two cysts, 15cm and 10cm in diameter which contained clear fluid, were excised from both lobes of the liver. He was pathologically diagnosed as unilocular hydatid disease. This case is regarded as an imported case from Saudi Arabia.

Huh, S.; Hong, S. T.; Lee, S. H.; Chi, J. G.; Kim, Y. I.; Choe, K. J.

1988-01-01

401

Long-acting nifedipine for hypertensive patients in the Middle East and Morocco: observations on efficacy and tolerability of monotherapy or combination therapy  

OpenAIRE

Raafat AL Ghoneim,1 Abdalla Kamal Omar,2 VJ Sebastian,3 Roland Kassab,4 George Akijian,5 Meryem Hafiz,6 Birgit Schmidt7 1Department of Nephrology, Dr Bakhsh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Open Specialist Clinics, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Cardiology, International Modern Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 4Department of Cardiology, St Joseph University School of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Internal Medicine (private clinic), Marka, Amman, Jordan; 6Medical Dep...

Ra, Ghoneim; Ak, Omar; Vj, Sebastian; Kassab R; Akijian G; Hafiz M; Schmidt B

2013-01-01

402

Helicobacter pylori prevalence among medical students in a high endemic area.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) among Saudi medical students. METHODS Volunteer medical students were randomly selected in the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2005 to May 2005. A urea breath test (UBT) was performed for each medical student. Important demographic data was recorded. Each student had to answer a questionnaire on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms before the UBT. RESULTS A tot...

Almadi, Majid A.; Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; Tounesi, Fadi A.; Abdo, Ayman A.

2007-01-01

403

Applications of horizontal drilling technology in Saudi oil fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technology of drilling and production of horizontal wells is probably one of the most significant breakthrough in the oil and gas industry of the eighties. The continuous improvement of hardware equipment made horizontal drilling cost-effective technique for developing reserves, improving productivity and recovery in oil and gas reservoir. This paper is devoted to Saudi experience in horizontal drilling. The last years have been an exciting period for those who believed in horizontal drilling applicability in Saudi Arabia. At the end of the year 1997 more than 150 horizontal wells have been drilled in Saudi oil fields. There are four major horizontal well applications identified in Saudi Arabia oil fields; 1) Control of coning in relatively thin remaining all column area, 2) Improving sweep efficiency of water flooding program. 3) Improving productivity rate in thin/tight reservoirs and 4) Saving in total development costs in conjunction with previous three applications. This paper presents the major areas of application of horizontal well and more specifically the objectives of applying horizontal drilling in different Saudi oil fields and the world horizontal drilling activities along with the Saudi experience will be convered. This paper surveys different field examples to show the application trends of horizontal well technology in both offshore and onshore oil fields. The main objective of this survey is to demonstrate the performance improvement of these oile the performance improvement of these oil fields after the application of horizontal well technology. (author)

404

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

405

Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

2014-12-01

406

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb