Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Al Dhahri, Huda; Al Rubaie, Khalid; Hemachandran, Suhail; Mousa, Ahmed; Gikandi, Priscilla W; Al-Mezaine, Hani S; Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the referral patterns and diagnosis of uveitis in a university-based tertiary referral center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 642 patients (1220 eyes). Results: There were 295 (46%) males and 347 (54%) female patients, with a mean age of 36.4?±?16.1 years at presentation. Panuveitis was most common (47.1%), followed by anterior uveitis (36.8%), posterior uveitis (10.7%), and intermediate uveitis (5.4%). Nongranulomatous (85.2%) and noninfectious (69.3%) were the most frequent types of uveitis. The most identifiable specific diagnoses were Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease (19.6%), presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU) (17.8%), Behçet disease (BD) (8.4%), and toxoplasmosis (6.9%). After a mean follow-up period of 31.3?±?31.5 months, 73.5% of the eyes achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Conclusions: The most common anatomic diagnosis was panuveitis. VKH disease, PTU, BD, and toxoplasmosis are the most frequently diagnosed entities. PMID:25058456
Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its correlates among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh. As well as evaluating their knowledge, attitude and practice towards obesity. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in intermediate and secondary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out during a 5-month period, September 2001-January 2002. A sample of 894 Saudi male adolescents (age 12-20 years) was selected through the m...
Full Text Available Universities worldwide face growing problems of traffic congestion and parking shortages due to the increased usage of private automobiles and the decline of public and non-motorized transport systems. This paper addresses transportation system challenges facing university campuses. As a case study, it addresses King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The fast growth of King Saud University Campus during the last 5 years had profound impacts on its transportation system.The study adopts two methodological approaches. Theoretically it reviews and analyzes several studies and published reports related to KSU campus and other international campuses. The empirical approach emphasizes the analysis of field data gathered by relevant KSU departments. The paper intends to analyze changes in traffic conditions and transportation systems within the KSUC and draw conclusions on the current and future issues facing the campus and other similar campuses. For a more sustainable campus, KSU has to adopt a balanced transportation system. The new system should not be based solely on improving vehicular circulation and parking provisions. It should enhance public transportation and pedestrian environment within the campus. The university should embark new sustainable policies to curtail demand on vehicular trips and parking spaces and increasingly rely on environmental-friendly modes of travel.
R.S. Aljumaah; Hussein, M. F.; Al-mufarrej, S.I.; A.R. Gar ElNabi
During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the contr...
Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph
Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of ?18O and ?D are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed ?18O and ?D values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of ?-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model, access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, College Park, MD.
Dalal Hamad Al-jebreen
Full Text Available A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn’t know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products.
Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad
The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students. PMID:24098042
B. H. Alharbi
Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people ...
Hanan A. Al-Ahmadi
OBJECTIVES To examine the magnitude and determinants of job satisfaction in nurses working in Ministry of Health hospitals Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A modified version of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire is used to survey 500 nurses in 9 Ministry of Health hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and sixty six nurses from different nationalities responded to the questionnaire (response rate 73%). Data analysis consisted of descriptive sta...
Ibrahim S. Alkhalife
OBJECTIVES To determine epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria infections in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on retrospective analysis of laboratory records within the Central Laboratory. METHODS Records of the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were reviewed for the past 6 years: 1416-1421 Hejri inclusive (1996-2001 Gregorian). The dates of blood films were converted to Gregorian calendar in addition to the Hejri dates already us...
Al-Aqeel SA; Al-Sabhan JF; Sultan NY
Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...
Suaad S. Alwakeel
Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.
Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.
Al-Joharah M. Al-Quaiz; Hafsa M. Raheel
OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire wa...
Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad
Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Alwakeel, Suaad S.
Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular ...
Alkhani, Salma; Ahmed, Yusuf; Bin-Sabbar, Nora; Almogirah, Hailah; Alturki, Alanoud; Albanyan, Haifa; Adam, Mansour; Saleem, Fahad; Aljadhey, Hisham; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Vaida, Allen J.
Background Good medication labeling practices are imperative to ensure safe medication use. Non-adherence to labeling protocols is reported as one major source of medication errors. Objective This study was intended to evaluate and compare adherence to labeling guidelines for dispensed medications among the hospitals of the five different health sectors in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 14 public hospitals in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Labeling guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices were used as a standard assessment tool. A total of 218 medication labels were collected and evaluated for labeling adequacy. Descriptive statistics were used to elaborate the study findings. All analyses were performed with Microsoft Access. Results The study showed a substantial rate of adherence to the labeling guidelines. In terms of the established criteria, community and mail orders were reported to adhere strongly (90.5%), whereas injectables adhered least to the labeling guidelines. The labeling format, contents of the label, instructions on the labels, abbreviations used on the labels and drug names were also consistent with the guidelines (80.0%, 84.0%, 88.0%, 97.7% and 85.5%, respectively). Organizations belonging to the public sector reported a higher level of adherence (?80.0%) than the level found for private hospitals (70.0%). Conclusion In Riyadh hospitals, medication labeling following the guidelines issued by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, is well accepted and rationally practiced. However, a nationwide study is recommended to evaluate if the guidelines are followed throughout Saudi Arabia. PMID:24227953
Elamin, Maha H.
Toxoplasma 3 main clonal lineages are designated as type I, II, and III; however, atypical and mixed genotypes were also reported. This study was conducted for detection of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in rats (Rattus rattus) in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. PCR test on T. gondii B1 gene was conducted on ELISA IgM positive samples for confirmation of the infection. However, genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine T. gondii genotypes using PCR-RFLP technique. PCR test on T....
Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02% and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%. The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%, Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%, Androctonus bicolor (64.60%, Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%, Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%, Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%, Buthacusleptochelys (3.24% and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%. The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
AK, Al-Asmari; AA, Al-Saief; NM, Abdo; KR, Al-Moutaery.
Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically [...] important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
Al-farraj, Abdullah S.; Mohammad Al-Sewailem; Anwar Aly
This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. T...
Baadani, Abeer M.; Baig, Kamran; Alfahad, Wafa A.; Aldalbahi, Sultan; Omrani, Ali S.
Objectives: To assess knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes toward antimicrobial prescribing among physicians practicing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to physicians working in hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between June and August 2013. The results were analyzed using Stata 12 software. Results: Two hundred and twelve (84.8%) full responses were returned. Most respondents perceived antimicrobial resistance as a significant problem in their daily practice (119, 56.1%) and at a national level (148, 69.8%). Inappropriate empirical therapy (101, 47.6%) and excessive use of antimicrobials in healthcare settings (66, 31.1%) were believed to be the main contributors to increasing bacterial resistance. Respondents favor treating infection rather than colonization (98, 46.2%), and physician education (74, 34.9%) as the most effective interventions to reduce antimicrobial resistance. Many respondents (95, 44.8%) do not feel confident in their knowledge of antimicrobial prescribing. Two-thirds of the respondents (135, 63.7%) have local antimicrobial guidelines, of which 90 (66.7%) felt were useful. Most respondents (160, 75.5%) considered their local infectious diseases service to be very helpful. Conclusion: There are considerable unmet training and education need for physicians in the area of antimicrobial prescribing. Local antimicrobial guidelines need revision to ensure they are more relevant and helpful for medical practitioners. PMID:25935184
Al-Saleh, Sulaiman A.; Al-Dabbagh, Najwa M.; Al-Shamrani, Saad M.; Khan, Nusrat M.; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad; Al-Faleh, Hafez M.
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), and associated ophthalmic complications among Saudi patients. Methods: The prevalence of PEX and associated ocular co-morbidities were determined among the Saudi patients visiting the Primary Care Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 2009 and January 2010. A total of 1967 patients were examined biomicoscopically by ophthalmologists to determine the presence of PEX and associated ocular complications. Results: Sixty-nine of the 1967 examined patients (3.5%) showed the presence of PEX with no significant gender difference. There was an age dependent increase in the prevalence of PEX after the age of 50 years. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure, cataract, and poor vision. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PEX in male and female Saudi patients. Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Further larger population based studies are warranted to assess the prevalence of PEX and associated risk factors. PMID:25630014
Nora A. ALFaris
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.
ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M
Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Obeidat Sadek A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacies stratified by the five regions of Riyadh. Each pharmacy was visited once by two investigators who simulated having a relative with a specific clinical illness (sore throat, acute bronchitis, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection (UTI in childbearing aged women. Results A total of 327 pharmacies were visited. Antibiotics were dispensed without a medical prescription in 244 (77.6% of 327, of which 231 (95% were dispensed without a patient request. Simulated cases of sore throat and diarrhea resulted in an antibiotic being dispensed in (90% of encounters, followed by UTI (75%, acute bronchitis (73%, otitis media (51% and acute sinusitis (40%. Metronidazole (89% and ciprofloxacin (86% were commonly given for diarrhea and UTI, respectively, whereas amoxicillin/clavulanate was dispensed (51% for the other simulated cases. None of the pharmacists asked about antibiotic allergy history or provided information about drug interactions. Only 23% asked about pregnancy status when dispensing antibiotics for UTI-simulated cases. Conclusions We observed that an antibiotic could be obtained in Riyadh without a medical prescription or an evidence-based indication with associated potential clinical risks. Strict enforcement and adherence to existing regulations are warranted.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Aboud, Essam; Saud, Ramzi; Asch, Theodore; Aldamegh, Khaled; Mogren, Saad
Saudi Arabia is a desert country with no permanent rivers or lakes and very little rainfall. Ground water aquifers are the major source of water in Saudi Arabia. In the Riyadh region, several Wadies including Wadi Nisah store about 14 × 106 m3 of water, which is extracted for local irrigation purposes. In such areas, the water wells are as shallow as 200-300 m in depth. The importance of Wadi Nisah is because the subsurface water aquifers that are present there could support the region for many years as a water resource. Accordingly, in this study, we performed a Magnetotelluric survey using a portable broadband sounding system (MT24/LF) to evaluate the ground water aquifer at great depths. We collected 10 broadband Magnetotelluric sounding stations (1 station/day) with an interval of about 2-3 km reaching a profile length of about 25-30 km along Wadi Nisah. Additionally, we used available gravity data to image the subsurface structure containing the aquifer. MT results indicated a low resistivity layer, associated with alluvium deposits, which was defined at a depth of about 1-2 km and extended horizontally about 15 km. Gravity data analysis was used to model this resistivity layer indicating a basement surface at 3-4 km depth.
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia
Albarq, Abbas N.
This paper evaluates the impact of service quality underlying the SERVQUAL model on customer loyalty, with customer satisfaction mediating these variables. This analytical study is mainly based on the primary data collected through a questionnaire that was personally administered to 422 individuals selected from five local banks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings indicate that improving service quality can help to enhance customer loyalty. Empathy, assurance, and rel...
Wyne, Amjad H.; Al-ghorabi, Bandar M.; Al-asiri, Yahia A.; Khan, Nazeer B.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of the present study was to determine the caries prevalence and severity in primary school children Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of their teachers. METHODS A random sample of primary schoolchildren was examined for dental caries utilizing World Health Organization criteria for diagnosis of caries. The information regarding oral health knowledge, attitude and practices in schoolteachers was coll...
This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reli...
This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included BacillusOther bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)
A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The files of 303 children from Riyadh and Hail, who were investigated in 1991 retrieved and only 119, were available for testing. Fifty percent of the children have still a protective anti-HBs tittre. One vaccinated child was found to be positive for HBsAg. According to this study, the efficacy rate against HBsAg carriage is 88%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the tremendous effect of HB vaccine on the HBV infection of Saudi children in these two regions
Ma, Abolfotouh; Aa, Alabdrabalnabi; Rb, Albacker; Ua, Al-jughaiman; Sn, Hassan
Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department o...
Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Levy, Mitchell M.; Taher, Saadi; Marini, Abdellatif M
This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion in September 25, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as part of the World Sepsis Day held in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to (1) review the chasm between the current management of sepsis and best practice, (2) discuss system redesign and role of the microsystem in sepsis management, (3) emphasize the multidisciplinary nature of the care of sepsis and that improvement of the care of sepsis is the re...
The radioactivity contents of collected natural surface soils samples from different sites of Al-mezahmiah region (southwest of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) have been identified using gamma ray spectroscopy technique. The detector used is a hyper pure germanium detector of active volume 156.6 cm . The results showed that the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th series along with the non-series element 40K are the main sources of radiation in soil. In general, the radioactivity in Al-mezahmiah area is to great extent lower than the world average and also the minimum detectable radioactivity content was found in the surface soil from the plain land
Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed
The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend completely on traditional examinations to evaluate the performance of the students. Chi-square test shows that there are significant differences in observed and expected frequencies between teachers and supervisors with respect to geography learning objectives, geography content, methods of teaching, tools and resources, and the problems that geography teachers encounter in their teaching.
Al-oboudi, Latifah M.
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between breakfast consumers and non consumers), on nutritional status (body mass index), glucose level, iron status and test grades (school performance) among Saudi school children (girls). A total of 120 female students aged 9-13.9 years from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia Participated in this cross-sectional study. A pre-designed questioner was used to collect information on their breakfast eating habits. Body weight and...
Hani M. J. Khojah
Full Text Available Objectives: To classify community pharmacies (CPs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in terms of the quality of medicines sold by them, using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS technique with a predefined threshold. Methods: Riyadh CPs were divided into 2 categories (“lots” for the purpose of LQAS, i.e., chain and independent CPs. Upper and lower rate thresholds for CPs that sell low-quality medicines were predefined as 20% and 5%, respectively. Consumer and provider risks were predefined as 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. The calculated number of randomly selected CPs required in each lot was 36; then, sale of low-quality medicines in >3 CPs implies a prevalence of >20% of such CPs according to LQAS. A randomly selected brand of amoxicillin (selected as a quality indicator of medicines because it is both widely counterfeited and heat-sensitive was purchased from each pharmacy by a “mystery shopper”, checked for authenticity, and analyzed for drug content and content uniformity using a validated HPLC method. Results: Substandard amoxicillin was purchased in 9 pharmacies (4 chains and 5 independent. Both lots were thus rejected as unacceptable, which may indicate that consumers in Riyadh are at risk of purchasing substandard medicines at CPs. Conclusions: The quality of medicines sold in CPs in Riyadh did not meet our acceptability criterion, and appropriate intervention by decision makers is recommended. LQAS proved to be a practical, economical, and statistically valid sampling method for surveying the quality of medicines. It should enable decision makers to allocate resources for improvement more efficiently.
...energy use and loss. Saudi Arabia also relies on desalination plants to produce 70% of its potable water, using as...Arabia hopes to start up its first solar-powered desalination plant in 2013. Renewable Energy: The Saudi Arabian...
Almajhdi Fahad N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2 virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56% was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN. Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4. Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18 had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.
Fs, Albuhairan; Tm, Olsson
Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements wit...
Almajwal, Ali M
Nurses are the largest group of direct health providers and can serve as role models for their patients. In this cross sectional study we assessed the relationship among physical activity and barriers, shift duty, elevated BMI, and selected eating habits among 362 non-Saudi female nurses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results showed that 46.7% were either overweight or obese. Marital status, shift duty, education level, and BMI were significant predictors of physical activity. Weather was the most frequently reported barrier to physical activity (88.3%), followed by a lack of transportation (82.6%), and a lack of time (81.3%). Nurses who worked shift duty had significantly (p = 0.004) higher BMIs compared with day shift nurses. Nurses who rarely ate breakfast (p = 0.004) and meals (p = 0.001) and often eat fast food (p = 0.001) were more likely to be overweight or obese. Nurses should be encouraged for a better healthy lifestyles. PMID:25730440
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reliability coefficient (alpha was determined. Regression analysis found a positive relationship among assurance, empathy, and responsiveness, but that this relationship has no significant effect (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. Reliability was found to have a negative relationship to customer satisfaction, but no significant effect on the same. Only tangibles were found to have a positive relationship and a significant impact (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. The results show that, in the retail banking sector, the servqual model remains an effective way of measuring customer satisfaction. Because customer value is an asset to organizations, organizations must ensure that they provide the right products and services, supported by the right promotion, at the right time for their customers.
Al-megrin, Wafa A. I.
The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and the...
Abdullah S. Al-Farraj
Full Text Available This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-, remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L, then Co (0.03 mg/L. However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L, and then Cd (8.02 ug/L. The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.
Al-Sahhaf, Nasr Abdulhamid
The city of Riyadh, the capital city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has undergone tremendous urban growth in the last half century. Fueled by social, economic, and political considerations, population and resource usage has grown at a pace that threatens to strain both the resources and the local and regional infrastructure required to support such growth. This dissertation examines the potential of remotely sensed data analyzed with other geospatial data in a geographic information systems (GIS) context to provide information that can be employed by policy makers and persons involved in making decisions concerning the future of urban development in the city of Riyadh. The dissertation research found and recovered a large number of extant aerial images of the city of Riyadh and subjected these to a rigorous photo-interpretation process that characterizes the evolving land uses in the city of Riyadh. The results were compared with an official land use map prepared from other sources, and correlated with available population estimates and water usage. Comparisons revealed the superiority of remotely sensed data to accurately capture land usage, and to reveal the growth patterns that drive resource consumption and degradation of environmental qualities. Classical models of urban structure including the Islamic City model were contrasted with the urban growth pattern in Riyadh in an attempt to capture the dynamics of growth of the city from the turn of the century to the present. Remotely sensed data has in the past been vastly underutilized in guiding urban development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. But new satellite imaging and GIS analysis systems have the spatial resolution and capability to more accurately and economically acquire land use data than by any other means. This dissertation demonstrates the value of these technologies and recommends their adoption in a new spatial data infrastructure initiative for the Kingdom.
Al-shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Almussaed, Eman M.; Fayed, Amel A.; Khan, Farida H.; Syed, Sadiqa B.; Al-tamimi, Tahani N.; Elmorshedy, Hala N.
Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected in...
Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S.
The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of t...
Malki, Khalid H.; Salman F. Al-Habib; Abulrahman A. Hagr; Mohamed M. Farahat
OBJECTIVES To determine the acoustic differences between Saudi adult male and female voices, and to compare the acoustic variables of the Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) obtained from North American adults to a group of Saudi males and females. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of normal adult male and female voices was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March 2007 and December 2008. Ninety-five Saudi subjects sustained the v...
Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.
Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S
The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%). PMID:25313272
Adel M. Ghoneim
Full Text Available This study evaluated the potential of Rhazya stricta L. growing on a surrounding area of the second industrial zone (24°39.8’ N; 46°57’ E, east of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Plant and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentration. The degree of contamination by those heavy metals in soil and transfer to Rhazya stricta has been estimated. The results showed a medium contamination of soil heavy metal content with respect to Cd and Pb. The total concentration of Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu in shoots of Rhazya stricta was 275, 5.30, 10.5, 27.5 and 8.30 mg kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the total concentration of heavy metals in the roots was as follows (mg kg-1: Fe: 0.1; Cr: 0.5; Ni: 3.0; Zn: 0.8 and Cu: 1.6. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn tended to be accumulated in the roots Rhazya stricta rather than the stems and leaves expect for Zn. The calculated accumulation coefficient of heavy metals in the roots was higher than that in stems or leaves. The Rhazya stricta plant exhibiting Translocation Factor (TF values less than one except for total Zn (1.10-1.60. The results indicated that, Rhazya stricta plant could not suitable for heavy metals extraction from the contaminated studied soil but can be used as an indicator for soil contamination with some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and also to minimize heavy metals mobility in contaminated soils.
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
Full Text Available The current study was conducted primarily to investigate and estimate 137Cs activity concentrations and the external dose rate due to fallout radionuclide 137Cs. Soil samples were collected from different 25 locations at Riyadh Province and analyzed using low level ?-spectrometry equipped with HPGe-detector. 137Cs activity concentrations and calculated dose rate were found in the range of 0.8 - 3.1 Bq·kg–1 and 0.05 to 0.8 nSv·h–1 with an average value of 1.70 ± 0.7 Bq·kg–1 and 0.11 ± 0.05 nSv·h–1 respectively. The measured 137Cs activity concentration range was compared with the reported ranges in the literature from some of the other locations in the world. Results obtained in this study show that 137Cs concentration is of a lower level in the investigated area. However, the range of 137Cs concentrations observed in this study is significantly high relative to similar data reported from Libya. The average value of estimated external effective dose rate is found far below the dose rate limit of of 1.0 mSv·y–1 for members of the general public recom-mended by ICRP as well as the external gamma radiation dose of 0.48 mSv·y–1 received per head from the natural sources of radiation assessed by (UNSCEAR, 2000. It is concluded that 137Cs soil contamination does not pose radia-tion hazards to the population in the investigated areas.
Al-Arifi, Mohamed; Abu-Hashem, Hanan; Al-Meziny, Mohamed; Said, Ragab; Aljadhey, Hisham
Objectives Aim of this study was to prospectively determine the incidence and types of emergency department (ED) visits and admissions due to drug related problems (DRPs) at Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), to assess the severity and preventability of these drug related admissions or visits, and to identify the drugs and patient groups that are most commonly involved. Method Patients (n = 300) were selected randomly from patients presented to the ED during the study period (one month). Computerized randomization program was used to select ten beds daily on different areas and times. Patient was eligible to be included if either visited ED or admitted through it due to DRPs. Results During the study period, 300 patients presented to ED were randomly selected with a mean age of 47.8 ± 27.7 years. One hundred and forty of them were females (46.67%) and 160 were male patients (53.33%). Of these 300 patients, 56 (18.7%) were presented to ED due to DRPs, and 244 (81.3%) patients were presented to ED due to non-drug related problems (NDRPs). About ninety-three percent (n = 52) of the DRP group were exposed to hospital admission while only 7.1% (n = 4) were ED visits (Fig. 2). Male to female ratio in ED visits was 3:1 while it was 9.7:8.9 in the ED admission group. Conclusion The prospective design of this study, sample size, and randomization increases the likelihood that our estimates are accurate and increase the generalizability of our findings. Most DRPs attributed to hospital admissions or visits were avoidable. Direct patient contact with pharmacist and family physician was beneficial in providing a safe and effective therapy. Corrective, preventive and educational strategies should concentrate on the most frequently reported populations, diseases and medications. The study addresses the proper use of medications to ensure the best outcomes of pharmacological interventions. Finally, more studies with longer duration focusing on DRPs in Saudi Arabia are needed. PMID:24493969
Abuelkheir Manal M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates with rapid development of resistance. Methods A total of 512 MRSA isolates were procured from 6 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and antibiotic susceptibilities and MICs were documented against several antibiotics and vancomycin. SPSS version 10 was used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of MRSA in the study hospitals ranged from 12% to 49.4%. Mean patient age was 44 years with males constituting 64.4% and females 35.6%. Approximately 41.5% of the isolates came from patients in the extreme age groups. MIC for vancomycin was in the susceptible range for all isolates ranging from 0.25 to 3 ug/ml. The overall susceptibility of MRSA to the various antibiotics tested was: fusidic acid 4.3%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 33.8%, gentamicin 39.6%, mupirocin 77.0%, gatifloxacin 78.9%, chloramphenicl 80.7%, linezolid 95.1%, quinupristin/dalfopristin 100%. Some differences were noted in the resistance of isolates among the participating hospitals reflecting antibiotic usage. On the whole, inpatient isolates (accounting for 77.5% of the isolates were more resistant than outpatient isolates (22.5% except for linezolid. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are the most effective antibiotics tested against inpatient isolates while quinupristin-dalfopristin and gatifloxacin seem to be the most effective against outpatient isolates. Approximately one forth of the isolates are no longer susceptible to mupirocin used for eradication of the carrier state reflecting resistance developing after widespread use. Trends over time show a tendency towards decreased susceptibility to gatifloxacin and linezolid with increasing susceptibility to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Conclusion Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are two valuable additions to our antimicrobial armamentarium, but resistance has already been described. To preserve their value, their use should be limited to those rare cases where they are clearly needed. Fusidic acid, the local antibiotic, gentamicin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole should not be relied upon for treatment of MRSA infections, at least empirically as the percentage of susceptible isolates is very low.
Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.
OBJECTIVES To report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrences of stroke in Saudi children. METHODS We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neurop...
Full Text Available Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450. Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306 compared to males (71.5%, 103/144 (P< .001. The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405, which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441 of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. Conclusion: Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.
Al-Kadeeb A. Siham
Full Text Available In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.
Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.
Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia / Análisis del material escrito de propaganda distribuido a través de farmacias comunitarias en Riyadh, Arabia Saudita
Sinaa AbdulMohsen, Al-Aqeel; Jawza Fahad, Al-Sabhan; Noha Yahia, Sultan.
Full Text Available Antecedentes: La propaganda es un componente crucial de la promoción de la industria farmacéutica. La investigación indica que la información de los materiales de propaganda puede ser inadecuada, imprecisa, sesgada y engañosa. Objetivo: Analizar y evaluar críticamente la información presentada en lo [...] s anuncios impresos en Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se recogió propaganda farmacéutica de 280 farmacias comunitarias en la ciudad de Riyadh, Arabia Saudita. Los anuncios fueron evaluados usando los criterios derivados de la reglamentación de la Autoridad Saudita de Medicamentos y Alimentos (SFDA), y de los criterios éticos de promoción de productos medicinales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Los datos fueron extraídos independientemente por dos de los investigadores utilizando un formulario de evaluación estandarizado. Resultados: Se incluyeron en la muestra final 185 anuncios escritos. Aproximadamente la mitad de los anuncios (n=94; 51%) eran de medicamentos OTC y 71 (38%) eran de medicamentos de prescripción. Información tal como nombre de los principios activos estaba disponible en 168 (90,8%) de los anuncios, usos terapéuticos aparecían en 156 (98,7%). Información sobre la seguridad relacionada con los efectos secundarios, precauciones e interacciones serias estaba presente en 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), y 33 (16.5%) anuncios, respectivamente. Sólo 119 anuncios (64%) proporcionaban referencias para la información presentada. Conclusiones: Nuestro hallazgos sugieren que los anuncios escritos no contienen toda la información necesaria para una prescripción segura. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones para la reglamentación de la propaganda de medicamentos y la formación continuada de los farmacéuticos. Abstract in english Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical a [...] dvertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Al-Haqwi Ali I
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early stage of their academic life, as a medical student about the existence of this problem in the community, its consequences and predisposing factors. Teaching teenagers and young adults about stress coping strategies may be of special importance in reducing the risk of alcohol and substance abuse.
Mohammad I. El-Mouzan; Asaad M. Abdullah; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A.
OBJECTIVES Information on childhood gastritis in developing countries is rare; hence, the objective of this study is to report the pattern of this condition in Saudi Arab children. METHODS Data analysis were carried out in all children <18 years of age who were referred for endoscopy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1993 to 2002. Only children with histology-proven gastritis were included. RESULTS One hundred and seventy-five patients ...
Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.
OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. METHODS Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and...
Al Jumah K; Hassali MA; Al Qhatani D; El Tahir K
Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among p...
Abdel Gader Abdel Galil; Osman Abdel Moniem; Al Gahtani Furgah; Farghali Mohamed; Ramadan Ali; Al-Momen Abdel Kareem
Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517...
Abu-rafea, Basim F.; Al-hassan, Basmah F.; Al Nakshabandi, Kholoud A.; Rahbini, Nora O.; Al-shaikh, Ghadeer K.
OBJECTIVES To determine factors influencing final year medical undergraduate trainees at King Saud University in choosing a career in Obstetrics and Gynecology. METHODS In this cross sectional study, the undergraduate final year medical students and interns at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to assess possible attracting and detracting factors. The survey was conducted from January 2010 to February 2010. Factors were anal...
Basim F. Abu-Rafea; Basmah F. Al-Hassan; Kholoud A. Al Nakshabandi; Nora O. Rahbini; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.
OBJECTIVES To determine factors influencing final year medical undergraduate trainees at King Saud University in choosing a career in Obstetrics and Gynecology. METHODS In this cross sectional study, the undergraduate final year medical students and interns at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were asked to complete a survey instrument designed to assess possible attracting and detracting factors. The survey was conducted from January 2010 to February 2010. Factors were anal...
Full Text Available This study, undertaken as part of a wider study of Facebook usage in Saudi Arabia, uses a self-report survey to understand Facebook usage by Saudi university students. The participants were 372 students (188 male and 184 female at one university in Saudi Arabia. The study sorts to understand gender differences and the reasons why students have more than one Facebook account and what this says about Saudi culture. The study has revealed significant issues that contribute to the current knowledge of social network sites in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.
Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM
Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...
Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurbaan, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Khoja, Waleed A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.
OBJECTIVES To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. METHODS The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 20...
AlQuaiz Aljoharah; Tayel Salwa
Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in...
Bahammam, Ahmed S.; Al-rajeh, Mohammed S.; Al-ibrahim, Fatimah S.; Arafah, Maria A.; Sharif, Munir M.
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of symptoms and risks of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a sample of middle-aged Saudi women in a primary care using a validated questionnaire. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, trained medical students administered the Berlin Questionnaire to a consecutive random sample of Saudi women in the age group 35-60 years, attending the primary health care center in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January and...
Waleed B. Al Abiky
Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their ...
To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)
Fahad S. Al-Shehri
Aim of study: To assess QOL among Saudi diabetics and to identify the possible risk factors associated with lower QOL. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 400 diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic at theUniversityDiabetesCenterinRiyadh. They were interviewed using the Audit of Diabetes Dependent QOL (ADDQOL). Results: Most diabetic patients (78.7%) had negative (i.e., unfavorable) ADDQOL scores. Diabetic patients' age, education and occupation were not ...
Salih, Mustafa A.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Tjan, Giap T.
OBJECTIVES To explore the role of and report on congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. METHODS Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to...
Al-shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Alshaikh, Mashael K.; Hamad, Amani F.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Aljadhey, Hisham S.
OBJECTIVES To assess knowledge regarding adherence and safety of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) in Saudi women. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study in an outpatient pharmacy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April to September 2011. Participants were healthy women aged greater than or equal to 18 years with an OCP prescription for contraception. We used a validated questionnaire to assess their knowledge regarding adherence ...
Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe
Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891
Abdulghani HM; Irshad M; Al Zunitan MA; Al Sulihem AA; Al Dehaim MA; Al Esefir WA; Al Rabiah AM; Kameshki RN; Alrowais NA; Sebiany A; Haque S
Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Universit...
Farjah H. Algahtani; Abdulrahman I. Al-Diab; Isnani, Arthur C
OBJECTIVES To assess Saudi physicians' attitudes, practices, and perceptions towards use of elastic compression stockings (ECS) and knowledge of effective treatment in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). METHODS In January 2009, we surveyed 38 physicians from King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia who are involved in the management and treatment of patients with DVT. RESULTS Thirty (78.9%) of 38 respondents have prescribed ECS in their practices wherei...
Abdulrahman S. Al-Arfaj; Ahmed A. Al-Boukai
OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in subjects aged 50 years and above in a radiographic survey through 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Over a period of 7 months extending from September 1998 to March 1999, 153 patients attending 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were interviewed, examined and then requested to have radiographs of knees (anteroposterior and lateral), wrists ...
Ma, Abolfotouh; Mh, Al-assiri; Al-Omani M; Al Johar A; Al Hakbani A; As, Alaskar
Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Sa...
Al-Jasser, Fahad S.; Mandil, Ahmed M.; Al-Nafissi, Amal M.; Al-Ghamdi, Hani A.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.
Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology of pediatric hand fractures and to provide recommendations regarding prevention. Methods: Medical records and x-rays were retrospectively reviewed for age at the time of injury, gender, fracture pattern, place where the injury occurred, and mechanism of injury. The study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2011. Results: Of 361 cases reviewed, there were 291 (80.6%) male and 70 (19.4%) female patients. Most (46.2%) were in the age group of 13-18 years. For age group 1-4 years, the most common place of occurrence was at home (81.3%) and for the group 13-18 years, outdoors was the place of occurrence (64.7%). Females were mostly injured at home while males had similar distribution of indoor and outdoor injuries. The most common causes of fractures were: door slams in the 1-8 years age group; falls at home, in the 9-12 years age group; and both falls at home and sports in the oldest age group (13-18 years). The little finger ray are the most frequently injured part of the hand followed by the middle finger. Conclusion: Our series showed that most hand fractures in children occurred at home, which requires reevaluation of home settings. Implementation of safety measures during sports activities are relevant in the oldest age group. PMID:25935180
Qureshi NA; Al-Habeeb AA; Koenig HG
Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...
Sinaa A Al-aqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine if package inserts (PIs) supplied with prescribed and over-the-counter medications in Saudi Arabia contain information relevant for the safe and appropriate use of these medications.Methods: Sixty PIs for prescription-only medications (n = 37) and over-the-counter medications (n = 23) were evaluated against a set of safety criteria compiled from the ...
Recently, Thomson Reuters has published its 2014 list of highly cited researchers (HCRs). Initial studies over the list  suggested that some universities (for instance, King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia) may have been manipulating its world ranking by contracting with highly cited researchers. In this work, we analyse the ranking of other Saudi universities based solely on the list. Our analysis suggests that other universities in Saudi Arabia do not follow the...
Objectives: To characterize, quantify, and assess the function of colostral secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in Saudi women. Methods: This prospective study was performed between March 2009 and February 2010 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty milliliters of colostrum sample was collected from each of 23 healthy Saudi women (mean age 26±4 years) included in the study within 48 hours postpartum. Levels of sIgA and sIgM were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbe...
Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)
Muslim M. Al-Saadi; Meo, Sultan A.; Abdul M. Al-Drees; Sarar Mohamed; Shaffi A. Shaikh; Khalid Al-Rubeaan
OBJECTIVES To determine the lung function among Saudi type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children and adolescents. METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and University Diabetes Centre, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2008 to July 2010. A group of 52 (26 male and 26 female) volunteer T1DM children were recruited with an age range from 8-14 years (mean 12.05 +/- 1.42 year...
Ghadah Al Murshidi
The study examines writing challenges Emirati and Saudi students face at U.S. universities. Based on a sample of 219, a mixed methods approach was used to analyze responses from the participants. The results of the questionnaire reveal that Less than 31% Emirati and Saudi students feel “comfortable” in completing written assignments. The interviews results indicate that Emirati and Saudi students have different opinions regarding writing difficulties. An Emirati student, stated: “I am w...
Malabu, Usman H.; Assim Alfadda; Riad A. Sulimani; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A; Atallah D. Al-Ruhaily; Fouda, Mona A; Mohamed A. Al-Maatouq; Abdulkarim A. El-Bakry
The aim of the study was to determine surgical indication and complication of subtotal thyroidectomy in patients being treated for Graves` disease at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh Saudi Arabia in the period between January 1996 and December 2005. Twenty-five out of 194 adult patients with Graves` disease had thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidism during the 10-year period representing 13% comprising 11 males and 14 females. Mean age at presentation for all the patients was 28?12 years. ...
Fayed, D F; Dahmash, N S; Saddique, A A; Shibl, A M
The efficacy and safety of aztreonam were evaluated in an open trial at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 45 critically-ill adult patients were enrolled in the study. All patients with documented Gram-negative infection were treated with aztreonam as monotherapy. Antibiotics active against only Gram-positive and/or anaerobic organisms were allowed. Twenty cases were clinically evaluable. Eleven had lower respiratory tract infections (pneumonia), 3 had urinary tract infections, and 6 had septicemia. Clinical signs and symptoms, cultures and other laboratory profiles were assessed prior to treatment, at 4-6 days during treatment and within 2-3 days of the end of therapy (usually 7-15 days). Nineteen out of 20 (95%) had a satisfactory clinical response. All cases with septicemia and urinary tract infections were microbiologically cured. The overall microbiological response rate was 90%. Fifty-five percent of all infections were caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two patients with Gram-negative pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa did not respond microbiologically to aztreonam therapy. No serious adverse events requiring discontinuation of aztreonam therapy were reported. No mortality occurred. PMID:1517810
Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the perceptions of students of health sciences on research training programs offered at Saudi universities. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to capture the perceptions of health science students about research training programs offered at selected Saudi…
Al-faris, Eiad A.; Abdulghani, Hamza M.; Mahdi, Awad H.; Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-kordi, Ahmad G.
OBJECTIVES The objectives of the study are to estimate the rate of epileptic patients' compliance with appointments and medications in a pediatric neurology clinic. Also to study the factors associated with non-compliance and to determine the parents' perceived reasons for non-compliance with appointments. METHODS It is a prospective study in which 147 epileptic children who attended the neurology clinic during the first 12-months of the study period were included. Patients...
Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran is difficult to overlook and this is troubling Riyadh. Yet Saudi Arabia has difficulty in responding to Iran's assertiveness: it wants to contain Tehran's ambitions, but at the same time it cannot...
Dania H. Al-Jaroudi
OBJECTIVES To assess the beliefs of infertile Saudi women and acquire information on alternative medicine usage by infertility patients. METHODS Between February 2008 and January 2009 a cross-sectional survey was performed in a tertiary hospital. Fifty-one patients attending the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Medicine Department, Women's Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were interviewed at random. They were asked question...
Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Ibrahim, Ahmed F.; Al-nakshabandi, Nizar A.; Zamzam, Mohammed M.; Al-boukai, Ahmed A.; Zamzami, Marwan M.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to measure Böhler s angle (BA) and Gissane s angle (GA) in the Saudi population and compare their values to the published data. METHODS Lateral plain radiographs of 229 normal feet and ankles of 158 females and 71 males, with age range of 15-72 years, were studied retrospectively at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2003. Böhler's angle and GA were measured and the mean and standard deviati...
Al-sughayr, Abdulrhman M.; Al-abdulwahhab, Bander M.; Al-yemeni, Mohammed R.
OBJECTIVES To determine the knowledge, attitude, and use of primary health care (PHC) physicians of online continuous medical education (OCME) in the regions of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS This is a cross-sectional analysis using a self administered questionnaire. The physician sample was selected to cover all Riyadh regions (city of Riyadh, and all accessible clinics in the villages, and cities outside of Riyadh). The study was conducted from April until May 2007. The d...
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate
Full Text Available Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb,1 Hamza M Alrabai,1 Osama A Alrehaili,1 Abdulaziz N Aljurayyan,1 Ranyah M Alsaif,2 Nizar Algarni,1 Hazem M Al-Khawashki,1 Abdulrahman D Algarni1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology: As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results: The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002. The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001. Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents' progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. Keywords: evaluation, medical education, orthopedic board, residency program, training
Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implem...
Full Text Available Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national aptitude exams. However, many students experience frustration, failure, and psychological morbidities like stress, depression, and anxiety because they are not aware of their learning styles or do not have effective learning skills and strategies. The College of Medicine of Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University has adopted the outcome based, community oriented, Spiral Curriculum. Although the curriculum is innovative, on the other hand, it is very demanding. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to share educational structure and evaluation results of the course on effective learning and study skills for the 1st year medical students. Methods: To prepare our students in order to cope with this demanding but promising curriculum, we conducted an effective and comprehensive learning skills course for 16 weeks in the first semester of year 1 in the medical program. Performance of each student was assessed and the course evaluation was done by students at the end of the course. Results: The attendance of the students throughout the course was over 90%. The average performance of students in the summative assessment was 78% and the course was generally liked by the students. Discussion: Students overall had a positive attitude toward the learning skills course. Majority of the students showed interest in attending the sessions regularly and realized the significance of this course to improve their learning skills. Keywords: medical students, learning skills, Saudi students
Alshumrani, Ghazi A.
Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st December 2012). One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3...
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia
Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin
Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 ?Gy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 ?Gy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.
Hussein Ali Habtoor
This paper addresses the language maintenance and language shift among the young Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-four Tigrinya-speaking teenager immigrants in Riyadh participated in this study. Forty of them are females and twenty-four are males. These respondents are students enrolled in the Eritrean International School in Riyadh. The results reveal that respondents have a limited ability to understand, speak, read, write, and translate orally...
Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.
OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical, biochemical, and immunological manifestations of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) in a Saudi population. METHODS The medical files of 7 consanguineous Saudi families with 20 affected siblings were retrospectively reviewed. They were followed at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for a mean duration of 6 years (January 2000 to December 2009). The age of the a...
Bassam S. Bin-Abbas; Muhammad Faiyaz-Ul-Haque; Abdullah H. Al-Fares; Sulaiman S. Al-Gazlan; Jalaluddin A. Bhuiyan; Saleh Z. Al-Muhsen
OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical, biochemical, and immunological manifestations of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) in a Saudi population. METHODS The medical files of 7 consanguineous Saudi families with 20 affected siblings were retrospectively reviewed. They were followed at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for a mean duration of 6 years (January 2000 to December 2009). The age of the a...
Hussein, Hisham Barakat
The research aims to identify the Attitudes of faculty members at Saudi Universities towards using E-learning Management System JUSUR, which follows the National Center for E-learning. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Ninety participants in this research were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, which…
Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul
The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…
M. A. Al-Essa; Sakati, N A; S. M. Bakheet; Z. J. Patay; O. Dabbagh; E. Chaves-Carbello; Ozand, P T
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, biochemical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological findings of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. METHODS Retrospective study evaluating the data of 10 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS The common presenting symptoms were deterioration in school performance, vision and hearing, behavioral changes, and seizures. Eight patients su...
Multi-drug carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection carrying the OXA-48 gene and showing variations in outer membrane protein 36 causing an outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Taher uz Zaman
Conclusions: This is probably the first reported outbreak of multidrug/carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella infection involving the OXA-48 gene from Saudi Arabia. Although the presence of ESBLs such as OXA, CTX-M, TEM, and SHV are predictable reasons for resistance, variations in the Omp-36 gene might also have precipitated this phenomenon. Disruption of the Omp-36 sequence by large insertional elements, the insertion of two amino acids in a very crucial part of this protein, and the presence of a premature stop codon in one isolate might have rendered this protein incomplete and non-functional. The study also demonstrated that more than one type of clone was responsible for this reported apparent outbreak and that ST29, a clone not reported from this region before, was the major clone responsible.
Alkhatnai, Mubarak Hadi Marie
This study investigates ICT in Saudi HE as represented by the researcher’s own institution: King Saud University (KSU). Using a naturalistic approach in pursuing the inquiry and making use of mixed methods, the research questions were investigated using surveys and in-depth interviews. A convenient sample of the University’s stakeholders; namely the senior managers, the academic staff and the students were investigated and asked to explain the process of ICT adoption and de...
Al-Karawi Mohamed; Mohamed Abdulrahman; Dafala Mustasim; Yasawi Mohamed; Ghadour Zuhail
Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-...
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared thies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)
Yazeed A. Alwelaie; Eyas A. Alsuhaibani; Abrar M. Al-Harthy; Reem H. Radwan; Rawan G. Al-Mohammady; Ahmed M. Almutairi
OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women towards breastfeeding. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in 3 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period 7 July--22 July 2009. Eight hundred and forty-eight women in the post-natal and post-cesarean section wards were included in the study along with women attending antenatal clinics. An Arabic questionnaire was generated and completed by women. RESULTS Of the 848 participating women, 61.5% fel...
Alam, Awatif A.
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school female students and to identify some obesity-associated risk factors. METHODS This cross-sectional study surveyed healthy female school students (grades 4-6) during 2006-2007. Four private schools in North West Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were selected where the majority of high income families enrolled their daughters. One thousand and two hundred students were included. A pre-designed validated questionnai...
Nadia M. Fida; Jumama Y. Al-Aama
OBJECTIVES To analyze the pattern of breastfeeding in mothers, identify causes of failure to breastfeed, initiate, and sustain breastfeeding practices at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia. METHODS Prospective interviews with mothers of infants seen consecutively during routine well baby clinic visits were conducted in the year October 2001 through to September 2002 using structured 18 item questionnaires. This study was carried out at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, ...
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the awareness about the use of the mother tongue (MT in the Saudi EFL university classrooms. The use of MT can be a cause of encouraging or de-motivating source in the discourse of Saudi EFL Preparatory Year Program (PYP classrooms. This phenomenon is investigated from the teachers’ viewpoint in the present study. Focusing on the perceptual nature of the study, a survey was conducted to assess the significance of MT use amongst male and female teachers in EFL classes within the context of Saudi PYP. The participants consisted of 100 EFL teachers [males & females] drawn from PYP Taif University English Language Centre (TUELC. A 22-item Likert-scale questionnaire was developed to elicit their perceptions of various academic uses of MT in an EFL context of Saudi universities. The findings of the present study reflect that EFL teachers within the context of Saudi PYP represented by the cohort of this study bears quite positive perceptions towards the use of MT. It is also concluded that they believe that teaching/learning a foreign language is easier if teaching is not merely limited to the target language (TL. Moreover, the results of the present study reflected that the cohort of both groups approved the significance of different functions of MT in the Saudi EFL university classrooms. However, male and female EFL teachers’ perceptions about the use of MT were not on the same-line.
Mohamed Amin Mekheimer; Hamad Shabieb Aldosari
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and suitability of the integrated holistic method for teaching EFL skills embedded in an Oxford® series of courses selected for study at the lower-to-upper intermediate levels of learning EFL, namely Open Forum 3, Well Read 3 – Effective Academic Writing2. Participants of the study were selected from the population of students in a Southwestern Saudi university. The sample included 52 participants in intermediate levels. Researchers ...
...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...partnerships with local, safety and security firms, and government agencies...Individual transfer to the hotel. Sunday, September 29,...
Tarek Tawfik Amin; Khalid Ibrahim Al Noaim; Mohammed Ahmed Bu Saad; Turki Ahmed Al Malhm; Abdullah Abdulaziz Al Mulhim; Marwah Abdulaziz Al Awas
Background: No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. Subjects and Methods: This cross sectional study...
Full Text Available Long Term Evaluation, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for data transaction terminal and mobile technology. LTE is to provide an extremely high performance radio-access technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily coexist with High Speed Packet Access and earlier networks. LTE technology commonly agreed upon, both by industry and academia, and hence conceived to be an unwritten standard. Saudi Government giving more importance for promoting the Educational standards. Every year, Saudi government spending millions of money for the growth of Educational sector. Almost all the Saudi Universities are interconnecting with various community colleges on Region based. This paper first discusses the suitability of LTE and related technologies for interconnecting colleges for communication service provisioning. Next, it discuss the argument that the most plausible future scenarios to deliver the increasingly data-intensive applications demanded by the colleges. We are trying to obtain best evaluation benefits of interconnecting colleges under Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Alfawaz, Hanan A
Fast food has become an important part of our diet and the increase in fast-food consumption is likely to continue. Our aim was to study the relationship between fast food and Body Mass Index (BMI) and the pattern of consumption of fast food in female university students. Total of 141 female students from different study levels of Nutrition and Food Science Department, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh Saudi Arabia were included. A survey questionnaire which contains three sections was used;...
Alhadlaq, Adel M; Alshammari, Osama F; Alsager, Saleh M; Neel, Khalid A Fouda; Mohamed, Ashry G
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of admissions criteria at King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to predict students' early academic performance at three health science colleges (medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy). A retrospective cohort study was conducted with data from the records of students enrolled in the three colleges from the 2008-09 to 2010-11 academic years. The admissions criteria-high school grade average (HSGA), aptitude test (APT) score, and achievement test (ACT) score-were the independent variables. The dependent variable was the average of students' first- and second-year grade point average (GPA). The results showed that the ACT was a better predictor of the students' early academic performance than the HSGA (?=0.368, ?=0.254, respectively). No significant relationship was found between the APT and students' early academic performance (?=-0.019, p>0.01). The ACT was most predictive for pharmacy students (?=0.405), followed by dental students (? =0.392) and medical students (?=0.195). Overall, the current admissions criteria explained only 25.5% of the variance in the students' early academic performance. While the ACT and HSGA were found to be predictive of students' early academic performance in health colleges at KSU, the APT was not a strong predictor. Since the combined current admissions criteria for the health science colleges at KSU were weak predictors of the variance in early academic performance, it may be necessary to consider noncognitive evaluation methods during the admission process. PMID:26034031
Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care
Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Latifa K. Khan; Alhamdan, Adel A.H.; Saada M. Alorf; Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman; Rabab J. Makki
This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing),...
Nasser M. Al-Daghri; Abdulaziz Al-Othman; Abdulmajeed Albanyan; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Majed S. Alokail; Shaun Sabico; Chrousos, George P
In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were me...
Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)
Raoof, S. A.; Al-Sahhaf, Maarib
Particulate pollutants in air samples from different parts of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied prior to the Gulf war, employing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Eight significant elements were found. Particular attention was paid to the study of the pollutants Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb due to their potential toxicity. These results will be of interest given the changed conditions.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology
This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail
Al Jumah K
Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder patients in Saudi Arabia. Medication-taking behavior among depressed patients is influenced by several factors, mainly patients’ beliefs regarding antidepressants. This study has improved the understanding of the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants. Keywords: patient compliance, predictors, antidepressants, patients’ beliefs, depression, psychiatry
El Bcheraoui C
Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam within the last 3 years; and among those who have been diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: We have showed that KSA is in dire need of improving the diet of its population. Our findings call for urgent research to understand the reasons for low fruit and vegetable consumption, focusing on price or preference in order to develop and implement culturally and country-relevant solutions to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fruits, vegetables, dietary risks, diet
Miriam A. Alkubaidi
Full Text Available This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners’ learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the most common learning style preferences of Saudi undergraduate students majoring in English? what are the most common writing strategies used by Saudi students when writing an essay? Is the choice of writing strategy related to a learner’s learning style preference and writing task, and how might they be linked with one another? And finally does the use of writing strategies contribute to students’ writing performance? The sample of the study consisted of 74 Saudi female undergraduate students in their final year of their bachelor degree in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Two questionnaires were used: (a the Perceptual Learning Style Preference by Reid (1987, and (b a writing strategy questionnaire by Petri and Czárl (2003. Moreover, students were asked to choose one of the two TOEFL writing prompts to write an essay. The data received from the returned questionnaires and writing tests were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS19. Results indicated that Saudi female students were mostly auditory and group learners. As for the writing strategies, Saudi learners used more “before writing” strategies than “during writing” strategies and “reviewing writing” strategies. Results revealed that there was no correlation between the participants’ learning style preference and writing strategies, nor their use of writing strategies and their writing proficiency. As a whole, this study contributed to the ESL/EFL field by providing information on Saudi undergraduate female learners in terms of their preferred perceptual learning style, their level of writing proficiency, and indeed their use of writing strategies.
Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one ave died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating persistent neurologic or cognitive deficits. Primary prevention for recurrences is feasible through informed genetic counseling. (author)
Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir
This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…
Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes were…
Abdel Gader Abdel Galil
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is higtice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)
Subhani, Shazia; Khalid, Al-Rubeaan
Background Given that diabetes is an extremely common disorder in Saudi Arabia, the National Diabetes Registry was designed by King Saud University Hospital Diabetes Center in collaboration with King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the year 2001. The aim of the registry is to identify risk factors related to diabetes and to provide statistics to public health programs and health care professionals for use in planning and evaluation. The registry was designed to provide information on the extent and nature of specific types of diabetes, diabetes complications, and treatment of diabetes in the Kingdom. The registry has been available since 2001, with major collaborations from 26 hospitals as part of Phase I in which 100,000 patient data is to be collected on a regional level from Ar-Riyadh before extending the program to other regions of Saudi Arabia. Methods The web application was designed using relational database techniques along with on-line help topics to assist users to get acquainted with application functionalities. All Internet forms were designed with validation checks and appropriate messages to ensure quality of data. The security measures established within the application ensure that only authorized users can gain access to the functionalities of the registry at allowed times. Administrative features were designed to manage the registry-related operations easily. Results The diabetes registry has been in operation for almost 10 years, and around 67,000 patients have been registered to date. The Web-application offers an anytime-anywhere access to the registry’s data, removing geographical boundaries and allowing the national registry to provide real-time data entry, updates, reporting, and mapping functionalities more easily. Conclusion Merging related information in the form of databases can provide improved health care operations through instant access to data, ease of managing complex data structures, and creation of reports to be used by health care planners and hospital administrators. PMID:21129356
Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)
This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.
Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI=30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce the prevalence of the coronary artery disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, national community-based studies are recommended to evaluate life style factors related to coronary artery disease among both males and females at different age groups in Saudi Arabia. (author)
We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)
The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)
The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author) sources. (author)
Cardiovascular complications in sickle cell disease (SCD) have been well documented but cardiac involvement in Saudi patients with SCD is not known. We sought to identify cardiac abnormalities by electrocardiography in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with stable SCD. Sixty-five consecutive patients with SCD followed at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, were prospectively studied from January 2005 to December 2005. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination to determine chamber dimensions, left ventricular function, valvular anomalies and pulmonary artery pressure. Data were compared to normal age and gender-matched controls. Hematological data were also collected from the patients and correlated with the echocardiographic results. Twenty-eight males and 37 females were evaluated. The mean age of the group was 24.5+-9.2 range (14-44) years. The most common abnormality found was pulmonary hypertension (PH) present in 25 (38%) patients. The majority of these patients had mild PH and only 6 (9%) patients had pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) more than 40 mm Hg. Older age, lower level of fetal hemoglobin and high serum ferritin were associated with increased PASP. Other abnormalities present included dilated left atrium in 17 (26%) patients, dilated right atrium 13 (20%), dilated left ventricle 10(15%), valvular anomalies 21 (32%) and reduced ejection fraction in 4 (6%) patients. Cardiac abnormalities are found in a significant proportion of Sare found in a significant proportion of Saudi patients with SCD. Pulmonary hypertension is the most common finding while other abnormalities are less frequent. (author)
To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)
Hysolar - German-Saudi Arabian solar hydrogen research, development and demonstration program. Hysolar - Deutsch-Saudi Arabisches Forschungs-, Entwicklungs- und Demonstrationsprogramm Solarer Wasserstoff
The Hysolar project is carried out in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia. In a 350 kW pilot plant in Riyadh, hydrogen is produced by water decomposition in an electrolytic process. The electrical power required for this is supplied by a solar generator equipped with solar cells. (Sauter).
The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…
Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim A.; Mohammed A. Al-Rowaily
Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...
Al-Rukban, Mohammad O.; Munshi, Fadi M.; Abdulghani, Hamza M; Ibrahim Al-Hoqail
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the ability of preadmission criteria used in most health professional schools in Saudi Arabia to predict the in-program performance. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Fahd Medical City, Faculty of Medicine, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July and September 2008. Four sets were used to examine the predictive power of preadmission variables. The variables are the academic abilities (high school grades), aptitude test, achievem...
Al-ashwal, Abdullah A.; Shabib, Souheil M.; Sakati, Nadia A.; Attia, Najya A.
OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of celiac disease in young patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with type I diabetes mellitus. METHODS Serum gliadin immunoglobulin (Ig) A and reticulin IgA antibody determination was performed in 123 patients with type I diabetes mellitus attending the pediatric diabetic clinic at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1995 and 1996. RESULTS Elevated serum gliadin and reticulin IgA an...
Kishore K. Deepak,; Khalid Umran Al-Umran; Mona H Al-Sheikh; Abdullah Al-Rubaish
We assessed the influence of gender on the performance in surgical and medical disciplines in undergraduate final theory examinations at College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The college admits 200 students (120 males and 80 females) every year in the 6 year degree program. The results of written exam for the year 2008-09 for all subjects were analyzed. The question papers consisted of multiple choice tests only. There were 50 assessments which included 19 from medical, 22 ...
Salma Sa`ad Mohammad Al-Mashi; Amany Mokhtar Abdelhafez
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate in both developing and developed countries. It has become a serious epidemic health problem, estimated to be the fifth leading cause of mortality at global level. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among students at Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and to investigate some of the epidemiologic risk factors contributing to it. A cross sectional study was conducted during the aca...
Faizah Saleh Al-Hammadi
This study investigated the relationship between Saudi EFL students writing competence and their Arabic writing proficiency. The study also examined the possible relationship between Saudi students' first language (Arabic) and second language (English) writing competence and their self-regulatory abilities. Participants included 35 college-level students majoring in English at King Faisal University. The participants wrote English and Arabic argumentative essays on the same topic during two s...
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overdeal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving lifestyles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce the prevalence of coronary artery disease in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, national community-based studies are recommended to evaluate lifestyle factors related to coronary artery disease among both males and females at different age groups in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A
OBJECTIVES: To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. SETTING: Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. SURVEY SAMPLE: Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal m...
Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani
Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate ...
Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.
The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking die...
Sayyed Rashid Shah
Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the EFL teachers’ perceptions of classroom observation system implemented in an English Language Institute of a Saudi university. It reviewed literature on the nature of instructional supervision and classroom observation to develop an understanding of different types of classroom observation and various contextual issues related to the practice teacher evaluation through observation. The current research utilised semi-structured interviews to elicit qualitative data from five purposively chosen EFL instructors. The participants shared their lived experiences of the research phenomenon in great detail that resulted in wholesome data on the subject. The findings, presented in six overarching themes, reveal the psychological plight of the teachers as they considered the practice of classroom observation a consistent professional challenge due to several factors, i.e. their lack of autonomy in pre and post-observation conference, observer-observee trust deficit, observers’ subjective approach towards the assessment criteria and classroom teaching, observers’ insufficient training and qualifications, the use of observation as a means to control teachers, and the element of threat and insecurity. Based on the findings, recommendations are set forth to improve the existing observation system for the benefit of the teachers, learners and the institute.
Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi
Full Text Available The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming <5 servings/day of fruit and vegetable with only 22% of them consuming >=5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively. Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000, but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity
A pilot study to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi woman. Lumbarspine bone density was measured in 830 postmenopausal Saudi women 50-80 years of age (average 59 years), using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the King Khalid University Hospital,Riyadh,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1989 and 1999. The result of the bone mineral density (BMD) in gram/cm2 were compared to the peak bone density (PBD) in healthy young women (T-score). Based on the definition of World Health Organization (WHO),the T-score value was considerd for analysis. Accordingly 248 (29.9%) subjects showed normal results,mean MBD of 1.117+-0.13 and T-score of-0.66SD; whlie 254(30.6%) subjects showed osteopenia ,mean BMD of 0.983+-0.11and T-score of -2.4 SD and 328( 39.5%) subjects showed osteoporosis,mean BMD of 0.767+-0.11and T-score of -3.4SD. when 830 subjects were analyzed by decades ,there were 42.3% normal , 33.4% osteopenia and 24.3% osteoporosis in age 50-59 years; 11% normal, 27% with osteopenia and 62% with osteoporosis in age 60-69 years while in older age 70-79 years only 4.6 had normal BMD, 21.5% had osteopenia and73.8% had osteoporosis. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are common among postmenopausal Saudi women and should be considerd as a matter of public health .Bone densitometry should be used to acess the severity of bone loss, identify those who need therapy and for follow up and early diagnosis of those with osteopenia in order to institutehose with osteopenia in order to institute proper therapy and avoid future osteoporosis. (author)
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia
Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors mbined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)
Maher Al Jadid
Objectives: To determine the causes, age and gender differences, hospital length of stay (HLoS), and prevalence of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) in a Saudi referral trauma center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of all patients who completed the TSCI rehabilitation program in the Rehabilitation Medicine Division, Department of Neurosciences at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from August 1982 and November 2010. The age and gende...
This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year
Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: email@example.com [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)
A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.
Measurement of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides together with some man-made deposited ones in soil have been carried out in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Soil samples from more than one hundred locations have been studied. Concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides from both uranium and thorium series, 40K and 137Cs have been measured using hyper pure germanium spectrometers. Concentrations of 238U in soil samples have been evaluated using laser fluorimetry, while 90Sr has been measured after chemical separation using a liquid scintillation counter. Gamma-ray doses have been measured in the same sites where soil samples were collected and the measured values are given together with calculated doses based on the measured concentrations of natural gamma emitters in soil
Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5. Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Tarek Tawfik Amin
Full Text Available Background: No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs and infection control. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. Subjects and Methods: This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. Results: A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7% students scored ? 24 (out of 41points which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. Conclusion: The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect students and their patients.
Ali, Mohammed T.; Bassiony, Medhat M.
ABSTRACT This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%). Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%), among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%), and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%). In elderly people, the prevalence of curre...
Ibrahim Mansoor; Ibrahim H. Zahrani; Syed Abdul Aziz
OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective study is to delineate the histopathological profile of colorectal cancers seen at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to compare our findings with 12 other studies published in the literature from other areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Our study group consisted of 39 colorectal cancer patients, who were examined in the department of Histopathology at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, K...
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of iases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).
Nasser M. Al-Daghri
Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.
Objective was to determine the prevalence and regional distribution ofsickle cell disease in Saudi children. A sample size of 45,682 children andadolescents from newborn to 19 years of age was selected by multistage randomprobability sampling of the Saudi households from each of the 13 regions ofthe country. The study is cross-sectional, community based and conducted over2 years from 2004 to 2005. Data including history and clinical examinationwere collected with house-to-house survey of all selected households. Datamanagement and analysis was carried out at King Saud University, Riyadh,Saudi Arabia. Sickle cell disease was detected in 108 of 45,682 children andadolescents with a prevalence of 24 per 10,000. The regional distribution ofsickle cell disease showed eastern region dominance with a prevalence of 145per 10,000, followed by the southern region with a prevalence of 24 per10,000, western region 12 per 10,000and central region with 6 per 10,000. Nocases were found in the northern region. The male to female ratio wasapproximately 1:1. The results of this national wide community-based surveyshow a high prevalence of sickle cell disease. In the community and thedisease is more common in eastern and southern regions of the country.National or regional newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease usinghematological tests should be planned. This study shows that the populationat risk has an uneven geographical distribution. For this reason, selectiverather thanion. For this reason, selectiverather than universal neonatal screening is likely to be more appropriate inthe country. (author)
Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-55 yrs. (74+, 56>, 76 were > 55 yrs. Of age (42 +, 34> and only 12 were < 20 yrs. (6 Females, 6 Males. The precipitating cause was biliary disease in 147, post-operative in ten, hyperlipidemia in seven, post-ERCP in five, infection in four and alcohol in four. Four had rare causes and 37 no obvious cause. Severe pancreatitis diagnosed in 70 patients, 51 of them were > 55 yrs. of age and 45 were precipitated by biliary disease. Twenty six developed complications (21 were > 55 yrs. old and four deaths. Twenty two patients of these who had severe form had diabetes mellitus, 37 had fever at presentation and 56 had leukocytosis. Conclusions: The commonest etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 147 patients (67.5% followed by postoperative pancreatitis in 10 patients (4.6%. Alcohol as etiological factor was rare (1.8%. The epidemiology and the risk factors differed markedly in Saudi Arabia, where alcohol is prohibited
Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have specific health-care needs that are different than children or adults (82.3% and 84.0%, respectively. With respect to health services, the majority (85.8% believed that adolescents should be hospitalized in adolescent-specific wards. Only 26.7% of health-care providers believed that patients should be transferred from child to adult health-care services at 12–13 years of age, as is currently practiced in the country. Conclusion: A gap exists between the training, knowledge and skills of health-care providers, and the needs to address health-care issues of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This coupled with the fact that health-care providers are interested in gaining more knowledge and skills and are supportive of changes in the health-care system provides an opportunity for building local capacity and instituting medical and nursing education and health-care reform that can better serve the needs of the country's young population. Keywords: medical education, young population, knowledge transfer
Full Text Available Mohamed Khalil,1 Esam Azhar,2,3 Moujahed Kao,3 Noura Al-Kaiedi,3 Hatim Alhani,4 Ibrahim Al Olayan,5 Robert Pawinski,6,7 Kusuma Gopala,8 Walid Kandeil,7 Sameh Anis,7,9 Leen Jan Van Doorn,10 Rodrigo DeAntonio7 1Public Health and Research Development, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 3Special Infectious Agents Unit, Bio-Safety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia; 6Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals, Slough, UK; 7GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium; 8GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 9AbbVie Biopharmaceuticals GmbH, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 10DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Rijswijk, the Netherlands Purpose: Rotavirus (RV is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE in children across the world. As there is a lack of epidemiological data for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE in Saudi Arabia, this hospital-based study was designed to estimate the disease burden of RVGE and assess the prevalent RV types in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age.Patients and methods: Children hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled at four pediatric referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 and used the World Health Organization's generic protocol for RVGE surveillance. The Vesikari severity scale was used to assess the severity of RVGE. Stool samples were tested for RV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were further typed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay for determining the G and P types.Results: A total of 1,007 children were enrolled; the final analysis included 970 children, of whom 395 were RV positive, 568 were RV negative, and seven had unknown RV status. The proportion of RVGE among GE hospitalizations was 40.7% (95% confidence interval: 37.6–43.9. The highest percentage of RVGE hospitalizations (83.1% was seen in children younger than 2 years of age. The highest proportion of RV among GE hospitalizations was in June 2007 with 57.1%. The most common RV types detected were G1P (49.3%, G1G9P (13.2%, and G9P (9.6%. Before hospitalization, severe GE episodes occurred in 88.1% RV-positive and 79.6% RV-negative children. Overall, 94% children had recovered by the time they were discharged. Two children (one RV positive and one RV negative died due to GE complications.Conclusion: RVGE is responsible for a high proportion of hospitalizations in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Routine RV vaccination has therefore been introduced into the national immunization program and may help reduce the morbidity, mortality, and disease burden associated with RVGE in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: disease burden, Saudi Arabia, rotavirus, RVGE, epidemiology
To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, whichur children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)
Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)lex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)
Faizah Saleh Al-Hammadi
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between Saudi EFL students writing competence and their Arabic writing proficiency. The study also examined the possible relationship between Saudi students' first language (Arabic and second language (English writing competence and their self-regulatory abilities. Participants included 35 college-level students majoring in English at King Faisal University. The participants wrote English and Arabic argumentative essays on the same topic during two separate sessions. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the participants writing competence in Arabic and English. The study showed a strong correlation between L2 (English writing competence and L1 (Arabic writing proficiency. Saudi students who scored high in L1/L2 writing had high self-regulation abilities. Furthermore, the study revealed a strong-to-medium correlation between students L1/L2 writing competence and their self-regulation abilities, as measured by the two factors of the MAI (knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Therefore, the study suggests that EFL instructors in Saudi Arabia should focus more on these factors when planning their writing curriculum and instruction. The study also recommends that L1/L2 writing instruction should help students build proper writing schemata and regulate their writing processes. In addition, the results of this study can help language teachers in Saudi Arabia understand the extent and effectiveness of Saudi students use of self-regulation processes to help them acquire English and Arabic language skills. Also, the planners at the Ministry of Education can benefit from the results of this study to design integrative texts that treat writing skill in Arabic as interrelated with English writing skill.
Hussein Ali Habtoor
Full Text Available This paper addresses the language maintenance and language shift among the young Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-four Tigrinya-speaking teenager immigrants in Riyadh participated in this study. Forty of them are females and twenty-four are males. These respondents are students enrolled in the Eritrean International School in Riyadh. The results reveal that respondents have a limited ability to understand, speak, read, write, and translate orally Tigrinya into Arabic and vice-versa. In comparing the level of their proficiency in both Tigrinya and Arabic, it is found that they have a lower proficiency in Tigrinya than in Arabic. The use of Tigrinya is seemingly decreasing and the use of Arabic is increasing. Therefore, there is evidence from this study that second-generation Tigrinya teenagers’ proficiency is shifting toward Arabic rather than maintaining the native language.
Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M
During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product. PMID:21392846
Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2% males and 33 (38.8% females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years, and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months. The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038, immune rejection (P < 0.001, preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022, and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032 were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001 and vascularization (P = 0.009. Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69 and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09. At last visit following PKP, 34 (40% eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0% eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6% eyes. Conclusion: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general. Keywords: cornea, corneal transplantation, corneal dystrophy, corneal scars, bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, herpetic keratitis
An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out during 2010-2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale was used.Results: The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001. Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.85-5.82, P < 0.001. Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi & having emotional failure.Conclusion: Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.
Full text: Building materials used for construction of houses represent a major source of indoor radon. In this investigation, indoor radon concentrations are found to vary substantially among the different building materials, ventilation, cooling and heating systems used. This paper presents the effects of these factors on the radon concentration in Riyadh city dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm Electret ion chamber. The study covered more than 700 houses and apartments, which were selected to cover the most common type of houses. The concentration range was found to be 1.02 to 196 Bq.m-3, with an average value of 17.5 ± 3 Bq.m-3. The results show that the radon concentration is higher in houses where the white bricks, no ventilation systems, plastic paint and Freon air conditioners are used, but relatively lower in houses where the red bricks, window ventilation, and water air conditioner is used. (author)
Maher S. Al-Jadid; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Khalaf R. Al-Moutaery
OBJECTIVES To assess the interests and post-hospitalization of quality of life (QOL) and career of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS This study took a period that extended for 20 years (1982-2003). Fifty-seven male patients in the Riyadh, Armed Forces Hospital and Al-Kharj Hospital Program (RKH), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with SCI responded to a questionnaire, which was distributed manually to 120 contributors. The questionnaire items include health status, occupati...
Al Momani, M.; Al Korashy, H.
Background: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received.Methods: A cross- sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients us...
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
OBJECTIVES To investigate the percentage of body weight represented by school backpacks, to determine the dimensions of school packs, and to identify the methods of carrying book bags by elementary school boys. METHODS A cross-sectional study, using a multistage random sampling technique, was conducted during the Spring of 2005. Six elementary schools from Riyadh were included involving 702 Saudi boys in grade 1-6. Measures included body mass, height, biacromial and bi-iliac breadths...
Fouzia A. Al-Hreashy; Hani M. Tamim; Nadia Al-Baz; Nora H. Al-Kharji; Abeer Al-Amer; Haifa Al-Ajmi; Alaa A. Eldemerdash
OBJECTIVES To assess the breastfeeding practices in the first 6 months of infants at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out at KAMC in 2005. Infants who attended the primary care centers and well-baby clinic of the hospital for the 6-month's vaccine were included. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on the mothers, infants, and their breastfeeding practice. World Health Organization definit...
Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Samiha H. Al-Awami; Azza M. Madkhali
OBJECTIVES To investigate whether postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) in our postmenopausal patients is a significant early symptom of uterine cancer (UC) and to assess risk factors for developing the disease in our population. METHODS A retrospective observational study conducted at King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KFNGH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A review of documents was carried out from PMB patients who were admitted to the hospital from January 1990 through to December 2000...
Mohamed, Badreldin A.; Manal M. Samarkandy; Adel A. Al-Hamdan
Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and prevalence of obesity among children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: The study group comprised pre-pubertal children, with clinically and cytogenetically proven DS. Healthy siblings, closest in age to the DS children, were used as a control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT), and macro- and micronutrient intakes were measured in both groups. The study was conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ...
Huda Umar Alwehaibi
Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...
Thamir M. Alshammari; Adel A. Alrwisan; Majed I. Aljeraisy; Khaled W. Taher; Faisal M. Alissa; Mansour A. Mahmoud; Mohamad A. Hassali; Hisham S. Aljadhey
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) toward systems used in describing the safety of medications use during pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and May 2012. The targeted HCPs were physicians and pharmacists. The survey was validated and contained 4 main sections. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses to the survey’s questions. ...
Mansoor, Aisha A.; Salih, Abdalla I.; Al-jaroudi, Dania H.
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a group of infertile couples attending a tertiary care facility in Saudi Arabia. METHODS A retrospective cross-sectional observational study was performed by reviewing medical records of 500 couples referred to the Reproductive Endocrine and Infertility Medicine Department of the Women's Specialized Hospital at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kin...
Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor
This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.
BaHammam, Ahmed S.
Objectives: To assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in a large sample of Saudi patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This prospective observational study consisted of 1693 patients who were diagnosed to have sleep-disordered breathing using type I attended polysomnography (PSG) between January 2002 and December 2012 in the University Sleep Disorders Center (USDC) at King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 1693 OSA patients, OHS was identified in 144 (8.5%) (women 66.7%). Compared with the pure OSA patients, the OHS patients were significantly older (57.4±13.4 years versus 46.8±13.7 years), had a higher body mass index (44.6±10.8 versus 35.7±9.2 kg/m2), a higher daytime partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (56.5±12.7 versus 41.6±6.7 mmHg), a longer duration of nocturnal oxygen saturation (nSaO2) <90% (71.0±34.3 versus 10.5±20.5 minutes), and a higher apnea hypopnea index (68.2±47.1 versus 46.5±34.1 events/hour). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum bicarbonate (odds ratio [OR]=1.17, p=0.0001, confidence interval [CI]=1.10-1.25), and duration of nSaO2 <90% (OR=1.05, p=0.0001, CI=1.04-1.06) were predictors of OHS. Conclusion: Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is common among Saudi OSA patients referred to the Sleep Disorders Center. Serum bicarbonate and duration of nSaO2 <90% are independent predictors of OHS among patients with OSA. PMID:25719582
Barnawi, Osman Z.
Second language (L2) classrooms are venues for learners to construct their identities, which are socially, culturally, politically and historically situated. Informed by the theory of community of practice (COP), this paper examines how two Saudi first-year students who are pursuing their master degree in TESOL at American Universities shape and negotiate their identities (i.e., participation and membership) in their new academic communities, mainly in a L2 academic classroom. The data was co...
Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; AlNajjar, Asma
There is a rapidly increasing movement towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived attitudes of female second-year undergraduate medical students towards research at the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia, as well as to explore if any differences exist between students with and without previous research experiences. An online, anonymous, cross-sectional, self-rating survey was adm...
Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abdulaziz A. Al-Saif
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of scorpion stings and to draw the attention of clinicians, concerning the dilemma of scorpion sting syndrome and its management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS In a retrospective survey, 251 cases were presented with scorpion stings to the Emergency Department of the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA during a period of 15 years (April 1986 to April 2000). Their ages ranged from 2 months to 101 years (male to female ratio was 2.6:1)...
Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A
This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807
Objective was to report on the role of infectious and inflammatory disorders as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke, were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included haemostatic assays, microbiological and serological tests. Neuroimaging included cranial CT, MRI magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan. Of the 104 Saudi children with stroke, seen during the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory systems were identified risk factors in 18 (17.3%). Five children had stroke following acute bacterial meningitis at ages ranging between 5-21 months. The causative organism was identified in 3 of them and consisted of Haemophilus influenza (in a 5-months-old girl), Streptococcus pneumonia (in a 21-months-old girl complicated by subdural empyema and sinovenous thrombosis), and Staphylococcus aureus in a 6-months-old boy who had an underlying chronic granulomatous disease. Unspecified meningitis/meningoencephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas encephalitis affected 4 patients, whereas 3 children had an underlying congenital infection as a cause for their stroke. Two of the latter 3 children were diagnosed to have congenital toxoplasmosis, and the third had congenital rubella syndrome. Two girls had stroke following septicemia at ages of one and 2 months. Neurobrucellosis caused stroke in 2 boys at the ages of 4 1/2 and 4 years. In both patients, neuroimaging revealed lacunar and other infects involving mainly the deep cerebral nuclei, secondary to occlusion of small penetrating end arteries. Two patients presented with cerebrovascular disease following systemic lupus erythematosus. These were a 12-year-old girl and a 5-year-old boy. Several of the infectious diseases that caused stroke in this cohort of Saudi children are children are potentially preventable through childhood immunization programs or other maternity health programs. In particular, immunogenic conjugate vaccines against 3 most common organisms causing acute bacterial meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neissaria meningitides and defined serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae) are needed to protect the young (<2 years) who are mostly affected. (author)
Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176
Full Text Available Studies dedicated to examination of self-regulation posit a bi-directional association between self-regulation and other variables including social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control. However, to date, studies of this caliber have only evidenced that self-regulation is a predictor of other variables. In the present study, the factors that predict self-regulation are examined among 209 undergraduate students in their preparatory year in the University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Collection of data was conducted in the school year’s second semester. Based on the results, significant positive relations exist between social connectedness, self-efficacy and self-control, with self-regulation. Moreover, the results revealed that social connectedness and self-control are predictors of students’ self-regulation, but not self-efficacy. Added to this, the result revealed a significant difference in the relationship between self-control and self-regulation among female students, with the other variables insignificant for both genders. Hence, it can be stated that higher education practitioners and academicians may focus on the assessment and the development of the students’ skills in terms of self-regulation.
Syed E. Ahmed; Salman A. Al-Abbas; Abdallah S. Al-Omran; Mir Sadat-Ali; Badar A. Al-Shafei; Rasha A. Al-Turki
OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2...
Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.
Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; Al-Omran AS; Azam MQ
Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other disease...
Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.
Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177
Objective was to examine pulmonary function, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. The patients were recruited from the hematology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from January to December 2005. The study involved 39 patients with stable SCD 20 women and 19 men, with a mean age of 22.7+/- 7.1 years, hemoglobin level of 95.5+/-14.6g/L and hemoglobin F level of 13.7+/08.6. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests PFT forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide [DLco] data are presented as a percentage of the normal prediction, a 6- minute walk test 6MWT and echocardiography. Dyspnea was assessed using the Borg score. The 6MWT data were compared to body mass index matched healthy controls. Forty-one percent of SCD patients had mild dyspnea at rest and this increased to 61% at the end of the 6MWT. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 51%, 36% of patients had a restrictive pattern, 10% had isolated decrease in DLco and 5% had a mixed restrictive-obstrutive pattern. The 6MWD was shorter in SCD patients compared to the controls 368+/-67 versus 407+/-47m, p=0.005. No hematological variables correlated with outcome variables. Chronic pulmonary complications in adult Saudi SCD patients are relatively mild but common. Pulmonary function in these patients differs from that published for African-origin SCD patients. The died for African-origin SCD patients. The difference may reflect a different natural history of SCD in the 2 populations. (author)
Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Objective was to estimate the incidence of major and minor congenital malformations among live born infants at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Estimation of risk factors was also evaluated. Between March 2004 and May 2005, a total of 5356 babies born at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, were enrolled in this study for malformations. Details of cases were recorded after parent's interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. One hundred and forty-seven (27.06/1000 livebirth) and 13 (2.39/1000 birth) stillbirth have congenital anomalies. In all livebirth, incidences of major anomalies were 93.9% and minor were 6.1%. Mothers of 95.9% with congenital malformation were healthy, 3.4% were diabetic and 0.7% had cardiac malformation. In 38.8% of cases parents were consanguineous. Among the liveborn births, the most common system involved was cardiovascular (7.1/1000), followed by musculoskeletal/limb (4.1/1000), external genitilia (2.8/1000), urinary (2.6/1000),multiple chromosomal (2.2/1000), orofacial (1.9/1000), central nervous system (1.9/1000), skin (1.7/1000), multiple single gene (1.3/1000), multiple sequence (0.75/1000), eyes (0.56/1000), unclassified (0.19/1000), musculoskeletal/abdominal (0.19/1000), endocrine (0.19/1000). High incidence of major malformation was found in Jeddah. Importance of Genetic Counseling is revealed in our study since more than three quarters of mothers were under 36 years and may well plan future e under 36 years and may well plan future pregnancies. (author)
Al-swuailem, Abdullah S.
Objective: To assess the defect rates in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 796 latex examination gloves were collected from 5 governmental hospitals and 5 private dental practices between April 2012 and May 2012. The gloves were assessed for presence of defects visually (VT) and using water inflation test (WIT). One and 2 sample t-tests were used to assess significant differences in defect r...
Ali AlQahtany; Yacine Rezgui; Haijiang Li
Cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid and in many cases unsustainable growth. This paper analyses the importance of sustainable urban planning in the context of the capital city of Saudi Arabia, which is Riyadh. It provides a comprehensive review of the historical growth of the city and critically discusses its urban planning development phases, informed by strategies and schemes adopted during this development process. This critical review is based on a proposed framework of ...
Al-Ghamdi Aisha A
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This retrospective chart review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of 40 patients with culture-proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Patients with positive M. pneumoniae cultures from respiratory specimens from January 1997 through December 1998 were identified through the Microbiology records. Charts of patients were reviewed. Results 40 patients were identified, 33 (82.5% of whom required admission. Most infections (92.5% were community-acquired. The infection affected all age groups but was most common in infants (32.5% and pre-school children (22.5%. It occurred year-round but was most common in the fall (35% and spring (30%. More than three-quarters of patients (77.5% had comorbidities. Twenty-four isolates (60% were associated with pneumonia, 14 (35% with upper respiratory tract infections, and 2 (5% with bronchiolitis. Cough (82.5%, fever (75%, and malaise (58.8% were the most common symptoms, and crepitations (60%, and wheezes (40% were the most common signs. Most patients with pneumonia had crepitations (79.2% but only 25% had bronchial breathing. Immunocompromised patients were more likely than non-immunocompromised patients to present with pneumonia (8/9 versus 16/31, P = 0.05. Of the 24 patients with pneumonia, 14 (58.3% had uneventful recovery, 4 (16.7% recovered following some complications, 3 (12.5% died because of M pneumoniae infection, and 3 (12.5% died due to underlying comorbidities. The 3 patients who died of M pneumoniae pneumonia had other comorbidities. Conclusion our results were similar to published data except for the finding that infections were more common in infants and preschool children and that the mortality rate of pneumonia in patients with comorbidities was high.
Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi
To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following l...
Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December ...
To report on moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as a risk factor for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. The usual and novel associations of MMS in this cohort will also be described. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February201 to March 2003 (retrospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included hemostatic assays, biochemical, and serological tests. Neuroimaging included CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scan and conventional cerebral angiography. Moyamoya syndrome was the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). They were 4 females and 2 males. Their first cerebral ischemic event occurred at a mean age of 45 months (median = 44 months, range 17-66 months). In all 6 cases, MMS was associated with an underlying hematologic abnormality or other diseases. Protein C deficiency was identified in one girl and protein S deficiency in another. Two patients had retrospectively, sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell-b-thalassemia (Sb-thalssemia), which had been associated in the latter with membranous ventricular septal defect. Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS, OMIM 100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-m100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-month-old girl. A 4-year-old boy had wrinkly skin syndrome (WWS, OMIM 278250) phenotype. The association of MMS and protein C deficiency was first reported in this cohort of patients, whereas the association of the syndrome with WWS and AOS has not, hitherto, been described. The 3 patients who had MMS associated with protein C deficiency, SCD, and AOS underwent successful revascularization surgery in the form of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Moyamoya syndrome constitutes an important risk factor of stroke in Saudi children. Comprehensive clinical evaluation and investigations, including screening for throphilia and neuroimaging studies are required for the primary diagnosis of the disease and for unraveling other diseases associated with MMS. This will help in managing these patients and in guiding genetic counseling for their families. (author)
Layla A. Bashawri
OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this study were to review blood procurement, ordering, utilization, and causes of discarding blood in a University hospital and provide recommendations for improvement. The study was also aimed at sheding light on the frequency of seropositivity for certain disease markers in blood donors. METHODS This review comprised a retrospective 5-year analysis from January 1996 to December 2000 at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Sa...
Alghamdi, Faris S.
The current study investigates the relationship between emotional intelligence and individual performance, namely academic performance. It also aims at determining whether emotional intelligence differs between male and female students. The data were obtained through the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) questionnaire, which was distributed to undergraduate students in Albaha province, Saudi Arabia. A sample of 191 undergraduate students filled in (SSREI)...
Gamma-spectroscopy system is used to analyze the radionuclides in the soil samples and determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in Riyadh city area. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in the city with 2 depth profiles (0-5, 5-15 cm) for each site. the average concentrations of U-238 series, Th-232 series, K-40, and Cs-137 are found to be 26, 23, 315 and 14 beequerel/kg respectively. Exposure rate arising from these radionuclides as the average annual equivalent dose rate is estimated at 0.57 mSv/yr. The average annual equivalent dose-rate in the Riyadh area is less than the average world level. 44 Ref
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Teaching profession was once viewed as a ‘low stress occupation’ and they have been envied for tenure, light workloads, flexibility and other perks such as foreign trips for study and conference. However, some recent studies suggest that university faculty is among the most stressed occupational group. The present study was conducted to explore the faculty perception towards occupational stress using established questionnaire, data collected from five departments in the private university. Research findings on the coping strategies that faculty used to tackle stress were also reviewed. Through this study, it is suggested that the top management and University Administration should focus their attention on faculty stress, especially on two areas (student Interactions and Professional Identity to reduce the stress among the faculty members. Care should be taken to make even remote faculty feel a part of the greater whole of this institution thorough regular communication and support.
Abu-kharmeh, Suleiman S.
This study aimed at developing criteria for planning health services in the city of Riyadh through assessing the actual distribution of these services and comparing them with planning criteria adopted by the Municipality of Riyadh, local, Arab and foreign cities, in order to propose planning criteria that best serve citizens of Riyadh city more fairly and efficiently. Data related to health services and their attributes were gathered and incorporated into a GIS database. The results of the st...
Al-amri, Ali M.
Objectives: To review the pattern of thyroid tumor, demographic data of the patients, sensitivity, and specificity of fine needle aspiration cytology; Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy at King Fahad Hospital of the University between 1982 and 2008. Data were analyzed for demographic characteristics, type of thyroid tumors, Fine Needle Aspirations Cytology (FNAC) yields and surgical complications; Results: A tota...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: One out of five Saudi diabetics develops end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Factors associated with progressive loss of renal function have not been extensively studied and reported in our community. We sought to evaluate the pattern and progression in glomerular filtration rate (GFR and investigate the potential risk factors associated with progression to diabetic nephropathy (DN among Saudi patients. Design and Setting: Hospital-based retrospective analysis of type 2 diabetic patients seen between January 1989 and January 2004 at Security Forces Hospital and King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: DN was defined as persistent proteinuria assessed by urine dipstick [at least twice for at least two consecutive years and/or serum creatinine >130 ?mol/L; and/or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m 2 ]. Results: Of 1952 files reviewed, 621 (31.8% met the criteria for DN, and 294 (47% were males. The mean (SD age of the patients at baseline was 66.9 (11.4 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 (7.5 years. GFR deteriorated from a baseline value of 78.3 (30.3 mL/min/1.73m 2 to 45.1 (24.1 mL/min/1.73m 2 at the last visit, with a mean rate of decline in GFR of 3.3 mL/min/year. Progression of nephropathy was observed in 455 (73.3% patients, with 250 (40.3% patients doubling their first-hospital-visit serum creatinine level in a mean of 10.0 (6.0 years. At the end of the study, 16.5% of the cohort developed ESRD and were dialyzed. GFR >90 mL/min/1.73m 2 at the first hospital visit; duration of diabetes >10 years; persistent proteinuria; systolic blood pressure >130 mm Hg; and presence of retinopathy were significant markers associated with progression of nephropathy. Conclusion: Diabetic nephropathy tends to be progressive among Saudis, with GFR deteriorating at a rate of 3.3 mL/year and with a doubling of serum creatinine level in 40.3% of patients in 9.9 years.
The spatial variation of radon concentration within the building of the preparatory year located in Riyadh was studied. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six month periods in more than 40 rooms of the surveyed building. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between floors and between rooms on the same floor. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as a reference level, were calculated also in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels in case of using advanced Italian granite building material. All the results of this study were investigated and compared with usual Indian granite building material and it was found that the knowledgement buildingis a healthy work place which may be due to uses of advanced building materials.
Mohammed A. Sarhan; Kamel A. Saleh; Saad M. Bin-Dajem
OBJECTIVES To document the distribution of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups in a random sample of Saudi students from the King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to compare our results from that of other studies in the Kingdom and elsewhere. METHODS The subjects included in this study were 944 males from the southwest region of Saudi Arabia including Aseer, Jizan, and Najran regions. The ABO blood groups and Rh factor from 944 Saudi males were determined. The f...
Full Text Available A prospective study of all native kidney biopsies performed over one year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. During this period, 52 kidney biopsies were performed of which, 49 had adequate tissue. All biopsies were processed for light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The indications for biopsy included the nephrotic syndrome (n=28; 53.8%, asymptomatic proteinuria (n=12; 21.2%, acute nephritic presentation (n=7; 13.5% and asymptomatic hematuria (n=7; 13.5%. Primary glomerulonephritis (GN, excluding IgA nephropathy (IgAN was seen in 34 of the 49 patients (77.6%. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative GN were the most common histological diagnoses (31% and 20.4% respectively. Surprisingly, we found a high prevalence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN of 14.5% in comparison with other studies. The prevalence of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN was low (2% and can only be explained as incidental. The study patients were followed-up for an average of 26.3 weeks. At the end of the observation period, 50% has unchanged course, 37.5% had improved their renal function and protein excretion, and 12.5% had deteriorated. The prognosis of different GN groups and renal survival rate cannot be assessed or calculated in this study because of the relatively short duration of follow-up. Our study further emphasizes the need for a national GN registry and long-term follow-up, in order to recognize the common patterns of GN, their natural histories, the appropriate line of management, and to try and arrest their progression to end-stage renal disease.
To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosoaneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours after onset of headache, vomiting, drowsiness, and dizziness. Following drainage of the IVH and stabilization of the patient, the AVM was successfully emboli zed 6 weeks latter. As a group, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies constitute significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Recognition of these diseases is important since some are treatable and because other family members may be at risk. (author)
Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)
Osman Z. Barnawi
Full Text Available Second language (L2 classrooms are venues for learners to construct their identities, which are socially, culturally, politically and historically situated. Informed by the theory of community of practice (COP, this paper examines how two Saudi first-year students who are pursuing their master degree in TESOL at American Universities shape and negotiate their identities (i.e., participation and membership in their new academic communities, mainly in a L2 academic classroom. The data was collected through (1 a personal narrative which traces each student’s firs-year experience and view toward American oriented classroom participation, and (2 an individual interview to explore in-depth information missing in the narrative accounts. The findings suggest that both Saudi students experienced difficulties and challenges in negotiating competence, identities, and power relations, which was crucial for them to participate and be accepted as legitimate and competent members of their classroom communities. Based on these findings, this paper argues that newcomers’ (i.e., international students socialization in a certain academic discourse community is conflictual and complex process, which involves struggle, negotiation and construction and deconstruction of identities. Possible implications for instruction are discussed.
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hyperteno improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Alkubaidi, Miriam A.
This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners’ learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the most common learning style preferences of Saudi undergraduate students majoring in English? what are the most common writing strategies used by Sau...
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current Saudi educational landscape in the U.S. Information is provided on the King Abdullah Scholarship Program that makes it possible for Saudi students to study abroad, information on the top states and colleges with the largest Saudi student enrollments, and what the future looks like for the Scholarship Program. This paper is the first of two papers dealing with Saudi education in the U.S. The next paper is based on original research and provides the results of surveys administered to Saudi students throughout the U.S. about their experiences on U.S. campuses. Directors of International Programs were also surveyed and the paper contrasts their perceptions with Saudi student perceptions in addressing student needs. The next paper also discusses the impact western education is having on Saudi culture and how Saudi culture is affecting colleges and universities in the U.S.
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of highy of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Moheeb Abdullah; Akram Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohammed S. Nouh
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. METHODS Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination, and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol > or =5.2 mmol/l), and hypertriglyceridemia (HT...
Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Moheeb A. Abdullah; Akram H. Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh
OBJECTIVES Obesity and overweight are well known risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are expected to be increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) particularly among females. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as in urban communities. This work is part of a major national project called Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis S...
Mohammed A. Alsaif
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.
Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.
This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation
Full Text Available Saja Almazrou, Hind Alsahly, Huda Alwattar, Lamya Alturki, Mona Alamri Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Most liquid medications are packaged with administration devices, which may be used inappropriately or inaccurately, and sometimes are not used at all. Because of the importance of their proper use for children's health, this study was designed to assess Saudi mothers' experiences with measuring cups, syringes, and droppers for oral liquid medications; to compare accuracy of dosing across these devices; and to determine the effects of mothers' education statuses and pharmacist counseling on dosing accuracy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which mothers were observed as they used a set of commonly available dosing devices which are a dosing cup, syringe, and dropper. Interviews were conducted in the outpatient pharmacy waiting area in several tertiary hospitals and primary clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and April 2013. Saudi women who were mothers of children aged 12 years old or younger and who gave their consent were eligible. Caregivers other than mothers and subjects with vision problems or cognitive/physical disabilities were excluded. We gathered demographic information such as age, number of children, and education status. Subjects were asked if they had had counseling on how to use measuring devices and which device they preferred. Then, the mothers were required to demonstrate how to measure 5 mL of paracetamol (acetaminophen syrup using a cup and a syringe and 1 mL of paracetamol syrup using a dropper. Dosing errors were evaluated visually as overdosing, underdosing, or no error (if the dose was accurate. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel and evaluated using Stata 11.1. Logistic regression was employed to determine relationships. Results: The results revealed that 58% of participants measured an accurate dose of paracetamol using the oral dosing syringe versus 50% of participants using the dropper and 51% using the dosing cup. In general, participants measured more than the intended dose with the dosing cup and less than the intended dose with the dropper. Furthermore, we found that dosing accuracy for each type of instrument was significantly influenced by the mothers' education status. Among the study participants, 77% had not had previous counseling on the use of liquid medication measuring devices. However, dosing errors were not affected by previous counseling. Conclusion: Among mothers using measuring devices, the most accurate doses were found to be measured with the use of the oral syringe, whereas the most errors were made with the use of the dropper. Moreover, education status had a significant effect on dosing errors. The use of a pictographic diagram could improve the mothers' dosing abilities and, thus, reduce dosing errors. Keywords: paracetamol, syringe, cup, dropper, accurate, education, counselling
The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined
To review the results of 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants performed at Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH). Retrospective analysis of the in- and out-patient case notes was carried out. Data were collected regarding age, gender, nationality, diagnosis, type of procedure, complications and survival of the grafts and the recipients. The first 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants were performed in 113 months. The age range was 4.5 months to 14 years. Eighty-four recipients (61%) were male. One hundred and twelve children were Saudi. Left lateral segment was used as allograft in 135 cases. One child each received full left lobe and full right lobe. Six auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplants were carried out. Familial metabolic liver disorders made the largest group of children needing transplant. The most common indications were progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia (45 cases each). The numbers of major complications are: hepatic artery thrombosis (n=8); portal vein thrombosis (n=3); portal vein stenosis (n=3); hepatic vein stenosis (n=3) and biliary strictures (n=4). Fifteen patients died. Three further allografts have been lost. Thus, the overall patient survival rate is 89% and graft survival rate is 86.8%. Living donor liver transplantation is a viable option for children with end-stage liver disease. Metabolic liver disease is the most common indication in Saudi Arabia. The cadaveric donor supply is in shortage and ladaveric donor supply is in shortage and living donation is a practical alternative. The incidence of complications and recipient and graft survival rates of the program at RMH are acceptable, (author)
Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)
Alshahrani M; Dhafery B; Al Mulhim M; Alkhadra F; Al Bagshi D; Bukhamsin N
Mohammed Alshahrani, Bander Dhafery, Mohammed Al Mulhim, Faisal Alkhadra, Doaa Albagshi, Noor BukhamsinKing Fahad Hospital of the University, Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: This study explores the most influential factors affecting Saudi medical students and interns' choice of specialty at the University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during the period from June 1 to June 14, 2013. Chi-square...
Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.
Full Text Available Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Medical science is perceived as a stressful educational career, and medical students experience monstrous stress during their undergraduate studies, internship, and residency training, which affects their cognitive function, practical life, and patient care. In the present study, an assessment of the prevalence of self-perceived stress among new medical graduates during their internship training has been performed, and correlations of self-perceived stress with sex, marital status, and clinical rotations have been evaluated.Patients and methods: Interns of the King Khalid, King Abdulaziz, and King Fahd University hospitals in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a stress inventory known as the Kessler 10, which is used for stress measurement. Apart from stress evaluation, the questionnaire collected personal data, such as age, sex, and marital status, in addition to information relevant to hospital training, assigned duties, and clinical training rotations.Results: Our results showed that nearly 73.0% of interns were under stressed conditions. Most of the interns were affected by a severe level of stress (34.9%, followed by mild (19.3% and moderate (18.8% levels of stress. The stress level was significantly higher (84.0% among female interns in comparison with male interns (66.5% (odds ratio =2.64; confidence interval =1.59–4.39; P<0.0002. There were statistically significant differences between the percentages of male and female interns (P?0.047 at mild, moderate, and severe stress levels. Marital status had no role in causing stress. The highest stress level was reported by interns during the clinical rotations of medicine (78.8%, followed by surgery (74.7%, pediatrics (72.4%, obstetrics and gynecology (70.1%, and emergency (58.3%. The prevalence of stress among the interns and their corresponding clinical rotations in all three hospitals had significant linear correlations (r?0.829, P?0.041. Conclusion: We found a significantly high level of stress among the medical interns. High stress may have negative effects on cognitive functioning, learning, and patient care. Hence, medical interns need support and subsequent interventions to cope with stress. Keywords: medical education, clinical rotation, medicine, surgery, pediatrics
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient?s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Syed Shahid Habib
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
Almalak, Haya; Albluwi, Ala’a Ibrahim; Alkhelb, Dalal Ahmed; Alsaleh, Hajar Mohmmed; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Aljadhey, Hisham
Purpose To explore the use of over the counter (OTC) medicines among students during exams in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Method A cross-sectional study was designed; using a self-administered twenty-two item online questionnaire for the students’ convenience and easy response disclosure. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13®. Results A total of N = 1596 students participated in this survey, of whom 829 (51.9%) were university students and 767 (48.1%) were high school students. Overall, 80.0% of the respondents disclosed the use of OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for headache and pain relief. In addition, other substances used during the exams were Energy Drinks (5.0%), Flu Medication (5.0%), Vitamins (5.0%) and Antibiotics (5.0%). Female students were found to be more knowledgeable about safety issues concerning the use of OTC medicines (5.11 ± 1.27, p = <0.001) than male students. Ease in access to OTC medicine, availability of pharmacist consultation and advertisement in print and electronic media were the main factors disclosed by the respondents that may result in an increase in the use of OTC products. The use of OTC medicines was generally higher among female students (p = 0.001). Conclusion The use of OTC medication during exams was more among high school and university students. Gender, age and educational institution were found significantly affecting the use of OTC medicines during exams. PMID:24648821
F. A. Fattouh
Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC and faecal coliform (FC following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34% and (17-38% respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%. Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100% and (99-100% for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%. As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.
Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.
Salwa B. El-Sobkey
Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.
This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)
Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Moheeb Abdullah; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Akram Al-Khadra; Mohammed S. Nouh; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hypertension among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national study on Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study (CADISS). METHODS This is a community-based study conducted by examining subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households during a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history using a validat...
To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author). pneumoniae (Author).
Objective was to report our experience of varied presentations and diverse histopathological spectrum of parotid gland malignancies. This retrospective analysis incorporated patients with histological evidence of malignant parotid tumors at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 20-year period from 1984 through 2004. The medical records of these patients were analyzed for their demographic characteristics, clinical features, operations performed and pathological diversity. Thirty-two patients comprised this study group. There is a male preponderance over females with a ratio of 2.2:1 (22 men and 10 women) and mean age of 51.8 (range 28-81 years). A painless lump was the most frequent clinical manifestation observed in 23(71.8%) patients followed by facial nerve dysfunction in 14 (43.7%) patients. Parotidectomy was performed in 22 (68.7%) patients: 16 superficial and 6 totals. A partial facial nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice in 9 (28.1%) patients. Four (12.5%) patients presented with cervical lymph node metastases necessitating radical neck dissection. Nine (28.1%) patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 8(25%) adenoid cystic carcinoma, 6 (18.7%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified and 2 (6.2%) were reported to have carcinoma in plemorphic adenoma. Twenty (62.5%) specimens revealed high grade aggressive lesions and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients pres and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients presented with stage III/IV disease. Malignant parotid tumors are exceedingly rare, occurring at earlier group with male preponderance and invariably declare at a late clinical stage in our community. Histopathological features hallmark a locally advanced disease with an aggressive behavior. (author)
Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic phis study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)
Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M.
Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...
Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H. A.; Abdullah, M.A.
Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew).
With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)
Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz
The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043
Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described
Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen; Suneetha Epuru; Bushra Fatima Syeda; Wedad Flyyh Mtlk Al Rashedi
Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported infor...
Ali H. Hassan
Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG) of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females) were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twe...
Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema
Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Masla...
Al-turki, Haifa A.
OBJECTIVES To find out the prevalence of Burnout syndrome (BS) in Saudi nurses. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study involving 60 female Saudi nurses in the workforce of King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, which is a tertiary care center for the eastern province. Between May and August 2009, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) individual-based questionnaire was distributed after modification to include age, marital status, unit working and number of years in service. We used the...
Al Mansour, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Bedah, Abdullah MN; AlRukban, Mohammed Othman; Elsubai, Ibrahim S; Mohamed, Elsadiq Yousif; El Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Asim AH; Khalil, Mohamed KM; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; Almudaiheem, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Waqas Sami; Medani, Khalid Altohami; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar
Background Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development. Objective and setting This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Methods The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013) and second (year 2013–2014) intake (n=26 and 39, respectively) were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Results Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items including their views on CAM practices. Conclusion CAM course tends to have a positive impact on KAP of medical students. The preliminary results of this study call for further research with a larger sample in academic settings across the nation.
Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A
Background This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan, and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. PMID:24648763
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.
Mansour I. Almansour
Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to determine lead accumulation in feathers of wild white-cheeked bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys and wild palm dove (Streptopelia seneglenses in order to find which is more suitable to monitor the lead environmental pollution. Feather samples of 270 of Pycnonotus leucogenys and 309 of Streptopelia seneglenses were collected from three different cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Riyadh and Al-Kharj and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study revealed that the feathers of Streptopelia seneglenses have more capacity to retain lead than Pycnonotus leucogenys in Jeddah and Riyadh (pStreptopelia seneglenses is more suitable as a biological monitor for environmental lead exposure than Pycnonotus leucogenys.
Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto
El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand
Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.
Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Lung specimens have to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high resolution CT scans were reviewed. Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well documented clinical and radiograph data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age 58 years; range 42-78). The clinical presentation f BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%), fever (70%) dyspnea, (85%) and crackles (80%). The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14) was a restrictive pattern (11 patients). Most patients (70%) had no underlying cause (idiopathic BOOP). Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner's granulomatosis. Ten patients (50%) had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30%) had a partial response and 3 (15.8) with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcto other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over a 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Methods: Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic orga-nizing pneumonia (COP. Lung specimens had to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high-resolution CT scans were reviewed. Results: Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well-documented clinical and radiographic data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age, 58 years; range, 42-78. The clinical presentation of BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%, fever (70% dyspnea, (85% and crackles (80%. The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14 was a restrictive pattern (11 patients. Most patients (70% had no underlying cause (idio-pathic BOOP. Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner?s granulo-matosis. Ten patients (50% had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30% had a partial response and 3 (15.8% with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)
Bokhary, Rana Y; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A
OBJECTIVES To determine the pattern of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the population of 2 large tertiary centers in the western province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This retrospective study used cases diagnosed as GIST at the histopathology laboratories of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital between January 2000 and October 2009, and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, KSA, between January 2002 and December 2008. Additionally, cas...
Mohammad Rishad Faridi
Full Text Available Catch’em young for imparting hands-on rigorous academic training. This is what has been relentlessly pursued while dealing with the undergraduate students of business management who are to be thoroughly exposed to the whole gamut of quality work life. Whether they opt for corporate career or pursue masters or choose be an entrepreneur, their exposure to the dynamics of quality management must be ensured most likely at student level. Needless to say that the student is more adaptive to change of attitude, behavior, learning etc., and is prone to imbibing the changes without any resistance. One of the collaborative approaches gaining popularity globally is the Student Quality Circle (SQC, an initiative for raising the bar of quality learning and quality teaching. To the best of our knowledge, Quality Circle very much in the vogue, does exist at scores of manufacturing units in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia but this has not yet taken roots in the academic field. This research is essentially a pilot study done at College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdul-Aziz University, Al-Kharj. The concept “student’s quality circle” has been proved quite effective to a larger extent and its encouraging findings will prompt other colleges to opt for it. The study has done an objective analysis of pre and post session implementation of student quality circle and it has carefully measured its empirical impact on student’ s traits, attitude, learning, extracurricular activities, individual versus team chemistry, leadership, incubation of quality mind set, total quality environment, and student faculty relationship etc.
Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Dweik, Loai M; Abudan, Zainab; Gazal, Abdalla M; Abu-Dawas, Reema B; Chamseddin, Ranim A; Albali, Nawaf H; Ali, Alaa A; Khan, Tehreem A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A
Student contributions to research have been shown to effectively reflect on their communication and critical thinking skills. Short-term research courses offer opportunities for medical students to advance their research experience in subsequent high-demanding long-term research opportunities. The purpose of the present study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a research-oriented series (ROS) on undergraduate students at Alfaisal University in Saudi Arabia. The ROS was designed to comprise eight sessions. Each session addressed core principles and the practice of research concepts and was based on theoretical morning sessions supplemented by afternoon practical sessions delivered by experienced senior medical students and faculty members. Students were assessed comprehensively by the end of the ROS. The series was conducted twice, and 35 students were involved each time. A total of 70 enrolled students (35 men and 35 women) with grade point averages of >3.5 and skills, and confidence after attending the ROS and evaluating their senior peers. Ninety percent of the medical students responded to the online survey and rated the ROS highly in improving their research knowledge, skills, and confidence. Male students reported significant gains compared with their female peers (P<0.05). Grade point averages did not play a role in student gains after attending the ROS. Qualitative responses were in support of three recurring themes favoring the unique learning environment in the ROS. In conclusion, the ROS offers a short-term systematic approach to fundamental steps and concepts of biomedical research. PMID:25727467
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs
Al-Moamary Mohamed; Al-Hajjaj Mohamed; Idrees Majdy; Zeitouni Mohamed; Alanezi Mohammed; Al-Jahdal Hamdan; Al Dabbagh Maha
The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elabora...
Mansour Al-Nozha; Akram Al-Khadra; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh
OBJECTIVES Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed this study to obtain the prevalence of MS and each of its components in Saudi Arabia. This study is part of Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Study (CADISS). METHODS We conducted this community-based national epidemiological health survey by examining Saudi subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households over a 5-year period between 199...
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C affects 2% of Saudi population. Previous local trials showed low response to interferon monotherapy for six-months. Aim: To evaluate biochemical and virological response of interferon-ribavirin combination on naive Saudi patients infected with HCV. Methods: A prospective single armed study was conducted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital from July 1999 to July 2002 for fifty patients who have hepatitis C virus (HCV-PCR positive and chronic hepatitis on liver biopsy were started on the combination therapy for one-year. All had HCV-PCR at the end of therapy and at six months follow-up. Results: Thirty-one patients (62% normalized their ALT levels, and 25 patients (50% became HCV-PCR negative achieving end-of-treatment response (ETR. The sustained virological response (SR was achieved in 19 patients (38% at six months follow-up after stopping the treatment. Side effects were mainly flu like syndrome in 36 patients (72%. Conclusion: Combination therapy of interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin is an effective treatment modality for HCV infected Saudi patients, with tolerable side effects. Our virological response rates are compatible with international published literatures
The gene encoding the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is transcriptionally silenced by promoter hypermethylation in several human cancers including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We explored the aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in Saudi diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and to investigate MGMT hypermethylation has an effect on patients overall survival.In a retrospective cohort study, 100 cases of DLBCL were collected from the Department of Pathology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We used methylation specific polymerase chain reaction to analyze the MGMT promoter methylation status in 100 tumor DNA of Saudi DLBCL patients receiving multi drug regimens. Tissue microarray (TMA) of these cases was also constructed. The MGMT protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically. Molecular data were correlated with clinical outcome. Seventy one percent (71%) of 100 DLBCL patients showed MGMT promoter hypermethylation in their lymphoma. The presence of MGMT methylation was associated with statistically significant increase in the overall survival (p=0.02). The MGMT promoter hypermethylation was independent and a strong prognostic factor. The MGMT promoter hypermethylation appears to be useful marker for predicting survival in patient with DLBCL treated with multi drug regimens including cyclophosphamide, at the same time the study shows that TMA technology is useful for immunos that TMA technology is useful for immunohistochemical analysis of large lymphoma populations. (author)
A Comparative Study of the Relationships between Conflict Management Styles and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Propensity to Leave the Job among Saudi and American Universities' Faculty Members
This study used Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form C to examine the preference for conflict management styles among Saudi and American faculty members. Additionally, the study examined the relationships between conflict management styles and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and propensity to leave the job. A random sample…
Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.
Maher S. Al-Jadid
Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disabili...
Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPR)can help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage....
Ibrahim S. Alkhalife; Rafiaa R. Hassan; Ahmed A. Abdel-Hameed; Laila A. Al-Khayal
ABSTRACT We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphylloboth...
Alsaeed EF; Abdulkarim H; Tunio MA
Eyad Fawzi Alsaeed,1 Huda Abdulkarim,2 Mutahir A Tunio3 1Radiation Oncology Department, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative tumor-marker cancer antigen (CA) 15.3 in Saudi patients with breast cancer and to find out whether any correlation exists between preoper...
Suleiman S. Abu-Kharmeh
Full Text Available This study aimed at developing criteria for planning health services in the city of Riyadh through assessing the actual distribution of these services and comparing them with planning criteria adopted by the Municipality of Riyadh, local, Arab and foreign cities, in order to propose planning criteria that best serve citizens of Riyadh city more fairly and efficiently. Data related to health services and their attributes were gathered and incorporated into a GIS database. The results of the study showed regarding the primary health centers that the criterion of the service’s coverage rate of the Riyadh Municipality was slightly applied, notwithstanding the criterion of the served population was moderately applied, the criterion of the square meters of land per capita was slightly applied, the criterion of the served population was asymptotic to that one in Dubai. The criterion of the land's area allocated to per capita was relatively high in comparison with other cities. While the results regarding hospitals showed that the criterion of the service's coverage rate for the municipality was moderately applied, the criterion of the served population was asymptotic to that one in Dubai and the criterion of the land’s area allocated to per capita was relatively high in comparison with other cities.
I. North Saharian palaeowaters were mainly formed during a long humid period between 50,000 and 20,000 years BP., which was followed by a cool dry period from 20,000 to 14,000 years BP. These palaeowaters show a significant west-east decrease in deuterium and 18O because of past groundwater formation by local rainfall from the western drift. Sahel zone groundwaters seem to show meridional variation of deuterium and 18O due to a tropical convective influence. II. A computer model estimate of the alternate play between rainwater infiltration and evaporation in the Dahna sand-dune (near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) yields a mean annual groundwater recharge of 20 mm annually which agrees with that obtained from bomb tritium vertical profiles of the sand moisture. The model also describes the deuterium and 18O profiles. (author)
Nasser, A. E. M.
Solar and wind data averages gathered for five years and plans for a 1.2-1.4 kW solar wind energy plant at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia are presented. Wind speeds were gathered at 2 m height averaging 3.9 m/sec, and extrapolated to 22 m and 5.45 m/sec; average solar intensity was found to be 600 W/sq m between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. The generator system comprises a 5.5 m diameter multiblade windpowered turbine on a 10 meter tower and photovoltaic modules generating 500 W. The NACA 0018 blade tips will be enclosed within a conical duct, augmenting the wind velocity by an expected 10%. Lead-acid batteries will be used for storage; initial applications of the system are targeted for remote villages and military outposts.
Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud
Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.
Naif A. Bawazeer
Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.
Full Text Available Objectives: Menstruation, although a natural process, is often linked with different types of misconceptions and social taboos, such as treating the menstruating girls as dirty, and not allowing them to discuss the menstruation related problems with other family members. All of this will eventually lead to adverse health outcomes. Keeping these facts in mind the present study was formulated to find out the knowledge and practice of university females in the area of reproductive health and hygiene. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using a pretested and modified questionnaire. Leaflets explaining the objectives of the study were distributed in different departments of the university and subjects were invited to participate in the study. After getting an informed consent, those who agreed to fill the questionnaire were included in the study. Data were entered into SPSS-17.0 for the purpose of statistical analysis. Results: The present study shows mean age at menarche as 12.91±1.65 years. 62.5% of the subjects were aware of the menstrual cycle before their first menarche. Although 80% of the girls knew that maintaining personal hygiene can prevent problems and pain, only 62% followed satisfactory routines of hygiene. The overall score for knowledge regarding reproductive health and hygiene was found to be 54%. Conclusion: Results of the study concluded that menstrual hygiene, as a very important aspect of reproductive health, is often neglected and should be given utmost importance in the education curriculum, especially from the higher secondary levels. However, more research with strong evidences is further needed.
Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Alswaida, Yazeed; Alshammari, Thamir; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Alrasheedy, Alian; Hassali, Mohamad Azmi; Aljadhey, Hisham
Objective To assess community pharmacists’ knowledge, behaviors and experiences relating to Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 147 community pharmacists working in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results The questionnaire was distributed to 147 pharmacists, of whom 104 responded to the survey, a 70.7% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29 years. The majority (n = 101, 98.1%) had graduated with a bachelorette degree and worked in chain pharmacies (n = 68, 66.7%). Only 23 (22.1%) said they were familiar with the ADR reporting process, and only 21 (20.2%) knew that pharmacists can submit ADR reports online. The majority of the participants (n = 90, 86.5%) had never reported ADRs. Reasons for not reporting ADRs most importantly included lack of awareness about the method of reporting (n = 22, 45.9%), misconception that reporting ADRs is the duty of physician and hospital pharmacist (n = 8, 16.6%) and ADRs in community pharmacies are simple and should not be reported (n = 8, 16.6%). The most common approach perceived by community pharmacists for managing patients suffering from ADRs was to refer him/her to a physician (n = 80, 76.9%). Conclusion The majority of community pharmacists in Riyadh have poor knowledge of the ADR reporting process. Pharmacovigilance authorities should take necessary steps to urgently design interventional programs in order to increase the knowledge and awareness of pharmacists regarding the ADR reporting process. PMID:25473329
Fahad Hamad Aljumah
Blog is one of the recent innovations that help students in finding opportunities to practice English writing outside the classroom. More educators have applied this easy-to-use technology to classroom instruction and language learning (Campbell, 2003; Johnson, 2004). The objectives of the study are (1) to investigate students’ attitudes toward the use of blog in learning writing, and (2) to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using blog in language learning. A total of 35 Saudi...
Full Text Available Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPRcan help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage. A second part of the system was developed to segmentand recognize the characters in the located license plate.
El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Amr Mostafa; Hammad Sabry
Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The s...
Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)
Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present
B. A. Al-Omar
OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this study are to assess patient satisfaction at both Ministry of Health and private hospitals in Riyadh city, to compare the perceived satisfaction of patients to their expectations prior to admission at both sectors, and to determine the variables that influence the patient's future intention. METHODS A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 500 patients (392 were returned fully completed) in 7 private and Ministry of He...
Al Shanafey Saud; Alzahrani Ali; AlBallaa Abdulrahman; Alballaa Abdulaziz
Background: The satisfaction of surgical residents with their training programs plays an important role in dictating its output. This survey was conducted to explore the satisfaction of surgical residents with their training programs in the Riyadh area. Methods: A survey questionnaire was distributed in four major hospitals to explore the view of surgical residents regarding their training programs. Frequency tables were generated for each question in the survey. Results: About 78 surv...
Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C
Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of ...
Full text: The Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was reported in animals from the Middle Region of Saudi Arabia in 1998. Incidences of larval myiasis in sheep and seasonal activity of adult C. bezziana in the Riyadh Region were investigated during the period of Oct. 2001-June 2003. 3,712 sheep were examined and only 73 were found infested with C. bezziana larvae. Among the 73 infested sheep, 44 (60%) were young (less than 6 months old) and 29 (40%) were adults (above 6 months): 48 (66%) were females and 25 (34%) were males; and the mortality rate was 26% (12 young and 7 old sheep died). The infestation rates with C. bezziana were highest during March-May (60%) and Sept-Nov. (31.5%) when the temperature and humidity are optimum. During the hot dry and cold seasons infestation rate were low (5% and 1.5% respectively). During the same period, the seasonal activity of adult C. bezziana was also investigated using sticky traps baited with Swomlure-4. The baited traps were used twice a month. Unfortunately, only 19 adult flies were caught. From these results it is clear that C. bezziana is of no economic importance in the Middle Region of Saudi Arabia because of the long dry hot weather, which is unfavourable for larval development and adult survival. Further studies on the biology, distribution and economic importance of C. bezziana and other fly causing myiasis in Saudi Arabia are required. (author)
Al-Sadoon, M K; Kandeal, S A
The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased ([Formula: see text] = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May ([Formula: see text] = 209 ?m and 191 ?m, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes. PMID:25972758
Mohammed Tahir Hussein
Full Text Available Groundwater scarcity in arid regions may hinder development plans and cause many inconveniences for the population and authorities. Saudi Arabia has limited groundwater resources stored in the sedimentary sequence of the Arabian Shelf. Some of these resources were classified as major aquifers, secondary and minor aquifers, and some were considered as aquicludes. The Jubaila Limestone is one of the secondary aquifers of Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the groundwater resources of the Jubaila Limestone in Riyadh area, with emphasis on groundwater quality. Groundwater was found to occur in fractures and within solution openings of the Jubaila Limestone at depths which range between 19 and 210 m. The transmissivity value was 1.7 × 10–3 to 7.2 × 10–3 m2/s; the storage coefficient was of 1.3 × 10–4. The electrical conductivity for collected water samples ranged between 831 and 7670 µS/cm. The major ionic relationships were Na > Ca > Mg and SO4Cl > HCO3. The groundwater evolves from NaCl dominated at the southern end of the study area, into Ca, MgSO4 water in the north. The main chemical process responsible of this variation was found to be dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum. The groundwater was not found suitable for drinking purposes but can be used by livestock and for some agricultural purposes.
Al-Sadoon, M.K.; Kandeal, S.A.
The reproductive biology of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii, in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia was investigated over a period of one year. Study of reproductive cycle of male and female C. c. gasperettii revealed that the breeding season is relatively short (April and May). Thereafter females laid eggs by mid of July and hatching probably had taken place by the end of September. No activity was observed during winter, this may indicate just a single clutch per year. Relative testis weight to body weight was drastically increased (X¯ = 0.88%) during the peak of reproductive activity (May) where maximal expansion of seminiferous tubules was also attained during April and May (X¯ = 209 ?m and 191 ?m, respectively). Likewise, the ovarian activity was the highest during May where ovarian parameters were greater in terms of relative ovarian weight to body weight and ova diameter being 0.46% and 2.29 mm, respectively. Fat body weight was increased drastically just before the peak of reproductive activity then started to decline during June. It could be concluded that the harsh desert conditions and similar environments certainly affect reproductive activity of Saudi Arabian reptiles including snakes.
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
- Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network. It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks. It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006). Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events. To counter the information scarcity, we at Software Intelligence Security Research Center, Aalborg University Esbjerg Denmark designed and developed terrorism knowledge base by harvesting information from authenticated websites. In this paper we discuss data collection and analysis results on our on-going research of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks. In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network as a test bed.
Mir Sadat-Ali; Al-elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-shaikh, Iman H.; Al-turki, Haifa A.; Al-ali, Amein K.; Al-othman, Abdallah A.
Objectives: To compare the performance of 3 commonly used 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) assays among a sample of the Saudi population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January 2011 and December 2012 at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. After informed consent, blood samples for measurement of 25-OHD level was extracted from 200 adults. The vitamin D level of each individual were determined using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), ...
Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sau...
Al Awad Naif
Background and objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a serious complication of ERCP. Octreotide as prophylaxis against ERCP-induced hyperamylasemia has produced conflicting results. A review article has called for additional controlled studies. This work was undertaken to see the effect of octreotide in ERCP-induced enzyme changes in a predominantly Saudi population. Subjects &methods: The setting was a university teaching hospital, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The study was prospective, randomiz...
Al Rousan, Rafat M.; Noor Hashima binti Abdul Aziz; Anne Christopher
The widespread use of the mobile phone service has greatly contributed to the proliferation of text messaging, particularly among young people. The main objective of this study is to examine the communicative functions of the text messaging of young Saudi university students. Thurlow’s (2003) theoretical framework is used in this study. The study has a straightforward research question: What are the communicative functions of young Saudi students’ text messaging? 750 text messages were co...
Afify, Ahmed R; Khalid H. Zawawi
Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...
Am, Alzahem; Ht, Molen; Bj, Boer
Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental studen...
Objective was to generate consensus gene expression profiles of invasive breast tumors from a small cohort of Saudi females and to explore the possibility that they may be broadly conserved between Caucasian and Middle Eastern populations. This study was performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2005 to January 2007. Gene expression profiles were generated from 38 invasive breast tumors and 8 tumor adjacent tissues (TATs) using BD Atlas cDNA expression arrays containing 1176 genes. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by 2-dimensional unsupervised hierarchical clustering. The analysis identified 48 differentially expressed genes in tumors from which 25 are already reported by various western studies. Forty-three of these genes were also differentially expressed in TATs. The same data set has been able to distinguish between tumors and the TAT's, interestingly by using only 4 of the differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we were able to group the patients according to prognosis to an extent by hierarchical clustering. Our results indicate that expression profiles between Saudi females with breast cancer and the Caucasian population are conserved to some extent, and can be used to classify patients according to prognostic groups. We also suggest 3 differentially expressed genes (IGHG3, CDK3 and RPS9) in tumors may have a novel role in breast cancer.rs may have a novel role in breast cancer. In addition, the role of TATs is much more essential in breast cancer and needs to be explored thoroughly. (author)
AbuYassin, Bishr H.; Aljadhey, Hisham; Al-Sultan, Mohammed; Al-Rashed, Sulaiman; Adam, Mansour; Bates, David W.
Objective Inaccurate medication history at admission to hospitals leads to preventable adverse drug events, which in turn increase mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of pharmacists in identifying discrepancies in medication histories at admission to a tertiary referral hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods We performed a prospective observational study in a 1200 bed tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients were included if they were aged 16 years or older, were taking 5 or more medications, and were able to communicate or were accompanied by a caregiver who could communicate. Over 2 months in 2009, a pharmacist interviewed patients to ascertain all medications used prior to hospitalization, then all discrepancies were discussed with the admitting physician and unintended discrepancies were reported as errors. Results A pharmacist interviewed 60 patients who were taking 564 medications total. Of these patients, 65% were male, and their mean age was 62. Patients were taking an average of 9.4 medications. Twenty-two (37%) patients had at least one discrepancy, with the most common being omissions of medications (35%) and dosage errors (35%). The mean age for patients with discrepancies was 64.6 years, and without discrepancies, 60.8 years (P = 0.37). Conclusion Inaccurate medication history at admission to a hospital was common in Saudi Arabia. This has the potential to cause harm to patients if it remains undetected. Pharmacists could potentially play a major role in obtaining this medication history at the time of hospital admission. PMID:23960767
Bin Salih, Salih A.; Showlag, Mohammed S.; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed A.; Taha, Ahmad; Yousuf, Muhammad; Abdullah, Mohammed
Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8%) and 563 (78.1%) patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism) were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM) in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN) in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease) in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3%) patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01). Conclusions Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control PMID:21897916
AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A.; AlEssa, Dana S.; AlOthimeen, Nermeen; Al-Saud, Adwa S.
We aimed to explore perceptions, attitudes and practices toward research among medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among senior medical students at the King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse
Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem
Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was point...
Alzahem AM; Van der Molen HT; Alaujan AH; De Boer BJ
Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T Van der Molen,2 Arwa H Alaujan,3 Benjamin J De Boer4 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 3Dental Services, Central Region, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora...
The first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia is to establish a nuclear research facility. Selection of a research reactor type for such a case is not an easy task. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors are selected for this study. These are: the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The IFDA computer code, which based on the fuzzy set theory is applied here. The results show that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best
Ashraf E.M. Khater; Asma Al-Jaloud; A. El-Taher
The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...
Mahmood D. Al-Mendalawi
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking, and understand the attitude, practice, and knowledge among medical students. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2009 to May 2010. An anonymous, self-administered, Global Adult Tobacco Survey based questionnaire was completed by the students attending the main Medical College of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Of the 643 students in the study, 90 students (14%)...
Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani
Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the ac...
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection
Full Text Available During their studies, many students commit some form of academic dishonesty, such as cheating and plagiarism, often to obtain higher grades than they are capable of. The current widespread use of the Internet, mobile and wireless devices has made it easier for students to illegally access information and at the same time it has become difficult for academic institutions to control and discover such instances. Hence, it is essential that students become aware of the seriousness of these offences and be encouraged to avoid them. In this study, the attitude towards cheating and plagiarism among female students in the College of Computer and Information Sciences (CCIS at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was studied. We aim to highlight the most prevailing practices, the underlying reasons, the popular sources of illegal information and the conception of students towards the ethicalness of exercising such practices. The results of the study indicate that both cheating and plagiarism are common among our students, despite the fact that most of them believe that they are unethical and against religious values. After having analyzed the results, we tried to propose some recommendations that may help combat cheating and plagiarism among students in higher education.
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likel...
Emad Omar Elhendawy
This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25...
Saudi–Jordanian relations are a mismatch between broadly identical interests and differing means and capacities to realize them. Saudi Arabia has the potential to advance its interests, but is hamstrung by leadership structure, habit and political culture. Jordan has some advantages in terms of leadership structure, habit and political culture, but has only limited ability to affect its interests. Saudi Arabia’s historic sensitivities concerning its one-time Hashemite rival in Arabia a...
Different degrees of temperature and salinity have been studied to evaluate their effects on the seed germination of Calligonum comosum L Her grown in two different populations in Saudi Arabia. These two sites have been chosen in Saudi Arabian deserts, one in Nefoud El-Shakika south Onyza city on Najd plateau and the second west El-Dahnaa in the way between El-Riyadh and El-Damam cities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each of these locations were dominated by Calligonum comosum L Her beside other species such as Artemisia monosperma, Ephedra elata and Haloxylon ammodendron. These two deserts are completely deferent in their climatic and edaphic factors, since climatic diagrams and soil chemical analyses have been investigated. Twenty plants, with plenty of fruits, from each site have been chosen and collected from each site during April 2003. Germination was in two variables, the number of days to start germinating and the final percentage of germination. The most favorable temperature was 10/20 degree C at seed depth 0.5 cm. and irrigation system every 48 hours 50 ml. dist. water supply. Meanwhile, the seeds in the two locations prefer non-saline media, as the best results obtained at salt concentration 0.0. Whereas the germination start again in Nefoud El-Shakika seeds only at salty media by the concentration of 150 mlmol. Nacl. The results have been discussed according to both differences in climatic and soil characters. (author)
Al-Sharqi AM; Sherra KS; Al-Habeeb AA; Qureshi NA
Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...
Alfadhel M; Saleh N; Alenazi H; Baffoe-Bonnie H
Majid Alfadhel,1,3 Neam Saleh,2 Helal Alenazi,2 Henry Baffoe-Bonnie21Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, 2Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway....
Al Ghobain Mohammed O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the studies investigating the prevalence of asthma in various countries have focused on children below the age of 15 years or adults above the age of 18 years. There is limited knowledge concerning the prevalence of asthma in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. Our objective was to study the prevalence of asthma and associated symptoms in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in secondary (high schools in the city of Riyadh utilizing the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC questionnaire tool. Results Out of 3073 students (1504 boys and 1569 girls, the prevalence of lifetime wheeze, wheeze during the past 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma was 25.3%, 18.5% and 19.6%, respectively. The prevalence of exercise-induced wheezing and night coughing in the past 12 months was 20.2% and 25.7%, respectively. The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms in students with lifetime wheeze, physician-diagnosed asthma and exercise-induced wheeze was 61.1%, 59.9% and 57.4%, respectively. Rhinitis symptoms were significantly associated with lifetime wheeze (OR = 2.5, p value p p value Conclusions The prevalence of asthma and associated symptoms in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents in Saudi Arabia is high, although it is within range of reported prevalence rates from various parts of the world.
Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen
Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.
Kholoud T. Hilal
Full Text Available Since 9/11, Saudi Arabia has made significant attempts to change its public image because of its alleged association with global terrorism. Given its charitable interests in promoting education as a tool for peace within the Arab region, it has established the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP, considered to be the most heavily endowed overseas scholarship program ever offered by a nation-state. Since 2005, over 120,000 Saudi university students have been financed by this scholarship to pursue their university studies abroad. This investigation concerns student perceptions of Saudi and Emirati students studying abroad ten years after the tragedy of 9/11. It draws from 35 face-to-face interviews of international students in Australia about their perceptions and viewpoints of Saudi Arabia and the Arab World pre- and post 9/11. It centers on Saudi and Emirati students and suggests that education can be a tool for peace.
Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.
Abdullah, M.A.; H. S. Al-Salhi; M. A. Anani; L. Q. Melendrez
OBJECTIVES The importance of providing special health care services for adolescents has been recently stressed. In Saudi Arabia, adolescents have no special services. In this study, we describe our first 5 years experience of an adolescent endocrinology clinic in Security Forces Hospital. We believe it is the first clinic with this objective in the Kingdom. METHODS An adolescent endocrinology clinic was run by a team composed of pediatric endocrinologist, diabetic nurse educator, cli...
Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A.
Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (similar to 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titan...
It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity,...
Madani, K. A.; Khashoggi, R H; al-Nowaisser, A A; Nasrat, H A; M. H. Khalil
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely-lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study in which a pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. SETTING--The study was conducted in the Taif area between January and April of 1990. Seventy nine primary health care centres participated. PARTICIPANT...
Mamoun K. Kremli; Ahmed H. Alshahid; Khalid I. Khoshhal; Zamzam, Mohammed M.
OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to enlarge the knowledge of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to compare its presentation among Saudi population to known international figures. METHODS A prospective study of Saudi patients with DDH that presented to King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, KSA over 5 years starting September 1996. The information needed was obtained directly from one or both parents. RESULTS Six hundred Saudi...
Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author) into future vaccines. (author)
The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)
The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…
Abdullah Al Rubaish
We appraise comparatively and analytical data under Student Experience Survey (SES) to discuss the possible generalizability of related College level differentials in Saudi Arabia. For this, data collected from students of two academic programs namely Bachelor of Dental Surgery, College of Dentistry; and B.Sc. Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were considered. These data relate to experience of students halfway of respective academic program. The percent...
Nasser M. Al-Daghri
OBJECTIVES From the emergence of different definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS) we aim to determine the prevalence of such a condition among hypertensive Saudi population and to identify which definition can best assess the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia, coronary heart disease (CHD), and diabetes mellitus. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we studied 581 hypertensive Saudis, aged 21-70, at the King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, from June 2005 to December 2005 Each participant...
Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others
A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…
This study reports an experiment to investigate the feasibility of a passive heating roof-pond system on an existing room in the cold winter conditions of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Statistical analyses of data recorded during the winter season of 1996-97, are carried out to evaluate the thermal performance of the proposed system. Total effective heating and the heating power of the roof pond system are computed and analysed. Results indicate that the roof-pond system is capable of maintaining warm indoor air temperature conditions. The statistical formulae for this system are presented and used to estimate the indoor daily average air Dry Bulb Temperature (DBTAAvg-indoor) created by the system. Validation of the proposed formulae is also presented. (author)
Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlinine axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)
Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry
Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds – Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.Keywords: Pidgin, simplification, reduction, SPA, AFEs, SA.
Al Omar, S Y; Mansour, L; Alkhuriji, A F; Alwasel, S; Al-Qahtani, S
The non-classical class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G molecule was found to be predominately expressed in the extravillous cytotrophoblasts at the fetal-maternal interface during pregnancy. This molecule is critically important for successful implantation during human pregnancy. The polymorphic insertion-deletion (indel) 14-base pair (bp) site localized at the 3' untranslated region was associated with HLA-G mRNA stability and isoform alternative splicing patterns, and thus may influence HLA-G function during pregnancy. We studied the association between the 14-bp indel polymorphism (rs16375) at the 3' untranslated region with recurrent spontaneous abortions in a Saudi population living in Riyadh. A group of 64 women with 2-11 successive abortions were included in this study. The control group included 62 women without reported abortions and at least 2 pregnancies, all visiting the King Khaled Hospital in Riyadh. The 14-bp indel was genotyped in the case and control groups. The frequency of the genotype +14/+14 was slightly higher in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions, but no significant differences were observed in the distribution of alleles and genotypes. PMID:25729961
Majeed-Saidan, Muhammad Ali; Ammari, Amer N
BACKGROUND: The role of consanguinity in the etiology of structural birth defects outside of chromosomal and inherited disorders has always been debated. We studied the independent role of consanguinity on birth defects in Saudi women with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. METHODS: This case and control study was nested within a 3-year prospective cohort study to examine patterns of fetal and neonatal malformations in Saudi women at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh -Saudi Arabia. Consanguineous marriages were defined as marriages with first or second cousins (related); unions beyond second cousins (distant relatives) were considered unrelated for this study. RESULTS: During the 3-year study (July 2010 through June 2013), there were 28,646 total births; of these, we included 1,179 babies with major birth defects, and 1,262 babies as their controls. The consanguinity prevalence for all included women was 49.6%. The consanguinity among babies with major Birth Defects (BDs) was 54.5% and 45.2% for controls (P?0.0002). The prevalence of major birth defects was 41.1 per 1000 total births. Univariate analysis showed that consanguinity had a statistically significant contribution in babies born with genetic syndromes, isolated renal defects, and isolated other defects (P?0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that consanguinity was an independent risk factor for this high prevalence of birth defects in the study population (P?0.0002). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of major birth defects in the study population is higher than what is reported from European countries. Consanguinity is a significant independent risk factor for the high prevalence of birth defects. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In this paper, a multi-attribute decision approach is used to select the best nuclear research reactor alternative for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This approach is based on the fuzzy sets theory. The four alternatives which are analyzed are similar to University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The results show that the UWNR reactor is the best alternative, and the FNR is the second best
Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of<=-2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5SD were taken as osteopenic. One hundred fifteen patients (mean age 61.8+-0.75 years; range 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7+-0.35 (range 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteopoprosis among Saudi Arabain males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteoporosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures. (author)-related fractures. (author)
Ali H Hassan
Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the barriers that private medical services organizations have faced while trying to implement Total Quality Management (TQM. The study employed a quantitative methodology involving 220 questionnaires that were validated and structured and consisted of 21 items identifying barriers faced by organizations during the implementation of TQM. Using convenience sampling techniques, we distributed the questionnaires to targeted employees of a four private medical services organization in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All statistical analysis was conducted in SPSS version 18 using descriptive data, reliability, and factor analysis to explore the barriers to the implementation of TQM. This analysis showed the most significant barriers to implementation were frequent employee turnover, resistance to change among employees, and a lack of understanding about TQM and a shortage of motivation among management. The results provide new impetus for findings from previous studies and offer human resource practitioners, quality managers, and professionals an opportunity to develop plans that addresses the challenges they face when implementing TQM, as well as intervention strategies with which to minimize the impact these challenges.
Mohssen Mohammed Alabbadi
Full Text Available A mobile learning system, called MobiQiyas, for preparing Saudi Arabian students for one of the standardized tests, given by the National Center for Assessment in Higher Education (NCAHE, has been developed, using ready-made commercial products and tools. The learning material of MobiQiyas consists of practice questions with their answers, both provided by NCAHE, to be loaded by the students into their own mobile phones; after installation, the students can interact with MobiQiyas any number of times, as desired, without incurring any additional cost, other than the initial airtime cost for downloading. From total number of students taken the test, 20,000 students were randomly selected to use MobiQiyas and information was collected from them to measure their attitudes and participation of MobiQiyas. It was found that 36.1% of students had actually downloaded MobiQiyas successfully. Furthermore, a telephone survey was conducted, after the test period, on a class of 40 students in a secondary school in Riyadh, taking the same test, to measure their acceptance of MobiQiyas, using a 9-item questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale. The responses of the 40 students reflected high acceptance and satisfaction levels of MobiQiyas as an effective test prep tool.
This paper utilizes wavelets technique to calculate the Hurst exponent, the fractal dimensions and finally the climate predictability indices of daily average time series of air temperature, surface pressure, precipitation, relative humidity and wind speed for nine meteorological stations (Dhahran, Gizan, Jeddah, Yanbu, Abha, Hail, Guryat, Turaif and Riyadh) spread over different parts of Saudi Arabia. The meteorological data (daily means of temperature, pressure, relative humidity and wind speed and daily totals for precipitation) used in this study covers a period of 16 years starting from 1990 to 2005. The Hurst exponents, calculated using wavelet method, were used to find the fractal dimensions for each of the meteorological parameters. Finally, the predictability indices of temperature, pressure, precipitation and wind speed were used to establish the climate predictability indices. The climate predictability indices of precipitation and wind speed time series were found to be independent of the temperature and pressure. The predictability indices of individual parameters were found to have persistence behavior for entire data set while anti-persistence, in most of the cases, for winter and summer data sets.
Abbas N. Albarq
Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of theory of reasoned action (TRA in a context of internet banking intention using structural equation modeling (SEM, hence it is intended to test whether the theory is acceptable or not in a newly context among none western culture, thus, emic measures of etic latent constructs are required. The simplified theory is tested using survey data from 350 respondents. Out of these, only 304 questionnaires are found to be usable whilst the rest are omitted owing to the incomplete responses or due to statistical circumstances. Results suggest that Compared to the TRA model, our generating model can create a much better understanding of actual internet banking behavior among Saudi consumers in Riyadh. The results indicated that direct paths from attitude to actual behavior and when adding a path from SN to attitude would improve the predictive power of the model and convincing improvement in fit, more so than what had been established by the original TRA model.
Stroke after coronary by-pass grafting (CABG) is often disabling. The incidence of ischemic stroke may approach 3% to 5%. Several risk factors have been identified including previous history of stroke, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and postoperative atrial fibrillation. Objective was to determine the incidence and risk factors of neurological deficit after open heart surgery. Retrospective study was done during the period 1992-1995 at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. There were 350 patients who were subjected to (CABG), 10 patients (2.8%) found to suffer from cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following open-heart surgery. In 8 patients, the complaint lasted more than 24 hours (stroke), while 2 patients developed transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Five factors were found to be associated with increased risk of post cardiac surgery CVA. These factors are postoperative atrial fibrillation, carotid bruit, past history of heart failure, past history of CVA and smoking. The authors concluded that it is necessary to start a prospective study to verify the area of improvement with regards to technique, selection of patients and mode of perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) Arabia. (author)
Babiker, Amir M I; Al Jurayyan, Nasir A M; Al Jurayyan, Rushaid N A; Al Gadi, Iman; Drop, Stenvert L S
Diabetes insipidus is a rare but serious endocrine disorder. Paediatric patients were evaluated for polyuria at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over a decade (2000-13). Relevant clinical examination and/or a triad of high serum osmolality, hypernatremia and low urine osmolality due to increased urine output confirmed the diagnosis. Water deprivation test was required in some cases with non-classic presentations. Appropriate brain imaging was performed whenever central diabetes insipidus (CDI) was suspected. Twenty-eight patients, 15 males (53.6%) and 13 females (46.4%), aged 0-17 years (mean: 6 years) were included. The calculated period prevalence was 7 in 10,000. In our cohort, 60.7% (17 of 28 patients) had CDI, 21.4% (6 of 28) were diagnosed with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and 17.9% (5 of 30) had psychogenic polydipsia. CDI was due to variable aetiology. Though CDI was the commonest, NDI was not a rare encounter in our community, possibly because of high consanguineous marriages. PMID:25587001
A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the ...
Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Akram Al-Khadra; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Mohammed S. Nouh; Moheeb Abdullah; Omer Attas; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek
OBJECTIVES Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem worldwide, and it is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). New recommendations for the diagnosis of diabetes have changed the epidemiology of DM. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of DM among Saudis of both sexes, between the ages of 30-70-years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national project: Coronary Artery Disease in Saud...
Mohammed Moussa; Abdullah Alomran
OBJECTIVES To evaluate acetabular morphology and the prevalence of dysplasia in a Saudi population, and compare it with others in different geographical areas. METHODS The study took place at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2005 to April 2006. We recruited radiographs of 104 patients of 40-88 years of age. We digitally measured the center edge angle (CEA) of both hips. RESULTS Of the 208 hips examined, 3 hips (1.44%) had mild-to-modera...
Basfar, A. A.; Abdel Rehim, F.
The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD.
The goal of this research was to establish the applicability of the electron beam treatment process for treating wastewater intended for reuse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of gamma irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater, and the improvement of the water quality by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples of effluent, before and after chlorination, and sludge were obtained from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant. The studies were conducted using a laboratory scale 60Co gamma source. The improvement in quality of the irradiated samples was demonstrated by the reduction in bacteria, and the reduction in the BOD, COD and TOC. Radiation of the wastewater provided adequate disinfection while at the same time increasing the water quality. This treatment could lead to additional opportunities for the reuse of this valuable resource. Limited studies, conducted on the anaerobically digested secondary biosolids, showed an improvement in bacterial content and no change in COD
Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani
This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearso...
Pazheri, F. R.
The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...
Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Nasser A. Alhamdan; Abduelelah I. Alkotobi; Osman M. Nour; Mohamed A. Farag
OBJECTIVES To estimate levels and trends, gender differentials, effect of modes of living, regional differentials, and the effect of parental educational on infant and child mortality. METHODS A nationwide stratified random sample was used to estimate levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia. The study was executed during the period February 2006 to June 2006 and covered all the 20 health regions of Saudi Arabia. The randomly selected sample was ...
Khalid M. Al-Harbi
OBJECTIVES To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kaw...
The Arab Spring has had little visible impact on Saudi Arabia, except in the Eastern Province, where relatively large Shia protests were met with deadly repression. However, it would be a mistake to think that the revolutionary events taking place in the Arab world did not spur debate in the remaining segments of Saudi society. Sunni Islamists were at the forefront of the debate, as they saw ‘comrades’ of the same ideological orientation participating in revolutions and sei...
Sherein A. Shalaby; Khaild M. Al-Harbi; Shereen A. El-Tarhouny
OBJECTIVES To examine the serum retinol levels of wheezing children, and to investigate the relation as an biochemical indicator of vitamin A status in wheezing children between serum levels of retinol and severity of wheezing. METHODS A prospective cohort study including 400 wheezing Saudi children aged 3-36 months, who were treated in the pediatrics ward of Ohoud Public Hospital in Al-Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2009 and August 2010. Patients were subdivided ac...
Al-Mubarak Luluah; Al-Mohanna Hind; Al-Issa Ahmed; Jabak Monzer; Mulekar Sanjeev
Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sect...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…
Fahad M. Alsultan
Full Text Available When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.
Fahad M. Alsultan
When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.
Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad
Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…
Saeed J. Aburizaizah
Full Text Available The current English programme provided to foundation year students at King Abdulaziz University is failing to equip learners with the desired level of English language. This paper assesses the teaching materials and proposes a teaching framework to improve teachers’ lesson delivery. The framework was designed to overcome some of the shortfalls in the mandatory course book series (Headway Plus. The framework adopted Kumaravadivelu’s (2010 principles for lesson delivery: diagnosis, treatment and assessment, and advocates the development of cognitive ability, encourages collaborative learning, problem solving, emphasizes process rather than product, communication skills, and self-inquiry. Fifteen English teachers participated in a pilot study by implementing the new lesson delivery framework over a 14-week course. A peer observation strategy was used to help the teachers reflect on their teaching methods and improve the quality of their teaching. Also, during the last two weeks of the course the head of the English unit and an external observer conducted observations to monitor and assess teachers’ development. The findings of the study revealed the new framework helped teachers improve their lesson delivery and encouraged them to use new teaching techniques such as problem solving and a student-centred approach. However, the results also indicated there was a need for teacher training courses to help teachers understand the principles behind the different teaching methodology. In addition, a cultural factor was found to be influential, as some teachers were reserved about criticizing other teachers’ performance.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)
Al Shanafey Saud
Full Text Available Background: The satisfaction of surgical residents with their training programs plays an important role in dictating its output. This survey was conducted to explore the satisfaction of surgical residents with their training programs in the Riyadh area. Methods: A survey questionnaire was distributed in four major hospitals to explore the view of surgical residents regarding their training programs. Frequency tables were generated for each question in the survey. Results: About 78 survey forms were distributed and 52 were retrieved (67%. About 45% of residents had a comprehensive orientation on admission to the program, but only 20% felt it was helpful. Only 40% of residents felt that their trainers were committed to training and that the consultants who were trained abroad were more committed than those trained locally (62% vs 36%, P =.01. Only 15% felt the residents themselves had enough bedside teaching or operative experience. Seventy-eight percent of the residents felt that current training does not meet their expectations. However, 85% felt that training abroad was better than local training, and 60% felt it should be mandatory. While 90% felt that training programs should be unified nationally and controlled by one organization, only 6% felt that the current governing body was capable of monitoring the training. Moreover, only 28% felt that current reviews of programs by the governing body are effective. Conclusions: These results show that surgical residents are generally dissatisfied with current training programs. The study suggests that there are significant weaknesses in the current programs and the governing body may be ineffective in monitoring the programs. We feel that a national review of surgical training programs is warranted in view of these results.
O.Z., Al-Abdin; D.M., Rabah; G., Badr; A., Kotb; A., Aprikian.
Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Ser [...] um prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P
AlHammad NS; Salama FS
Nouf S AlHammad1, Fouad S Salama21Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics Department, King Saud University College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Growth and Development Department, College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NEBackground: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an infant oral health care educational intervention on the knowledge of female dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh city.Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight studen...
Abdallah Ahmad Baniabdelrahman; Yousif Al-shumaimeri
This study investigated the strategies which first-year Saudi university EFL students used to derive the meaning of unfamiliar words while reading English texts. Using cluster sampling method, participants chosen to be included in the study consisted of six male and six female classes (120 male and 120 female students) of the preparatory year deanship students at King Saud University, 2009-2010. Following the administration of a vocabulary test as the instrument, descriptive statistics and AN...
Salama, Hediat M.H.; M. M. Al-Rumaih; Al-Dosary, M.A.
Cement factory emissions into air cause serious air pollution and affect the plant and animal life in the environment. Herein, we report the effects of cement industry emissions (O3, SO2 and NO2) in air, as pollutants, at Riyadh City on Datura innoxia Mill. plant. Morphological characters including plant height, leaves area and number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root systems of D. innoxia showed a significant reduction from their normal control plants as a response to exposure to pollu...
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA
Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 am...
Emad Omar Elhendawy
Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.
Ahmad A. Abu-Musa
Full Text Available Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT has become one of the most important guidelines for information technology governance (ITG, which provides organizations with a useful tool to start evaluating their own ITG systems. COBIT introduces an ITG framework and supporting toolset that allows IT managers to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The objective of this study is to investigate the formality, auditing, responsibility and accountability of implementing COBIT processes for ITG in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve these objectives. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Saudi organizations in a selected number of Saudi cities. One hundred and twenty seven valid questionnaires – representing a 25.4 percent response rate –were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. While the results of the study reveal that the majority of respondents reported that implementing ITG COBIT processes and domains is the responsibility of IT departments in Saudi organizations, most of the respondents reported that the COBIT processes and domains are neither audited nor formally conducted in their organizations. From a practical standpoint, managers and practitioners alike stand to gain from the findings of this study. The study provides useful information for senior management, IT managers, accountants, auditors, and academics to understand the implementation phase and the impact ofCOBIT on ITG in Saudi organizations.
Objective Several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been linked to cardiac death. The mechanism that is responsible for this adverse effect appears to be ischemic insult; however, another possible mechanism involves hyperkalemia. The objective of the present study was to determine the feasibility of conducting pharmacoepidemiological studies in Saudi Arabia using refill prescription data to investigate the association between NSAIDs and increased serum potassium concentrations. Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients from an academic medical center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The patients who were recently prescribed NSAIDs were compared to a control group of paracetamol users, with respect to the drugs’ effects on serum potassium concentrations. The covariates that affected the potassium concentration or the use of NSAIDs were controlled for in the analysis. The studied outcome was the first serum potassium concentration of more than 5 mEq/L. Results A total of 184 patients were prescribed NSAIDs (n = 101) or paracetamol (n = 83) and met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the control group, the patients who received NSAIDs were more likely to be women, were less likely to use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and were more likely to have lower baseline serum creatinine concentrations. The other baseline characteristics were similar between the patients in the NSAID group and the patients who received paracetamol. Compared to the patients who were prescribed paracetamol, those who were prescribed NSAIDs did not have an increased risk of hyperkalemia (odds ratio, 1.1, 95% confidence interval, 0.17–6.7, P = 0.95). Conclusion In the present, small feasibility study, no increase in the risk of hyperkalemia was associated with NSAIDs compared to paracetamol. The present study was exploratory and included only a small number of patients; therefore, this study may not be sufficiently powered to detect small differences between the groups. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to investigate the association between NSAIDs and hyperkalemia. PMID:23960778
Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani
Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.
Shakeel A. Faiz; Abdulaziz A. Al-Meshari; Bengt G. Sporrong
OBJECTIVES To review all cases of valvular heart disease during pregnancy in a regional Saudi-Arabian population between 1993-1997, determine its incidence, contributing factors and its effect on the outcome of pregnancy. METHODS A retrospective study of 33,200 cases between 1993-1997 performed over a period of 5 years in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Most patients were Saudi nationals (83.4%). Evidenc...
Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likely to respond to the standard interferon therapy though recent studies using pegylated interferon demonstrated promising results. Liver transplantation for patients with end stage liver disease was started in 1994 but the cases currently done are still less than that required
F. R. Pazheri
Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.
Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.
Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro
Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.
AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlMutairi, Alanoud; Al Eissa, Majid; Naeem, Mohammed; Almuneef, Maha
Adolescence is known to be a time of exploration and initiation of risky behaviors. Much attention has been given to risk behaviors such as smoking, violence, and sexual promiscuity; other serious behaviors such as self-strangulation or the choking game, which is carried out by adolescents in response to peer pressures or to gain a transient sense of euphoria, have received little attention, with the available literature coming from the developed world. This is the first report of cases of non-suicidal self-strangulation from the Arab World. In this case series, we report 5 cases of non-suicidal self-strangulation that presented to the Emergency Department of a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during 2010-2012. All of the 5 cases were young male adolescents aged 10-13 years. This activity resulted in the death of 2 boys; one boy sustained hypoxic ischemic insult to the brain with clinical deficits; and the remaining 2 were fortunate to be discharged home in healthy condition. None of the cases had underlying mental health problems, and multidisciplinary involvement ruled out suicide and homicide activities. Non-suicidal self-strangulation is a fatal behavior that adolescents engage in. Increased efforts are needed to address this serious and preventable public health issue. Awareness and education of adolescents and their parents is crucial. Awareness of healthcare providers is also necessary in order to avoid misdiagnosis of such cases. PMID:25623195
Objective was the evaluation of asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The ACT was used to assess asthma control among patients with bronchial asthma visiting pulmonary clinics in 5 major tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each hospital had target of 300 patients to recruit over the period of the study from 1st September to 30th November 2006. The total number of patients studied was 1060 patients. Males constituted 442 (42%) and the females constituted 618 (58%), the median age was 38.56 years range 15-75. One-third of the patients had no formal education. The ACT score revealed uncontrolled asthma in 677 (64%), well controlled asthma in 328 (31%) and complete controlled in 55 (5%). There were no significant correlation between the age below 40 and above 40 years and level of asthma control p=0.12. However, the younger age group less than 20 had better control of asthma in comparison with older patients p=0.0001. There was significant correlation between level of asthma control and gender, males 44% had better asthma control than females (30%, p=0.0001). Control of bronchial asthma is still major concern in our population. Further studies are needed to explore the factors leading to poor asthma control. (author)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with proton (/sup 1/H) and carbon 13 (/sup 13/C) has been used to determine the structural characteristics of asphaltenes from four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils. These characteristics are important to refiners that have deep conversion processes to determine yields from the residual fractions of the Saudi crudes, and to determine the operating parameters of the process units. The spectra obtained give some structural similarities among the crude oils, as well as some differences. Values of various structural parameters have been tabulated from the spectra
Ashraf E.M. Khater
Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.
To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).
Attar, Suzan M.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients from Saudi Arabia with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate its relationship with C-reactive protein level and disease activity. Methods: A cross-sectional 3-year study was conducted on RA patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Lipid profiles were determined following 12-hour overnight fasting, and the association of lipid profiles with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and disease activity was determined. Results: This study involved a total of 180 RA patients (mean age: 40.49±12.19 years). These subjects displayed a high prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (55.1%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (51.2%). Notably, we detected a significant association between increased total cholesterol and high CRP levels (p=0.002). Moreover, we observed a positive correlation between total cholesterol and disease activity, as measured using the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score index (r=0.23, p=0.036). Conclusions: Hyperlipidemia is common among RA patients and is significantly associated with CRP levels and disease activity. Our findings emphasize the need to raise awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the development of hyperlipidemia when RA is active. PMID:25987110
Salman Y. Guraya; Omer E. Eltinay
OBJECTIVES To report the pattern, subsite distribution and histological features of colorectal cancer in a University Hospital in Riyadh. METHODS The study was carried out in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the medical records of patients diagnosed to have colorectal carcinoma were retrieved spanning a 5-year period from 1999 through 2004. The demographic data, primary location and extent of the lesion, and various pathologic characteristics we...
Al-Jarallah, Abdullah S.; Lardhi, Amer A; Amina A. Hassan
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study is to determine the parental knowledge of bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis (BEP). METHODS Parents of 205 patients attending the Pediatric Cardiology Clinics at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, King Fahad University Hospital, Al-Khobar and Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from July 1999 to June 2000, were interviewed by a standard questionnaire pertaining to their knowledge of their child's cardiac disease, m...
CERN-HI-0804043 05: from left to right 1st row Mrs. Ibtesam Badhrees, ATLAS Collaboration user Mr. Nadhmi Al-Nassr, Interim President, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST H.E. Dr. Khaled S. Al-Sultan, Rector, King Fahd University for Petroleum and Minerals Mr. Abdallah S. Jum’ah, President and Chief Executive Officer, Saudi Aramco H.E. Dr. Ibrahim A. Al-Assaf, Minister of Finance H.E. Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Tuwaijri, Chairman of Capital Markets Authority H.E. Dr. Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel, President, King Abdul Aziz City for Science & Technology KACST; 2nd row Mr. Salim S. Al-Aydh, Senior Vice President – Engineering & Project Management, Saudi Aramco Mr. Khalid A. Al-Falih, Executive Vice President – Operations, Saudi Aramco Mr. A. Othman, Saudi Aramco Mr. Peter Woicke, Member of the Saudi Aramco Board of Directors Mr. Abdulaziz F. Al-Khayyal, Senior Vice President – Industrial Relations, Saudi Aramco Mr. James W. Kinnear, Retired President & Chief Executive Office...
Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.
Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study perio...
Al Gelban Khalid
Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical...
To investigate cerebral venous thrombosis (CVTR) clinical presentations, risk factors, and response to treatment in Saudi Arabia. Retrospective analysis of the King Farad Medical City, Riyadh, acute stroke database from April 2005 through February 2008 revealed 22 patients with CVTR. Hyper coagulable work-up and neuroimaging were performed. Sixteen patients were female (72.7%), and the median age was 35 years. Clinical presentations included: headache (77.3%), seizures (54.5%), focal neurological signs (54.5%), and decreased level of consciousness (50%). Over two-thirds (n=11; 69%) of female patients had a history of oral contraceptive use, which was the most common risk factor. Protein S deficiency (n=3), anti phospholipid antibody syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=1), rhinocerebral mucormycosis (n=1), leukemia (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=1), sepsis (n=1), and unknown (n=6) were causes. Affected areas included superior sagittal (n=13), transverse (n=16), sigmoid (n=14), straight (n=6), and cavernous sinus (n=1); internal cerebral vein (n=2); vein of Galen (n=3); cortical veins (n=10); and internal jugular vein (n=12). Two patients had quadriparesis, and 2 patients died. The remainder (n=18, 81.8%) improved. Bilateral hemorrhagic presentation or venous infarction, deep venous system thrombosis, and underlying malignancy had less favorable results. Presentations in our series were similar to those in other reports, although altered consci in other reports, although altered consciousness and seizures were more common. Cortical vein involvement was also higher than commonly reported. Oral contraceptive use was a primary risk factor in female patients. Outcomes were favorable in 81.8% of patients. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate serological prevalence and titers of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in ewes following waves of abortion and stillbirths in a commercial flock in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum samples from 168 aborted ewes and 52 breeding rams, were tested for toxoplasmosis using an indirect enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams were also tested, which served as controls. 149 (88.7% ewes and 42 (80.8% breeding rams from the flock where abortions and stillbirths occurred were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. 155 ewes (92.3% and 44 rams (84.6%, including all of the ELISA positive cases, were also positive by indirect haemagglutination test (IHA. More than 80% of the ELISA positive ewes had O.D. exceeding 100% and nearly 25% of them had O.D. of ?150%. The IHA results, on the other hand, indicated that more than 75% of the seropositive ewes had antibody titers ?1:1024, including 58 (37.4% ewes with IHA titer ranging between 1:4096-1:8192 Pyrexia, depression and vaginal discharge were recorded in some ewes shortly prior to abortion. Post-mortem examination of 5 aborted fetuses revealed blood-stained fluid in the abdominal and thoracic cavities and small inflammatory and necrotic foci in the brain, liver and lungs while the placenta was reddish and friable, and its cotyledons were speckled with small whitish foci of necrosis and mineralization. T. gondii tachyzoites were demonstrated in placental sections of two ewes. By contrast, only 7 (9.9% out of 71 randomly sampled sheep from an abortion-free flock (60 ewes and 11 rams, were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA and 6 (8.5% by indirect haemagglutination (IHA test and most of these had significantly lower titers compared to the flock where abortions and stillbirths were recorded. These results constitute the first detailed serological study of ovine toxoplasmosis in Saudi Arabia and strongly implicate toxoplasmosis as the cause of the abortions and stillbirths in these sheep.
Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientifiawareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)
This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness. Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
Alwadie, Adnan D.
As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…
Kaki, Abdullah M.
OBJECTIVES To assess the final year medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and attitude toward cancer pain, and the need for a formal pain curriculum in medical schools. METHODS An epidemiological study was conducted from May 2008 to October 2009 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management. A survey in the form of self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among them. ...
The subject-matter is intriguing as Saudi Arabia is perceived as the incarnation of Islam. In fact, it has no constitution since the Quran is regarded as its constitution. Moreover, Islam was instrumental in its state building. But Dr. Lacroix is, after his field work, well-placed to discuss the issue. His talk is based on his Ph.D from Paris, his French book and its English edition that is to be published soon by Harvard University Press.
Hamad, Mona M.
This study investigated factors negatively affect English language speaking skills in Saudi colleges for girls in the South in terms of: a) Instructors. b) Students. c) Curriculum and textbook. d) English Language teaching methods and exercises. e) Teaching and learning environment. To collect data for the study, a questionnaire papers were distributed to 150 students studying at Mhayeal and Almajardah colleges of King Khalid University (KKU) at English languages department, and 10 female ins...
Saad A. Alamri; Mahmoud F. Moustafa
OBJECTIVES To examine the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of fresh fruits of Solanum incanum L., fresh leaves of Ricinus communis L. and Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum L., and to determine and quantify the phenol compounds of the investigated plant parts. METHODS This study was carried out at the Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from July 2011 to September 2011. Nine clinical strains of bacteria and 3 ethanol extracts o...
Abdullah, Layla S.; Bondagji, Nabeel S.
OBJECTIVES To identify the different histopathological types of ovarian neoplasms and their age distribution. METHODS This is a retrospective study were ovarian neoplasms received by the Pathology Department of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1995 and December 2010 were reviewed and their frequencies in different age groups were calculated. RESULTS Out of 618 ovarian specimens studied, 382 (61.8%) were ovarian neoplasms while 38.2% were non-neopl...
Bondagji, Nabeel S.
OBJECTIVES To determine the distribution of ABO blood group and rhesus (RH) factor among pregnant women, to estimate the prevalence of Rh alloimmunization, and report the perinatal outcome of all cases of Rh alloimmunization at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital (KAUH). METHODS This is a retrospective study of pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 2004 and December 2009. Records of patient diagnosed as Rh negative blood group we...
Koshak Emad A
Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization) to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitizati...
Full Text Available Mohammed Alshahrani, Bander Dhafery, Mohammed Al Mulhim, Faisal Alkhadra, Doaa Albagshi, Noor BukhamsinKing Fahad Hospital of the University, Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: This study explores the most influential factors affecting Saudi medical students and interns' choice of specialty at the University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during the period from June 1 to June 14, 2013. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to test the association between participants' choices and the motivational factors that led to their choice of specialty.Results: One-hundred sixty-eight (44.7% participants chose lifestyle as their most influential factor for the choice of their specialty. Significantly more medical interns considered lifestyle as an important factor compared to medical students (P=0.020. Internal medicine was the preferred specialty for 56 participants (14.77% followed by family medicine for 35 participants (9.2%. Thirty-four participants (8.97% chose general surgery, and 27 participants (7.1% chose both pediatrics and emergency medicine. Sex influences indicated that men preferred pediatrics and emergency medicine (P=0.033 and P=0.0006, respectively, while women preferred family medicine practice (P=0.034.Conclusion: Saudi medical students and interns at the University of Dammam were influenced mostly by lifestyle when they considered their future specialty. Internal medicine, family medicine, general surgery, pediatrics, and emergency medicine were the preferred specialties. Keywords: medical students, interns, specialty preference, motivational factors, lifestyle
Al-mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.; Khan, Nauman Z.
Objectives: To identify the attributes of an effective medical teacher that students value the most. Methods: A quantitative survey was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between April and May 2012, using a pretested self-administered questionnaire distributed to all students. It captured their opinions on the qualities and attributes of good teachers. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were entered and analyzed us...
The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)
Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.
Ma, Zolaly; Mi, Hanafi; Shawky N; el-Harbi K; Am, Mohamadin
Mohammed Adnan Zolaly1, Manal Ibrahim Hanafi2,3, Nashaat Shawky4, Khalid el-Harbi1, Ahmed M Mohamadin5,61Pediatric Department, 2Family and Community Medicine Department, Medical College, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia; 3Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 4Ophthalmology Department, Medical College, 5Chemistry for Health Sciences Department, Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munaww...
To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital. Complex symptomatology, varied biochemical affections and different surgical therapeutic modalities are discussed. The medical records of all the patients who underwent consecutive appendectomies at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered. During the study period 1547 appendectomies were performed and out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of appendix. There were 4 male and 5 female patients, age range 17-51 years (29.8 years). Seven subjects had a clinical evidence of appendicitis while 2 presented with chronic abdominal pain. there were 6 open and 3 laparoscopic appendectomies. Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, two at the midportion and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (rang 4-19 mm). One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later. All patients remained disease free during a mean follow-up of 7 years (range, 4-10 years). Carcinoid tumors of the appen4-10 years). Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic. Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristic and dissemination. Despite an excellent prognosis, all reported patients should be followed up with urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and abdominal ultrasonography. (author)
Yahya Al Alhareth
Saudi government has made significant efforts and heavily invested in its e-learning innovation in order to offer students alternative opportunity to complete their higher education. However despite all the efforts being made, Saudi Arabia is still in the early stage of its e-learning development and faces many challenges especially for female’s students from their ability to take the benefit of such technology. Therefore, understanding the ability of Saudi women to access and use e-learnin...
Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; Al-jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-hajjaj, Mohamed S.
The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome...
Bawakid, Khalid O.; Al-raddadi, Rajaa M.; Sabban, Sameer S.; Alturky, Khalid A.; Mohamed, Mahmoud S.
OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the Saudi adult population and to identify the association of CVI with possible risk factors. METHODS Sixteen Primary Health Care (PHC) centers have been randomly selected in various districts of 3 major cities of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makkah and Dammam during the year 2001. Every Saudi patient, of both sexes and aged >18 years, visiting the selected PHC centres for any reason, was ...
Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perc...
Presently many dairy products are being used in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring and isolation of bacterial activity is of highly significance to sustainable health problems and issues. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from some traditional Saudi food. A total of 50 samples from dairy products, commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, were screened for presence of natural LAB. The Cell-free Supernatants (CFS) of two LAB isolates exhibited anti...
Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.
Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati
Mutair, Abbas Saleh Al; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Clerehan, Rosemary
This article aims to increase an awareness of caring for Saudi families by non-Saudi nurses to improve their understanding of culturally competent care from a Saudi perspective. Healthcare providers have a duty of a care to deliver holistic and culturally specific health care to their patients. As a consequence of 'duty of care' obligations, healthcare providers must facilitate culturally congruent care for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. For the Saudi family considerable cultural clashes may arise when Saudi patients are hospitalized and receive care from healthcare professionals who do not understand Islamic principles and Saudi cultural beliefs and values. The healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia is a unique multicultural workforce that is mix of Saudi and significant other nationalities. Saudi nurses for example represent only 36.3% of the workforce in the different health sectors. Whilst the different ethnic and cultural background expatriate nurses represent 63.7% (Ministry of Health, 2010). This article also could increase the awareness of healthcare professionals caring for Arab and Muslims patients in another context in the world. PMID:24787260
The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)
Rafat M. Al Rousan
Full Text Available The widespread use of the mobile phone service has greatly contributed to the proliferation of text messaging, particularly among young people. The main objective of this study is to examine the communicative functions of the text messaging of young Saudi university students. Thurlow’s (2003 theoretical framework is used in this study. The study has a straightforward research question: What are the communicative functions of young Saudi students’ text messaging? 750 text messages were collected from the participants. The data collected were coded based on their communicative functions. Five main categories of communicative functions emerged from the data, namely friendship maintenance, socialization, school collaboration, coordination, and exchange of information. The findings of the present study corroborate previous findings about communicative functions in text messaging.
Following Chernobyl reactor accident, King Abdulaziz University (KAU) was assigned the responsibility of monitoring food imports reaching the western ports of Saudi Arabia. This includes the three western seaports of Jeddah, Yanbu and Jizan and the airport of Jeddah. Through the seaport of Jeddah, the largest in Saudi Arabia, essentially all kinds of foodstuffs are entering. Chilled meat, fresh vegetables and other items that can not be stored for long time are coming through Jeddah airport, while Jizan and Yanbu handle mainly barley and animal feed. The monitoring program started in the middle of June. This is the time when pilgrimage season starts and about one million persons come from different parts of the world to the city of Mecca. Food imports drastically increases during this time and large number of live sheep and cows are imported for religious sacrifice
Selim, Heyla A; Long, Karen M; Vignoles, Vivian L
This study explores identity motives for using a microblogging site (Twitter) among Internet users in Saudi Arabia and the UK. The former boasts the world's highest per capita use of Twitter, which provides a forum in which users have more opportunity for self-expression than they do in the offline world, and is not subject to the heavy censorship which the Saudi government imposes on other Internet content . Approximately 5000 tweets from the period April-May 2013 were coded and analyzed, using Motivated Identity Construction Theory as a conceptual framework . This theory proposes six universal identity motives of meaning, belonging, continuity, distinctiveness, efficacy, and self-esteem. We consider these motives in turn, and examine their relative prominence in an online context. Support was found for all six universal motives, but the relative prominence of motives and the ways in which they were pursued appeared to depend on the affordances of both the OSN in question, Twitter and the cultural context in which the user was posting: Saudi users appeared to seek distinctiveness, whereas for British users, belonging was a more salient motive. Themes related to meaning, efficacy, and self-esteem were detected frequently, whereas themes related to continuity were less apparent. PMID:24875705
On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)
This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island
Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad
Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge...
M. A. El-Hazmi; al-Swailem, A R; Warsy, A S; al-Swailem, A M; Sulaimani, R; A. A. Al-Meshari
This study was conducted on 3212 Saudi families to investigate the prevalence of consanguineous marriages. The families were interviewed and the information on the relationship between the husband and wife was obtained. The overall rate of consanguinity shows that 57.7% of the families screened were consanguineous. The most frequent were first cousin marriages (28.4%) followed by distant relative marriages (15.2%) and second cousin marriages (14.6%). The families were grouped according to the...
Elsammak, M Y; Al-Wosaibi, A A; Al-Howeish, A; Alsaeed, J
Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with various chronic diseases especially rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Adequate vitamin D intake is of paramount importance to protect against bone metabolic diseases and prevent the occurrence of complications (e. g., fracture and bone pains). This study aimed at the evaluation of vitamin D levels in a cohort of healthy Saudi Arabs. The comprised 139 healthy subjects coming for regular blood donation. Participants had full clinical examination and evaluation of their calcium and vitamin D intake and the degree of exposure to sunlight. Serum 25-OH vitamin D was determined using Liasion chemiluminescent immunoassay and serum parathormone levels were determined using the Architect 2,000 immunochemiluminescent assay. Our results showed increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs (both males and females) in the studied group of subjects. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not correlate with serum vitamin D level in either male or female groups (pimportance for screening for vitamin D deficiency (irrespective of PTH level). We hypothesize that the reported vitamin D deficiency in the studied group of Saudi Arabs may reflect a possible inadequacy of the current level of vitamin D fortification of food products. We suggest that higher level of fortification of food products with vitamin D may be needed to compensate for the reduced skin vitamin D synthesis due to poor exposure to sunlight and to reverse this state of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabs. PMID:20213587
Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS) is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD) encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in ...
Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Ali M. Al-Barrak
OBJECTIVES To present the available susceptibility data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS In a meta-analysis, studies published between 1966 and 2001 were included. Publication sites include Medline-indexed and non-indexed. Numbers of grown and resistant isolates were tabulated for first-line anti-tuberculosis agents. RESULTS Twelve studies met the pre-set criteria. Data o...
Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend a...
Samira M. Fallatah; Adekunle J. Oduloju; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle
OBJECTIVES Analysis of the clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment given and complications seen in brucellosis patients at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS We retrieved and reviewed the record charts of all patients from January 1995 to December 2001 with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis whose brucella agglutination titre was 1:160 or greater from the Medical Records Department of Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital...
Madani Tariq A
Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (...
Al-Mohaya Maha; Darwazeh Azmi; Bin-Salih Salih; Al-Khudair Waleed
Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP) and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS), we studied 58 RTP and 52 HC...
Abdellatif Esawy A. Abdou
The main objective of this study is to investigate temperature trend and distribution over 29 years period (1985 to 2013) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for all Muslims. Monthly mean, maximum, and minimum temperature levels and their trends are investigated using Regression analysis and Theil-Sen nonparametric test. Also, trends in deviations from the reference period (1985-2013) are analyzed. The results showed that the number of hot days and nights increase...
Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge
In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understand...
Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak
Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a cult...
Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah
The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.
Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The inclusion of detailed basic science courses in medical school curricula has been a concern of students. The main objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of medical students towards basic sciences courses taught to them in the preclinical years and the applicability of these courses to current clinical practice. Design and Setting : A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2008-2009 among medical students in their clinical years at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods : Thirty percent of all students (n=314 were randomly selected to receive a questionnaire designed to evaluate their opinions about course load, ability to recall information, value of practical sessions, availability of references and course guidelines, and the applicability of individual courses to clinical practice. Results : Students identified anatomy and pathology as the courses most overloaded with content (76% and 70%, respectively. Half of the students felt they retained the most knowledge of physiology (50%, while less than a quarter of students (19% felt they retained the most information from biochemistry coursework. The role of practical sessions in facilitating theoretical understanding was more evident in anatomy (69%. Physiology was perceived as the subject with the highest applicability to clinical practice (66%, while pathology (29% was identified as the subject with the least practical application. Students became increasingly negative in their opinions about basic science courses as they progressed through their medical education. Conclusion : Current attitudes of medical students towards their basic science courses indicate a need to reform the curricula so as to maximize the benefit of these courses.
Malik, G M; Seidi, O; El-Taher, A; Mohammed, A S
Three hundred and thirty-four cases of confirmed malaria seen in the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-two of these (84.4%) were Saudis and the majority (72.2%) were living in the lowlands of Tihama. Transmission was found to occur throughout the year, with peaks following the rainy season and in the summer. In Saudis, falciparum malaria is more common than vivax (97.2% vs. 2.8%), while vivax malaria is more commonly seen in expatriates (46.2%). Poor response of falciparum malaria to chloroquine was more prevalent in expatriates than in Saudis (46.4% vs. 23%). Most of the expatriates gave a history of recent travel to countries known to be endemic with resistant malaria. The possibility of the emergence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia was discussed. PMID:17341908
Gazzaz, Lamya Asaad
Background: Saudi Arabia has always been dependent on non-Saudi nurses. However, the recruitment of these nurses has been challenged by the consequences of the first Gulf War of 1991 and the political unrest in the Middle East ever since. Moreover, the annual supply of Saudi nursing graduates has been insufficient in meeting the demands of the expanding healthcare services. Indeed, Saudi nurses make less than 30% of the total nursing workforce Kingdom wide. The Saudi literature links the shor...
Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.
Abouzeid, Mohammad S.; Zumla, Alimuddin I.; Felemban, Shaza; Alotaibi, Badriah; O’Grady, Justin; Memish, Ziad A.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. Methods A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. Results There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P?=?Tabuk) showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15–24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P?=?<0.05). The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. Conclusions Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries. PMID:22745765
Maghrabi, A. H.
Sky temperatures that were estimated from a single-channel IR detector over Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were analyzed from June 2008 to May 2011. The data were divided into three main categories: clear sky, cloudy sky, and dusty conditions. The observation and the research results were as follows. During periods of clear-sky conditions, it was found that the sky temperatures depend mainly on the atmospheric water content, the screen level temperature, and the suspended aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Under cloudy conditions, the sky temperature ranges between -37°C and 5°C. The mean sky temperatures in this case are higher than those of the clear-sky conditions by approximately 11°C to 18°C. The radiative properties of cloudy skies depend on the cloud characteristics and the intervening atmosphere between the ground and the cloud base. The sky temperature during dusty conditions ranged between -20°C and 8.5°C. The study showed that dusty conditions increase the atmospheric temperatures by approximately 17°C to 31°C. The sky temperatures during dusty periods are affected by several factors, such as the air mass properties, which bring the dust, and the dust particle characteristics, such as size, shape, and chemical composition, which are initially determined by the sources from which the dust originated. Theoretical simulations using MODTRAN software were used to investigate the atmospheric thermal radiation spectral distributions in the three categories. The results show that the major changes occurred within the atmospheric window (8-14?m).
Pósfai, Mihály; Axisa, Duncan; Tompa, Éva; Freney, Evelyn; Bruintjes, Roelof; Buseck, Peter R.
Aerosol particles from desert dust interact with clouds and influence climate on regional and global scales. The Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) aerosol campaign was initiated to study the effects of dust particles on cloud droplet nucleation and cloud properties. Here we report the results of individual-particle studies of samples that were collected from an aircraft in April 2007. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, electron diffraction, and imaging techniques for the morphological, chemical, and structural characterization of the particles. Dust storms and regional background conditions were encountered during four days of sampling. Under dusty conditions, the coarse (supermicrometer) fraction resembles freshly crushed rock. The particles are almost exclusively mineral dust grains and include common rock-forming minerals, among which clay minerals, particularly smectites, are most abundant. Unaltered calcite grains also occur, indicating no significant atmospheric processing. The particles have no visible coatings but some contain traces of sulfur. The fine (submicrometer) fraction is dominated by particles of anthropogenic origin, primarily ammonium sulfate (with variable organic coating and some with soot inclusions) and combustion-derived particles (mostly soot). In addition, submicrometer, iron-bearing clay particles also occur, many of which are internally mixed with ammonium sulfate, soot, or both. We studied the relationships between the properties of the aerosol and the droplet microphysics of cumulus clouds that formed above the aerosol layer. Under dusty conditions, when a large concentration of coarse-fraction mineral particles was in the aerosol, cloud drop concentrations were lower and droplet diameters larger than under regional background conditions, when the aerosol was dominated by submicrometer sulfate particles.
Okla, Al-horayess; Omar, Al-dayel; Jameel, Hefne; Turki, Al-ajyan; Ali, Bagazi
This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...
Abdulatif A. Gari; Yahya A. Al-Ghamdi; Hamed S. Qutbuddeen; Munzir M. Alandonisi; Faisal A. Mandili; Alaa Sultan
Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%). Approximately 92.8% o...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a biological disorder with clearly defined phenomenology. Studies from the Middle East on this topic have been particularly rare. Little is known about the influence of culture on clinical features, presentations and management of autism. The current study was done to compare characteristics of autism in two groups of Egyptian as well as Saudi children. Methods The sample included 48 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. They were recruited from the Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. They were grouped into an Egyptian group (n = 20 and a Saudi group (n = 28. They were assessed both clinically and psychometrically using the GARS, the Vineland adaptive behavioral scale, and the Stanford Binnet IQ test. Results Typical autism was more prevalent than atypical autism in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in clinical variables like regression, hyperactivity, epilepsy or mental retardation. Delayed language development was significantly higher in the Egyptian group while delay in all developmental milestones was more significant in the Saudi group. The Vineland communication subscale showed more significant severe and profound communication defects in the Saudi group while the Gilliam developmental subscale showed significantly more average scores in the Egyptian group. Both groups differed significantly such that the age of noticing abnormality was younger in the Saudi group. The age at diagnosis and at the commencement of intervention was lower in the Egyptian group. The Saudi group showed a higher percentage of missing examinations, older birth order and significantly higher preference to drug treatment, while the Egyptian group showed a high preference to behavioral and phoniatric therapies, higher paternal and maternal education, higher employment among parents and higher family concern. Conclusion Cultural context may significantly influence the age of noticing abnormality, the age of starting intervention, developmental and perinatal problems, family concerns about managing the problem as well as familial tendency for neurodevelopmental disorders, all of which have important impact on clinical symptomatology and severity of autism. Culture also influences significantly the ways of investigating and treating autism.
Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. Howevere of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)
The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and lem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)
To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. (author)
Full Text Available This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period is scarce. This article also is concerned with describing the evolution of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work. We need to consider the methods of hiring labor, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767
Aljabber, Jabber M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Saudi Arabian secondary preservice science teachers (SPSTs) toward a variety of science teaching practices. An ultimate, essential goal of this study was to use generated information and findings to improve the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia and to develop better science teacher practices. The selected practices were posted by the National Research Council in 1999. These indicated that students learn science best through understanding of science rather than memorization of scientific facts and concepts, building new knowledge and understanding on what is already known and believed, formulating new knowledge by modifying and refining current concepts and by adding new concepts to what is already known, taking care of their own learning, social learning environments and interactions, and application of knowledge to novel situations. The study's sample consisted of all (147) SPSTs enrolled in the spring semester of 2003 in four Teachers' Colleges: Riyadh, Makkah, Taif, and Dammam. All participants were performing student teaching in secondary schools. This study used quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. Only three SPSTs were purposefully selected from each college for seven semi-structured interview questions, lasting an hour per interview. They were asked to complete a 58-item questionnaire survey and respond to four open-ended survey questions. To assess their attitudes toward the above science teaching practices, data was analyzed using the Rasch analysis model, other parametric tests (e.g., a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent-samples t-test), and non-parametric tests (e.g., a chi-square of independent test). Furthermore, qualitative procedures were also used to assess SPSTs' views of some specific aspects about science teaching and the current secondary science education programs in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved through a careful analysis of frequent themes, patterns, and phrases mentioned by participants, which were coded and classified under broader categories. Findings of this study revealed that there were some significant differences among SPSTs in different Teachers' colleges with regard to certain demographic variables such as 'Teachers' College location' and 'age.' A broad conclusion was that although SPSTs felt that these six science teaching practices were crucial and effective teaching methods in classrooms, they did not frequently implement them due to several factors: large numbers of students in classrooms, classroom management issues, time demands, and lack of necessary materials and equipment.
Kari Jameela; Halawani Manal; Mokhtar Ghadeer; Jalalah Sawsan; Anshasi Wasim
Steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) remains a challenge facing pediatric nephrologists. The underlying histopathology usually affects the course of the disease and the response to treatment. We studied the pattern of histopathology in children with SRNS who presented to the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The records of all children with primary SRNS, who were seen between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed. Only patients who had undergone a renal biopsy wer...
Abdullah Hussein Almounsor
Full Text Available This paper assesses the stance of actual monetary policy in Saudi Arabia relative to a benchmark Taylor-rule calibration of short-term interest rates. In addition, the reaction function of monetary policy in Saudi Arabia is estimated empirically to understand the behavior of interest rates using an augmented Taylor-rule equation. The results indicates that the Saudi monetary authorities do not follow the Taylor-rule in any strict way. The actual stance of monetary policy is found to be tight in the early period of analysis, but found to be loose since 2007, relative to the calibration outcomes. Empirically, it appears that the Federal Funds Rate is the most significant factor affecting the behavior of Saudi interest rate, given the fixed exchange rate with the USD. However, there seems to be a modest accommodation of monetary policy to productivity growth, diversification efforts, and the need for increased financial intermediation over time.
Laane, Marek, 1969-
Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Ra, Ghoneim; Ak, Omar; Vj, Sebastian; Kassab R; Akijian G; Hafiz M; Schmidt B
Raafat AL Ghoneim,1 Abdalla Kamal Omar,2 VJ Sebastian,3 Roland Kassab,4 George Akijian,5 Meryem Hafiz,6 Birgit Schmidt7 1Department of Nephrology, Dr Bakhsh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Open Specialist Clinics, Dallah Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Cardiology, International Modern Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 4Department of Cardiology, St Joseph University School of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon; 5Internal Medicine (private clinic), Marka, Amman, Jordan; 6Medical Dep...
Assim Alfadda; Malabu, Usman H.; Mahmoud I. El-Desouki; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A; Atallah D. Al-Ruhaily; Fouda, Mona A; Mohamed A. Al-Maatouq; Riad A. Sulimani
OBJECTIVES To determine whether clinical and biochemical features of Graves' disease at presentation predict response to medical and radioiodine treatment. METHODS We carried out a retrospective 10-year study of 194 consecutive Saudi subjects with Graves' disease who were treated with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine therapy, or both, between January 1995 and December 2004 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS At diagnosis, the mean age was 3...
Pembrey, M. E.; Perrine, R. P.; Wood, W. G.; Weatherall, D. J.
The sickle cell (beta s) gene occurs at a high frequency in the oasis populations of Eastern Saudi Arabia. However, as compared with the disorder in Africans, sickle cell anemia runs an unusually benign clinical course in this populations; this has been attributed in part to the relatively high levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) which characterize Saudi Arabians with this condition [1, 2]. As yet, there is no satisfactory explanation for this remarkable phenomenon. To learn more about the expr...
George I. Izuora; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle
OBJECTIVES Documentation of the morbidity in sickle cell patients presenting at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the burden of delivering care to these patients. METHODS The record charts of all Saudi patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) admitted between June 1994 through to July 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Focus was on age of patients, frequency of admissions, duration of hospital stay and requirements for blood transfusio...
Wafa A. Sait; Samia M. Al-Amoudi; Dalal A. Tawtai; Abduljabbar, Hassan S
OBJECTIVES To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students. METHODS A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionna...