Research on solar air conditioning at the University of Riyadh in Riyhadh, Saudi Arabia is presented. Topics relevant to the university's proposed solar cooling laboratory are discussed: absorption systems and various contingencies, photovoltaic solar collectors and thermoelectric elements, measuring instruments, solar radiation measurement and analysis, laboratory specifications, and decision theories. Dual cycle computations and equipment specifications are included among the appendices.
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.
Abdulaziz S. Alaamer
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a prevalence of 6.54 per 1000. The present study was conducted to investigate the level of public awareness, and the attitudes and knowledge regarding epilepsy in the Saudi population in Riyadh - capital city of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A survey consisting of 19 questions pertaining to epilepsy awareness was distributed to Saudi citizens living in Riyadh older than 15 years of age in malls, supermarkets, health clubs, mosques, universities and schools. RESULTS: Of the 7078 respondents who completed the questionnaire, 6756 (95.5%) had heard about epilepsy, 3024 (42.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure and 5164 (73%) would allow their children to interact with an individual who had epilepsy. However, 5382 (76%) respondents would not want their children to marry an individual with epilepsy, 1004 (14.2%) believed that epilepsy was infectious and 574 (8.1%) believed that epilepsy was a type of mental illness. A total of 1509 (21.3%) respondents were not aware of a single potential cause of epilepsy, 3493 (50.6%) would not seek medical advice if one of their relatives had epilepsy, 2221 (31.4%) did not know how to deal with an individual experiencing an epileptic episode and 6554 (92.6%) did not know that surgery was a treatment option for individuals with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia. Of the 7078 respondents, 3237 (45.7%) would not abide by a physician's advice not to operate a motor vehicle because of their illness, of whom 1631 (50.4%) cited problems with the public transportation system as a reason for disregarding the doctor's advice. The effect of age and level of education were statistically significant on most of the study variables. CONCLUSION: The level of epilepsy awareness in the Saudi population needs improvement.
Alaqeel A; Sabbagh AJ
Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2). About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.%) ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (%) T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.
S.I. Al-Mufarrej; M.F. Hussein; R.S. Aljumaah; A.R. Gar ElNabi
Full Text Available A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn’t know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products.
Dalal Hamad Al-jebreen
OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. ...
Saeed, A. A.; Khoja, T. A.; Khan, S. B.
The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…
Al-Jarf, Reima Sado
Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (Tb) is a chronic infectious disease in which the cellular immunity (specifically CD4+ and CD8 lymphocytes) provides the most important defense in controlling infection. CD4 lymphopenia is a well-defined risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In HIV - negative patients, CD4 and CD8 cell count suppression has been associated with Tb infection. Our study was designed to deter mine the baseline and post-treatment values of CD4 and CD8 in HIV negative patients diagnosed with active Tb in Saudi Arabian patients. We recruited twentyeight, non-HIV patients with tuberculosis for the study group comprising 16 males and 12 females with either disseminated or localized active Tb infection. Two control groups were selected - one of twenty one matched healthy controls and the second of fortytwo subjects from pool of controls of an ongoing study in same population for normal CD4 and CD8 counts. The baseline pre-treatment CD4 and CD8 counts in the study group were significantly lower than either control group. Specifically the mean ± SD of CD4 counts were 556.79 ± 298.81 in the study group vs 1,132.38 ± 259.90 in control group 1 and 1,424.38 ± 870.98 in control group 2 (p 0.000). Likewise the CD8 counts in the study group were 1,136.00 ± 512.06 vs. 1,461.90 ± 367.02 in control group 1 and 1,495.90 ± 565.32 in control group 2 (p 0.000) respectively. After treatment of tuberculosis, the study patients experienced a significant increase in their mean ± SD CD4 and CD8 cell counts, from 556.79 ± 297.81 to 954.29 ± 210.90 for CD4 cells (p 0.005) and 1136.00 ± 512.06 to 1,316.54 ± 286.17 for CD8 cells (p 0.002). Analysis of study patients with disseminated disease found significantly lower CD4 cells (but not lower CD8 cells) compared to study patients with localized disease, both at baseline and after treatment. The mean ± SD baseline CD4 cells were 247.60 ± 187.80 with disseminated vs 728.56 ± 186.32 for localized disease (p = 0.000) which rose to 842.30 ± 93.55 vs 1016.50 ± 233.51 (p = 0.033) respectively. We conclude that tuberculosis may be associated with CD4 and CD8 lymphopenia even in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection, there was the tendency of recovery towards normality especially of the CD4 and CD8 counts after treatment, and that disseminated disease is associated specifically with profound CD4 lymphopenia.
Al-Aska AI; Al-Anazi AR; Al-Subaei SS; Al-Hedaithy MA; Barry MA; Somily AM; Buba F; Yusuf U; Al Anazi NA
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day) was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL) and hematocrit (47.7±3.6%) for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day) was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL) and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2%) of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (pG. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.
Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : A national plan of management for flu-like illnesses was developed by the Saudi Ministry of Health after the first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in June. We describe the clinical presentation of the H1N1 cases attending King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) between July through September 2009 and identify the high-risk age groups. Methods : All patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in the H1N1 clinics during the specified period were clinically examined and tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Those who were clinically diagnosed and confirmed positive for novel influenza A (H1N1) were included in the study. Results : Over a 6-week period, 117 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in KKUH with a mean (SD) age of 19.6 (16.7) years, of whom 72 (62.1%) were males. Most reported cases were Saudis (n=99, 85.3%); 94 (81%) had no travel history outside the country; 100 (86.2%) had had no contact with an H1N1-identified patient; 33% were aged 5-14 years and 28.4% were aged 15-29 years. The most commonly reported symptoms were fever in 99 (85.3%), cough in 9 (81%), runny nose (33.6%) and sore throat (21.3%). All 117 cases were confirmed positive using real time RT-PCR testing. Thirty-one cases (26%) were admitted and 22 of those (71%) recovered after receiving oseltamivir. Two deaths were attributed to the 2009 pandemic. One patient died of chronic pulmonary disease. The other cause of death was unknown. Conclusion : These findings indicate indigenous influenza A (H1N1) transmission, and confirm the urgent need for prevention strategies which specifically target children and young adults, who appear to have a higher risk of infection and hospitalization. Such measures include immunization, improved personal hygiene, and increased ventilation in habitations.
Full Text Available Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and December 2010 were analyzed in a retrospective manner.Results: The patient’s files were reviewed for the demographic factors of age, gender, and area of origin within Saudi Arabia. Mean age at evaluation was 21.7 (range 14–49) years. In total, 465 patients (28.39%) were aged 21–25 years, with 389 patients (23.75%) being aged 16–20 years. A minority of patients were aged 10–15 years and 46–50 years (34 [2.08%] and 51 [3.11%], respectively). Keratoconus patients aged 26–30 years and 31–35 years numbered 230 (14.04%) and 273 (16.67%), respectively. The distribution of patients referred with keratoconus aged 36–45 years was narrower, comprising 113 (6.89%) and 83 (5.07%) patients, respectively. With respect to gender, 870 (53.11%) of cases were male and 768 (46.89%) were female. With regard to region, 37.30% were referred from the central region of Saudi Arabia, 37.11% were from the southern region, 10.50% were from the northern region, and 9.34% were from the western region. The smallest number of patients came from the eastern region (5.73%).Conclusion: In total, 1638 patients were referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital for treatment of keratoconus from one of the five regions of Saudi Arabia at an average annual rate of referral of 136.5 patients per year. The overall distribution of keratoconus patients was almost equal between men and women, with a higher incidence in younger patients aged 16–26 years.Keywords: keratoconus, age, gender, tertiary eye-care hospital, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs) are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.Keywords: test blueprinting, psychiatry, residency program, summative assessment, documentary and content analysis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Gaffas EM; Sequeira RP; Al Namla RA; Al-Harbi KS
Objective To determine the relationship between sociodemographic, reproductive and lifestyle factors and the severity of menopausal symptoms among Saudi women attending a university hospital in Riyadh city. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during 2010 in Riyadh city. Women aged > 40 years attending or accompanying their relatives in outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital were invited to participate in the study. The English version of the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms after translation and validation on a sample of 30 women. Results A total of 490 women were included. Severe urogenital symptoms were more common among housewives compared to working women (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-4.68) and women living in apartments or small houses compared to women living in villas (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.90-2.64). Nulliparous women had more severe somatic symptoms compared to those who had been pregnant (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.10-7.69). Women who exercised regularly were less likely to experience severe somatic and urogenital symptoms (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.86; OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.98, respectively). Obese women experienced more severe psychosomatic symptoms compared to those of normal body mass index (OR 2.01, 95% CI 0.96-4.93). Conclusion Women who are housewives, living in apartments, not exercising regularly and obese are more likely to suffer from severe symptoms of menopause.
Alquaiz JM; Siddiqui AR; Tayel SA; Habib FA
This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nitric oxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations indoors and outdoors at three sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results show that the outdoor and indoor concentrations for NO were at least 270 and 16 times the reported average worldwide NO concentrations, respectively. The NO[sub 2] concentrations were about 14 times reported outdoor worldwide levels; however, NO[sub 2] concentrations indoors were generally below those reported in the literature. The data presented, in combination with information presented in previous articles, will provide a valuable background database for use in dispersion models to determine the effect of the Kuwaiti oil well fires on the air quality of Riyadh
OBJECTIVES: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1(st) January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM. RESULTS: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Elolemy AT; Albedah AM
Saudi Arabia was one of the greatest travel destinations that I have had the opportunity to experience. I made this pilgrimage to Jeddah and Riyadh, and was truly welcomed into the kingdom. After almost three years of caring for those precious gems (the five surviving babies of the famous Saudi Arabian Septuplets) born July 2001 in the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, I was issued a visa and asked to serve as the Nurse Escort in taking these babies home. Through a detailed glimpse of everyday life, I was privileged to enter an arena of not only forming lifelong friendships, but exploring how a country so difficult to gain entry, is also a land of astonishing natural beauty. A visit to that famous King Faisal Hospital made me a believer that Saudi Arabia has one of the best medical facilities in the Middle East, with well-trained nurses and physicians, who many are from other countries, including the United States. Observing health care professionals providing competent nursing and medical care in that environment was unique, because it evolved a culture based on an amalgam of religion and politics. PMID:16144148
Saudi Arabia was one of the greatest travel destinations that I have had the opportunity to experience. I made this pilgrimage to Jeddah and Riyadh, and was truly welcomed into the kingdom. After almost three years of caring for those precious gems (the five surviving babies of the famous Saudi Arabian Septuplets) born July 2001 in the Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, I was issued a visa and asked to serve as the Nurse Escort in taking these babies home. Through a detailed glimpse of everyday life, I was privileged to enter an arena of not only forming lifelong friendships, but exploring how a country so difficult to gain entry, is also a land of astonishing natural beauty. A visit to that famous King Faisal Hospital made me a believer that Saudi Arabia has one of the best medical facilities in the Middle East, with well-trained nurses and physicians, who many are from other countries, including the United States. Observing health care professionals providing competent nursing and medical care in that environment was unique, because it evolved a culture based on an amalgam of religion and politics.
To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract in english In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected (more) animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
Al-Asmari, AK; Al-Saief, AA; Abdo, NM; Al-Moutaery, KR
Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.
AK Al-Asmari; AA Al-Saief; NM Abdo; KR Al-Moutaery
Abundance Of Insects And Mites Infesting Stored Grain And Animal Feed In Riyadh And Dammam Provinces, Saudi Arabia ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????
Insects and mites infesting wheat, maize and wheat bran, stored in plants at Riyadh and Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were scanned in 2 seasons, 1987 and 1988. Grains from the local markets and dust from both provinces were also surveyed. Infestation of these commodities by a granivorous group of pests, exp...
Rostom, Zaky M. F. [??? ???? ???? ????
Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail ...
Al-Faleh Faleh; Al-Jeffri Mohammed; Al-Rashed Rashed; Aref Mohammed
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70?0Saudi and 30?0non-Saudis. About 89?0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5?0and46.3?0respectively). Nearly 85?0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89? prayer (54? honey and bee products (54? hijama (35.71?nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22?20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8? regulations for CAM(94.9? health education (96.6? specialized centers (94.8?20and CAM clinics (92.7? While only 8.3?0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Ahmed Tawfik Elolemy; Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Al-Aqeel SA; Al-Sabhan JF; Sultan NY
Full Text Available Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9) and done according to Ellis, Ramirez, Buchanan and Gibbons methodology. The levels of aluminum was 5.23±1.31 to 26.02±3.65 ?g g-1 and cadmium was 0.04±0.01 to 0.014±0.002 ?g g-1 in hair and nail samples. Aluminum is more significantly concentrated in the nails than hair (pMicrosporum, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Fungal isolates included Penicillium, Trichophyton and Aspergillus. These are all known bacterial and fungal isolates from the soil. Despite lower level findings of aluminum and cadmium compared to other countries, further information is needed on concentrations of elements in the hair of individuals with known exposures to trace elements. Our levels are within the worldwide range for normal occupationally exposed population despite the booming economic growth and rapid industrialization of Saudi Arabia.
A.R. Hashem; K.F. Abed
Full Text Available Objectives: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. Results: Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group ( P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease ( P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV 1 , or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. Conclusion: Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.
Al Moamary Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microarray-based assay. RESULTS: Five major MRSA strains from four clonal complexes were identified CC8/ST239-III (20.75%), PVL-positive as well as -negative CC22-IV (18.87% and 9.43%, respectively), PVL-positive CC30-IV (12.26%) and PVL-positive CC80-IV (17.92%). Minor strains, which accounted for less than 3% each, included CC1-IV/SCCfus, PVL-positive CC1/ST772-V, PVL-positive as well as- negative CC5-IV, CC5-IV/SCCfus, CC5-V, CC6-IV, CC45-IV, PVL-negative CC80-IV, PVL-positive CC88-IV, CC97-V and a CC9/ST834-MRSA strain. CONCLUSIONS: Typing of MRSA strains from Riyadh revealed a high diversity of clonal complexes. The prevalence of the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was surprisingly high (54.21%), and a significant rate of resistance markers was detected also in strains considered as community-associated.
Monecke S; Skakni L; Hasan R; Ruppelt A; Ghazal SS; Hakawi A; Slickers P; Ehricht R
Full Text Available This is a questionnaire based survey designed to determine the current status of customers’ views on community pharmacies in Riyadh and focus strategies to expand and promote community pharmacy services in Saudi Arabia. Personal interview survey of 187 consumers, in Riyadh city, was obtained over a period of six weeks (23rd December 2007 to 8th February 2008). The interview questionnaire was designed to ask choice of pharmacy to seek advice, the frequency and the range of health areas for which they seek advice, attitude and views of clients to six items towards pharmacists and their assistants. The results obtained revealed the following: (i) to visit a particular pharmacy, respondents claimed it was convenient due to a short distance, convenient working hours, knowledge of staff and excellent services, (ii) majority of the respondents asked for advice about Over-The-Counter (OTC) medications and prescription advice, while others visited for minor health problems. Willingness to provide advice, quicker services, competence and knowledge about medicines, were revealed to be desired qualities of pharmacists. On attitudes of the customers to a list of six items, majority showed that pharmacists are qualified as health professionals. Some strongly agree that pharmacists are not qualified to discuss with customers their health complaints. It is difficult to conclude the reasons that inhibit clients from seeking the advice of pharmacist. Possibly the lack of privacy and the supermarket style of marketing might influence in deterring the advice seekers. Thus the problem of environment for privacy must be addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microarray-based assay. Results Five major MRSA strains from four clonal complexes were identified CC8/ST239-III (20.75%), PVL-positive as well as -negative CC22-IV (18.87% and 9.43%, respectively), PVL-positive CC30-IV (12.26%) and PVL-positive CC80-IV (17.92%). Minor strains, which accounted for less than 3% each, included CC1-IV/SCCfus, PVL-positive CC1/ST772-V, PVL-positive as well as- negative CC5-IV, CC5-IV/SCCfus, CC5-V, CC6-IV, CC45-IV, PVL-negative CC80-IV, PVL-positive CC88-IV, CC97-V and a CC9/ST834-MRSA strain. Conclusions Typing of MRSA strains from Riyadh revealed a high diversity of clonal complexes. The prevalence of the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was surprisingly high (54.21%), and a significant rate of resistance markers was detected also in strains considered as community-associated.
Monecke Stefan; Skakni Leila; Hasan Rami; Ruppelt Antje; Ghazal Sameeh S; Hakawi Ahmed; Slickers Peter; Ehricht Ralf
The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and the directional dose equivalent, H'(0.07), for indoor and outdoor natural exposure are measured in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The indoor H*(10) rate varies from 61 to 135 nSv h-1, while it is in the range of 57-105 nSv h-1 for the outdoor. The indoor and outdoor rates of H'(0.07) are in the range of 67-142 nSv h-1 and 59-110 nSv h-1, respectively. The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of H*(10) is between 0.92 and 1.39, and it is 0.90-1.54 for H'(0.07). The ratio H'(0.07) to H*(10) lies between 1.0 and 1.22 for indoor, while it is 0.97-1.20 for the outdoor. (authors)
"This paper examines and assesses the changes in the population density pattern in the city of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia where the city has undergone dramatic changes in its physical as well as its social structure. Analysis of data revealed a decline in population density at an exponential rate from the city center with variation between city sectors and zones. The city's rapid horizontal expansion and dispersal of population is the result of factors such as increases in city population and in size and number of single family dwellings, widening of streets, rise in income and residential mobility rates, mass use of automobiles, change in family size, zoning regulations, leapfrogging, and huge governmental city development projects." PMID:12285969
"This paper examines and assesses the changes in the population density pattern in the city of Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia where the city has undergone dramatic changes in its physical as well as its social structure. Analysis of data revealed a decline in population density at an exponential rate from the city center with variation between city sectors and zones. The city's rapid horizontal expansion and dispersal of population is the result of factors such as increases in city population and in size and number of single family dwellings, widening of streets, rise in income and residential mobility rates, mass use of automobiles, change in family size, zoning regulations, leapfrogging, and huge governmental city development projects."
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali
Proposals for research on solar cooling are presented for four Saudi Arabian universities. The universities are the University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, King Saud University in Riyadh, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, and King Faisal University in Dammam. Topics researched include the Rankine cycle, passive solar cooling systems, a solar-powered lithium bromide-water absorption machine and a photovoltaic-powered thermoelectric cooling machine. (BCS)
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830) self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt) to quit and 63% attempted (but failed) to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia
Al-Bedah AM; Qureshi NA
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the emergence of NDM-, OXA-48-, and VIM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: From June to December 2011, we obtained K. pneumoniae isolates with reduced sensitivity to carbapenem identified in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Only non-duplicate clinical and surveillance isolates obtained from inpatients were included. PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV) and carbapenemase genes (blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48). Susceptibility to imipenem, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and colistin was determined. RESULTS: Of the 60K. pneumoniae isolates studied, 45 were from patients in the intensive care unit. Forty-seven isolates harbored blaOXA-48, 12 were positive for blaNDM, and one for blaVIM. No isolate harbored a combination of these resistance genes. No isolate harbored blaKPC or blaIMP. All 37 blaCTX-M-positive isolates belonged to CTX-M group 1, and 29 were positive for a combination of blaCTX-M and blaOXA-48. blaTEM and blaSHV genes were found in 17 and 39 isolates, respectively. All isolates were imipenem- and meropenem-resistant, with a high rate of co-resistance to the other antibiotics. Three blaOXA-48-positive isolates with colistin resistance were detected. CONCLUSION: Multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates harboring blaOXA-48, blaNDM, and colistin resistance are emerging in Saudi Arabia.
Shibl A; Al-Agamy M; Memish Z; Senok A; Khader SA; Assiri A
This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Reports on extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBL) production by Enterobacteriaceae, and especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae , are few in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of ESBL in K pneumoniae from Riyadh and characterized the predominant b-lactamase gene in these isolates. Methods: A total of 400 K pneumoniae samples were isolated from two hospitals in Riyadh during 2007 and screened for production of ESBL using ESBL-E-strips and combined disk methods. PCR assay was used to detect bla TEM , bla SHV , and bla CTX-M genes. Results: Phenotypic characterization identified a high ESBL rate of 55% of K pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae were PCR positive for SHV, TEM and CTX-M b-lactamase genes with prevalences 97.3%, 84.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Within the CTX-M family, two groups of enzymes, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9-like genes were found with prevalences of 60% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms the high rate of ESBL in K pneumoniae clinical isolates in hospitals in Riyadh. This study demonstrates the worldwide spread of bla CTX-M genes. This first report of the presence of the bla CTX-M gene in clincial isolates in Saudi Arabia is evidence of the continuing worldwide spread of this gene.
Al-Agamy Mohammad; Shibl Atef; Tawfik Abdelkader
Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia used to be hyperendemic for HBV infection. Most of infection occurs in early life. HBV vaccine was, therefore, introduced in 1989 as the seventh primary immunogen of the EPI Program. This study is conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this program in Riyadh and Hail Regions. Method and Patients: A cohort follow-up study of children from Riyadh and Hail, who had been vaccinated in 1989, evaluated in 1991 and tested for HBV markers six years later. Results: The files of 303 children from Riyadh and Hail, who were investigated in 1991 retrieved and only 119, were available for testing. Fifty percent of the children have still a protective anti-HBs tittre. One vaccinated child was found to be positive for HBsAg. According to this study, the efficacy rate against HBsAg carriage is 88%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the tremendous effect of HB vaccine on the HBV infection of Saudi children in these two regions
Al-Faleh Faleh; Al-Jeffri Mohammed; Al-Rashed Rashed; Aref Mohammed
Attendees of 15 health centers in urban and rural areas in the Riyadh region were screened for obesity during May and June 1994. Systemic selection yielded 1580 Saudi males for analysis. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2). Only 36.6% of subjects were their ideal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)), while 34.8% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), 26.9% were moderately obese (BMI 30-40 kg/m(2)) and 1.7% were morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)). Middle age, lower education and joblessness predicted a higher risk for obesity. Patients living in a rural areas had greater BMIs than those living in urban areas (P <0.01). Forty percent of overweight participants did not think they were so. The high prevalence of obesity and the lack of awareness among those afflicted emphasizes the need for community-based programs for preventing and reducing obesity, since weight control is effective in ameliorating most of the disorders associated with obesity, such as Type II non-insulin-depedent diabetis mellitus, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, sleep apnea syndrome and osteoarthritis of the knees. Young parents who are at risk of developing obesity and who play a central role in perpetuating it in their offspring should be the target of obesity-prevention programs.
Al-Shammari SA; Khoja TA; Al-Maatouq MA
A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)
OBJECTIVE: To study and report on the attitudes and clinical practices of oncologists regarding fertility cryopreservation for female cancer patients. STUDY DESIGN: Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire distributed to oncologists in different institutions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period May through August 2010. The questionnaire covered their attitudes and clinical practices regarding fertility cryopreservation for female cancer patients. RESULTS: Almost half of the respondents (45.6%) were not familiar with any female fertility preservation options. Although most of the respondents had a positive attitude toward the topic, their referral practice was very poor. About three-quarters (76%) perceived that fertility preservation was very important, and 90% thought that patients would benefit from referral to an infertility specialist for counseling, yet 80% believed that cryopreservation was a complicated process. Almost half of respondents (55.3%) mentioned that they always discuss future fertility with their patients. The most prominent reasons for not discussing this issue were the emergent need to start therapy (50.5%) and the concern about the well-being of future children (34.5%). The majority (86.4%) did not refer their cancer patients to an infertility specialist. CONCLUSION: Oncologists' knowledge about female cryopreservation was lacking, and their attitudes and clinical practice on the topic needed enhancement.
Rabah DM; El-Nimr N; Rafe BA; Arafa MA
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to study the etiologies and patterns of maxillofacial fractures in patients treated in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia, between 2007 and 2011. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained through a retrospective review of 237 patients admitted to the King Saud Medical City Dental Department with a diagnosis of maxillofacial trauma. After excluding patient files with incomplete or unclear records, and cases in which computed tomography showed no evidence of fracture, the files of 200 patients with a diagnosis of maxillofacial fracture were included in the study. For each case, patient's sex and age, pattern of facial fractures, and cause of injury were recorded on a data sheet. The data were transferred to an SPSS (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) spreadsheet for statistical analysis. The chi-square test was used to test the association between two categorical variables or factors (age group, cause) with p value set at p<0.05, and t-test value at <0.05 and independent. RESULTS: Motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of maxillofacial fractures in most age groups, especially in males. Within the study sample, mandibular fractures were significantly more common than middle-third facial fractures (56.4% vs. 43.6%; p=0.006). Among mandibular fractures, parasymphyseal fractures were most common (47%), followed by condylar fractures (35.3%). Most (77.2%) middle-third facial fractures involved the zygomatic complex, and the incidence of such fractures differed significantly between male and female patients. p=0.72, not significant. CONCLUSION: Males were more prone to maxillofacial fractures, perhaps as a result of the conservative nature of Saudi society, as the rules of Saudi Arabia do not allow the females to drive. Motor vehicle accidents were the most common cause of maxillofacial fractures in patients aged 10-29 years, indicating the high demand for the application of stricter traffic rules to reduce the rate of such accidents.
Abdullah WA; Al-Mutairi K; Al-Ali Y; Al-Soghier A; Al-Shnwani A
The radioactivity contents of collected natural surface soils samples from different sites of Al-mezahmiah region (southwest of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) have been identified using gamma ray spectroscopy technique. The detector used is a hyper pure germanium detector of active volume 156.6 cm . The results showed that the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th series along with the non-series element 40K are the main sources of radiation in soil. In general, the radioactivity in Al-mezahmiah area is to great extent lower than the world average and also the minimum detectable radioactivity content was found in the surface soil from the plain land.
OBJECTIVE: Identify the types and prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers, and test the effectiveness of the current pre-employment screening policy. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was carried out in the catchment areas of seven primary health care centres (PHCCs) to represent various sections of Riyadh city. A total of 700 food handlers working in restaurants were randomly selected from the study area. All study subjects were asked to complete a data collection form and to bring a fresh stool specimen on the specified day to the designated PHCC. RESULTS: About 66% of the selected subjects complied in bringing fresh stool specimens. Fifty nine (12.8%) of the specimens were positive for parasites. There was a significant association between the food handler's nationality and the likelihood of a positive specimen result, being highest among the Bangladeshis (20.2%) and Indians (18.5%) and the lowest among the Arabs (3.4%) and the Turks (10%). The commonest intestinal parasites isolated were Giardia lamblia (33.8%), followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.4%). The current screening policy does not seem effective, as there was an absence of significant association between holding a valid PEHC and the test result, with 81% of the positive results from persons holding valid pre-employment health certificates (PEHCs). CONCLUSIONS: Though it is obligatory for food handlers to hold a PEHC in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of intestinal parasites remains high. Possible solutions include health education on hygiene, more frequent stool tests, and assessment of the current annual screening procedure.
Kalantan KA; Al-Faris EA; Al-Taweel AA
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin (BTX) and dermal fillers (DFs) are considered as quick and effective non-surgical solutions for enhancing facial appearance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate dentists' knowledge and attitude towards using Botulinum toxin and DFs in dental treatment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Five hundred questionnaires were distributed in Riyadh city to government and private sectors to determine awareness and attitude towards using Botulinum toxin and DFs in dental clinics for therapeutic and aesthetics uses. RESULTS: Botulinum toxin: A total of 1.2% is practising it. Only 34.8% could recognise its composition. Use of Botulinum toxin in wrinkle reduction was the most reported (73.7%). A total of 81.1% believed that Botulinum toxin has side effects; allergic reaction was the most reported (57.5%). A total of 47.8% reported that higher doses are more toxic, and that males need higher doses than females (10.2%). Dermal fillers: A total of 0.9% is practising it. The most reported type (47.8%) was Fat transfer. Filling of wrinkles was the most reported use (57.8%). A total of 69% believed that DFs has side effects; allergic reaction was the most reported (53.4%). Attitude: A total of 37.8% would like to practise Botulinum toxin/DFs, mostly for aesthetic dental reason. However, 60.2% rejected the idea, mainly due to lack of knowledge and experience (44%). CONCLUSION: Limited knowledge regarding Botulinum toxin and dermal fillers is found among dentists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al Hamdan EM; Algheryafi AM; Al-Ghareeb FJ; Ashri NY
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in children worldwide. The molecular epidemiology and circulation pattern of HRSV in Saudi Arabia is mostly uncharted. In the current study, the genetic variability and phylogenetic relationships of HRSV type A strains circulating in Riyadh Province were explored. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from hospitalized children with acute respiratory symptoms during the winter-spring seasons of 2007/08 and 2008/09. Among 175 samples analyzed, 39 (22.3 %) were positive for HRSV by one-step RT-PCR (59 % type A and 41 % type B). Propagation of positive samples in HEp-2 cells permitted the recovery of the first Saudi HRSV isolates. Genetic variability among Saudi HRSV-A strains was evaluated by sequence analysis of the complete attachment (G) protein gene. The nucleotide sequence was compared to representatives of the previously identified HRSV-A genotypes. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains examined in this study were very closely related at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, and all of them are clustered in the GA2 genotype (and mostly belonged to the NA-1 subtype). A total of 23 mutation sites, 14 of which resulted in an amino acid change, were recorded only in Saudi strains. This is the first report on genetic diversity of HRSV-A strains in Saudi Arabia. Further analysis of strains on a geographical and temporal basis is needed to fully understand HRSV-A circulation patterns in Saudi Arabia.
Almajhdi FN; Farrag MA; Amer HM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human parainfluenza type 2 (HPIV-2) virus is an important respiratory pathogen, a little is known about strains circulating in Saudi Arabia. Findings Among 180 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from suspected cases in Riyadh, only one sample (0.56%) was confirmed HPIV-2 positive by nested RT-PCR. The sample that was designated Riyadh 105/2009 was used for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the most variable virus gene; the haemagglutinin-neuramindase (HN). Comparison of HN gene of Riyadh 105/2009 strain and the relevant sequences available in GenBank revealed a strong relationship with Oklahoma-94-2009 strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated four different clusters of HPIV-2 strains (G1-4). Twenty-three amino acid substitutions were recorded for Riyadh 105/2009, from which four are unique. The majority of substitutions (n=18) had changed their amino acids characteristics. By analyzing the effect of the recorded substitutions on the protein function using SIFT program, only two located at positions 360 and 571 were predicted to be deleterious. Conclusions The presented changes of Riyadh 105/2009 strain may possess potential effect on the protein structure and/or function level. This is the first report that describes partial characterization of Saudi HPIV-2 strain.
Almajhdi Fahad N; Alshaman Mohamed S; Amer Haitham M
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude and severity of treatment needs for dental caries of school children of Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 14 years after the conduct of the Oral Health Survey (Phase I) (OHS (I)) in KSA. METHODS: Six hundred and two primary school first graders (primary school (PS)) (5-8 year-old) and 205 intermediate school first graders (intermediate school (IS)) (11-14 year-old) children were randomly selected, using stratified cluster random sampling, from schools of Riyadh, KSA during April 2001 to May 2001. All the children were examined for caries and treatment needs, using the World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent of PS children required some type of restoration and 36.7% needed extractions. Ninety-five percent of IS children required restorations and approximately one-quarter were needed extractions. Amongst male PS children approximately 7 teeth needed one or more surface fillings, whereas 6 teeth of female PS children needed the same. Of the male IS children, 6.5 teeth needed one or more surface fillings, whereas 4 teeth of female IS children needed the same. These differences were all statistically significant. On average, one tooth of male children needed extraction, whereas approximately 0.7 teeth of female children needed the same. The difference was also significant. There were significant differences between urban and rural children for various types of treatment needs. However, nationality of the children did not show any significant effects on treatment needs. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the treatment needs for dental caries have increased in schoolchildren of Riyadh significantly 14 years after the conduct of OHS (I).
In this study, the temperature-induced variations in the TLD-100 response and the modifications in its glow peaks are investigated in real environmental exposure conditions in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)), where ambient temperatures during summer reach >45 deg. C and with relative humidity of 137Cs prior to deployment; another was irradiated to the same dose after deployment, while the last group was left unirradiated. Analysis of glow curves was done using commercially available glow curve deconvolution software (CGCD). Monthly variations in peak 3, 4 and 5 areas relative to the corresponding peak areas of a prompt glow curve are presented. Results of this study show good TL signal compensation between peaks 4 and 5 at all ambient temperatures encountered in this experiment, despite the observed individual variations experienced by each of these peaks. The sum of peak 4 and 5 areas is constant to within ?10%, for both pre- and post-irradiated dosemeters, during this 12-month cycle. (authors)
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) of primary health care (PHC) physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A crosssectional study including all physicians working at PHC centers in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, was carried out from the beginning of April 2010 to the end of June 2010. Using a self-administered questionnaire, 1,113 physicians answered questions regarding their socio-demographic data, and knowledge, attitudes and utilization of CAM. RESULTS: About 8% of the participants had attended a continuous medical education or a training activity. Most of them were unfamiliar with reflexology, energy healing, aromatherapy, ozone therapy, homeopathy, or chiropractic care (77.4, 71.3, 71.2, 67.2, 65.7, and 63.9%, respectively). On the other hand, most physicians felt that they could understand and feel comfortable about counseling patients about Ruqyah (spiritual healing), honey and bee products, dietary supplements, massage therapy, relaxation, herbal medicine, and cupping (40.3, 38.3, 34.9, 34.4, 25.8, 22.8, and 21.4%, respectively). More than half (51.7%) of the physicians used CAM for themselves or their family, but only 14.2% referred their patients to CAM practitioners. 85.1% of studied physicians agreed that physicians should have knowledge about CAM therapies commonly used in the region. 82.5% agreed that health authorities should have a role in regulating CAM, and 75.7% agreed that the physicians' knowledge about CAM practices leads to better patient outcome. CONCLUSION: There is a positive attitude regarding the concept of CAM, but there is a reluctance to refer or to initiate discussion with patients regarding CAM practices, which may be attributed to a lack of knowledge.
Abdullah Al-Rowais N; Al Bedah AM; Khalil MK; El Olemy AT; Khalil AA; Alrasheid MH; Al Khashan H; Al Yousef M; Abdel Razak Ba Fart A
BACKGROUND: There are many social and cultural factors affecting the sexual knowledge of adolescents. This study measured the sexual health knowledge level of adolescents and identified its association with role of parents, friends and school environment in adolescent girls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Four hundred and nineteen Saudi female students belonging to intermediate and secondary grades were randomly selected from four public and private girl schools. 255 (69.8%) students were ?15 years and 164 (39.2%) were >15 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire comprising of socio-demographic information, role of parents and teachers, availability of school curriculum on sexual health was used. Sexual health knowledge was assessed through questions on identification of physical changes during puberty for ?15 years and separate questions on sexually transmitted infections for >15 years. RESULTS: 54% of ?15 years and 70.7% of >15 years had poor sexual health knowledge. Multivariate analysis found determinants for poor sexual health education in ?15 years are: lower education level of both parents (OR 10.87; 95% CI 2.44-48.38), second birth order or more (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.24-4.33) and absence of school curriculum on sexual health (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.33-0.95). Determinants for >15 years of age are : mothers with low literacy (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.42-6.71), as for sources of poor sexual knowledge : parents (OR 10.10; 95% CI 2.70-37.74), schools (OR 6.95; 95% CI 1.95-24.78) maids (OR 4.57; 95% CI 1.26-16.59) and media (OR 5.12; 95% CI 1.29-20.07) were statistically significant factors. CONCLUSION: Government agencies with collaboration of all stake holders should develop policies and programs for implementing and evaluating integrated and comprehensive sexual educational programs for adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
AlQuaiz AM; Kazi A; Al Muneef M
BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. RESULTS: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74%) and 92.53% of those with a bachelor's degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master's degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004). Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08%) and health educational organizations (14.71%). Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively) in addition to medical massage (61.8%) and acupuncture (55%). One hundred and fifteen (80%) physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. CONCLUSION: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting them on evidence-based practices.
Albedah AM; El-Olemy AT; Khalil MK
Full Text Available Background: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect any changes in the lipid concentration in the human body. Objectives: The present work is aimed at studying lipid profile and its relation to anthropometric measurements in college males from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted from September 2006 to December 2008. 333 students aged 18-35 years of Riyadh College of Health Science - male section - participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated. Socio-demographic data were collected from a questionnaire. Results: Mean TC level was 4.227 ± 0.869 mmol/l, while for LDL, HDL and TG were 2.57 ± 0.724, 1.360 ± 0.545 and 1.385 ± 0.731 mmol/l, respectively. Mean TC level did not differ significantly across weight groups except among obese patients. Mean HDL, LDL and TG did not differ significantly among different groups at 5% level of significance. There was positive, statistically non-significant correlation between age and BMI. The correlation between age and all lipid parameters were statistically non-significant. There was positive correlation between BMI and TC and LDL, while there was a negative correlation between BMI and HDL. There was no correlation between BMI and triglycerides. Conclusion: BMI, waist and hip circumferences all increase with age. The level of TC, LDL and TG go high with increase in age and BMI.
Abdul Rahman Al-Ajlan
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the various patterns in drug prescribing in a non-Ministry of Health-affiliated primary healthcare centre model (Riyadh Kharj Military Hospital) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of pharmacy records of the Riyadh Kharj Military Hospital was undertaken. A total of 4781 prescriptions archived over a period of 6 months (January-June 2001) were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Number, types, therapeutic duration and distribution of drugs were evaluated. Age distribution and documentation adequacy were also reviewed and monitored. Therapeutic classification of drugs was carried out according to the British National Formulary system. KEY FINDINGS: Of the total prescriptions, 47.8% were for male patients and 50.1% for females. Prescriptions for the paediatric population accounted for 19.5% whereas 13.7% of drugs were prescribed to the geriatric cohort. A mean of 2.7±1.6 drugs were prescribed per patient. In multidrug prescriptions, 32.3% contained two drugs and 22.1% prescriptions had four drugs or more. Mono-drug prescriptions accounted for 21.6% of prescriptions. Paracetamol (13.9%) was the most commonly prescribed drug followed by multivitamins and cough syrups with 5.0 and 3.7%, respectively. The most common therapeutic classes of drugs prescribed were analgesics, antipyretics, antihistamines, and vitamins and minerals, making up a third of all prescriptions. Dosage form, dose and routes of administration were not present in 21.7, 8.8 and 99.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy appears to be a problem in primary health care, which requires stricter pharmacovigilance and constant reviewing. We recommend the establishment of an efficient local prescribing policy through an effective practice-based Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee, training in prescribing to be introduced in medical schools and the lending of support to continuous education programmes targeting prescribing skills.
Asiri YA; Al-Arifi MN
Full Text Available Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC) from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450). Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306) compared to males (71.5%, 103/144) (P< .001). The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405), which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441) of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. Conclusion: Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.
AlQuaiz Aljoharah; Tayel Salwa
BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia has a declining rate of breastfeeding and increasing levels of childhood asthma and atopic disease. In highly economically developed countries, breastfeeding of children at high risk of atopic disease reduces the likelihood of atopic dermatitis, wheezing associated with respiratory infections, and possibly asthma. This study investigated the prevalence of breastfeeding and its association with wheezing/asthma and atopic disease in 1-3-year-old children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of children attending routine "well-baby" clinics in three Saudi State Hospitals in Riyadh. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to collect data on sociodemographics, breastfeeding, wheezing symptoms, asthma, and atopic disease. RESULTS: In total, 622 children 1-3 years old were recruited. Of these, 75% of children were ever breastfed, and 36% of children were fully breastfed, with 20% of children being fully breastfed for ? 3 months. Increasing duration of full breastfeeding was associated with a reduced likelihood of maternal reporting of her child having "ever wheezed," "wheezed' in the last 12 months," and "ever having asthma," with adjusted odds ratio for full breastfeeding ? 12 months versus never breastfed of 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.90), 0.48 (0.26-0.88), and 0.46 (0.22-0.94), respectively. No associations were demonstrable between full or ever breastfeeding and atopic dermatitis/eczema, irrespective of family history of atopic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although breastfeeding does not protect children from developing eczema in Riyadh, full breastfeeding is associated with reduced childhood wheezing and possibly asthma. Further efforts should be made to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Makoshi A; Al-Frayh A; Turner S; Devereux G
Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the insects trapping efficiency of various colored traps in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) crop in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The treatments involved were seven different sticky traps (green, fluorescent yellow, orange, pink, red, yellow and transparent (control)) placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground) and each treatment was replicated four times. The experiment was laid out in "Complete Randomized Block Design". The insect pests recorded were Thrips Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) and the leafminer Liriomyze trifolii (Burgess). Significantly more insect pests were trapped on fluorescent yellow as compared to other traps whereas pink, green and orange colored traps caught significantly lower number of insects and found statistically similar. However, there was no significant difference between mean number of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights from ground level but more insects were trapped at maximum height (2 m).
Al-Ayedh Hassan; Al-Doghairi Mohammed
The ectoparasitic acarines of commensal and wild rodents collected from various areas in Riyadh Region were four species of mites (Laelaps nutalli, Ornythonyssus bacoti, Cheyletus eruditus and Articholaelaps glasgowi), and two species of ticks. (Immature stages) Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. In urban areas the highest infestation rate by mites was 49.9% on Rattus rattus followed by 18.5% on Rattus norvegicus. The highest rat-mite index was 2.3 on R. rattus followed by 1.3 on R. norvegicus and 0.1 on Mus musculus. In semiarid areas, the highest rat-mite index was 2.1 on Gerbillus spp. followed by 1.7 on Meriones spp., 1.6 on Jaculus jaculus and 0.9 on Acomys dimidiatus. The highest infestation rate by mites was on Meriones spp. followed by Gerbillus spp. and then A. dimidiatus.
el-Bahrawy AA; al-Dakhil MA
The ectoparasitic acarines of commensal and wild rodents collected from various areas in Riyadh Region were four species of mites (Laelaps nutalli, Ornythonyssus bacoti, Cheyletus eruditus and Articholaelaps glasgowi), and two species of ticks. (Immature stages) Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. In urban areas the highest infestation rate by mites was 49.9% on Rattus rattus followed by 18.5% on Rattus norvegicus. The highest rat-mite index was 2.3 on R. rattus followed by 1.3 on R. norvegicus and 0.1 on Mus musculus. In semiarid areas, the highest rat-mite index was 2.1 on Gerbillus spp. followed by 1.7 on Meriones spp., 1.6 on Jaculus jaculus and 0.9 on Acomys dimidiatus. The highest infestation rate by mites was on Meriones spp. followed by Gerbillus spp. and then A. dimidiatus. PMID:8308342
el-Bahrawy, A A; al-Dakhil, M A
Full Text Available Objective: To show the pattern of etiology of childhood obesity referred to our endocrinology clinic between December 1989 and December 1994. Subject and Methods: All the children referred to our clinic at the above stipulated dates were studied. This is a retrospective medical records review of these patients. The patients? height and weight were measured by trained staff of the clinic. The Quetelet index also known as Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2 for each patient. Laboratory data as well as results of clinical investigations were also obtained from the records of the patients. Results: 52 patients with ages ranging between 2 years and 16 years (median 8 years) were studied. Male : female ratio was 1:1. 35 (67.3%) of the patients were Saudis while 17 (32.7%) were non-Saudis. The etiology of obesity among the series were nutritional 46 (88.5%), Prader-Willi Syndrome 3 (5.8%), Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome 1 (1.9%), pseudohypoparathyroidism 1 (1.9%) and hypothyroidism 1 (1.9%). The study showed that the majority of the patients had simple nutritional obesity.
Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Jurayyan Nasir; Olasope Abiodun; Abdullah Asaad; Al Nuaim Abdulrahman
The determination of the total content of fifteen elements in soil samples collected from 29 different schools playgrounds in Riyadh metropolitan environment was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) combined with microwave digestion technique. According to the results of the concentration at 29 school's playgrounds in the selected districts, the average concentrations of the heavy metals were determined at 25.91, 29.36, 147.73, 8.02, 17.45, 9.92, 43.72, 2.83, 0.64, 0.5, 0.12, 0.92, 0.45, 27.95 and 1.04 mg/kg (dry soil) for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Pb and U respectively. Most school playgrounds with elevated heavy metals concentrations were found in Manfuah, Al Shifa, Al Yamamah, Sultanah, An Namuthajiyah, Al-Wurud and Al-Shimaisi residential districts due to their proximity to main traffic roads, industrial areas and high density residential areas. On the other hand schools playgrounds with lower heavy metals levels were found in An Nuzhah, Al-Aqiq and Al-Jazirah districts which may be attributed to less traffic emissions, low residential density, and their distant location from the industrial areas. The measured concentrations levels of the heavy metals in the soil, except for Pb, were below the allowable concentration limits. The Pb concentration exceeded these limits in Manfuhah school playground. The enrichment coefficient values for V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu were less than unity at 0.32, 0.47, 0.25, 0.51, 0.44 and 0.36 respectively, suggesting that the origin of these elements is mostly the local soil. The enrichment coefficient values for Zn and Pb were more than unity at 1.66 and 8.47, respectively, suggesting that these elements are anthropogenic in origin, for example, from the traffic emissions. (author)
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2%) contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61) in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57) in watercress, 20.6% (7/34) in leek, 19.1% (9/47) in green onion, 17.4% (15/87) in parsley, 15.4% (4/26) in spinach, 13.6% (3/22) in basil, 11.5% (3/26) in coriander, 9.4% (3/32) in radish, 5.3% (1/19) in dill and 4.7% (2/42) in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%), Giardia lamblia (31.6%), Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%), Ascaris sp. (26.3%), Taenia sp. (19.7%), Blastocystis hominis (17.1%), Fasciola sp. (14.5%), Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%), Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%), Toxoplasma gondii (6.6%) and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%). The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05), with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%), followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%), Autumn (10.6%) and Winter (9.9%).
Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin
Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN), between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) was the most common histological lesion (34.6%) and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%), nephrotic syndrome (68.18%), hematuria (63.6%) and renal functional impairment (27.3%). Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1%) followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%), IgA nephropathy (10.2%), and minimal change disease (8.5%). Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%). In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.
Mitwalli A; Al Wakeel J; Abu-Aisha H; Alam A; Al Sohaibani M; Tarif N; Hammad D; Askar A; Sulimani F; Abid J; Memon N
BACKGROUND: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs) are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations. OBJECTIVE: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program. METHODS: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited. RESULTS: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program. CONCLUSION: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.
Gaffas EM; Sequeira RP; Namla RA; Al-Harbi KS
In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.
Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.
Full Text Available In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.
Al-Kadeeb A. Siham
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between breakfast consumers and non consumers), on nutritional status (body mass index), glucose level, iron status and test grades (school performance) among Saudi school children (girls). A total of 120 female students aged 9-13.9 years from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia Participated in this cross-sectional study. A pre-designed questioner was used to collect information on their breakfast eating habits. Body weight and height of the girls were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Tests for blood Glucose (GLU), Hemoglobin (HG), Hematocrit (HT), Serum Iron (SI), serum ferritin were performed and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) was calculated. School marks of the previous semester were also collected (used). The results shows that 23.33% of girls ate breakfast only once a week or less often, whereas (40.83%) of the girls ate breakfast daily. Skipping breakfast increased with age. Breakfast skipping was significantly noticed among over weight-obese students compared to lean students, the mean level of HB, HCT, SI, TIBC and ferritin of the girls who ate breakfast regularly was the highest with no significant difference. Regular habit of eating breakfast had beneficial impact on nutritional status.
Latifah M. AL-Oboudi
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. CONCLUSION: Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early stage of their academic life, as a medical student about the existence of this problem in the community, its consequences and predisposing factors. Teaching teenagers and young adults about stress coping strategies may be of special importance in reducing the risk of alcohol and substance abuse.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate) participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early stage of their academic life, as a medical student about the existence of this problem in the community, its consequences and predisposing factors. Teaching teenagers and young adults about stress coping strategies may be of special importance in reducing the risk of alcohol and substance abuse.
Al-Haqwi Ali I
SIMEC 2012 has been a life-changing experience for me in my professional career. As a novice in academia this is the first medical education conference I have attended, and it has personal meaning and pride in view of the fact that it was held in an Arab country so close to my own. Meeting experts from around the world, and interacting with other novices like me has been a humbling and inspiring experience. The immense zest of energy I had when I left Riyadh, to develop myself professionally in Medical Education, and to contribute in a positive and innovative manner in my medical institution and community was refreshing.
Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…
Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.
Reem Alebaikan; Salah Troudi
In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)
PURPOSE: To compare the demographic and clinical distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma from a registry at King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital. DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. METHODS: Review of registry data that included new patients with congenital glaucoma seen between 2001 and 2003 (29 months); analysis of the demographic data and clinical features of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma at presentation. RESULTS: A total of 325 eyes of 180 patients were included. Most patients had primary congenital glaucoma (80%). The mean (± SD) age at presentation for primary congenital glaucoma was 3.8 ± 10.7 months and for secondary congenital glaucoma was 4.3 ± 7.9 months. Most primary congenital glaucoma and secondary congenital glaucoma patients had bilateral disease (82.6%; 74.3%). Primary congenital glaucoma was equally distributed by sex but secondary congenital glaucoma was 1.5-fold more common in male patients. A positive family history was elicited in 30%, and almost 60% had a history of consanguinity in both groups. The mean intraocular pressure and corneal diameter were comparable in both groups but the axial length was significantly longer in primary congenital glaucoma and cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio greater in secondary congenital glaucoma. In the primary congenital glaucoma group, corneal haze showed a significant relationship with most clinical parameters. In primary congenital glaucoma, a positive correlation was noted between age at presentation and increasing corneal diameter and axial length but a negative relationship was noted with C/D ratio and corneal haze, whereas for secondary congenital glaucoma only axial length was positively correlated. CONCLUSION: The congenital glaucoma registry provides unique baseline data on primary congenital glaucoma and secondary congenital glaucoma in Saudi Arabia that will enable us to better understand the disease in the Kingdom and region.
Alanazi FF; Song JC; Mousa A; Morales J; Al Shahwan S; Alodhayb S; Al Jadaan I; Al-Turkmani S; Edward DP
The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…
Liton, Hussain Ahmed
To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy.Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. RESULTS: Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region.
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between breakfast consumers and non consumers), on nutritional status (body mass index), glucose level, iron status and test grades (school performance) among Saudi school children (girls). A total of 120 female students age...
Latifah M. AL-Oboudi
Documentation supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia is presented. The documents include: computer printouts for comparisons of design; landscapes analysis; field station study for Al Batin, Saudi Arabia; data acquisition systems; and performance evaluation. (BCS)
Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7%) at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay
Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib
Full Text Available King Khaled International Airport in Riyadh is the new access to the Saudi Arabia capital and to the heart of the Kingdom. It is the center of the national air transport and it has been planned to attend all the needs of the national and International air traffic, which has a fast growth in Riyadh zone. Its design is adapted to the Islamic traditions and harmonizes with the natural beauty of the desert.El aeropuerto internacional King Khaled de Riyadh es el nuevo acceso aéreo a la capital de Arabia Saudita y al corazón del reino. Es el centro del sistema de transporte aéreo nacional y está proyectado para atender las demandas de tráfico aéreo nacional e internacional, de crecimiento rápido, en la región de Riyadh. Su diseño se adapta a las tradiciones islámicas y armoniza con la belleza natural del desierto.
Dahman, Mohammed N.; Tassan, Saad M.
Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old) presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability
Alfadhel M; Alhasan KA; Alotaibi M; Al Fakeeh K
ALHOMOD, S.M.; SHAFI, M.M.
...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical infrastructure...
Documents supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia are presented. The papers include the following topics: comfort measurements; cooling methods and strategies for hot/arid climates; ventilation design; solar hot water heaters; backup HVAC equipment specifications; and computer printouts for design review and analysis. (BCS)
Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.
Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the students in dealing with their disciplines or programs oriented courses. Even after completion of the Foundation English courses in consecutive two or three semesters, students fail to grasp comprehensive control over the reading materials of their discipline-oriented courses. This is a common scenario in almost all the universities in KSA. The author of this paper ventured to study the predicament of EFL courses in some universities through survey questionnaires, observation as well as primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 25 EFL teachers at renowned Saudi universities. The research results revealed that the existing Foundation English Course syllabus is not tailored appropriately to the needs of the students so far as the higher studies concerned, and EFL classroom is not conducive to task-based language teaching (TBLT) practice due to large class size (100-140). It, therefore, suggests that university Foundation English Courses should be redesigned in assimilating the learners’ standard and previous learning, and course contents should cover the socio-cultural factors of the learners. The study also concludes with some effective implications and recommendations based on the findings of the present research.
Hussain Ahmed Liton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. METHODS: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100%) published per million population (1258.571+). The KSA had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3%) were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%), and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%), Pathology (13.7%), Medicine (13.2%), and Surgery (13.1%). King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 +/- 3.45. CONCLUSION: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom.
BACKGROUND: The assessment of the anesthesia course in our university comprises Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), in conjunction with portfolio and multiple-choice questions (MCQ). The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome of different forms of anesthesia course assessment among 5(th) year medical students in our university, as well as study the influence of gender on student performance in anesthesia. METHODS: We examined the performance of 154, 5(th) year medical students through OSCE, portfolios, and MCQ. RESULTS: The score ranges in the portfolio, OSCE, and MCQs were 16-24, 4.2-28.9, and 15.5-44.5, respectively. There was highly significant difference in scores in relation to gender in all assessments other than the written one (P=0.000 for Portfolio, OSCE, and Total exam, whereas P=0.164 for written exam). In the generated linear regression model, OSCE alone could predict 86.4% of the total mark if used alone. In addition, if the score of the written examination is added, OSCE will drop to 57.2% and the written exam will be 56.8% of the total mark. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that different clinical methods used to assess medical students during their anesthesia course were consistent and integrated. The performance of female was superior to male in OSCE and portfolio. This information is the basis for improving educational and assessment standards in anesthesiology and for introducing a platform for developing modern learning media in countries with dearth of anesthesia personnel.
Shams T; El-Masry R; Al Wadani H; Amr M
Clinical specimens from 243 patients attending the ENT clinics at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were investigated for the pathogens attributing to otitis media and tonsillitis. In children as well as in adults with otitis media, the main bacterial causative organisms were Staph, aureus and Ps. aeruginosa; Asp. flavus was detected in 1% and 4% of adult and children cases of otitis media. In tonsillitis H. influenzae, Strept. pneumoniae, Staph. aureus, Strept. gr. A were isolated in only 18% of the children and Strept. pneumoniae, Strept. gr A in 16% of adults. A possible involvement of viruses in tonsillitis is indicated.
Hossain A; Zakzouk SM; Sengupta DK
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessments was conducted from January to May 2011 on 194 randomly selected Saudi medical students at Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The adequacy of nutrient intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI) per the National Research Council. Results: Caloric intake was derived from carbohydrates (72.1%), fats (19.4%) and proteins (8.4%). Proteins and fats were obtained from a greater number of animal sources than of plant sources (5.3% versus 3.2% for proteins and 11.6% versus 7.8% for fats). There were low percentages of RDI of fibers (8.5%), most vitamins especially vitamin D (14.2%), and minerals (potassium (31.3%), zinc (40.7%), magnesium (24.5%), and calcium (47%). Overall, 34.5% of the students were overweight, and 10.3% were obese. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 24.7%, and 56.2% had high high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). There was a positive correlation between the median caloric intake and both the BMI (r=0.42, p=0.00) and hs-CRP (r=0.3, p=0.001). Inactivity was prevalent among the students (64.4%). Conclusion: This study showed deficiencies in several essential nutrients among medical students, and the prevalence of overweight status, obesity, and inactivity were relatively high. These results indicate the need to improve nutrition and promote healthy lifestyles among the medical students.
Abdulkader R. Allam; Inass M. Taha; Omar M. Al-Nozha; Intessar E. Sultan
|Nowadays the use of information communications technology (ICT) is prevalent in higher education across all countries. This study focuses on the level of use of ICT among teachers at a leading university in Saudi Arabia. 16 in-depth interviews reveal that the majority of teachers do not make use of ICT in their teaching. A number of attitudes…
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly sele...
Atika Khalaf; Örjan Ekblom; Jan Kowalski; Vanja Berggren; Albert Westergren; Hazzaa Al-Hazzaa
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.
Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to report on the knowledge of epilepsy, as well as attitudes and practices toward individuals with epilepsy, among health-care professionals in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A survey consisting of 23 questions pertaining to epilepsy awareness was distributed to health education workers (n=51), nutritionists (n=56), physicians (n=265), dentists (n=58), pharmacists (n=41), nurses (n=224), physiotherapists (n=65), and fifth-year medical students (n=62) in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh. RESULTS: Of the 822 respondents who completed the questionnaire, 100% had heard about epilepsy, and 92.6% would allow their children to interact with an individual who has epilepsy. However, 67% of respondents would not want their children to marry an individual with epilepsy, 97.9% of respondents believed that individuals with epilepsy should have the same employment opportunities as the general population, 10.5% believe that supernatural power is the cause of epilepsy, 67.2% did not know how to deal with an individual experiencing an epileptic episode, and 56% did not know that surgery was a treatment option for individuals with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia. Of the 822 respondents, 39% would not abide by a physician's advice not to operate a motor vehicle because of their illness, 91% of whom cited problems with the public transportation system as a reason for disregarding the doctor's advice. When asked if the participants had access to any information on how to deal with epilepsy during their professional training, 60.3% had access to such information during their graduate studies. Ninety-eight percent of those with access to this information were physicians and health-care educators (p<0.001). Physicians and health-care educators were significantly more aware of epilepsy than any of the other groups. CONCLUSION: The level of epilepsy awareness among health-care professionals in Riyadh needs improvement.
Alaqeel A; Alebdi F; Sabbagh AJ
Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.
Alrehaly, Essa D.
Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.
Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and independent sample T-test were used to assess gender difference. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of the body shape dissatisfaction. Overall, 65% of students had normal BMI, more males then females overweight (23%), while more females underweight (16.8%). Females have higher body shape dissatisfaction (33.5%) then males (21.4%), half of males inactive and this percentage increased in females to (73.8%). Overweight males were more dissatisfied with their body shape (10.7%) than females (6.3%). Almost one fifth of inactive males dissatisfied comparable to quarter inactive females dissatisfied with their body shape. Younger age is predictor for body shape dissatisfaction in both genders, also weight in males. BMI and being married female was predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. Collectively results indicate that body shape dissatisfaction and inactive lifestyle were prevalent among females than male’s age, weight; BMI and marital status was the most predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. However developing educational program to promote body shape satisfaction and active lifestyle will be very useful especially among females.
Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi; Shereen L. Nassef; Tarek A. Raouf
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st December 2012). One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3%) replies were received. The survey consisted of 25 questions covering perception, knowledge, and interest of interventional radiology. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (52%) felt their knowledge in IR is poor. Only 40% of the respondents either completed or plan to complete an elective rotation in radiology. Thirty-eight percent of respondents were willing to consider a career in IR. The most common reason (43%) for not considering a career in IR was lack of knowledge. Only 33% correctly identified the route of training of interventional radiologist. The majority of respondents thought that interventional radiologists performed cardiac angioplasty (81%), and femoral popliteal bypass (74%). CONCLUSION: Exposure to IR among medical students and interns was poor. This can be addressed by dedicated undergraduate teaching of IR by interventional radiologists with emphasis on the clinical practice.
OBJECTIVES: In Arab countries there are few studies on assessment methods in the field of psychiatry. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of different forms of psychiatric course assessment among fifth year medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We examined the performance of 110 fifth-year medical students through objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE), traditional oral clinical examinations (TOCE), portfolios, multiple choice questions (MCQ), and a written examination. RESULTS: The score ranges in TOCE, OSCE, portfolio, and MCQ were 32-50, 7-15, 5-10 and 22-45, respectively. In regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between OSCE and all forms of psychiatry examinations, except for the MCQ marks. OSCE accounted for 65.1% of the variance in total clinical marks and 31.5% of the final marks (P = 0.001), while TOCE alone accounted for 74.5% of the variance in the clinical scores. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a consistency among the students' assessment methods used in the psychiatry course, particularly the clinical component, in an integrated manner. This information would be useful for future developments in undergraduate teaching.
Amr M; Amin T
Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessme...
Abdulkader R. Allam; Inass M. Taha; Omar M. Al-Nozha; Intessar E. Sultan
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI
OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study were to review blood procurement, ordering, utilization, and causes of discarding blood in a University hospital and provide recommendations for improvement. The study was also aimed at sheding light on the frequency of seropositivity for certain disease markers in blood donors. METHODS: This review comprised a retrospective 5-year analysis from January 1996 to December 2000 at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: In this study, the most common donors were replacement (46%) and statutory donors (35%), while volunteer blood donors comprised a lower percentage (19%). There was a high crossmatch transfusion ratio (2.96:1) and similarly a high percentage of cancelled transfusions after crossmatching (66.2%). The 2 most commonly ordered blood components were packed red blood cells (45.7%) and random platelet concentrates (19.2%). The infective causes for discarding blood were: hepatitis B core antibody seropositivity (16.9%), hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity (2.4%) followed by hepatitis C antibody seropositivity (1.5%), and rapid plasma reagin (serological test for syphilis) positivity (1%). The common non-infective causes of discarding blood in descending order or frequency were: expired unit shelf life (3.6%), positive donor antibody screen (0.7%), red blood cell morphological abnormalities (0.4%), and blood unit insufficient quantity (0.3%). Release of emergency uncrossmatched blood ranged at 0.6% during the study period. CONCLUSION: Performing blood bank internal audits and reviewing statistics are vital tools for a successful blood transfusion service. Implementing policies such as type and screen and the maximum surgical blood-ordering schedules will lead to monetary savings and more effective blood utilization. Drives for enhancement of volunteer blood donors are recommended.
Full Text Available Background: Hirsutism among women of fertile age is commonly seen in clinical practice, but the pattern of the disease in Saudi Arabs has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical, biochemical and etiologic features of hirsutism in Saudi females. Methods: 101 Saudi Arab women presenting with hirsutism at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005 were prospectively assessed using the recently approved diagnostic guidelines for hyperandrogenic women with hirsutism. Results: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was the cause of hirsutism in 83 patients (82%) followed by id-iopathic hirsutism (IH) in 11 patients (11 %). Others causes of hirsutism included late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia in 4 patients (4%), microprolactinoma in 2 (2%) and Cushing?s syndrome in 1 (1%) patient. Age at presentation of PCOS was 24.5±6.6 years (mean±SD) and 51 % of the subjects were obese. Furthermore, 74 (89%) of patients with PCOS had an oligo/anovulatory cycle while the remaining 9 patients (11 %) maintained normal regular menstrual cycle. Luteinizing hormone and total testosterone were significantly higher in patients with PCOS than in those with IH (P< .05). Conclusions: The present data show PCOS to be the commonest cause of hirsutism in our clinical practice and PCOS is prominent amongst young obese females. However, further studies on a larger scale are needed to verify our findings.
Al-Ruhaily Atallah; Malabu Usman; Sulimani Riad
Full Text Available As Journalism could instinctively exert some effects on international relationships; the importance is how to effectively journalism captures attention. This paper, from the perspective of Saudi-China relationship, chose two renowned Saudi newspapers ?AL RIYADH? and ?AL WATAN?, as objective samples. Deductive and descriptive methodologies have been applied to a detailed study on the coverage of Chinese issues in Saudi newspapers before & after the visit of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz to China.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR), and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2%) of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2) had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA
To study the clinical indications and histopathological pattern of renal biopsies and renal resection specimens in the pediatric age group (birth to 17 years) in a large academic center in western Saudi Arabia. A retrospective review of the computerized database of the Pathology Department at King Abdul Aziz University Hospital (KAUH) was carried out on the final pathology reports of all children of the age of 17 years and below who either had ultrasound-guided renal biopsies or partial or total renal resections during the period between January 1995 and December 2008. All the specimens were reported by our pathology department. The most common clinical indication in the study group (242) is nephrotic syndrome (117, 48.3%), followed by systemic lupus erythromatosis for staging (30, 12.4%), nephritic syndrome (27, 11.1%) and renal mass for histological diagnosis (17, 7.0%). The most frequently reported pathological diagnosis was renal glomerulopathies, constituting 183 cases (n = 183, 75.6%) of the total number of pathology reports reviewed. Primary glomerulopathies were more common (n = 155, 88.4%) than the secondary ones (n = 28, 11.6%). The second most common pediatric renal pathology in this study was renal neoplasms (14, 5.7%). Vascular renal diseases and renal glomerulosclerosis ranked as the third pathological diagnosis in order of frequency in this study, with ten cases (10, 4.1%). The most common clinical indication for renal tissue sampling in this study is nephrotic syndrome and the most frequently detected pathology is glomerulonephritis. Larger multicentre studies are needed to further study pediatric nephropathies.
Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)
Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons) in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD).Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed.Keywords: coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. CONCLUSIONS: This study raises four important determinants for female university students' PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Khalaf A; Ekblom Ö; Kowalski J; Berggren V; Westergren A; Al-Hazzaa H
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Khalaf, Atika; Ekblom, Orjan; Kowalski, Jan; Berggren, Vanja; Westergren, Albert; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa
Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students’ PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Atika Khalaf; Örjan Ekblom; Jan Kowalski; Vanja Berggren; Albert Westergren; Hazzaa Al-Hazzaa
Background: The high prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia is a growing challenge to public health. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors among female university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who completed the Arab Teens Life Style questionnaire. Data included measurements of anthropometric, socioeconomic and environmental factors, as well as self-reported PA. Ordinal regression was used to identify associated factors with low, moderate and high PA levels. Results: The mean age of participants was 20.4 years (SD 1.5). Mean BMI of the students in relation to PA were 23.0, 22.9, 22.1 for high, moderate and low levels of activity, respectively. The analysis revealed significantly higher PA levels among married students, those with high educated mothers, and those who lived far from parks, and lower activity levels among underweight students. Conclusions: This study raises four important determinants for female university students' PA levels. These factors could be of great importance in the endeavor to prevent the health-threatening increase in physical inactivity patterns and thus non-communicable diseases and obesity where the focus should be on the specific situation and needs of women in Saudi Arabia.
Khalaf A; Ekblom O; Kowalski J; Berggren V; Westergren A; Al-Hazzaa H
OBJECTIVE: To investigate knowledge, beliefs, and practices associated with parental antibiotic misuse. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included parents visiting 4 malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between June and December 2010. Self-prescription of antibiotic for a child in the past year was defined as antibiotic misuse. RESULTS: From 610 parents (60.5% mothers and 39.5% fathers), 11.6% reported self-prescription. Responding parents differed by age, education, number of children, and profession. Overall, parents responded that antibiotics are required in children with runny nose or cough or sore throat or fever (50%); to reduce symptom severity and duration (57.7%), are effective against viruses (68.6%), can be stopped on clinical improvement (28.7%), and it used by another family member can be used in children (20.1%). Determinants of misuse in a multivariable model were income, number of children, type of infection treated last year, knowledge of illness requiring antibiotic or being unsure, using antibiotics used by an other family member in children, unsure of such use, and adjusting for the type of responding parent. CONCLUSION: Parents with low income, more than 2 children, lack of knowledge, inappropriate beliefs and practices are vulnerable for misusing antibiotics in children.
Abobotain AH; Sheerah HA; Alotaibi FN; Joury AU; Mishiddi RM; Siddiqui AR; Bin Saeed A
BACKGROUND: No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. RESULTS: A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7%) students scored ? 24 (out of 41points) which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. CONCLUSION: The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect students and their patients.
Amin TT; Al Noaim KI; Bu Saad MA; Al Malhm TA; Al Mulhim AA; Al Awas MA
Full Text Available Background: No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs) and infection control. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. Subjects and Methods: This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. Results: A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7%) students scored ? 24 (out of 41points) which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. Conclusion: The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect students and their patients.
Tarek Tawfik Amin; Khalid Ibrahim Al Noaim; Mohammed Ahmed Bu Saad; Turki Ahmed Al Malhm; Abdullah Abdulaziz Al Mulhim; Marwah Abdulaziz Al Awas
This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)
The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)
Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.
Ghanem M. Al-Ghamdi
The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI=30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce the prevalence of the coronary artery disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, national community-based studies are recommended to evaluate life style factors related to coronary artery disease among both males and females at different age groups in Saudi Arabia. (author)
BACKGROUND: There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. METHODS: This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (p<0.05) less in female students. Inspirations for first time use were friends (both genders) and curiosity (males mainly). Most students did not have a fixed frequency of use. The commonest reasons for use were company of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.
Alsunni AA; Badar A
An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p
Cardiovascular complications in sickle cell disease (SCD) have been well documented but cardiac involvement in Saudi patients with SCD is not known. We sought to identify cardiac abnormalities by electrocardiography in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with stable SCD. Sixty-five consecutive patients with SCD followed at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, were prospectively studied from January 2005 to December 2005. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination to determine chamber dimensions, left ventricular function, valvular anomalies and pulmonary artery pressure. Data were compared to normal age and gender-matched controls. Hematological data were also collected from the patients and correlated with the echocardiographic results. Twenty-eight males and 37 females were evaluated. The mean age of the group was 24.5+-9.2 range (14-44) years. The most common abnormality found was pulmonary hypertension (PH) present in 25 (38%) patients. The majority of these patients had mild PH and only 6 (9%) patients had pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) more than 40 mm Hg. Older age, lower level of fetal hemoglobin and high serum ferritin were associated with increased PASP. Other abnormalities present included dilated left atrium in 17 (26%) patients, dilated right atrium 13 (20%), dilated left ventricle 10(15%), valvular anomalies 21 (32%) and reduced ejection fraction in 4 (6%) patients. Cardiac abnormalities are found in a significant proportion of Saudi patients with SCD. Pulmonary hypertension is the most common finding while other abnormalities are less frequent. (author)
The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)
[en] The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)
Full Text Available Background: We conducted this study to assess knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between de-mographic variables, knowledge of breast cancer, and the practice of breast self-examination and use of mammography screening. Methods: Women interested in participating in this community-based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi, 45% were mar-ried and 67.8% had a university level education. Eighty percent were be-tween the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high; 82% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, while 61% (95% CI: 57.9%-64.5%) knew about mammogra-phy, but only 41.2% (95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%) had performed BSE and 18.2% (95%CI, 15.5%-20.8%) had had mammography screening. Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between the demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Conclusion: Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbal-ance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only moderate knowledge of risk and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammograms vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer.
We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh, Abdallah A AdlanKing Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Informed consent is considered the most important step in clinical interventions. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the quality of informed consent for invasive procedures with regard to consent process and information given about risks and alternative treatments, and (2) to determine patients' attitude toward informed consent at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 162 adult patients in different wards after undergoing surgery or invasive procedures within 1–2 days of signing the informed consent, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Data on patients' characteristics, type of invasive procedure, and some informed consent-related issues were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of the percentage mean score of quality of informed consent, and significance was considered at P ? 0.05.Results: The quality of informed consent was generally poor (% mean score = 50.98 ± 17.49). About two-thirds of patients were told during the informed consent process that they have to sign merely as routine, 48% thought that if they refused the treatment plan they would lose the interest of the treating physician to help them, 42% thought that by saying no they would lose the good relationship with their physician, and 42.6% were not interested in having a copy of the informed consent document. Significantly higher quality was predicted when the physicians were the ones who explained the informed consent (t = 4.15, P < 0.001) and when informed consent was explained to younger patients (t = 2.754, P = 0.007). The overall attitude of the patients toward the process of informed consent was satisfactory (% mean score = 76.31 ± 7.63).Conclusion: The results suggest either that patients are not aware of their rights or that physician paternalism is practiced in Saudi Arabia. Cultural barriers should not be an argument to diminish the role of informed consent. Further studies should focus on how the value of autonomy can be appreciated in the Saudi culture.Keywords: informed consent, quality, invasive procedure, Saudi Arabia
Abolfotouh MA; Adlan AA
During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product.
Madani TA; Alsaedi S; James L; Eldeek BS; Jiman-Fatani AA; Alawi MM; Marwan D; Cudal M; Macapagal M; Bahlas R; Farouq M
In this paper, I describe the work undertaken at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in Saudi Arabia to select a suitable site for a new broad band seismic station. The new station will be equipped with a 3-component 120 s to 50 Hz Trillium120 broad band seismometer, Taurus 24-bit data acquisition system along with a large LCD to display the waveform data in real-time. The KFUPM community will have an opportunity to observe daily seismic activity in real-time and to monitor/record both regional and teleseismic events. Moreover, students will gain the opportunity to identify P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves and learn how to locate an earthquake. The station will also play an important role in providing a source of information about seismic activity for the general public. The station is expected to be operational in a few weeks time.
Kaka, S. I.
OBJECTIVE: Problems facing authorities and researchers of road traffic accidents in most developing countries include lack of data and clarity and accessibility problems with existing data. This resulted in a severe scarcity in information on pedestrian crashes, which, in turn, served as an obstacle facing all efforts to reduce these crashes. This study aims at studying pedestrian crashes with regard to their causes and characteristics in Riyadh, analyzing the bodily distribution of injuries in victims and determining the characteristics of pedestrians and drivers involved in these collisions. METHODS: Data on randomly selected road traffic accidents involving pedestrians between July 2005 and June 2008 were collected from five different sources. Data collected included date and location, casualty details, accident sketch, weather conditions, site characteristics, road surface conditions, vehicle characteristics, type of collision, vehicle(s) direction and movement, damage description, and causes as well as details of parties involved such as nationality, age, education level, severity of injury, and others. RESULTS: The number of pedestrian crashes investigated was 460, involving 551 victims over a 3-year period (out of an estimated 1500 crashes). Results showed that the average rate of pedestrian fatalities per accident was as high as 0.32 and that almost two thirds of drivers and slightly less than half of the victims were less than 30 years of age. In contrast to other road traffic accidents (RTAs) in this city, two thirds of pedestrian crashes occurred between 4:00 pm and midnight. Results also revealed that non-Saudis and men were at a significantly greater risk than Saudis and women to be involved in pedestrian crashes. It was also found that two thirds of pedestrians involved in RTAs were struck while crossing the road. Moreover, although 8.7 percent of Riyadh's population lives in the southern and northern regions of the city, pedestrian crashes in these two regions constituted 32.2 percent of all pedestrian crashes. As related to injury type, head, thorax, and spinal injuries formed most of the serious injuries. It was also found that the most often injured body regions were the upper and lower extremities and the head. CONCLUSIONS: Practical recommendations are given that researchers, traffic police, medical authorities, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), educational institutions, and municipalities can adopt to lower the risk of pedestrian crashes.
Al-Shammari N; Bendak S; Al-Gadhi S
Hysolar - German-Saudi Arabian solar hydrogen research, development and demonstration program. Hysolar - Deutsch-Saudi Arabisches Forschungs-, Entwicklungs- und Demonstrationsprogramm Solarer Wasserstoff
The Hysolar project is carried out in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia. In a 350 kW pilot plant in Riyadh, hydrogen is produced by water decomposition in an electrolytic process. The electrical power required for this is supplied by a solar generator equipped with solar cells. (Sauter).
Full Text Available Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out during 2010-2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale was used.Results: The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001). Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.85-5.82, P < 0.001). Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi) & having emotional failure.Conclusion: Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.
Nahla Ibrahim; Dania Al- Kharboush; Lamis El-Khatib; Ahd Al -Habib; Dana Asali
This paper briefly describes the main characteristics of the TeMaD system, developed for the Saudi National Guard Hospital in Riyadh. TeMaD attempts to improve current healthcare services for diabetic patients, and assists healthcare givers in disease management. It strengthens communication channels between patients and their healthcare givers, possibly leading to better health.
Alkadi K; Roudsari A
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate in both developing and developed countries. It has become a serious epidemic health problem, estimated to be the fifth leading cause of mortality at global level. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among students at Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and to investigate some of the epidemiologic risk factors contributing to it. A cross sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2009-2010. The study included 224 randomly selected students enrolled at Umm Al-Qura University. Data were collected using a pretested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Weight, height, waist hip ratio and Body Mass Index (BMI) were recorded for each student. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the studied students was 25% (19.2%, were overweight and 5.8% were obese). Factors behind overweight and obesity were; high family monthly income, family history of obesity, eating while bored, depressed and upset. The association between physical activity, dietary factors and obesity were not observed in this study. Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.
Amany Mokhtar Abdelhafez; Salma Sa`ad Mohammad Al-Mashi
Full Text Available Viral etiology was investigated in 133 Saudi patients with acute hepatitis seen in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. between July 1993-May 1994. Out of the 133 patients, 51 (38.3%) were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was the second most common etiological agent (20.3%). There were 35 patients with acute hepatitis (26.3%) in whom no viral marker for HAV, HBV, HCV, CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected. Among the 51 patients with acute hepatitis due to HAV, the major-ity (88.2%) were children (1-12 years) and only 6 (11.8%) were adults (15-24 years). This is in contrast to patients with HCV or HBV infection where the majority were adults: 74.1% and 82.3% respectively. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis due to HAV in Saudi adults, an observa-tion not seen earlier, indicated a change in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection in the Saudi population. This change was confirmed by the significant reduction in the prevalence of anti-HAV in 630 Saudi subjects (1-30 years old) (50.2%) investigated in 1994 compared to that of 587 subjects of the same age group investigated in 1986 (76.5%) (P < 0.005). In the light of these results, a nation-wide survey is recommended to confirm this pattern in other areas. It is important that high-risk Saudi groups be identified and evaluated for their anti-HAV status as these groups are candidates for HAV vaccination.
Arif M; Al-Faleh F; Al-Frayh A; Ramia S
The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)
Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06), followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40) and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75). After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03), older age (P = 0.003), rural origin (P = 0.03), positive family history of the same lesion(s) (P = 0.01), shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02), generalized spread (P ? 0.02), and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02).Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia
Abolfotouh MA; Al-Khowailed MS; Suliman WE; Al-Turaif DA; Al-Bluwi E; Al-Kahtani HS
Full Text Available Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney function and urine examination to detect proteinuria and other urinary abnormalities. In addition, 53 patients from the cohort had 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantitate proteinuria. The patient population consisted of 34 males (46.5%) and 39 females (53.5%) with a median age of 23 years (range 14-40). Proteinuria was present in 30 patients (41%). Creatinine clearance was low in 12 patients (22.5%) and seven of these patients had low or low-normal serum creatinine despite reduced creatinine clearance. Low serum creatinine was common and present in 28 patients (38%). Two patients had chronic renal failure and one of them is on regular dialysis. Other abnormalities detected include hematuria in seven patients (8.5%) and hemoglobinuria in 12 patients (14.5%). In conclusion, renal abnormalities are present in a significant number of Saudi patients with SCD and proteinuria is the most common abnormality. Serum creatinine may remain low or within low-normal range in SCD patients despite reduced creatinine clearance. As proteinuria is a risk factor for developing renal failure in future, routine screening of SCD patients is recommended for timely intervention in order to prevent or delay renal damage.
Full Text Available Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological features of CRC in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed to have CRC at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 10 year period (1995-2005). The data collected from medical files, endoscopy and imaging reports included age, gender, clinical presentation, smoking, relevant past or family history, site and size of the tumor, stage, carcinoembryonic antigen level and tumor grade. Results: A total of 113 patients were included over the 10 year period. The average age at diagnosis was 55 years (S.D.=15), 58% of the patients were males and 42% were females. Thirty-seven percent of the patients were 50 years of age or younger. The most common clinical presentation was abdominal pain (68%) followed by rectal bleeding (62%) and weight loss (55%). Left-sided lesions and rectal cancer constituted 76% and 48% of all CRC tumors respectively. Sixty-eight percent of lesions were stage C and above. Forty-five percent of patients presented with complete large bowel obstruction. Conclusion: In this analysis, we found that Saudi patients were more likely to present with colorectal cancer at a more advanced stage of the disease and at younger ages compared to Western populations. This data suggests the need for a mass screening program to be implemented for this common and preventable cancer in Saudi Arabia.
Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)
Full Text Available We assessed the influence of gender on the performance in surgical and medical disciplines in undergraduate final theory examinations at College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The college admits 200 students (120 males and 80 females) every year in the 6 year degree program. The results of written exam for the year 2008-09 for all subjects were analyzed. The question papers consisted of multiple choice tests only. There were 50 assessments which included 19 from medical, 22 from surgical and 9 from pre-clinical disciplines. Using cross sectional design we analyzed the students' theory results. The female students showed overall better performance in all theory assessments (mean ±SD; 71.21±7.89 vs. 67.14±8.08, p=0.01). In a subject-wise comparison, the female students showed significantly higher mean scores in 24 out of 50 assessments. Both the genders had comparable scores for medical disciplines (n=19 assessments), however, in surgical disciplines females’ performance was superior (mean ±SD; 72.0±6.6 vs. 67.47±7.0; p=0.03). The female students showed significantly better scores in surgical disciplines than in medical disciplines and they outperformed male students in overall scores in surgical disciplines.
Kishore K. Deepak,; Khalid Umran Al-Umran; Mona H Al-Sheikh; Abdullah Al-Rubaish
BACKGROUND: Medical students can play a vital role in health research at any institute. Moreover, scientific publication by medical students is a strong indicator of students' knowledge, skills and attitudes towards scientific research. Very little information exists, however, on this matter in Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the publication practices of medical interns who graduated from King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine and to investigate barriers to conducting and publishing research during their medical studies. A questionnaire was distributed to 394 interns and 249 (63.2%) responded. RESULTS: About 31% of the responding interns started research during their undergraduate study years. About 12% discontinued their research, whereas only 7% submitted their research for publication. Only 3.2% of the interns had their research papers published and 3.2% had their research paper accepted for publication; 2% had research papers under revision. Interns had positive attitudes towards research, although only a few of them had submitted their papers for publication. Furthermore, interns expressed the need for training in research design, scientific paper writing and publication practice. They recommended devoting slots in medical school curriculum, in addition to other extracurricular training workshops, to teach and train students on such practices and also to provide more convenient opportunities for student participation in conferences. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Interns in King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine have a positive attitude towards research; however, few students submit papers for publication. Lack of time and training in research methods were the main obstacles cited by the interns for conducting and publishing research. Interns welcome training in research, scientific writing and publication practice. These requirements will be issued to the main curriculum committee at the faculty of medicine and recommendations on possible actions will be discussed with the administration.
Alsayed N; Eldeek B; Tayeb S; Ayuob N; Al-Harbi A
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).
The aim of the study was to de-termine the oral health status and treatment needs of elderly residents of residential homes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Among 129 elderly residents, 83 (51 males, and 32 females) of them were interviewed and clini-cally examined according to WHO criteria by two ...
Sharifa A. M. Al-Shehri
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate any differences between female undergraduate medical and non-medical students for: 1) prevalence and causes of perceived academic stress, and 2) changes in physical, mental, psychological and emotional health as well as life-style since starting college studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in January 2008. All 319 pre-clinical female medical students were included in the study and 297 non-medical students from the College of Applied Studies and Community Services (CASCS) were selected by stratified random sampling. The study instrument was a questionnaire on the "Influence of Studying on Students' Health". RESULTS: More medical students (48.6%) reported being frequently stressed due to studies than CASCS students (38.7%, P <0.01). Unsuitable teaching methods, an unsatisfactory study environment, and fear of failure in examinations were more frequently mentioned by medical than non-medical students (P <0.05). While underlying social problems were significantly more common in medical students, economic problems were more prevalent among CASCS students (P <0.05, P <0.05). More medical than non-medical students reported a worse status of physical and mental health, anxiety and depression and negative life-style changes since initiation of the college programme. CONCLUSION: Medical students were at higher risk of physical and mental health problems than non-medical students due to academic stress. Since a substantial proportion of CASCS students also experienced academic stress, we recommend that a student support committee be established for both colleges to provide counselling and guidance in healthy ways to cope with stress.
Al-Dabal BK; Koura MR; Rasheed P; Al-Sowielem L; Makki SM
Measurement of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides together with some man-made deposited ones in soil have been carried out in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Soil samples from more than one hundred locations have been studied. Concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides from both uranium and thorium series, 40K and 137Cs have been measured using hyper pure germanium spectrometers. Concentrations of 238U in soil samples have been evaluated using laser fluorimetry, while 90Sr has been measured after chemical separation using a liquid scintillation counter. Gamma-ray doses have been measured in the same sites where soil samples were collected and the measured values are given together with calculated doses based on the measured concentrations of natural gamma emitters in soil
A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 °C. The Mössbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.
Khalil, Mutasim I.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Saudi adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out as part of the screening and early evaluation of kidney disease project. Vitamin D was measured in subjects recruited at 2 screening camps in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March to May 2008. Subjects from the 2 large commercial centers in Riyadh aged >/=18 years and Saudi nationals were invited. RESULTS: The study sample comprised of 488 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 37.43 (11.32) years, of which 50.2% (n=245) were males. Twenty-nine percent of subjects were in the vitamin D deficiency group, 22.7% were in the relative insufficiency group, and 47.5% had normal levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. We observed that female gender was an independent predictor of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.992; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.069-4.327). Anemia was also a predictor for vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 3.16; 95% CI 2.02-4.92). Age was positively correlated with vitamin D levels (Pearson correlation=0.183, p<0.000). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is common in healthy Saudi adults. This is more pronounced in females and in the younger age groups. Wearing of traditional clothes, deliberate avoidance of the sun, and inadequate dietary intake are likely to be the principal causes of low vitamin D levels.
Alsuwadia AO; Farag YM; Al Sayyari AA; Mousa DH; Alhejaili FF; Al-Harbi AS; Housawi AA; Mittal BV; Singh AK
Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)
Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of students' preferred learning styles is important while developing teaching strategies that influence student commitment during the course. The VARK questionnaire is one of the commonly used learning style inventories. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine and assess the sex-based differences in learning style preferences among second-year medical students at Taibah University who were prospective students for the research methodology course. METHODS: All second-year medical students at Taibah University (n=129) were invited to participate in the study and were administered the Arabic version of the VARK questionnaire. A total of 89 students, 45 female and 44 male, completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 67%. The students were classified according to the VARK questionnaire as visual, read/write, auditory, kinesthetic, and multimodal learners. RESULTS: Nearly two-thirds (66.3%) of the students preferred multimodality for information presentation. Male and female students showed significantly different learning style preferences (P=0.02). Female students tended to prefer the multimodal learning style more compared with male students (77.8% vs. 54.5%, respectively). Furthermore, 33.7% of students preferred the single mode of information presentation (45.5% male and 22.2% female students); the auditory mode was the predominant selection among the unimodal male and female learners (41% of male vs. 11.1% of female students). CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: The majority of the second-year medical students preferred multimodality in terms of learning preferences, with a significant difference between male and female students; female students tended to favor the multiple modes of information presentation more compared with male students. The study recommends modification of the teaching strategies of the current research methodology course toward the use of a variety of active learning techniques that would fit the different learning styles exhibited by the studied students, rather than classic lectures.
R Abdallah A; Al-Zalabani A; Alqabshawi R
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has increased worldwide, with a subsequent increase in the associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of GDM and to compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with GDM with nondiabetic women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study investigating the maternal and the neonatal outcomes of women with GDM who delivered in King Khalid University Hospital as compared with the outcomes of nondiabetic women who delivered during the same period. The data were collected from the 1st of January to the 31st of December 2010 from the labor ward registry. The pregnancy outcomes of the women with GDM were compared with the outcomes of nondiabetic women who delivered during the same study period. RESULTS: Out of 3041 women who delivered during the study period, 569 (18.7%) had GDM and 2472 (81.3%) were not diabetic. Compared with the nondiabetic women, women with GDM were more likely to be delivered by emergency cesarean section (CS), odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (1.02-1.66), or elective CS (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.22-2.44, P<0.001). The neonates of the mothers with GDM were significantly heavier and more frequently macrosomic (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.71, P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of APGAR scores less than 7 in 5 min, preterm delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation, or in the frequency of intrauterine fetal death. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GDM in King Khalid University Hospital is among the highest in the world. GDM is associated with an increased risk for CS delivery and macrosomia.
Wahabi HA; Esmaeil SA; Fayed A; Alzeidan RA
The appropriate convergence angle (CA) for adequate retention and resistance of cast crowns has always been a matter of research and discussion. The purpose of this study was to measure the CA of tooth preparation for single crown (SC) or as abutments for fixed partial denture (FPD) carried out by final-year undergraduate dental students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University and to compare them with the recommended CA. The convergence angles of 355 tooth preparations were evaluated and grouped into SC preparations and FPD abutment preparations. Dies were scanned using the computer-assisted design (CAD) system (Cercon, Degudent), and snapshots were then taken from buccal and mesial views. CA was calculated from a colored printout for each snapshot using a protractor. The overall mean CA was 18.56°. Only 32.7 percent of the preparations were within the recommended CA (<12°). The mean CA of SC (17.7°) was less than the mean CA for FPD abutment preparations (19.58°). The mean CA for anterior tooth preparations (15.8°) was significantly less than the mean CA for posterior tooth preparations (20.3°). The mean CA for mesio-distal axial wall preparations (16.66°) was less than the mean CA for the buccolingual axial wall preparations (20.45°). A wide range was found for the convergence of the axial walls among dental students. The recommended CA (<12°) was difficult to achieve clinically by these students.
Aleisa K; Al-Dwairi ZN; Alwazzan K; Al-Moither M; Al-Shammari M; Lynch E
Full Text Available Objectives: To review the pattern of thyroid tumor, demographic data of the patients, sensitivity, and specificity of fine needle aspiration cytology; Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy at King Fahad Hospital of the University between 1982 and 2008. Data were analyzed for demographic characteristics, type of thyroid tumors, Fine Needle Aspirations Cytology (FNAC) yields and surgical complications; Results: A total of 143 patients with thyroid tumors underwent throidectomy. Their median age was 37.5 years. Females were predominantly affected (81%) with female to male ratio of (4:29). Thyroid carcinoma accounted for (75%) while benign tumors for (25%). The most common thyroid epithelial cancer was papillary type (74%) and was limited to thyroid tissues in almost two third of cases. Non-epithelial cancer in the form of thyroid lymphoma accounted for (4.89%) of the cases. FNAC sensitivity was 56% and specificity 92%. Surgical complications occurred in 18% of the patients; Conclusions: The commonest malignant thyroid cancer was papillary carcinoma. Thyroid cancer was more common in females. FNAC is highly accurate to confirm thyroid cancer but less sensitive in this study. Surgical complications were relatively minimal.
Ali M. Al-Amri
Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-55 yrs. (74+, 56>), 76 were > 55 yrs. Of age (42 +, 34>) and only 12 were 55 yrs. of age and 45 were precipitated by biliary disease. Twenty six developed complications (21 were > 55 yrs. old) and four deaths. Twenty two patients of these who had severe form had diabetes mellitus, 37 had fever at presentation and 56 had leukocytosis. Conclusions: The commonest etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 147 patients (67.5%) followed by postoperative pancreatitis in 10 patients (4.6%). Alcohol as etiological factor was rare (1.8%). The epidemiology and the risk factors differed markedly in Saudi Arabia, where alcohol is prohibited
Al-Karawi Mohamed; Mohamed Abdulrahman; Dafala Mustasim; Yasawi Mohamed; Ghadour Zuhail
The spatial variation of radon concentration within the building of the preparatory year located in Riyadh was studied. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six month periods in more than 40 rooms of the surveyed building. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between floors and between rooms on the same floor. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as a reference level, were calculated also in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels in case of using advanced Italian granite building material. All the results of this study were investigated and compared with usual Indian granite building material and it was found that the knowledgement buildingis a healthy work place which may be due to uses of advanced building materials.
Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes. Conclusion: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general. Keywords: cornea, corneal transplantation, corneal dystrophy, corneal scars, bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, herpetic keratitis
Omar N; Bou Chacra CT; Tabbara KF
Full Text Available This paper addresses the language maintenance and language shift among the young Tigrinya-speaking Eritrean immigrants in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixty-four Tigrinya-speaking teenager immigrants in Riyadh participated in this study. Forty of them are females and twenty-four are males. These respondents are students enrolled in the Eritrean International School in Riyadh. The results reveal that respondents have a limited ability to understand, speak, read, write, and translate orally Tigrinya into Arabic and vice-versa. In comparing the level of their proficiency in both Tigrinya and Arabic, it is found that they have a lower proficiency in Tigrinya than in Arabic. The use of Tigrinya is seemingly decreasing and the use of Arabic is increasing. Therefore, there is evidence from this study that second-generation Tigrinya teenagers’ proficiency is shifting toward Arabic rather than maintaining the native language.
Hussein Ali Habtoor
This study examines, through a descriptive and analytical approach, the Saudi perspective on its oil power and policies in world affairs and how the Arab-Israeli conflict affects these policies. A special emphasis on the United States-Saudi Arabian relationship is made, since Saudi Arabia looks at the United States as the key factor in the Arab-Israeli conflict. To serve this end, the dissertation is divided into three parts. Part one examines the economic and political reality of oil power, its implication and limitation. Also, this part examines the behavior and the policies of the oil companies, the oil-consuming countries, and the oil-producing countries after the structural change of the oil industry and the shift in control of production and prices from the hands of the oil companies to those of the oil-producing countries. Part two examines the Saudi Arabian economy, the role of oil in developing this economy, and the effect of Saudi development plans on Saudi oil policies. Part three examines Saudi foreign policy, especially its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, with emphasis on the Saudi oil role in this regard. Also, this part examines the United States-Saudi Arabia relationship and interest, the United States interest in Israel, and, finally, how Riyadh sees these interests affecting United States policies in the Middle East.
Full Text Available Second language (L2) classrooms are venues for learners to construct their identities, which are socially, culturally, politically and historically situated. Informed by the theory of community of practice (COP), this paper examines how two Saudi first-year students who are pursuing their master degree in TESOL at American Universities shape and negotiate their identities (i.e., participation and membership) in their new academic communities, mainly in a L2 academic classroom. The data was collected through (1) a personal narrative which traces each student’s firs-year experience and view toward American oriented classroom participation, and (2) an individual interview to explore in-depth information missing in the narrative accounts. The findings suggest that both Saudi students experienced difficulties and challenges in negotiating competence, identities, and power relations, which was crucial for them to participate and be accepted as legitimate and competent members of their classroom communities. Based on these findings, this paper argues that newcomers’ (i.e., international students) socialization in a certain academic discourse community is conflictual and complex process, which involves struggle, negotiation and construction and deconstruction of identities. Possible implications for instruction are discussed.
Osman Z. Barnawi
A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261
Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M
A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.
Al-Atawi FJ; Halawa AM
Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.
Fahad J. Al-Atawi; Alaa M. Halawa
In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)
The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).
Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.
This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.
Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor
Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.
A. R. Hashem; K. F. Abed
OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in children. METHODS: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2011 to December 2011. The study population consisted of 22 children with symptoms suggestive of PCD and the diagnosis was confirmed by ciliary biopsy. Using the American Thoracic Society guidelines, measurements of FENO were performed in 22 subjects with proven PCD biopsies and in 11 healthy age-matched subjects. RESULTS: No significant differences were found on the basis of age or ventilatory function tests between the PCD patients and control groups. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide values were significantly lower in children with PCD (6.19+/-1.43) compared to control group (17.00+/-6.30) (CI: -14.854 to -5.927, p<0.0001). Rhinorrhea was seen in 7 (31.8%), recurrent acute otitis media in 16 (72.7%), chronic otitis media in 5 (22.7%), recurrent sinusitis in 5 (22.7%), chronic productive cough in 8 (36.4%), bronchospasm in 11 (50%), and dextrocardia in 3 (13.6%) subjects. There was no correlation between age, FENO, and ventilatory function parameters. CONCLUSION: The measurement of FENO appears to be a useful tool for screening children for PCD. It can complement other tests such as nasal biopsy and electron microscopy studies.
Alsaadi MM; Habib SS; Al Muqhem BA; Aldrees A; Al Zamil JF; Alsadoon HA
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in children. Methods: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2011 to December 2011. The study population consisted of 22 children with symptoms suggestive of PCD and the diagnosis was confirmed by ciliary biopsy. Using the American Thoracic Society guidelines, measurements of FENO were performed in 22 subjects with proven PCD biopsies and in 11 healthy age-matched subjects. Results: No significant differences were found on the basis of age or ventilatory function tests between the PCD patients and control groups. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide values were significantly lower in children with PCD (6.19±1.43) compared to control group (17.00±6.30) (CI: -14.854 to -5.927, p Conclusion: The measurement of FENO appears to be a useful tool for screening children for PCD. It can complement other tests such as nasal biopsy and electron microscopy studies.
Muslim M. Al Saadi; Syed S. Habib; Badar A. Al Muqhem; Abdulamajeed AlDrees; Jawad F. Al Zamil; Hammad A. AlSadoon
BACKGROUND: Since June, 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has, worldwide, caused 104 infections in people including 49 deaths, with 82 cases and 41 deaths reported from Saudi Arabia. In addition to confirming diagnosis, we generated the MERS-CoV genomic sequences obtained directly from patient samples to provide important information on MERS-CoV transmission, evolution, and origin. METHODS: Full genome deep sequencing was done on nucleic acid extracted directly from PCR-confirmed clinical samples. Viral genomes were obtained from 21 MERS cases of which 13 had 100%, four 85-95%, and four 30-50% genome coverage. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 sequences, combined with nine published MERS-CoV genomes, was done. FINDINGS: Three distinct MERS-CoV genotypes were identified in Riyadh. Phylogeographic analyses suggest the MERS-CoV zoonotic reservoir is geographically disperse. Selection analysis of the MERS-CoV genomes reveals the expected accumulation of genetic diversity including changes in the S protein. The genetic diversity in the Al-Hasa cluster suggests that the hospital outbreak might have had more than one virus introduction. INTERPRETATION: We present the largest number of MERS-CoV genomes (21) described so far. MERS-CoV full genome sequences provide greater detail in tracking transmission. Multiple introductions of MERS-CoV are identified and suggest lower R0 values. Transmission within Saudi Arabia is consistent with either movement of an animal reservoir, animal products, or movement of infected people. Further definition of the exposures responsible for the sporadic introductions of MERS-CoV into human populations is urgently needed. FUNDING: Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health, Wellcome Trust, European Community, and National Institute of Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre.
Cotten M; Watson SJ; Kellam P; Al-Rabeeah AA; Makhdoom HQ; Assiri A; Al-Tawfiq JA; Alhakeem RF; Madani H; Alrabiah FA; Hajjar SA; Al-Nassir WN; Albarrak A; Flemban H; Balkhy HH; Alsubaie S; Palser AL; Gall A; Bashford-Rogers R; Rambaut A; Zumla AI; Memish ZA
Background and Aims: Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) covers many types of treatments and procedures that are usually not included in conventional medicine and are used in addition to physician-prescribed drugs to “complement” treatment. Although liver disease is prevalent in Saudi Arabia, not much is known about CAM use among Saudi liver disease patients. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of CAM use in these patients and their attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: Patients were recruited randomly from a tertiary care hepatology clinic at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from February 4 to March 20, 2012. A four-page questionnaire was used to interview patients. Results: Of all the 232 participants surveyed, 55.6% have used or are using CAM to treat their liver disease with 45.0% of CAM users stating that they believe it has a positive effect on their treatment. Honey was the most used CAM treatment among the participants (39.0%). Herb use was represented by 31.8% of all users, while 13.5% used bloodletting as a treatment. Cautery was the least used CAM method (3.4%). Nearly 76.6% of CAM users were satisfied with using alternative treatments to help control their disease. Nearly 69.4% of users and nonusers stated that they believe CAM treatments to have numerous beneficial effects. Nearly 60.5% of CAM users stated that their physician had no knowledge of their CAM use. Of the factors included in linear multivariate regression analysis (including: Age, gender, and family CAM use, among other socioeconomic factors) only family CAM use was considered a significant independent factor affecting participants CAM use (Beta = 0.582, 95% CI: 0.372-0.754, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of the patients have reported CAM use. Overall, more than two-thirds of the entire sample believed that CAM treatments have numerous health benefits.
Al-Zahim, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Malki, Nawaf Y.; Al-Abdulkarim, Faisal M.; Al-Sofayan, Salman A.; Abunab, Hossam A.; Abdo, Ayman A.
Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, upflow/downflow carbon adsorption, and chemical recovery and reuse are among the state of the art processes used at the Riyadh wastewater treatment plant to transform municipal wastewater into high quality process water for a Saudi Arabian refinery. The treatment plant handles an average flow of 10.6 mgd. Criteria used in determining the initial plant design ensures that the levels of water quality required for the refinery processes will be achieved. Problems encountered during initial plant operation and solutions implemented are discussed. (5 diagrams, 4 tables)
Kalinske, A.A.; Willis, J.F.; Martin, S.R.
Background: The issue of patient safety has received an increasing attention worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, policy makers and health organizations continually strive to substantially reduce medical errors and improve quality of health care. The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of Riyadh hospitals' staff on patient safety and error reporting and to identify factors that influence the levels of frequency of events reported. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey, using Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC), was carried out in 2008. The questionnaire was distributed to all hospitals' staff in Riyadh, which included nine public hospitals and two private hospitals. A total of 1224 questionnaires were returned over a six-month period, giving a response rate of 47.4%. Results: Organizational learning was the safety culture dimension with the highest positive response (75.9%), while the non-punitive response to error received the lowest positive response (21.1%). The key areas that need improvement in public hospitals include handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing, and non-punitive response to error. The private hospitals need an improvement in two aspects; staffing and non-punitive response to error. The results show that all types of mistakes were reported more frequency in private hospitals than in public hospitals. Most respondents reported "no events" in the twelve months preceding the survey, with the percentage of not reporting being higher in private sector compared to public hospitals. The high percent of "no event" reports may represent under-reporting in all hospitals. Regression analysis indicated that event reporting was influenced by feedback and communication about error, staff position, teamwork across units, non- punitive response to error, supervisor/managers expectations and actions promoting patients safety, and type of hospital. Conclusion and Recommendations: Areas needs improvement in Riyadh hospitals includes handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing and non-punitive response to error. Healthcare organizations should reduce the fear of blame culture and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning. PMID:20673566
Al-Ahmadi, Talal A
Background: The issue of patient safety has received an increasing attention worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, policy makers and health organizations continually strive to substantially reduce medical errors and improve quality of health care. The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of Riyadh hospitals' staff on patient safety and error reporting and to identify factors that influence the levels of frequency of events reported. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey, using Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC), was carried out in 2008. The questionnaire was distributed to all hospitals' staff in Riyadh, which included nine public hospitals and two private hospitals. A total of 1224 questionnaires were returned over a six-month period, giving a response rate of 47.4%. Results: Organizational learning was the safety culture dimension with the highest positive response (75.9%), while the non-punitive response to error received the lowest positive response (21.1%). The key areas that need improvement in public hospitals include handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing, and non-punitive response to error. The private hospitals need an improvement in two aspects; staffing and non-punitive response to error. The results show that all types of mistakes were reported more frequency in private hospitals than in public hospitals. Most respondents reported "no events" in the twelve months preceding the survey, with the percentage of not reporting being higher in private sector compared to public hospitals. The high percent of "no event" reports may represent under-reporting in all hospitals. Regression analysis indicated that event reporting was influenced by feedback and communication about error, staff position, teamwork across units, non- punitive response to error, supervisor/managers expectations and actions promoting patients safety, and type of hospital. Conclusion and Recommendations: Areas needs improvement in Riyadh hospitals includes handoffs and transitions, communication openness, staffing and non-punitive response to error. Healthcare organizations should reduce the fear of blame culture and create a climate of open communication and continuous learning.
The solar-radiation variation over horizontal surfaces calculated by the ASHRAE clear-sky model is compared with measurements for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both model results and measurements are averaged on an hourly basis for all days in each month of the year to get a monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. The measured data are further averaged over the years 1996-2000. The ASHRAE model implemented utilizes the standard values of the coefficients proposed in the original model. Calculations are also made with a different set of coefficients proposed in the literature. The results show that the ASHRAE model calculations generally over-predict the measured data particularly for the months of October ? May. A daily total solar-flux is obtained by integrating the hourly distribution. Based on the daily total flux, a factor PHI (
[en] Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical manifestation and mode of treatment of Graves' disease at King Khalid University Hospital Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A retrospective study of all cases of Graves' disease diagnosed at the hospital in the period between January 1995 and December 2004, who received a minimum of two years treatment were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 194 patients were seen with female: male ratio of 2.9:1 and mean age of 32 +/- 0.9 years. Sixty nine percent of the patients had positive thyroid antibodies. Palpitations, tremors, weight loss and nervousness were the most common presenting manifestations. Forty nine percent of patients were treated with radioiodine, 38% with antithyroid drugs, and 13% underwent subtotal thyroidectomy. CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations of Graves' disease in our patients distinctly differed from those reported in the West and Pacific Islanders with notable rarity of pretibial myxoedema and hyperpigmentation respectively. We also noted higher male to female ratio and an increasing utility of radioactive iodine therapy while use of antithyroid drugs and surgery are declining.
Malabu UH; Alfadda A; Sulimani RA; Al-Rubeaan KA; Al-Ruhaily AD; Fouda MA; Al-Maatouq MA; El-Desouki MI
Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (-238 G/A, -308 G/A), interleukin (IL)-6 (-634 G/C) and IL-10 (-592 C/A) in the promoter region of 3 different interleukin (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10) genes. METHODS: The study group comprised 65 women (mean age: 34.1+/-6.2; range: 15-45 years) with unexplained RSA, consecutively referred to the Recurrent Abortion Clinic, King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to January 2011. The control group consisted of 65 females with at least 2 successful pregnancies and no history of abortion. Blood samples were drawn and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted using Puregene DNA purification kit. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction, the promoter region was amplified and sequenced on an Applied Biosystems Integrated sequencer to study the polymorphic sites of interest. All polymorphisms were identified in the case and control samples. RESULTS: A significant association was identified only between the -308 G/A polymorphism in the TNF-alpha gene promoter and the occurrence of unexplained RSA, and there was no significant association with other positions. CONCLUSION: The TNF-alpha gene polymorphism at position -308 could be a genetic predisposing factor for unexplained RSA.
Alkhuriji AF; Alhimaidi AR; Babay ZA; Wary AS
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationships between unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) (-238 G/A, -308 G/A), interleukin (IL)-6 (-634 G/C) and IL-10 (-592 C/A) in the promoter region of 3 different interleukin (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10) genes. Methods: The study group comprised 65 women (mean age: 34.1±6.2; range: 15-45 years) with unexplained RSA, consecutively referred to the Recurrent Abortion Clinic, King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to January 2011. The control group consisted of 65 females with at least 2 successful pregnancies and no history of abortion. Blood samples were drawn and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted using Puregene DNA purification kit. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction, the promoter region was amplified and sequenced on an Applied Biosystems Integrated sequencer to study the polymorphic sites of interest. All polymorphisms were identified in the case and control samples. Results: A significant association was identified only between the -308 G/A polymorphism in the TNF-? gene promoter and the occurrence of unexplained RSA, and there was no significant association with other positions. Conclusion: The TNF-? gene polymorphism at position -308 could be a genetic predisposing factor for unexplained RSA.
Afrah F. Alkhuriji; Ahmad R. Alhimaidi; Zeneb A. Babay; Arjumand S. Wary
Objective was to assess the patient's awareness of their medicalconditions, identify the factors affecting their awareness and assesspatient's satisfaction with their doctor's explanations of medicalconditions. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2005 in theoutpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.The statistical package for Social Science was used for analysis. Fivehundred and one patients were included in the study. The mean age was45.6+-16.8. Fifty-five percent were female and 29% were highly educated. Mostof the patients (64.1%) knew their diagnoses. This was significantlyassociated with educational level; chronicity of the disease and theawareness of other issues related to their illness such as complications andname of their medications (p>0.05). Few patients (20%) knew complications oftheir diseases. Seventy percent of the patients were satisfied with theirdoctor's explanation of their disease. Knowing the diagnosis (p=0.001) andthe disease complications (p=0.014) were associated significantly withpatient's satisfaction. These figures are less than what they should be.Physicians must be advised of the importance of proper patient education. Inaddition, the lack of proper education by physicians demonstrated in thisstudy should be compensated for by an increase in non-physician basededucation tools. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : More than 60 million persons have been infected since AIDS was described in 1981. By the end of 2003, an estimated 40 million individuals were living with HIV globally. The surveillance of HIV/AIDS still faces challenges in Saudi Arabia. This study describes the pattern and characteristics of HIV/AIDS cases in Saudi Arabia. METHODS : This descriptive analytic study describes the reported HIV/AIDS data for all notifiable cases during the period 1984 to 2003 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Case definitions based on ELISA and Western Blot tests were used. Age, sex and regional distribution were studied in addition to survival rates. RESULTS : As of 2003, 1743 Saudi nationals and 6064 non-Saudi HIV cases were reported. Among Saudis, 872 were AIDS cases. Males accounted for 1329 HIV infections, comprising 77%, with a male-to-female ratio of about 3:1. Adults 15-49 years constituted 78% of cases, including 46% of cases infected through sexual activity, while 33% of reported HIV seropositive cases had already died. Most cases (67%) were registered in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam. Infection through blood transfusion declined with no reported cases since 2001. CONCLUSION : The number of reported HIV infections in KSA has increased in the last few years. Using the coverage rate estimating method, the number of Saudi HIV infections since the emergence of the epidemic was estimated to be 2640 cases as of the beginning of the year 2004. The estimated number of HIV infections is almost one and one-half times the reported number, indicating that a problem of underreporting of HIV/AIDS cases still exists.
Al-Mazrou Yagob; Al-Jeffri Mohamed; Fidail Abdulla; Al-Huzaim Nasir; El-Gizouli Sirrag
Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was a pioneer in developing its bone mineral density (BMD) reference population (RP), BMD is still reported in most Saudi dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) centers according to Lebanese RP. The aim of the current work was to assess the implication of using normal ranges other than Saudi female normal range in reporting BMD of Saudi female patients (SFP). This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. The current use of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discontinued and instead SFRP should be used. Further national studies are needed to reassure the Saudi RP and to resolve the differences between the current 2 SFRP at the second and fifth age decades. (author)
Full Text Available Problem statement: Living in high altitude areas results in chronic hypoxia, which induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. The current study investigated the endocrine responses of male Westar rats chronically exposed to high altitude-induced hypoxia in Abha City, in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Approach: The rats were separated in to 2 groups of 10 rats. The first group was kept at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in the King Saud University animal house in Riyadh City and designated the low altitude group; the second group of rats was transferred to the King Khalid University animal house in Abha City, which is 2800 m height above sea level and was designated the high altitude group. All rats were housed under the same laboratory conditions and fed the same diet. Blood samples were collected from both groups of animals 45 days after transferring the high altitude group to Abha City. Results: The data revealed that the rats transferred to the high altitude area had significant decreases in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and testosterone levels and significant increases in the levels of serum cortisol, free Triiodothyronine (T3) and free Thyroxin (T4) compared to rats kept at low altitude. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that rats chronically exposed to high altitude hypoxia experienced alternations in various hormones. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.
Fahaid H. Al-Hashem
To report on moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as a risk factor for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. The usual and novel associations of MMS in this cohort will also be described. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February201 to March 2003 (retrospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included hemostatic assays, biochemical, and serological tests. Neuroimaging included CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scan and conventional cerebral angiography. Moyamoya syndrome was the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). They were 4 females and 2 males. Their first cerebral ischemic event occurred at a mean age of 45 months (median = 44 months, range 17-66 months). In all 6 cases, MMS was associated with an underlying hematologic abnormality or other diseases. Protein C deficiency was identified in one girl and protein S deficiency in another. Two patients had retrospectively, sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell-b-thalassemia (Sb-thalssemia), which had been associated in the latter with membranous ventricular septal defect. Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS, OMIM 100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-month-old girl. A 4-year-old boy had wrinkly skin syndrome (WWS, OMIM 278250) phenotype. The association of MMS and protein C deficiency was first reported in this cohort of patients, whereas the association of the syndrome with WWS and AOS has not, hitherto, been described. The 3 patients who had MMS associated with protein C deficiency, SCD, and AOS underwent successful revascularization surgery in the form of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Moyamoya syndrome constitutes an important risk factor of stroke in Saudi children. Comprehensive clinical evaluation and investigations, including screening for throphilia and neuroimaging studies are required for the primary diagnosis of the disease and for unraveling other diseases associated with MMS. This will help in managing these patients and in guiding genetic counseling for their families. (author)
Objective was to determine the negative appendectomy rate; utilization, accuracy of Alvarado scale, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Hospital records of 124 female patients admitted for suspicious of acute appendicitis from January 2003-January 2004 to the Emergency Department (ED) at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were reviewed retrospectively. We reviewed the age of patients, clinical presentation, Alvarado scale, US, CT, histopathalogical diagnosis of appendicular specimen. A total of 124 female patients aged 6-64 years were presented to ED with right iliac fossa pain. Of the total, 103 patients have appendectomies (83.1%), 21 (16.9%) patients underwent conservative treatment. Prevalence of advanced appendicitis was 13.7% and negative appendectomy rate was 27.2%. Accuracy rate of appendicitis with Alvarado scale 67.7%, US was 57.9% CT was 66.7%. Postoperative correlation was found between advanced cases and Alvarado scale (r=0.338), and hospital stay duration (r=0.250, p
Background: This study was designed to assess the fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 817 water samples were collected from 260 locations in Central Saudi Arabia. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer [HACH instrument, model DR 3000] was used in the analyses of water samples for fluoride levels. Results: The results showed that fluoride levels vary between 0.00 and 6.20 ppm. About 75% and 6% of the population in Riyadh and Qassim regions, respectively, were exposed to very low fluoride levels (0.00-0.03 ppm), while less than 3% of the population in both regions were exposed to fluoride levels ranging from 0.61 to 0.80 ppm. A higher percentage of the population in Qassim than Riyadh region were exposed to high fluoride levels (>0.81 ppm); 28.63% than in Riyadh with 9.24%. Conclusion: The findings of this study can serve as a baseline data for water fluoridation and other dental preventive programs in the area. PMID:17146216
Aldosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer; Wyne, Amjad H; Al-Meheithif, Abdullah
Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to assess the fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 817 water samples were collected from 260 locations in Central Saudi Arabia. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer [HACH instrument, model DR 3000] was used in the analyses of water samples for fluoride levels. Results: The results showed that fluoride levels vary between 0.00 and 6.20 ppm. About 75% and 6% of the population in Riyadh and Qassim regions, respectively, were exposed to very low fluoride levels (0.00-0.03 ppm), while less than 3% of the population in both regions were exposed to fluoride levels ranging from 0.61 to 0.80 ppm. A higher percentage of the population in Qassim than Riyadh region were exposed to high fluoride levels (>0.81 ppm); 28.63% than in Riyadh with 9.24%. Conclusion: The findings of this study can serve as a baseline data for water fluoridation and other dental preventive programs in the area.
Aldosari Abdullah; Akpata Enosakhare; Khan N; Wyne Amjad; Al-Meheithif A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe global developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. It is caused by a deficiency in N-acetylglucosamine-1 phosphotransferase. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a case series study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2008-2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We described three unrelated Saudi children who presented with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, microcephaly, craniosynostosis, coarse facial features, cardiac involvement, and skeletal deformities. RESULTS: The MLII diagnosis was confirmed by assaying enzyme activities in fibroblasts, which showed a severe reduction in hydrolyzed substrates compared to controls, and by identifying a pathogenic homozygous GNPTAB gene mutation. One of the children died at 2 months of age due to severe pulmonary hypertension, and the other two children were still alive at 12 months and 18 months of age, respectively. Both surviving children had severe global developmental delay at 2 months of age. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should investigate any child presenting with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, craniosynostosis, skeletal deformities, and coarse facial features for MLII.
Alfadhel M; Alshehhi W; Alshaalan H; Balwi MA; Eyaida W
To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours after onset of headache, vomiting, drowsiness, and dizziness. Following drainage of the IVH and stabilization of the patient, the AVM was successfully emboli zed 6 weeks latter. As a group, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies constitute significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Recognition of these diseases is important since some are treatable and because other family members may be at risk. (author)
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%). The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat); the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate). By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol); the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber) and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.
Khalid S. Al-Numair
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O
AIM/BACKGROUND: Treatment of DVT with LMWHs has been shown recently to be as effective as UFH with suggested lower costs. This study was conducted to determine and compare the cost of in-patient hospital treatment versus outpatient hospital treatment of patients with DVT. METHOD: All adult patients with acute proximal DVT referred to the Emergency Department of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between August 2009 and August 2010 were invited to the study. An economic analysis was performed to compare the cost impact of outpatients versus hospital treatment. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients were included in the study, 31 were followed in the outpatient setting and 30 as the control group (inpatients). There were no significant differences in the outcome between the outpatient and inpatient group; three patients (9.7%) in the outpatient group and four patients (13.3%) in the inpatient group had recurrent DVT. Mean nursing cost was $55 for the outpatient group and $215 for the inpatient group, mean laboratory monitoring cost was $638 for outpatient group and $1511 for the inpatient group. Hospital stay and doctor's fees amounted to a mean of $1000 for outpatient treatment and $2387 for inpatient treatment, p < 0.0001. The mean outpatient cost was significantly lower than the inpatient cost ($1750 vs. $4338, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Outpatient treatment of patients with DVT using LMWHs is cost-effective with no significant differences in the outcome of patients. OPD treatment of DVT is feasible in Saudi Arabia provided there is enough logistic support from thrombosis clinics and those involved in DVT care.
Algahtani F; Aseri ZA; Aldiab A; Aleem A
Full Text Available Abdullah Foraih AlanaziCollege of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum.Methods: A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation.Results: Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery.Conclusion: Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation.Keywords: emergency medical services, problem-based learning, logical model, step-by-step approach, multilayer alignment
[en] Gamma-spectroscopy system is used to analyze the radionuclides in the soil samples and determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in Riyadh city area. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in the city with 2 depth profiles (0-5, 5-15 cm) for each site. the average concentrations of U-238 series, Th-232 series, K-40, and Cs-137 are found to be 26, 23, 315 and 14 beequerel/kg respectively. Exposure rate arising from these radionuclides as the average annual equivalent dose rate is estimated at 0.57 mSv/yr. The average annual equivalent dose-rate in the Riyadh area is less than the average world level. 44 Ref
Full Text Available A prospective study of all native kidney biopsies performed over one year at the Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. During this period, 52 kidney biopsies were performed of which, 49 had adequate tissue. All biopsies were processed for light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. The indications for biopsy included the nephrotic syndrome (n=28; 53.8%), asymptomatic proteinuria (n=12; 21.2%), acute nephritic presentation (n=7; 13.5%) and asymptomatic hematuria (n=7; 13.5%). Primary glomerulonephritis (GN), excluding IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was seen in 34 of the 49 patients (77.6%). Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and mesangial proliferative GN were the most common histological diagnoses (31% and 20.4% respectively). Surprisingly, we found a high prevalence of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) of 14.5% in comparison with other studies. The prevalence of mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) was low (2%) and can only be explained as incidental. The study patients were followed-up for an average of 26.3 weeks. At the end of the observation period, 50% has unchanged course, 37.5% had improved their renal function and protein excretion, and 12.5% had deteriorated. The prognosis of different GN groups and renal survival rate cannot be assessed or calculated in this study because of the relatively short duration of follow-up. Our study further emphasizes the need for a national GN registry and long-term follow-up, in order to recognize the common patterns of GN, their natural histories, the appropriate line of management, and to try and arrest their progression to end-stage renal disease.
Mousa D; Al-Hawas F; Al-Sulaiman M; Al-Khader Abdullah
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine its correlation with its severity. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females) were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females) healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity. RESULTS: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI) and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006) and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015). CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females) were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females) healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI) and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006) and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015).Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
Syed Shahid Habib
Objectives This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine its correlation with its severity. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females) were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females) healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T) and free (TFPI-F) tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity. Results There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI) and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006) and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015). Conclusion Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.
Habib, Syed Shahid
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR) in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There is a general lack of awareness with regard to Open Institutional Repositories in Saudi Universities and higher education institutions. Only four Universities i.e. King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Umm Al-Qura University, and University of Dammam have taken some initiatives in this regard. Though these universities have made commendable efforts there still lots of improvements and developments required with regard to Institutional Repositories. It is expected that this paper will encourage Saudi Academic organizations to take the initiatives in the development of open institutional repositories. No such study (Research type, Essay, View point) has been conducted so far in the context of Saudi Arabia.
Parvez Ahmad; Mohammad Aqil; Mohammad Asad Siddique
Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on ...
Monecke Stefan; Skakni Leila; Hasan Rami; Ruppelt Antje; Ghazal Sameeh S; Hakawi Ahmed; Slickers Peter; Ehricht Ralf
Solar radiation data requirement persists throughout a photovoltaic (PV) application, from system sizing to evaluating performance of existing PV systems. This paper compare the solar intensity measured by direct sensors with that calculated using the measured spectral data. Also, the changes in the spectral characteristics of the sun's radiation during a typical day and from month to month are analyzed (Author)
The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of
The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia ...
A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard
Full Text Available Academic institutions preparing for quality and academic accreditation adopt a range of evaluations. Each of such evaluations involves closed items, a mixture of individual items on various aspects, followed by global item which is the overall satisfaction of students about related evaluation. A common question in mind of the academic developers is “where to start, using global items results, or, individual items results!” Through exploratory results of course evaluation survey (CES) data on courses in nursing program of University of Dammam, this article attempts to answer this question. In summary, under this program which is in the developmental phase, one can expedite decision making related to required action plans by using global items results.
Abdullah Al Rubaish; Lade Wosornu; Sada Nand Dwivedi
Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.
Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.
Mohammed A. Alsaif; Latifa K. Khan; Adel A.H. Alhamdan; Saada M. Alorf; Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman; Rabab J. Makki
The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the rates and patterns of colistin and tigecycline resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) isolates from clinical specimens from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh Region over a 2-year period. Methods: This is a retrospective review of records of all clinical isolates of A. baumannii from the departments of microbiology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center (KFSHRC) and Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the period from January 2010 to December 2011. Results: Records for 1307 Acinetobacter species isolates were identified. The overall tigecycline resistance rates were 9.7% and colistin 1.8%. Among Acinetobacter isolates from KFSHRC, tigecycline resistance rate increased from 10.4% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2011. Colistin resistance increased over the same period from 2.6% to 4.7%. No Acinetobacter isolates from PSMMC were reported to be colistin resistant, while tigecycline resistance rates increased from 1.3% in 2010 to 6.6% in 2011. In KFSHRC, resistance to tigecycline was reported significantly more in isolates from samples that originated in the intensive care units, whereas in PSMMC tigecycline resistance was reported exclusively from clinical areas other than intensive care. No temporal clustering of Acinetobacter isolates was apparent in either hospital over the study period. Conclusion: Tigecycline and colistin resistance were reported from a considerable proportion of Acinetobacter clinical isolates from the study hospitals over a 2-year period.
Abeer M. Baadani; Sahar I. Thawadi; Noura A. El-Khizzi; Ali S. Omrani
OBJECTIVES: Children are more vulnerable to ADRs, and this susceptibility is compounded due to hospitalization. There is a lack of local data regarding the potential risk of ADRs in hospitalized pediatric patients. Therefore, this study is designed to identify the frequent nature, severity of adverse drug reactions, drugs implicated and factors influencing ADRs. METHODS: Intensive monitoring study of ADRs was done in hospitalized pediatric patients of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah from January to December 2011, with an analogous retrospective study for the preceding year to determine incidence rate, demographic aspects, causality appraisal, polypharmacy, body organs/systems involved and drugs implicated in ADR. Comparison of the two data was done to determine the impact of pharmacovigilance. RESULTS: Incidence rate of ADRs in retrospective study was (4.50%) and (8.2%) in prospective study. ADR was more in patients who received 5-6 drugs, which was (15.5%) in retrospective study and (22.1%) in prospective study. Regarding age, it was the highest in patients of 0-1 year of age which was (40.7%) in retrospective study and (38.8%) in prospective study. Anti-infective agents were the most frequently involved in ADR (40.8%) in prospective study and (48.2%) and retrospective study. This study also demonstrated that, there was high susceptibility of the skin to the ADR which was (37%) in retrospective study and (42.9%) in prospective study. None of the ADRs proved to be fatal. CONCLUSION: Well premeditated intensive monitoring approach in pharmacovigilance amplifies the ADR detection, which can persuade healthcare providers into more drug safety.
Khan LM; Al-Harthi SE; Saadah OI
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT) donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient?s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2%) were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78%) for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35%) for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Alabdulaali Mohammed; Alayed Khaled; Alshaikh Abdulaziz; Almashhadani Shihab
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation.
Objective was to report our experience of varied presentations and diverse histopathological spectrum of parotid gland malignancies. This retrospective analysis incorporated patients with histological evidence of malignant parotid tumors at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 20-year period from 1984 through 2004. The medical records of these patients were analyzed for their demographic characteristics, clinical features, operations performed and pathological diversity. Thirty-two patients comprised this study group. There is a male preponderance over females with a ratio of 2.2:1 (22 men and 10 women) and mean age of 51.8 (range 28-81 years). A painless lump was the most frequent clinical manifestation observed in 23(71.8%) patients followed by facial nerve dysfunction in 14 (43.7%) patients. Parotidectomy was performed in 22 (68.7%) patients: 16 superficial and 6 totals. A partial facial nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice was undertaken in 14 (43.7%) and total nerve sacrifice in 9 (28.1%) patients. Four (12.5%) patients presented with cervical lymph node metastases necessitating radical neck dissection. Nine (28.1%) patients had mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 8(25%) adenoid cystic carcinoma, 6 (18.7%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified and 2 (6.2%) were reported to have carcinoma in plemorphic adenoma. Twenty (62.5%) specimens revealed high grade aggressive lesions and out of these 19 (59.3%) patients presented with stage III/IV disease. Malignant parotid tumors are exceedingly rare, occurring at earlier group with male preponderance and invariably declare at a late clinical stage in our community. Histopathological features hallmark a locally advanced disease with an aggressive behavior. (author)
To review the results of 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants performed at Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH). Retrospective analysis of the in- and out-patient case notes was carried out. Data were collected regarding age, gender, nationality, diagnosis, type of procedure, complications and survival of the grafts and the recipients. The first 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants were performed in 113 months. The age range was 4.5 months to 14 years. Eighty-four recipients (61%) were male. One hundred and twelve children were Saudi. Left lateral segment was used as allograft in 135 cases. One child each received full left lobe and full right lobe. Six auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplants were carried out. Familial metabolic liver disorders made the largest group of children needing transplant. The most common indications were progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia (45 cases each). The numbers of major complications are: hepatic artery thrombosis (n=8); portal vein thrombosis (n=3); portal vein stenosis (n=3); hepatic vein stenosis (n=3) and biliary strictures (n=4). Fifteen patients died. Three further allografts have been lost. Thus, the overall patient survival rate is 89% and graft survival rate is 86.8%. Living donor liver transplantation is a viable option for children with end-stage liver disease. Metabolic liver disease is the most common indication in Saudi Arabia. The cadaveric donor supply is in shortage and living donation is a practical alternative. The incidence of complications and recipient and graft survival rates of the program at RMH are acceptable, (author)
[en] Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)
Four preliminary passive solar dwelling design concepts were developed based upon previously established climatic design criteria and an identification of applicable passive cooling strategies was made. These were quantitatively compared for their thermal performance based upon a computer program. The selected concept was optimized and preliminary construction drawings and details were submitted for review by SOLERAS. This report deals with the further refinement and development of the design concept and improvements of the performance of the selected passive elements. The final design has been detailed for actual construction and monitoring at the King Faisal University Dammam Campus. In addition this report addresses the comparative evaluation of the previous design concepts utilizing more rigorous computer simulation methods.
Full Text Available Objective: Data on Hormone Receptor and Her-2/neu expression in breast cancers from Saudi Arabia and Gulf Region is sparse. We undertook this study to describe the patterns of hormone receptor and Her-2/neu protein expression in breast carcinoma and compared them with the histological grade at a University Hospital in Riyadh.Material and Method: We conducted a retrospective study on 164 invasive ductal carcinoma of breast between the year 2002 and 2008. Immunohistochemical analysis for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/neu was done in all the cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization for Her-2/neu gene amplification was performed in all 2+ cases and few equivocal 1+ and 3+cases by immunohistochemistry. Correlation between Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor and Her-2/ neu amplification and grade of tumor was calculated.Results: The expression of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor were significantly correlated (p<0.001). Also, there was a significant negative correlation between expression of hormone receptor and Her-2/neu amplification. The histologic grade of the tumor was significantly correlated to the expression of both Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor. However, the relationship between Her-2/ neu amplification and grade was not significant and many of the grade III tumor were Her-2/neu negative. In addition, Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization was observed in 84.6% of breast cancer that were 3+ and in 18.75 % cases that were 2+ by immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: Prevalence of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor expression and Her-2/neu amplification in breast cancer in the Saudi Arabian population is similar to that reported internationally. There is a negative correlation between hormone receptors expression and Her-2/neu amplification. However not all of the high-grade breast cancers showed Her-2/neu positive status.
Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34%) and (17-38%) respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%). Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100%) and (99-100%) for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%). As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.
F. A. Fattouh; M. T. Al-Kahtani
A national groundwater surveillance programme was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels in the year 2007. This paper presents (222)Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located in and around the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from 171 wells in six different locations. Most of these deep wells have an approximate depth of 1000 m, while shallow wells have a depth of 300 m. The analyses were performed by an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a (226)Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with a cocktail (high efficiency mineral oil scintillator) which was used after a certain period of time to assure radon equilibrium. The measured (222)Rn activities of deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.05 to 3.52±0.30 Bq l(-1) (average: 1.01±0.10 Bq l(-1)), whereas those of shallow wells ranged from 0.72±0.08 to 7.21±0.58 Bq l(-1) (average: 2.74±0.24 Bq l(-1)). The (222)Rn concentrations levels were found to be in compliance with the proposed national limits of 11.1 Bql(-1) and depend on the water source.
Aleissa KA; Alghamdi AS; Almasoud FI; Islam MS
Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of
Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive): blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients? records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5%) patients in the normotensive group (group 1), 404 (36.3%) patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2) 64 (5.7%) patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3) and only six (0.5%) patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4). The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years), original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more), presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day), abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk factors for the development of hypertension or its complication should be more aggressively approached in order to protect the patients and their grafts alike.
Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Shaheen Faissal; Sheikh Iftikhar; Al-Khader Abdullah; Fedhail Halima; Al-Sulaiman Mohammed; Mousa Dujana; Al-Hawas Fahd
Abstract Objective: To determine the impact of introducing eGFR automated reporting on uncovering new cases of Chronic Kidney Disease. Methods: All serum creatinine (SCr) in adult patients attending outpatient clinics over a two-month period were recorded and eGFR estimated. Cases with a SCr within normal limits but were in CKD stage 3 (Saudi Arabia, one could extrapolate that for each 100,000 serum creatinine assayed for males, 840 new cases will be uncovered in CKD stage 3. The corresponding number for females would be 1360 cases. PMID:23924398
Tamimi, Waleed; Hejaili, Fayez; Al Ismaili, Faisal; Tamim, Hani; Shaheen, Faissal; Taher, Saadi; Al Sayyari, Abdullah
Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described.
Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Results: Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-2002). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims; the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Conclusion: Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusion-associated malaria is a potentially serious complication that continues to pose risks in blood bank settings. There is a need for effective malaria screening of blood donations to improve on the current exclusion policies of potentially infected carriers on the basis of clinical and travel history. We evaluated the potential usefulness of ELISA screening for malaria antibody and P. falciparum antigen among Saudi blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1756 donors were studied, 1100 from the malaria endemic Southern Region and 656 donors from the known malaria-free Riyadh area. RESULTS: The overall antibody prevalence for the antibody was 7.6%, in comparison to only 0.17% for the antigen. In the endemic region, the antibody positivity rate of 9.1% was almost double the rate in the non-endemic area (4.8%). There was no difference in the antigen prevalence rates; 0.18% in endemic and 0.15% in nonendemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: In malaria endemic countries like Saudi Arabia, excluding antibody-positive donations would result in too much wastage of blood units. However, antigen malaria testing appears to offer a potential utility, as only few donations would be rejected.
Saeed Awad; Al Rasheed Abdul; Al Nasser I; Al Onaizi M; Al Kahtani S; Dubois L
This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite.
Al-Omran AM; El-Maghraby SE; Aly AA; Al-Wabel MI; Al-Asmari ZA; Nadeem ME
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies about stroke in Saudi Arabia are limited. This retrospective study aims to determine the clinical characteristics of Saudi patients with heart failure (HF) with and without subsequent stroke, and also to find out whether gender differences exist in the presentation of HF patients who had stroke. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Retrospective study done at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2002-2008. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 293 patient (151 males, 142 females) charts from 2002-2008 were re.viewed at KAMC. These charts were from Saudi patients who were diagnosed with HF, with and without subsequent stroke. Demographics, HF characteristics, stroke risk factors, and metabolic characteristics were noted and analyzed. RESULTS: No difference was observed in HF characteristics and stroke risk factors among HF patients with and without subsequent stroke. In terms of metabolic profile, those who had stroke had significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)--cholesterol levels as compared to those without (P=.03). Stratification to gender and adjusting for age and risk factors revealed that significantly higher LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels were observed in female stroke patients (P values .02, .028, respectively) and significantly higher blood urea nitrogen levels were observed in male stroke patients (P=.04) as compared to their counterparts who never had a stroke. CONCLUSION: The gender differences in the metabolic presentation of Saudi HF patients with stroke warrant further clinical investigation. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and renal insufficiency are suggested to be early predic.tors for stroke and should be closely monitored in Saudi HF patients.
Alqahtani M; Alkhtaami A; Algobain M; Aljohani N; Bin SA; Alshalati F; Alanazi T
Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses. (author).
Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses.
Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics)
Full Text Available Fast food has become an important part of our diet and the increase in fast-food consumption is likely to continue. Our aim was to study the relationship between fast food and Body Mass Index (BMI) and the pattern of consumption of fast food in female university students. Total of 141 female students from different study levels of Nutrition and Food Science Department, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh Saudi Arabia were included. A survey questionnaire which contains three sections was used; firstly sociodemographic data, secondly fast food consumptions pattern and thirdly whether students apply basic nutrition knowledge in their selection of food or not. Height, weight and BMI were measured. We found that overweight and obesity were present in 25% of female students. Fast food consumption frequency of 1-2 times per week was high among them (74.5%). There is no significant relationship between fast food consumption, BMI and the pattern of consumption of fast food. There is a significant (p0.05) positive relationship between increase in size of fish sandwich meal and increase of BMI. However there is no significant relationship between portion size of other food types and BMI. Moreover, we found significant (p0.05) positive relationship between university study level and the knowledge in explaining why fast food is unhealthy.
Hanan A. Alfawaz
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O
Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.
Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to determine lead accumulation in feathers of wild white-cheeked bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys) and wild palm dove (Streptopelia seneglenses) in order to find which is more suitable to monitor the lead environmental pollution. Feather samples of 270 of Pycnonotus leucogenys and 309 of Streptopelia seneglenses were collected from three different cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Riyadh and Al-Kharj) and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study revealed that the feathers of Streptopelia seneglenses have more capacity to retain lead than Pycnonotus leucogenys in Jeddah and Riyadh (pStreptopelia seneglenses is more suitable as a biological monitor for environmental lead exposure than Pycnonotus leucogenys.
Mansour I. Almansour
This is an article from The Physiologist. "Ismaeel M. Bin-Jaliah, a Regular Member of APS, has been elected as the Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) in November 2007. Dr Bin-Jaliah is an Assistant Professor of Neurophysiology and the Director of Medical Education Center at King Khalid University in Abha, Aseer, Saudi Arabia."
A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)
A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)
Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)
Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature.
Maher S. Al-Jadid
Abstract Objective: To determine the impact of introducing eGFR automated reporting on uncovering new cases of Chronic Kidney Disease. Methods: All serum creatinine (SCr) in adult patients attending outpatient clinics over a two-month period were recorded and eGFR estimated. Cases with a SCr within normal limits but were in CKD stage 3 (<60?mL/min) or higher were recorded and their numbers, percentages and mean ages calculated. Stages 1 and 2 were excluded from analysis because urinary albumin and other urinary abnormalities were not checked. Results: A total of 26,422 SCr from different patients were included. The mean SCr was 92.5?±?130.9??mol/ and the mean eGFR was 99.8?±?32.4?mL/min/1.73?m(2). Of all the10,601 males with normal SCr, 0.84% were in CKD stage 3 and in all the 14,695 female, 19.24% were in stage 2 in stage. Of all the 14,695 females with serum creatinine in the normal range, 200 (1.36%) were in CKD stage 3. The patients in stages 2 and 3 were significantly older. Conclusion: If our findings are shown to be true for the rest of Saudi Arabia, one could extrapolate that for each 100,000 serum creatinine assayed for males, 840 new cases will be uncovered in CKD stage 3. The corresponding number for females would be 1360 cases.
Tamimi W; Hejaili F; Al Ismaili F; Tamim H; Shaheen F; Taher S; Al Sayyari A
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.
Al Ghobain Mohammed; Al Moamary Mohamed; Al Shehri Sulieman; AL-Hajjaj Mohamed
Cloud droplets nucleate on aerosol particles termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is well known that a larger number concentration of CCN results in a larger number concentration of droplets in developing cumulus clouds. However, the conditions where dust particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence change cloud droplet concentration and precipitation formation processes is uncertain. Aircraft measurements of cloud droplet concentration between 13:20 and 13:30 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, show total cloud droplet concentration (3-50 µm in diameter) of 800 to 1200 #/cm-3 at a altitude of 18000 ft. Typical cloud droplet concentration for this type of cloud in the Riyadh region is approximately 400 #/cm-3 and is typical of observation made between 13:00 and 13:20 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight at 18,000 ft. Photographs of ice accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft’s wing due to the freezing of super cooled droplets show a color changed from white during the time of low droplet number condensation to brown during the high droplet number concentration. It is hypothesized that high droplet number concentration observations were the result of ingestion of a large about of dust particles by the cloud. : Case Study of the 9 April 2009 ‘Brown’ Cloud: Observations of Usually High Cloud Droplet Concentrations in Saudi Arabia.
Delene, D. J.
Over the next 20 years, Saudi Arabia plans to make significant progress towards industrialisation. If solar energy is to make a major contribution, the suitability of current solar technology to the environmental, technical and social conditions in Saudi Arabia must be assessed. Soleras has therefore concentrated initially on engineering R and D. Standards of efficiency, reliability and cost will be established enabling the Government to make realistic planning decisions. In the longer term, it is planned that the second generation solar technology will evolve out of a national solar science programme. Soleras will create solar research groups at the highest levels in the universities using ''leading edge'' scientific technology. This will encourage the best Saudi scientists to remain in Saudi Arabia, thereby establishing continuity, and discouraging the reverse brain-drain that has handicapped development in many third-world countries. The experience gained from the Soleras project leaves Saudi Arabia ideally suited to co-ordinate and stimulate a pan-Arabian solar energy programme. The common language and culture, and similar climatic conditions, justify close collaboration between the Arab countries. A recent report by the Economist Intelligence Unit estimates that the current S15 million annual solar budget of Saudi Arabia constitutes over 60% of the total expenditure of all the Arab countries.
Fendley, J.J.; Bakr, R.
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C affects 2% of Saudi population. Previous local trials showed low response to interferon monotherapy for six-months. Aim: To evaluate biochemical and virological response of interferon-ribavirin combination on naive Saudi patients infected with HCV. Methods: A prospective single armed study was conducted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital from July 1999 to July 2002 for fifty patients who have hepatitis C virus (HCV-PCR) positive and chronic hepatitis on liver biopsy were started on the combination therapy for one-year. All had HCV-PCR at the end of therapy and at six months follow-up. Results: Thirty-one patients (62%) normalized their ALT levels, and 25 patients (50%) became HCV-PCR negative achieving end-of-treatment response (ETR). The sustained virological response (SR) was achieved in 19 patients (38%) at six months follow-up after stopping the treatment. Side effects were mainly flu like syndrome in 36 patients (72%). Conclusion: Combination therapy of interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin is an effective treatment modality for HCV infected Saudi patients, with tolerable side effects. Our virological response rates are compatible with international published literatures
Sandokji Abdulkareem; Sanai Faisal; Al-Ajlan Abdulaziz; Al-Karawi Mohammed
Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of...
El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand
Full Text Available Any syllabus could be evaluated and analysed in terms of design and format and achieving the goals of the designed syllabus in reality; in this paper the first type of analysis is conducted in addition to integrating the researcher’s experience of teaching ESP in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Reviewing previous and related literature along with collected data from the text book, the researcher used different types of methodologies to come up with detailed analysis of the above named ESP book. The book Basic English for Computing seems to have high standard design and format as an ESP curriculum in terms of: planning stage, implementation, evaluation, and management, and in terms of selection and grading of the content and tasks of the curriculum as an ESP syllabus as well. However and from the research’s perspective, this syllabus in spite of its high standards, it doesn’t suit the level of ESP learners in both public and private Yemeni Universities due to misuse and wrong interpretation of the term ESP in Yemen among English teachers, specialists in the field of English language and decision-makers as well. It is the learner, the environment learning, and the teacher rather than the book that would greatly affect on deciding the success of achieving the goals of a certain syllabus and testing its usability in a certain country where English is being taught and/or learned for specific purposes.
Ahmed Mohammed S. Alduais
OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians views on health insurance and its implication on the health care system. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from January to December 2002 through self-administered questionnaires that were distributed to a total sample of 400 physicians. The instrument consisted of 28 items that focused on assessing physicians' perception towards health insurance and its effect on health services. We performed a descriptive statistics and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: Overall, 151 physicians (38%) completed the survey. This study clearly shows that access to health care services is a major concern; more than 94% of the respondents agree that everyone in the Kingdom should have access to healthcare services. Respondents also agree that health insurance will improve access to healthcare services for all citizens. Physicians also believed that health insurance would lead to more regulations and utilization review of services, create more competition between healthcare providers, and create new jobs in the healthcare sector. Saudi physicians reported a higher mean score for 11 items with significant p-values as compared with non-Saudi physicians. CONCLUSION: Physicians in this survey believed that accessibility is a major policy concern, and that health insurance will have a positive effect on access to the health care system. Yet, accessibility is an illusive term with many aspects that go beyond the identification of need for health care to the actual delivery of health care services and the organizational structures to match the needs of society. Cooperation as a national health system should be built on collaborative efforts rather than market competition in itself. It has been suggested that markets are stronger in the role of delivery than in the financing of health care, that markets tend to promote more expenditure on technological innovation rather than producing the most desired set of social outcomes. Cooperative health insurance can be an answer to the current problems facing the health care system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as long as it remains cooperative rather than competitive.
Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University...
Ayman A. Al-Dharrab; Khalid H. Al-Samadani
Wheat is one of the most grown crops in Saudi Arabia. It is grown in various regions of the country. Accurate knowledge of the elemental concentrations in wheat and its products (bran and flour) is of great importance from a nutritional point of view. Wheat samples were obtained from the Al-Qusim region. 300 km northwest of Riyadh, and analyzed. Up to 50 elements (Al, Sb, As, Ba, Br, Cd, Ca, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Ga, Au, Hf, In, I, Ir, Fe, Mg, Mn, Hg, Mo, Ni, K, Rb, Sc, Se, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Sn, Ti, W, U, V, Zn, Zr, Ce, Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) were determined in the wheat products. It was observed that the elemental content of bran was much higher than that of white flour. (author)
Full Text Available Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) underwent this program during the thinking skills course. The effectiveness of the program was examined using a critical thinking assessment instrument that evaluated five critical thinking skills: causal explanation, determining the reliability of sources, argument, prediction, and determining parts-whole relationships. The data demonstrated statistically significant gains in the five critical thinking skills tested.Thus, this study provides a framework for creating teaching methods that provide effective direct instruction for the development of critical thinking skills of college students.
Huda Umar Alwehaibi
The oocysts of Caryospora biarmicusis sp.n. is described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 40.2 x 34.7 (37.5-42.4 x 32.9-35.7) microm; shape index (L/W) is 1.16 (1.08-1.31) microm. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and polar granule are absent, but an oocyst residuum is present. Sporocysts are spheroid, 20.1 (18.6-21.3) microm; with a smooth single-layered wall, lacking Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are stout with a large single refractile body.
Alyousif MS; Alfaleh FA; Al-Shawa YR
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: A retrospective clinical and laboratory study was performed at the Bacteriology Unit, Department of Pathology/Microbiology, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from June 2009 to June 2011. A total of 339 adults and pediatric patients with UTI was included in the study. Two groups of patients (ESBL E. coli UTI and non-ESBL E. coli UTI) were studied. Symptoms and signs of illness, comorbidities, outcomes, and urine analysis results were analyzed. RESULTS: There was 339 episodes of culture-verified UTI, 113 (33.3%) cases were caused by ESBL E. coli, and 226 (66.7%) cases were caused by non-ESBL E. coli. Non-ESBL E. coli UTI was more commonly found in children, and ESBL E. coli was more predominant in female patients. Identified risk factors for acquisition of ESBL E. coli UTI included patients who had underlying renal disease and renal transplant (p=0.017), children with vesicoureteric reflux (p=0.044), surgical intervention, recurrent UTI (p<0.004), and in inpatients. Non-ESBL E. coli patients are more likely to present with UTI. The ESBL E. coli uropathogen are resistant to antibiotics, including the third generation cephalosporin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, whereas the non-ESBL E. coli were more resistant to antibiotics Ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. CONCLUSION: Identifying the risk factors and the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with ESBL producing E. coli UTI is necessary for the development of an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment.
Al-Otaibi FE; Bukhari EE
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.
Al-Qudsi, S. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.
With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…
Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim
Full Text Available Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.
El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand
Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.
PURPOSE: To review all cases of genitourinary fistula, their causes, management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all fistula cases referred to the Urogynecology Department, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January 2005 to December 2011. RESULTS: Sixteen genitourinary fistula cases were identified; nine (56 %) cases of vesicovaginal fistula, four (25 %) cases of vesicouterine fistula, and three (19 %) cases of vesicocervical fistula. Mean age was 41 (29-61) and mean parity was 7.4 (2-15). Out of the 16 cases, 12 (75 %) had obstetrical surgical complications, of which 8 (50 %) had complications of cesarean sections. Twelve of 15 cases (80 %) were cured after primary surgical repair, 2 (13 %) after secondary repair and 1 after tertiary repair. One case was cured after conservative management. CONCLUSION: Most of the genitourinary fistulae were of iatrogenic obstetric causes, mainly cesarean section with none of the cases due to obstructed labor unlike fistulae in developing countries or developed countries fistulae (iatrogenic gynecologic origin).
Perveen K; Al-Shaikh G; Al-Moazin M; Ross S; Al-Badr A
A mathematical model is used to generate the hourly data for the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The generated data are based on the hourly recorded visibility data for 20 years (1970-1989). The model year technique was then applied to model the 20 years of hourly data of solar radiation into one statistically representative year. A model year of hourly data was then generated for the beam and diffuse components of solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Similarly, a model year of hourly data was also generated for the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces with different orientations with its beam, diffuse and reflected components. A simple methodology is proposed for calculating the solar radiation on vertical surfaces, based on a solar impact factor (SIF). Monthly means and daily totals of hourly sums for each month of the year are discussed. The hourly data of solar radiation for a typical day for each month of the year are presented. The data were generated for the four climatic zones of Saudi Arabia, the hot-dry (Riyadh), the warm-humid (Jeddah), the maritime inland desert climate (Dhahran) and the upland climate zone (Taif). The accuracy of the results is discussed and found to be above 90% representative. (author)
Zuhairy, A.A.; Sayigh, A.A.M. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering
The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.
Aljaloud SO; Ibrahim SA
Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market
Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial silt and the overlying wall-related dune deposit. According to the OSL and 14C dating results from this deposit, the wall section at C1 (western part of the ancient settlement, north of Area A) dates back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC or even earlier. Furthermore, the burying of the still existing remains of the city wall at C1 by sand was already completed at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.
Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.
Full Text Available This is a study submitted originally to the Information Dept. Committee in Humanities and Arts College, King Abdul Aziz University, in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters in the Information Management Program. The goal of this study is to explore the Saudi household use of ICT 'Information and Communication Technology'; one the Saudi household clearly depends on nowadays. Most Saudi households have access to ICTs like mobiles and Internet connections. It is important to analyze to what extent are they used, the goals of their use, and its impact on the households. This paper focuses on five questions related to the ICTs use, awareness and effects as well as investigating the correlation between some households' characteristics and the raised issues. The sample was an accidental sample, and the study questionnaire was built and judged according to the study questions and purposes.
Muna D. Alsuraihi; Heba Omar Bashraheel
Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)
Full Text Available We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM) in our renal transplant population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, transplanted between 1979 and November 1998. The recipients were grouped according to the diagnosis of diabetes; group I: diabetes developed before transplantation (BTDM), group II: diabetes developed only after transplantation (ATDM) and group III: did not have diabetes (NDM). There were 1112 patients? records included in the study. The mean age was 38.2 years and the mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 months. There were 113(10.2%) patients in BTDM group, 134 (12.1%) patients in the ATDM group and 865 (77.8%) patients in the NDM group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension among the study groups. In comparison to the other groups, the BTDM group had significantly more males (78.8%), more patients who were transplanted after 1990 (pre-cyclosporin era), more patients with grafts from living non-related donors (46%), higher incidence of acute rejection episodes (39%), higher mean serum creatinine and more patients treated with azathioprine (71%). The ATDM group had significantly higher mean age (46.4 years), higher mean duration of transplantation (91.5 months), higher rate of retransplantation (8.2%), higher mean serum cholesterol level (6.0mmol/L) and more frequently abnormal electrocardiogram (24.6%) than the other two groups. The ATDM group had comparable mean weight (70.2 kg) to the BTDM group but significantly higher than the NDM group (66.1kg). The NDM group had significantly higher mean dose of cyclosporine (3.3 mg/kg/day) and higher mean dose of prednisone (0.16 mg/kg/day) than the other groups. The only independent risk factor for developing DM after transplantation was advancing age. The currently used low-dose steroid therapy was not significantly associated with development of DM after renal transplantation. Nevertheless DM is an important co-morbid condition in the transplant population and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.
Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Shaheen Faissal; Shiek Iftikhar; Al-Khader Abdulla; Fedhail Halima; Al-Sulaiman Mohammed; Mousa Dujana; Al-Hawas Fahd
Full Text Available Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPR)can help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage. A second part of the system was developed to segmentand recognize the characters in the located license plate.
Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.
Full Text Available Medical Education departments oversee the process of medicaleducation in medical schools and provide many educationalservices to support, evaluate and thus enhance the educationalrole of the medical school. Its roles revolve around research,teaching and providing educational support in areas of curriculumdevelopment and assessment. This paper provides a brief summaryon the emergence of different medical education centers/units/departments around the world from a historical perspective.Special attention will be given to the process followed inestablishing the Medical Education Department (MED) in KingAbdul Aziz University (KAU). This paper also explores the rolesthat are currently played within the department with a reflectionon documented roles of the medical education departmentsworldwide. Special emphasis will be given to explore the currentchallenges faced by KAU MED and proposed suggestions toimprove these challenges will also be addressed.
Lana A Al Shawwa
The purpose of this research paper is to focus on Saudi National Security. The author highlights geographic and historic factors that impact on threats to Saudi Arabia, and the objectives for providing security. He discusses how to achieve these objectives, including military readiness and cooperation with other countries to guarantee Saudi security. This is to ensure interests which are vital to the industrial world as the result of a continued flow of oil with a reasonable price. Given is the author`s opinion about U.S. political strategy in the region to achieve stability in the Gulf Region.
BACKGROUND: Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. RESULTS: A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hazzaa HM; Abahussain NA; Al-Sobayel HI; Qahwaji DM; Musaiger AO
Full text: The Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was reported in animals from the Middle Region of Saudi Arabia in 1998. Incidences of larval myiasis in sheep and seasonal activity of adult C. bezziana in the Riyadh Region were investigated during the period of Oct. 2001-June 2003. 3,712 sheep were examined and only 73 were found infested with C. bezziana larvae. Among the 73 infested sheep, 44 (60%) were young (less than 6 months old) and 29 (40%) were adults (above 6 months): 48 (66%) were females and 25 (34%) were males; and the mortality rate was 26% (12 young and 7 old sheep died). The infestation rates with C. bezziana were highest during March-May (60%) and Sept-Nov. (31.5%) when the temperature and humidity are optimum. During the hot dry and cold seasons infestation rate were low (5% and 1.5% respectively). During the same period, the seasonal activity of adult C. bezziana was also investigated using sticky traps baited with Swomlure-4. The baited traps were used twice a month. Unfortunately, only 19 adult flies were caught. From these results it is clear that C. bezziana is of no economic importance in the Middle Region of Saudi Arabia because of the long dry hot weather, which is unfavourable for larval development and adult survival. Further studies on the biology, distribution and economic importance of C. bezziana and other fly causing myiasis in Saudi Arabia are required. (author)
Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens usually varies from one geographic location to another. During the last 20 years, outbreaks of disease caused by multiresistant bacteria have occurred with higher frequency in developing countries. We investigated the antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria isolated in 1992 from two tertiary-care centers, in Riyadh and Texas. Of the 8841 strains used, 5318 were isolated from clinical specimens of patients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, and 3523 were from Olin E. Teague Veterans Medical Center, Temple, Tex. Members of Enterobacteriaceae at the King Faisal hospital were significantly more resistant to frequently prescribed antimicrobials than were those at the Olin Teague center. Susceptibility to less frequently used agents like ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was similar at both hospitals. Resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were similar at both medical centers. The Olin Teague center encountered significantly more methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
Qadri SM; Huber TW; Lee GC; al-Hajjar S
- Data collection is difficult to any network analysis because it is difficult to create a complete network. It is not easy to gain information on terrorist networks. It is fact that terrorist organizations do not provide information on their members and the government rarely allows researchers to use their intelligence data (Ressler S., 2006). Very few researchers (Krebs, V., 2002, Sageman, M., 2004 and Rodriguez, J. A., 2004) collected data from open sources, and to the best of our knowledge, no knowledge base is available in academia for the analysis of the terrorist events. To counter the information scarcity, we at Software Intelligence Security Research Center, Aalborg University Esbjerg Denmark designed and developed terrorism knowledge base by harvesting information from authenticated websites. In this paper we discuss data collection and analysis results on our on-going research of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks. In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network as a test bed.
Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.
Elsanhoty RM; Al-Turki AI; Ramadan MF
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1), bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir) of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000): 1-4
Mohamed Rabie Yousef; Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud; Samir Mohamed Ali; Mohamed Hamad Al-Blowi
Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain 10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended. PMID:23904260
Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy
Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain <3 % of genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.
Elsanhoty RM; Al-Turki AI; Ramadan MF
Full Text Available Groundwater scarcity in arid regions may hinder development plans and cause many inconveniences for the population and authorities. Saudi Arabia has limited groundwater resources stored in the sedimentary sequence of the Arabian Shelf. Some of these resources were classified as major aquifers, secondary and minor aquifers, and some were considered as aquicludes. The Jubaila Limestone is one of the secondary aquifers of Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the groundwater resources of the Jubaila Limestone in Riyadh area, with emphasis on groundwater quality. Groundwater was found to occur in fractures and within solution openings of the Jubaila Limestone at depths which range between 19 and 210 m. The transmissivity value was 1.7 × 10–3 to 7.2 × 10–3 m2/s; the storage coefficient was of 1.3 × 10–4. The electrical conductivity for collected water samples ranged between 831 and 7670 µS/cm. The major ionic relationships were Na > Ca > Mg and SO4Cl > HCO3. The groundwater evolves from NaCl dominated at the southern end of the study area, into Ca, MgSO4 water in the north. The main chemical process responsible of this variation was found to be dissolution of anhydrite and gypsum. The groundwater was not found suitable for drinking purposes but can be used by livestock and for some agricultural purposes.
Mohammed Tahir Hussein; Mazin. M. Al Yousif; Hussein S. Awad
Purpose. Influenza A and B viruses are the leading cause of respiratory infections in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. There is a lack of data on coinfection of influenza A and B viruses circulating in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we aimed to identify the circulation of influenza viruses that contribute to respiratory tract infections in Saudi children. Methods. We collected 80 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from hospitalized children with acute respiratory illness (ARI) at Riyadh during the period extended from October 2010 till April 2011. Samples were tested for the common respiratory viruses including influenza viruses by RT-PCR. Results. Overall, 6 samples were found positive for influenza A and/or B viruses. Among these positive clinical samples, only one collected sample from a female one-year-old immunocompromised child with leukemia showed a coinfection with influenza A and B viruses. In present study coinfection was confirmed by inoculation of the clinical specimen in specific pathogenfree embryonating chicken eggs and identification of the virus isolates by hemagglutination and one-step RT-PCR. Conclusion. This study opens the scene for studying the role of influenza virus's coinfection in disease severity and virus evolution. Further studies are required to better understand the clinical importance of viral coinfection.
Almajhdi, Fahad N.; Ali, Ghazanfar
A rare case of factor XI (PTA) deficiency was discovered in a Saudi family in the Riyadh area. Nine members of the family were studied. Two were found to have a severe PTA deficiency; levels of factor XI clotting activity were 0.01 i.u./ml and 0.02 i.u./ml respectively. Both plasmas were markedly deficient in factor XI antigen and appeared to be negative for cross-reactive material (CRM-). The parents were first cousins and both were found to have a minor PTA deficiency. Factor XI levels were: mother 0.048 i.u./ml and father 0.33 i.u./ml. Another sibling was found to have a FXI level of 0.47 i.u./ml. Menorrhagia and bleeding for 1 day after tooth extraction were the main bleeding manifestations found in one member with severe PTA deficiency. Clinically this member presented with iron deficiency anaemia. Other family members had no significant history of bleeding tendency. This is the first report of a Saudi Arabian family with PTA deficiency. PMID:3180697
al-Adhadh, A N
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98%) and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001). Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.
Ali M. Al-Amri
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine how medical interns perceive the important factors of the learning environment the surgical theatre at the teaching hospital of the medical school, University of Dammam (UoD). The study also investigated the relationships between the learning environment and academic achievements. Finally, it determined the role and significance of gender on the above perceptions and relationships.Methods: The Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measure (STEEM) was used to identify the perceptions of interns on the most important factors prevalent in the surgical theatre as an educational environment. STEEM was administered to all interns during the period of June-September 2009. Ninety-one out of 145 students completed the questionnaire representing a response rate of 63%. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17.Results: The STEEM was shown to be internally consistent for the assessment of the overall educational environment in the surgical theatre of UoD. The overall STEEM mean score was 110. For male and female students, the mean scores were 114 and 107 respectively. There were statistically significant gender differences in the perceptions of "learning opportunities" and "teaching and training". Females rated these subscales lower than males. There were no significant associations between academic achievements and perceptions of the educational environment.Conclusion: The interns perceived the learning environment of the surgical theatre as less than satisfactory. In comparison with the males; the perception of the females was less positive, particularly in the areas of learning opportunities, and teaching and training. The study also revealed some other problematic areas in the learning environment of surgical theatre of the teaching hospital of UoD. The results imply that there is much room for improvement. They also indicate that equal opportunities for learning and training should be given to both sexes.
Mona Faisal Al-Qahtani; Mona Al-Sheikh
This study provides an energy outlook for Saudi Arabia's energy resources, their production and consumption, as well as their future projections. Crude oil, natural gas and refined products, and electricity are the main energy resources of the country. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that has the largest crude oil reserves and this is one of the main energy producers. The high growth rates of Saudi Arabia's population and the sectorial energy utilisation are the two main factors affecting its energy consumption dramatically. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is not only one of the main energy producers in the world but is also one of the world's largest energy consumers per capita. (Author)
Dincer, Ibrahim; Al-Rashed, Bandar [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and sources of knowledge among Saudi female adolescent students, attending public and private schools in the city of Riyadh with regard to sexuality and reproductive health. METHODS: This cross sectional survey was conducted from January to April 2009. Female adolescents between 11 and 21 years of age were invited to participate in the survey. Five classes of intermediate and secondary levels were randomly selected from 2 schools in Riyadh city. A total of 417 female students were included into the sample. Students were asked to answer a self-administrated questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of the participants reported that they discussed sexual matters with their friends. Only 15.8% discussed these matters with their parents (mothers). Interestingly, 17.3% discussed sexual matters with the domestic helper. Most (61%) reported that their teachers had negative attitudes toward questions related to sexual issues. Only 33.3%, 37.9% and 14.5% knew that syphilis, gonorrhea, and hepatitis B, are sexually transmitted diseases. No significant differences were found between students in private schools and public schools. CONCLUSION: Formal sexual education should be introduced in the curriculum of the schools within the context of our religion and culture. Parents and teachers should be more open to discuss sexual issues with their children and students.
Alquaiz AM; Almuneef MA; Minhas HR
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in pregnant women is considered the most important factor contributing to the higher carrier rate of HBsAg in some populations, including Saudi Arabia. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in infancy was implemented in Saudi Arabia in 1990 to avoid early acquisition of infection. At the same time, another program was launched to vaccinate all school children at school entry as a second target group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HBsAg prevalence rate in Saudi pregnant women 12 years after launching the program and to assess regional variation, if any. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 2664 pregnant Saudi women were recruited from the five main regions in Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were tested for HBsAg. Positive samples were tested also for HBeAg. RESULTS: Of 2664 pregnant Saudi women, 65 were positive for HBsAg (2.46%, 95% CI=2.11%-2.69%). Four were positive for HBeAg (0.15%). The HBsAg prevalence rate was higher in Gizan (4.2%) and lower in Tabuk (1.4%) (P=-0.035). Only one case was positive for HBsAg in women under the age of 20 years (1/186), a 0.5% positivity rate in this age group compared with 2.6% in the older age group (P=-0.049 for the one-sided test). A history of surgical procedures was associated with a higher (3%), but not significantly higher rate of HBsAg positivity. No significant association was found between HBsAg positivity and a history of dental procedures or blood transfusion. CONCLUSION: Although the HBsAg prevalence rate among Saudi pregnant women was lower than previously published data, the full impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program in infancy and childhood will take more years to decrease the prevalence rate in pregnant women. The MOH should continue to give the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth to prevent early acquisition, but in the meantime a regional policy can be adopted to deal with the high prevalence rate of HBsAg among pregnant Saudi women.
Al-Mazrou Yagob; Al-Jeffri M; Khalil Mohamed; Al-Ghamdi Yasser; Mishkhas A; Bakhsh M; Eisa M; Nageeb M; Tumsah S
Saudi Arabia was the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2010, and the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on crude oil. Oil export revenues have accounted ...
A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m-3 (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l-1) with a mean of 16 Bq.m-3 (0.43 pCi.l-1). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m-3 (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l-1) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m-3 (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l-1), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10-3 to 24x10-3 WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10-3 WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m-2.h-1) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m-2.h-1). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates. (author).
Full Text Available Purpose: Accurate fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of thyroid nodules provides the best guidance for thyroid surgery. We assessed the utility of FNAC in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Retrospective analysis.Material and Method: We analyzed records of all patients who underwent FNAC and thyroid surgeries between July 2006 and June 2010 at King Khalid Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Each diagnosis derived from FNAC of thyroid nodule reported by the Bethesda system was matched with the final histopathology result. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Results: Of 275 FNAC, 179 (65.1%) had benign results, 60 (21.8%) atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 15 (5.4%) follicular neoplasm or suspicion of follicular neoplasm, 15 (5.4%) were consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and 6 (2.2%) were suspicious for PTC. Histopathology revealed 204 (74.2%) benign thyroid nodules, 44 (16.0%) PTCs, 18 (6.5%) incidental micro-PTCs in non-target nodules, 7 (2.5%) follicular thyroid carcinomas, 1 (0.4%) medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 1 (0.4%) Hürthle cell carcinoma. Analysis of 190 cases with FNAC and histopathology results revealed a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 99.4%, positive predictive value of 95.2%, negative predictive value of 94.1%, and diagnostic accuracy of 94.2%. Of 10 cases with false negative results, 9 (90%) were larger than 3.8 cm.Discussion: FNAC is a highly sensitive and specific method for assessing thyroid nodules. We found a high percentage of atypia or follicular lesions of undetermined significance; this needs to be limited to increase accuracy. We suggest surgery for nodules larger than 3.8 cm regardless of FNAC results due to the high false-negative rate, most likely due to sampling errors. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 30-3
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. There is little published data on the prevalence of HPV infection among Saudi women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a group of women in the western region of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study of Saudi women seeking gynecologic care at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from March 2010 to January 2011. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred eighty-five Saudi women of different age groups attending gynecology clinic were tested for high-risk HPV DNA. HPV DNA was detected in cervical scrapes using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) high-risk HPV DNA test. The prevalence of HPV DNA positivity in different age groups was calculated. RESULTS: Out of the 485 specimens, 27 (5.6%) were positive for the high-risk HPV. The highest percentage was among women aged 60 years and older. Patients in the age group 40-49 years were more likely to accept HPV testing with a total of 188 patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV in this group of Saudi women is similar to what was reported in some Arab countries and lower than that reported in developed countries. This information could be used to help in establishing a primary screening program using HPV DNA testing in Saudi Arabia.
Bondagji NS; Gazzaz FS; Sait K; Abdullah L
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. RESULTS: Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). CONCLUSION: Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
Fnais N; al-Nasser M; Zamakhshary M; Abuznadah W; Dhukair SA; Saadeh M; Al-Qarni A; Bokhari B; Alshaeri T; Aboalsamh N; Binahmed A
Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions. (author)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the known benefits of support during chilbirth, most hospitals in Saudi Arabia do not allow a companion during labor. This can be due to cultural beliefs among pregnant Saudi women. The aims of this study are to describe Saudi women's preferences towards supportive companions during labor and to explore their attitudes and knowledge about the importance of support during childbirth. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study conducted in three governmental tertiary hospitals within Riyadh. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women who consented were interviewed during their postpartum hospital stay using a validated standardized Arabic questionnaire. Participants were asked about their preferences and attitudes towards companions during childbirth, as well as about their knowledge on the importance of such support. RESULTS: Of 402 women who participated in the study, 182 women (45.3%) preferred the presence of a companion during childbirth and only 57 of all interviewed women (14.2%) had ever had a supportive companion during any of their previous childbirths. The mother (58%) or husband (51%) was the most preferred person as a childbirth companion. Age, level of educational, or antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum status had no impact on their decision. However, women who had some sort of antenatal educational classes and/or read educational material about childbirth were more likely to prefer support during labor. More than one-third of participants (35.9%) thought that having a companion as support during labor would not help, but the most common reason for not preferring to have a companion was their fear of being exposed most of the time to their companion (64.1%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of surveyed Saudi women preferred not to have a supportive companion during childbirth. The reason might be a lack of understanding of the positive role of a companion during childbirth or because of cultural beliefs. Education of women during their antenatal care about the importance and the implementation of such a practice are warranted.
Al-Mandeel HM; Almufleh AS; Al-Damri AJ; Al-Bassam DA; Hajr EA; Bedaiwi NA; Alshehri SM
The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country`s national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country`s external trade and balance of payments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (orig.)
The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.
Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the caries experience and oral hygiene (OH) status of cerebral palsy (CP) children in Riyadh area. One hundred and forty CP children [82 (58.6%) males & 58 (41.4%) females] were examined for dental caries and OH status in dental clinic of the Disabled Children's Association Center, Riyadh. The children were divided into three age groups; first group 3-6 years old (41 children), second group 7-9 years old (52 children) and third group 10-12 years old (47 children). The mean DMFS (decayed, missing and filled surfaces) score for the first group was 18.8 (+/- 16.3), with the DS component of 10.9 (+/- 7.5), MS component of 3.7 (+/- 10.4) and FS component of 4.1 (+/- 8.9). For the second group the mean DMFS was 23.4 (+/- 17.7) with DS component of 15.4 (+/-12.1), MS component of 4.1 (+/-9.0) and FS component of 3.8 (+/- 8.5). The corresponding values for the third group were 20.5 (+/- 14.0), 12.4 (+/- 9.7), 5.1 (+/- 12.4) and 2.9 (+/- 5.5) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in caries experience between the three age groups. Very few (5.7%) CP children were rated as having good OH. There was a strong association between poor oral hygiene status and high DMFS score. It can be concluded that the caries experience of CP children in Riyadh is very high, and that very few of these children have good oral hygiene.
Alhammad NS; Wyne AH
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of caries in the primary and permanent teeth in a Saudi population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In June 2010, a literature search was started and found all studies conducted in Saudi Arabia on dental caries from 1999 to 2008. Sixty articles were found on PubMed, which had been published during the considered time period. Sixteen studies were passed through inclusion criteria and included in analysis. A 2 to 12-year-old Saudi population was included to determine the prevalence of caries in primary teeth, and for permanent teeth, the age range was 6-18 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in primary and permanent teeth were analyzed separately. Forest plot and Chi-square test revealed considerable heterogeneity. A random effect model was used to find caries prevalence in primary and permanent teeth. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) was 5.38 (95% CI: 4.314 - 6.436), and in the permanent teeth the DMFT was 3.34 (95% CI: 1.97 - 4.75). Publication bias diagnostics suggested possible overestimation of caries prevalence in permanent teeth but not in primary teeth. CONCLUSION: The results in this study present a high decayed, missing, and filled teeth score in the adult and young population of Saudi Arabia, however, more published data is required as the results obtained from this meta analysis may not give a true picture, and reality may be worse.
Khan SQ; Khan NB; Arrejaie AS
To present our experience of carcinoid tumors of the appendix managed at a university teaching hospital. Complex symptomatology, varied biochemical affections and different surgical therapeutic modalities are discussed. The medical records of all the patients who underwent consecutive appendectomies at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1994 to 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. The data of patients identified to have histological evidence of carcinoid tumors of the appendix were further reviewed for the demographic details, indications for surgery, surgical procedure, tumor localization in the appendix and size; concomitant appendicitis and further surgical procedures were considered. During the study period 1547 appendectomies were performed and out of these, 9 (0.6%) cases were reported to have carcinoid tumors of appendix. There were 4 male and 5 female patients, age range 17-51 years (29.8 years). Seven subjects had a clinical evidence of appendicitis while 2 presented with chronic abdominal pain. there were 6 open and 3 laparoscopic appendectomies. Six carcinoid tumors were encountered at the appendiceal apex, two at the midportion and one at the base with a mean diameter of 9.5 mm (rang 4-19 mm). One patient had histologically confirmed residual tumor, which necessitated a right hemicolectomy 3 weeks later. All patients remained disease free during a mean follow-up of 7 years (range, 4-10 years). Carcinoid tumors of the appendix are extremely rare and invariably remain asymptomatic. Simple appendectomy offers adequate relief while the need for further extensive surgery depends on tumor characteristic and dissemination. Despite an excellent prognosis, all reported patients should be followed up with urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and abdominal ultrasonography. (author)
Full Text Available Since 9/11, Saudi Arabia has made significant attempts to change its public image because of its alleged association with global terrorism. Given its charitable interests in promoting education as a tool for peace within the Arab region, it has established the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP), considered to be the most heavily endowed overseas scholarship program ever offered by a nation-state. Since 2005, over 120,000 Saudi university students have been financed by this scholarship to pursue their university studies abroad. This investigation concerns student perceptions of Saudi and Emirati students studying abroad ten years after the tragedy of 9/11. It draws from 35 face-to-face interviews of international students in Australia about their perceptions and viewpoints of Saudi Arabia and the Arab World pre- and post 9/11. It centers on Saudi and Emirati students and suggests that education can be a tool for peace.
Kholoud T. Hilal; Brian D. Denman
Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. METHODS: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93) affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012). The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded). The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. RESULTS: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%). The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.
Makhdom AM; Alqahtani SM; Alsheikh KA; Samargandi OA; Saran N
...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011. Led by a...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...
Different degrees of temperature and salinity have been studied to evaluate their effects on the seed germination of Calligonum comosum L Her grown in two different populations in Saudi Arabia. These two sites have been chosen in Saudi Arabian deserts, one in Nefoud El-Shakika south Onyza city on Najd plateau and the second west El-Dahnaa in the way between El-Riyadh and El-Damam cities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each of these locations were dominated by Calligonum comosum L Her beside other species such as Artemisia monosperma, Ephedra elata and Haloxylon ammodendron. These two deserts are completely deferent in their climatic and edaphic factors, since climatic diagrams and soil chemical analyses have been investigated. Twenty plants, with plenty of fruits, from each site have been chosen and collected from each site during April 2003. Germination was in two variables, the number of days to start germinating and the final percentage of germination. The most favorable temperature was 10/20 degree C at seed depth 0.5 cm. and irrigation system every 48 hours 50 ml. dist. water supply. Meanwhile, the seeds in the two locations prefer non-saline media, as the best results obtained at salt concentration 0.0. Whereas the germination start again in Nefoud El-Shakika seeds only at salty media by the concentration of 150 mlmol. Nacl. The results have been discussed according to both differences in climatic and soil characters. (author)
OBJECTIVE: To study the demographic characteristics of immunization providers in Riyadh City and their self-perception of competency. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among immunization providers in Riyadh City from August 2003 to March 2004. This study covered 71 institutions: (25 primary health care centers, 30 private clinics and dispensaries, 8 government hospitals and 8 private hospitals). Immunization providers were selected by stratified random process. One hundred and one physicians participated in the study and the data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires, tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistics. RESULTS: The participating physicians were mostly pediatricians (50.5%) and general practitioners (38.6%). About 47% of them had had no training in immunization during the preceding 10 years. Self-evaluation revealed that 30.7% of them ranked themselves as excellent, 67.3% as average and 2.0% as poor immunization providers. Self-confidence was associated with specialty, qualification, place of work, years of experience and training on immunization (p<0.05). Most of participating doctors (83.7%) used books as their references. The doctors were least confident in vaccinating pregnant and lactating women and the vaccination of travelers to endemic areas. CONCLUSION: To improve immunization services, doctors should be trained before being involved in this practice. There should be frequent distribution of national and international protocols with the auditing of the practice to improve and sustain a highly effective service.
Al-Rukban MO; Al-Migbal TH; Al-Mutlaq AA; Al-Marshady MA; Al-Salhi AH; Al-Rsheed AA; Al-Qahtani AA; Al-Thagafi SA
Objective: To study the demographic characteristics of immunization providers in Riyadh City and their self-perception of competency. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among immunization providers in Riyadh City from August 2003 to March 2004. This study covered 71 institutions: (25 primary health care centers, 30 private clinics and dispensaries, 8 government hospitals and 8 private hospitals). Immunization providers were selected by stratified random process. One hundred and one physicians participated in the study and the data were obtained by self-administered questionnaires, tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistics. Results: The participating physicians were mostly pediatricians (50.5%) and general practitioners (38.6%). About 47% of them had had no training in immunization during the preceding 10 years. Self-evaluation revealed that 30.7% of them ranked themselves as excellent, 67.3% as average and 2.0% as poor immunization providers. Self-confidence was associated with specialty, qualification, place of work, years of experience and training on immunization (p<0.05). Most of participating doctors (83.7%) used books as their references. The doctors were least confident in vaccinating pregnant and lactating women and the vaccination of travelers to endemic areas. Conclusion: To improve immunization services, doctors should be trained before being involved in this practice. There should be frequent distribution of national and international protocols with the auditing of the practice to improve and sustain a highly effective service.
Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.; Al-Migbal, Turky H.; Al-Mutlaq, Abdullah A.; Al-Marshady, Mishal A.; Al-Salhi, Abdullah H.; Al-Rsheed, Abdullah A.; Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Thagafi, Seef A.
This paper presents an overall description of current Saudi petrochemicals portfolio with special emphasis on hydrocarbon feedstocks used in the country. It is the Kingdom's enormous associated gas resources that have contributed in making the Kingdom a highly cost competitive petrochemical supplier to world markets. (orig.)
Aitani, A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Center for Refining and Petroleums
Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.
Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of available resources. The postgraduate medical training programs, particularly the university-based, need re-evaluation, and definition of their future role in graduate medical education. Medical educators must make sure that research in medical education should not only survive but also thrive. In this article, some suggestions for Saudi medical education in n the new millennium are put forth.
Al-Sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.
Thirty fungal species belonging to fifteen genera were collected from 30 soil samples on cellulose Czapek agar. The highest number of fungal species was isolated from Dammam (20 species) followed by Niomas (18 species), Makkah and Riyadh (17 species each), Tabouk (16) species and Jizan (11 species)....
Bahkali, Ali H. [??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of 9/11 on the educational system in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it discusses how this phenomenon took its course to influence the English teaching system in Saudi Arabia, and the attitude and the impact of this new phenomenon in the Saudi society, in light of the current debate between Arab linguists on the issue of more English less Islam. It also presents a case study on a group of Saudi freshmen students studying English at King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A 12-item questionnaire, related to this topic was distributed to 65 Saudi students studying English in their second semester of the New English Curricula. The findings provide valuable data on how the youth feel towards Western ideology, learning English and Western culture. Although the findings are context specific, they indicate that the Saudi students agree (for the most part) that both the study of the English language and its culture are necessary in order to develop their English comprehension.
Saudi Arabia's Third Five-Year Economic Development Plan (1980 to 1985) will continue to expand imports of American technology and products. Now the seventh largest world market for American exports, Saudi Arabia's purchases grew 20 percent to $5 billion in 1979. A preliminary analysis of priorities under the Third Plan and the opportunities presented for American exporters leads off a special section on Saudi Arabia in this issue of Business America and is followed by an analysis of trends in the Saudi economy, a highly successful Water Resources Equipment and Systems exhibition, and the foundation of Islamic legal tradition as embodied in Shari's.
This study analyzes: how Saudi Arabia has used its oil power in the recent past; the mixture of motives that seem to go into Saudi oil policy; the prospects for Saudi Arabia remaining dominant force in the world oil market in light of changing supply and demand conditions; and internal instability that could change the willingness or ability of Saudi leaders to act as price leaders. Also discussed is how the US can develop policies to ensure the stability of the Middle East region. (DMC)
The distribution of eight blood phenotypes (ABO, Rh, MNSs Lutheran, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Lewis) was determined in Saudi Arabs and compared with corresponding published information for Caucasians and Negroes of United States of America, Saudi Arabs manifest ABO phenotype distribution similar to Negroes; rhesus phenotypes similar to Caucasians but an MNSs pattern largely distinct. Heterozygous Kell phenotype, Kk, was much more frequent in Saudi Arabs than in either Caucasians, or Negroes. The Kidd system null allete, JKa-b- was not seen in the studied group. However, increased frequencies of null alleles of the Duff (Fya-b-) and Lewis (Le(a-b-)) systems were observed in Saudi Arabs. PMID:11205816
Abdelaal, M A; Anyaegbu, C C; al Sobhi, E M; al Baz, N M; Hodan, K
Full Text Available Khalid Al Saran1, Alaa Sabry2, Mamdouh Abdulghafour1, Ahmed Yehia11Prince Salman Center for Kidney Disease, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Mansoura Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptIntroduction: Ad equate delivered dose of solute removal (as assessed by urea reduction and calculation of Kt/V) is an important determinant of clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. This requires both prescription of an adequate dose of HD and regular assessment that the delivered treatments are also adequate. Online conductivity monitoring using sodium flux as a surrogate for urea allows the repeated noninvasive measurement of Kt/V on each HD treatment.Methods: We prospectively studied 17 (9 males, 8 females) established chronic HD patients over an eight-week period (408 treatments). A pre- and post-dialyzer measurement of the conductivity is performed by two mutually independent temperature-compensated conductivity cells equipped with Fresenius 4008 S® dialysis machines. Urea reduction was measured (once a week) by a single pool calculation using immediate post-treatment sampling. No changes were made to any of the dialysis prescriptions over the study period. Values of calculated Kt/V and simultaneously obtained online Kt/V were compared.Results: There was a statistically significant difference between calculated Kt/V and online Kt/V over the study period. The mean calculated Kt/V was 1.37 ± 0.09, and mean online Kt/V 1.02 ± 0.15 (P = 0.000), calculated Kt/V ? 1.2 was achieved in all our patients while online Kt/V ? 1.2 was achieved in only 17.64 %. Yet there was moderate correlation between calculated Kt/V and online Kt/V (r2 = 0.48).Conclusions: Online conductivity monitoring results underestimates dialysis efficiency compared to calculated Kt/V readings. This difference has to be considered when applying Kt/V to clinical practice.Keywords: Kt/V, hemodialysis, online conductivity monitoring
Khalid Al Saran; Alaa Sabry; Mamdouh Abdulghafour; et al
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the second most common malignancy among females at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC) and in Saudi Arabia, accounting for about 11% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in the country in 2008. Over the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. There are no comprehensive clinical epidemiological data for the trends of thyroid cancer incidence compared to the global incidence. This report reviews the thyroid cancer incidence in KFSH&RC and compares that with Saudi Arabia, the Gulf region, North America and globally from 2000 to 2010. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with thyroid cancer was carried out from 2000 to 2010, using the hospital Tumor Registry program as per the American College of Surgeons standards. Trends and patterns of all well-known prognostic factors were sub-stratified by age, stage and grade. RESULTS: A total of 2292 patients with thyroid cancer were treated at KFSH&RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2000 to 2010. Thyroid cancer constitutes about 9% of all malignancies and 12% of all female malignancies at KFSH&RC, which are significantly higher compared to the USA, where thyroid cancer represents only 2.9% of all malignancies and 4.6% of all female malignancies. Papillary adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype followed by papillary carcinoma, follicular variant. Median age at diagnosis was 40 for females and 44years for males. Overall Age-Standardized Incidence Rate (ASR) was 4.4/100,000 (6.8 for female and 2/100,000 for males) in the Kingdom in 2008. Median age at diagnosis was 38years and the highest incidence was in the 30-39year age group in KFSH&RC. About 48% of patients presented in the localized stage and 60% underwent combined modality treatment consisting of surgery, radiation and hormonal therapy. There was significantly increased incidence among females as compared to males. The age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rates from 2000 to 2010 varied three-fold more for females than for males. Considerable geographical variations were present in thyroid cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased exponentially between 2000 and 2010 and there is significant geographical variation in the incidence of thyroid cancer throughout the Kingdom. Thyroid cancer has become the second most common cancer among young Saudi women with a male to female ratio at 0.3:1. Rising incidence of thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia may be due to the increased detection and diagnosis of the thyroid cancers and not only an increase in the true occurrence of thyroid cancer. More studies are required to determine this significant difference at the molecular level.
Hussain F; Iqbal S; Mehmood A; Bazarbashi S; ElHassan T; Chaudhri N
This paper reports on the treatment of chemical burns in a burns unit in Saudi Arabia in the 10-yr period 1993 to 2003. In 1993, in line with new approaches, the protocol for treating deep chemical burns in the first 48 h was modified to employ sequential excision followed by a second-look approach ...
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among secondary school students in Saudi Arabia METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children from secondary schools in the city of Riyadh. The study utilised the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire. RESULTS: Among the 3073 students (1504 boys and 1569 girls), the prevalence of life-time rhinitis, rhinitis in the past 12 months, and hay fever were 43.8%, 38.6% and 21.3%, respectively. There was a significant difference between boys and girls in the prevalence of life-time rhinitis (41% versus 46.5%, p = 0.02) and the prevalence of rhinitis in the past 12 months (35.1% versus 41.9%, p = 0.001). There was no significant difference between boys and girls in the prevalence of hay fever (22.5% versus 20.2%, p = 0.144). The prevalence of asthma symptoms among students with life-time rhinitis and hay fever were 35.4% and 39.9%, respectively. Asthma symptoms were strongly linked with life-time rhinitis (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.5, p < 0.001) and hay fever (OR = 2.4, p value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms is high among 16 to 18 years old adolescents in Saudi Arabia, and symptoms are more common in girls compared to boys. Rhinitis symptoms are also associated with a high frequency of asthma symptoms.
Al-Ghobain MO; Al-Moamary MS; Al-Hajjaj MS; Al-Fayez AI; Basha SI
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data on the epidemiology of traumatic head injuries (THI) is essential for any organized prevention program. Such data are few in the developing world. Our primary goal was to study the causes, descriptive features, and outcomes of THI in adults in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The present study is a retrospective review. METHODS: This retrospective review included all consecutive cases of adults with THI ( > 18 years) who were admitted to a major trauma centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from May 2001 to July 2010. Patients were identified through a trauma database, which includes cases that required hospital admission or died in the emergency department. RESULTS: A total of 1870 patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 32.6 years and a male predomi.nance (91.2%). Most injuries were secondary to motor vehicle collisions (MVC; 69.4%). Pedestrian injuries were second (16.8%) and had 40% risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.48-0.8). Most patients (56.7%) had a severe THI (Glasgow coma score, GCS < 8). The overall mortality rate was 30%. Mortality was significantly associated with older age (P=.0001), lower GCS (P=.0001), and a higher injury severity score (ISS; P=.0001). CONCLUSION: The most common causes of hospital admission following injury were MVC and pedestrian injuries. Both were also the most common causes for injury-related deaths. Safety on the roads should be the primary target for any organized injury prevention programs to be successful.
Al-Habib A; A-Shail A; Alqeel A; Zamakhshary M; Al-Bedah K; Alqunai M; Al-Enazi S
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal disorders are common reasons for consultation with the primary care provider (PCP). For many of these disorders, treatment with minor procedures can bring about rapid and effective response with a very low complication rate. In reality, not many of these procedures are carried out in the primary care facilities in Saudi Arabia and in many other countries around. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study design was chosen. The questionnaire aimed to quantify the number and different types of injections performed by PCPs; to evaluate the level of training and to identify barriers to PCPs performing joint and soft tissue injections in the primary care facilities. This questionnaire was distributed on 298 physicians working in primary care setting in Riyadh. The absolute frequency and percentages were calculated, and Chi square and ANOVA analyses were calculated and correlation test was done to procedures obstacles and their patterns. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty physicians (43.6%) of the respondents have taken orthopedic training during their residency program. Among the respondents who have taken a training period during their residency 115 (88.5%) had orthopedic training for 4 weeks. Only 69 (53.1%) of them -who had training- had performed joint and soft tissue injections during their family medicine residency program. The top reasons cited for not performing the procedures were "Lack of up to date skills" and "limited consultation time" because of work overload. CONCLUSION: Many physicians working in primary care settings in Saudi Arabia refer patients requiring minor office procedures for specialist consultation. Treating patients at the primary care level can be more time and cost effective. These results uncover that there is a big need for improvement in orthopedic and rheumatology training during undergraduate medical vocational training and family medicine residency program.
Al-Ahaideb A; Khoshhal K; Alsiddiky A; Heissam K; Alzakari A; Alsaleh K
BACKGROUND: There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV) and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the study period (February to April 2012). During each clinic, children were selected by simple random sampling (five obese and five non-obese). For data collection, two trained physicians interviewed the participants using a 20-item Arabic questionnaire. Well-trained nurses collected the anthropometric measurements of weight and height. RESULTS: The study included 397 students. Higher (body mass index) BMI was associated with a higher number of televisions at home (P < 0.001), watching TV for more than three hours per day at the weekend (P = 0.047), eating more than three snacks per day (P = 0.005), watching TV at night (P = 0.026), and siblings' decisions on how much TV to watch (P = 0.025). The prevalence of childhood obesity was significantly lower among those whose mothers determined how much TV they could watch (P = 0.03). In logistic regression analysis, the increase in the child's age, the presence of more than one TV at home, having his or her own TV, and an increase in the number of hours of watching TV over the weekend were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. Personal computers and the Internet were not significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: The present investigation revealed that watching TV represents an important risk factor for obesity in children of school-age.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Published data from Saudi Arabia regarding autoinflammatory diseases are scarce. In this study, we describe the clinical and laboratory features of autoinflammatory diseases in Saudi children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Restrospective, hospital-based study conducted from January 2010 until June 2010. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with autoinflammatory disease treated at the Pediatric Rheumatology Clinic at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, over the past 10 years were included. Autoinflammatory diseases included the following: familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO); early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS); periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis syndrome (PFAPA); chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA); and Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS). Demographic characteristics, diagnosis, age at onset, disease duration, follow-up duration, clinical and laboratory variables, and outcome data were compiled. Gathered laboratory data were part of patients' usual medical care. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (females, 53%) with autoinflammatory diseases were included (mean age, 151 months). Mean disease duration was 118 months; mean age at onset was 32 months; consanguinity was present in 40%. Patients were diagnosed as follows: FMF, 50%; CRMO, 23.5%; CINCA, 8.8%; EOS, 8.8%; MWS, 6%; and PFAPA, 2.9%. The referral diagnosis was inaccurate in all patients except for FMF patients. Gene study was informative in 9 of 14 FMF patients who had molecular analyses. None of our cohort had amyloidosis. All CRMO patients had a favorable response to treatment except 1 patient, who had refractory, progressive disease. All patients with EOS had multiorgan involvement, including uveitis. All CINCA patients had a favorable response to anakinra. CONCLUSION: Our report shows that autoinflammatory diseases other than FMF may be overlooked. Increased awareness among pediatricians about these conditions will help to provide better health care to patients in the form of early diagnosis and management.
Alenazi A; Al Sonbul A; Al Jumaah S; Al Mehaidib A; Al-Mayouf SM
...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand,...
Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC) of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.
Mubarak Ali AlGahtany
Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.
Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (...
Ayesha Nuzhat; Raneem O. Salem; Mohammed S.A. Quadri; Nasir Al-Hamdan
Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of C...
Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.
Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C
Full Text Available E-government supports the integration of technology into the social structure to transform administrative procedures to achieve a more effective form of government. Technological advances and the miniaturization of Information and Communication Technologies provide tools to enhance the diffusion of information and services to form part of an intellectual society serving citizens, customers, and professionals. Global e-government evaluation reports, such as the Brown University global e-government report, ranked the Saudi e-government at 72 in 2005, 98 in 2006, and 89 in 2007, while Saudi e-government jumped in the UN global ranking from 70 in 2008 to 58 in 2010. The purpose of this research was to assess the current state of the Saudi e-government by evaluating its ministries’ web sites using a citizen-centered e-government approach. An interactive services e-government framework circumvents the limitations of existing evaluation frameworks examined in the literature while simultaneously building on their strengths. This study’s framework quantitatively assesses stages of the Saudi ministry e-government web site and its problems. It was found that 8 (41%) of 21 ministries did not implement the main features of an e-government web site. In addition, 10 ministries (45.4%) were completely or partially in the first stage (web presence); 3 ministries (13.6%) were in the second stage (one-way interaction); and 6 ministries had no online service at all. These findings clearly demonstrate that the evaluated ministries were not citizen-centered e-government web sites and lacked transactional services, resulting in citizen dissatisfaction and frustration.
Hana Abdullah Al-Nuaim
Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the problem of male os-teopororsis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. Subjects and Methods: We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1 May 2005 and 30 January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary os-teoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorpti-ometry (DEXA). A T-score of -2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5 SD were taken as osteopenic. Results: One hundred fifteen patients (mean age, 61.8±0.75 years; range, 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7±0.35 (range, 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty-four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of the lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteoporosis among Saudi Arabian males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteo-porosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures.
Sadat-Ali Mir; AlElq AbdulMohsen
Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
Al-Moamary Mohamed; Al-Hajjaj Mohamed; Idrees Majdy; Zeitouni Mohamed; Alanezi Mohammed; Al-Jahdal Hamdan; Al Dabbagh Maha
The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK).
The degree-day concept has been in use for more than 60 years as a means for utilities and fuel suppliers to predict the energy demand of the average population of buildings in any given location. It has also been used to assist the building design profession in estimating monthly and annual cooling and heating requirements of specific buildings in different locations. This paper presents the climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia, including the monthly average ambient temperature, the values of cooling and heating degree-days for different base temperatures, and the winter and summer outdoor design conditions for 20 cities in Saudi Arabia. These cities are located in five different climatic zones. The data presented in this paper will be useful to the building design profession and to designers and manufacturers of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating (HVAC and R) equipment. It will also cover part of the present lack of information in ASHRAE Handbooks concerning degree-days and outdoor design conditions in Saudi Arabia.
Said, S.A.M.; Kadry, H.M.; Ismail, B.I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
Full Text Available A mobile learning system, called MobiQiyas, for preparing Saudi Arabian students for one of the standardized tests, given by the National Center for Assessment in Higher Education (NCAHE), has been developed, using ready-made commercial products and tools. The learning material of MobiQiyas consists of practice questions with their answers, both provided by NCAHE, to be loaded by the students into their own mobile phones; after installation, the students can interact with MobiQiyas any number of times, as desired, without incurring any additional cost, other than the initial airtime cost for downloading. From total number of students taken the test, 20,000 students were randomly selected to use MobiQiyas and information was collected from them to measure their attitudes and participation of MobiQiyas. It was found that 36.1% of students had actually downloaded MobiQiyas successfully. Furthermore, a telephone survey was conducted, after the test period, on a class of 40 students in a secondary school in Riyadh, taking the same test, to measure their acceptance of MobiQiyas, using a 9-item questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale. The responses of the 40 students reflected high acceptance and satisfaction levels of MobiQiyas as an effective test prep tool.
Mohssen Mohammed Alabbadi
Full Text Available Background: The scientific congress of Anesthesia and Intensive Care of the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties aims to review and improve the guidelines for the selection process of trainees  , a selection process that is based on equal opportunity and upholds the principles of consistency, objectiveness, transparency, and procedural fairness. The study represents a step toward the goal of fostering quality patient care, by adopting a selection process that would result in graduating good, committed, and competent specialists. Materials and Methods: Reports of admission examinations in Jeddah, Riyadh, and the Eastern region have been collected, and they contain detailed lists of names, scores, and percentages of the criteria of admissions, that is, MB BS 25%, General Examination 50%, Interview 25%, and overall score of 100%. Results: Mean MB BS scores, average general examination scores, average interview scores, and average overall scores were not statistically different between candidates from different regions. The leading predictor was the ?Interview Score?. 49.5% of variation in the dependent variable (overall score) could be significantly explained (F = 69.4, P Conclusion: The three components MB BS, General Examination, and Interview, were significant predictors of the overall score. The leading predictor was the ?Interview Score?. The author recommended that the selection process should be under continuous review. The general interview guide approach is recommended to ensure that the same general areas of information are collected from each interviewer. Questions of a personal or discriminatory nature should be avoided.
Full Text Available To evaluate the age and mode of presentation of patients with posterior urethral valves (PVU) in the antenatal and postnatal periods, we analyzed the files of 108 patients with the diagnosis of PUV in four referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from 1989 to 1999. Of the study patients, 29 (27%) were antenatally discovered, 41 (38%) in the first year of life and 38 (35%) after the first year of life. The mode of presentation was by antenatal ultrasound in 29 (27%) patients, urinary tract infection in 33 (30.4%) patients, poor urinary stream in 35 (32.4%) patients, retention of urine in neonatal life in eight (7.4%) patients and symptoms of renal impairment in three (2.8%) patients. We conclude that the antenatal detection rate of PUV in our study patients is less than the international one (70%), despite the fact that most of the antenatal follow-ups were done in centers where ultrasound was available for routine antenatal work up. This calls for more vigilance by the radiologists and obstetricians to enhance the rate of detection of PUV.
Neel Khalid; El-Faqih Salah; De Castro Roberto; Abu Daia Jehad; Al-Shammari Ahmad; Al-Jasser Abdullah; Al-Farraj Hassan
Full Text Available Abstract Background During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and practices related to influenza A (H1N1) among the Saudi public. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1,548 adult subjects recruited from various shopping malls in Riyadh and Jeddah was conducted. All of the subjects were interviewed using a questionnaire that tested their knowledge, attitudes, and use of precautionary measures in relation to the H1N1 influenza pandemic. Results More than half (54.3%, 840/1548) of the participants showed high concern, 43.7%(677/1548) showed a low level of knowledge, and 60.8%(941/1548) had taken minimal or no precautionary measures. After adjusting for other variables, education level was the only significant predictor of the level of concern (p Conclusions High concern did not translate into a higher compliance with precautionary recommendations, possibly due to the low level of knowledge about the disease among the public. Frequent communication between physicians and the public is recommended to help dispel myths about the disease and to spread better information about the role that the public can play in limiting the spread of the disease.
Balkhy Hanan H; Abolfotouh Mostafa A; Al-Hathlool Rawabi H; Al-Jumah Mohammad A
The oocysts of Eimeria biarmicus sp. n. were described from the feces of the lanner falcon, Falco biarmicus, collected from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of infection was 5% (2/40). The majority of the oocysts examined had completed sporulation within 84 h at 24 ± 2°C. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 22.4 × 17.9 (20.5-24.7 × 15.8-18.5) ?m; shape index (L/W) is 1.25 (1.14-1.36) ?m. The oocyst wall is smooth and bi-layered. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. A polar granule is present, consisting of 2-4 globules. Sporocysts are ovoid, 10.1 × 6.1 (9.4-11.2 × 5.4-6.8) ?m; with a smooth single-layered wall and a minute Stieda body, but there is no substieda body. The sporocyst residuum consists of numerous small granules. Sporozoites are comma shaped, each contains two refractile bodies. E. biarmicus sp. n. is the second eimerian species described from F. biarmicus.
Alfaleh FA; Alyousif MS; Al-Quraishy S; Al-Shawa YR
The oocysts of Caryospora cherrughi sp. n. were described from the feces of the saker falcon, Falco cherrug, collected from the falcon market in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of infection was 21.4 % (15/70). The majority of the oocysts examined had completed sporulation within 64-84 h at 24?±?2 °C. Sporulated oocysts are ovoid in shape, measuring 32.1?×?29.3 (30.7-34.5?×?27.7-29.8) ?m; shape index (L/W) is 1.1 (1.04-1.27) ?m. The oocyst wall is smooth and bilayered. Micropyle, polar granule, and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring 24.1?×?19.6 (23.0-25.5?×?18.7-20.5) ?m; with a smooth single-layered wall, but there is no Stieda body. The sporocyst residuum is present as numerous small granules. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, blunt at one end, and slightly tapered at the other, each with a large single refractile body. C. cherrughi sp. n. is the third caryosporian species described from F. cherrug.
Alfaleh FA; Alyousif MS; Al-Shawa YR; Al-Quraishy S
BACKGROUND: Examining the quality of nursing care from the patient's perspective is an important element in quality evaluation. The extent to which patients' expectations are met will influence their perceptions and their satisfaction with the quality of care received. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among admitted patients at King Khalid Teaching Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected (from January 2011 to March 2011) from a convenience sample of 448 patients using a 42-items questionnaire assessing six dimensions of the nursing care provided to, during hospitalization. RESULTS: On a four-point scale (4-higly agree,3-agree, 2-disagree, and 1-higly disagree). The individual items of nursing care showing the lowest means were the information received from the nurses about self-help (2.81), the information about the laboratory results (2.76) and the way the nurse shared the patient's feeling (2.72). A strong correlation existed between the overall perception level and the variables of gender (P=0.01), and the types of department (0.004). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate negative experiences of patients with nursing care in dimensions of information, caring behavior, and nurse competency and technical care. Awareness of the importance of these dimensions of nursing care and ongoing support to investigate patients' perception periodically toward quality of nursing care are critical to success the philosophy of patient centered health care.
Al Momani M; Al Korashy H
Full Text Available This study examines the applicability of theory of reasoned action (TRA) in a context of internet banking intention using structural equation modeling (SEM), hence it is intended to test whether the theory is acceptable or not in a newly context among none western culture, thus, emic measures of etic latent constructs are required. The simplified theory is tested using survey data from 350 respondents. Out of these, only 304 questionnaires are found to be usable whilst the rest are omitted owing to the incomplete responses or due to statistical circumstances. Results suggest that Compared to the TRA model, our generating model can create a much better understanding of actual internet banking behavior among Saudi consumers in Riyadh. The results indicated that direct paths from attitude to actual behavior and when adding a path from SN to attitude would improve the predictive power of the model and convincing improvement in fit, more so than what had been established by the original TRA model.
Abbas N. Albarq; Abdulrahman Alsughayir
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe presentation, management, and outcome, and determine prognostic factors for pancreatic cancer patients. Methods: A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2000 to December 2010. Descriptive statistics were conducted on the collected data and survival was estimated using the Kaplan Meier estimate. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were carried out. Results: The medical records of 179 patients were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 63 years ranging from 15-96 years, and 116 (64.8%) of them were male. The one-year survival rate was 39% and the 5-year survival was 10%. The median overall survival (OS) was 6.9 months. Age at diagnosis, grade, T stage, N stage, M stage, TNM stage group, and the combined stage group (stage III/IV versus others), site of distant metastasis, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9, surgery and chemotherapy were significant predictors for OS on an univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A multiple regression model including all the significant predictors was conducted. Age at the time of diagnosis and M stage were significant variables. Conclusion: Our patients present at a younger age and have better 5-year survival compared with the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data, which deserves further evaluation. Age and disease stage were identified as independent prognostic factors for survival in this patient population.
Hamza J. AlGhamdi; Salem A. Alfaifi; Ashwaq A. Alolayan; Salma MA. Musaad; AbdulRahman M. Jazieh
Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the oxidation of elemental sulphur in eight localities of Saudi Arabian soils. The effect of sulphur application on related properties of calcareous soils in Saudi Arabia was also investigated. Elemental S (1%) was oxidized to sulphate in all soils test...
Al Falih, Abdullah M. [??? ???? ????? ??? ??????
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease...
Full Text Available Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other diseases requiring medications, which increases the medication burden and ends up in drug noncompliance on the part of patients, making them vulnerable to osteoporosis-related fractures. We decided to undertake this study to analyze the concomitant medications that osteoporotic patients are receiving at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar.Methods: Osteoporotic patients receiving antiresorptive therapy (ART) at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, were identified through the database of the QuadraMed Patient Care system and cross-checked with the radiology database of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and pharmacy drug-dispensing system between January 2009 and December 2009. Concomitant medication is defined as the use of other drugs for $30 days with oral bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D. Medication burdens are defined as mild (?1 concomitant medication), moderate (?2 and ?4 medications), and severe (?5 medications). The demographic data, such as age, sex, and diagnosis, were collected from the medical records. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: During the study period, 516 patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis, and 473 were on ART while the rest were using anabolic Teriperatide. Sixty-eight (14.4%) of the patients, with an average age of 50.15 ± 2.4 years, were on one medication besides ART, vitamin D, and elemental calcium; 129 (27.3%) of the patients, with an average age of 51.6 ± 9.7 years, were taking 3.32 medications, and 276 (58.3%) of the patients, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 10.7 years, were on 8.02 concomitant medications. The most common concomitant medications in use were cardiac, endocrine, systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, in that order. This study suggests that the majority of Saudi women who are osteoporotic and undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy have a concomitant medication burden of $5 other medications. For full compliance with the therapy, the patients' medication burden should be considered prior to selecting the treatment route.Keywords: osteoporosis, concomitant medications, polypharmacy, compliance
Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; Al-Omran AS; Azam MQ
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.
El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Amr Mostafa; Hammad Sabry
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to the subject was reviewed to determine the important variables related to factors influencing the use of LMS in higher education. The paper provides insights of the external and internal variables or factors that influence the use of Jusur LMS for teaching and learning purposes. The internal variables consist of the attitude of Saudi Arabian faculty members towards using LMS, their beliefs towards e-learning, and their competence level in using LMS. The external variables consist of barriers faced by the faculty members and demographic factors. This study was limited to the use of Jusur LMS, one of the e-learning management tools used in Saudi Arabian universities, and surveyed faculty members of Saudi Arabian public universities. This theoretical framework can be adapted to suit the requirements of other similar studies related to planning and implementation of various technology programs in higher education.
Mohammed Jaber Asiri; Rosnaini bt Mahmud; Kamariah Abu Bakar; Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd Ayub
OBJECTIVES: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19. METHODS: A retroprospective collection of data on all children evaluated by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) team in King Abdulaziz Medical City for the National Guard from 2000 to 2008. The cases were further divided into 3 subgroups corresponding to the years 2000-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 parallel to the stages of development of the national child protection system. RESULTS: During the study period, there were a total of 188 referrals to the SCAN team. Of these 133 (70.7%) were further investigated as CAN cases. The total number of referred cases increased 10-fold from 6.4 cases per year in the first period to 61.5 cases per year in the third period. The mean age was 5 years, evenly represented by males and females. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse in the first (2000-2004) period at 61% and second (2005-2006) period at 76%, which changed to neglect (41.6%) as the most common form of maltreatment in the third (2007-2008) period. Parents were the perpetrators in 48.9% of cases throughout the 3 periods. Overall fatality rates were 4.4%, 14.3%, and 7.9% in the first, second, and third periods respectively. CONCLUSION: Recognition of CAN is expanding in Saudi Arabia. This is due to the successful adoption of a system of intervention consisting of child protection centers in the medical facilities, in conjunction with mandatory reporting and data collection strategies. In addition, the changes in public attitudes towards a better understanding of CAN enhanced further recognition and reporting of neglect and milder forms of abuse. We believe that the number of reported CAN cases in Saudi Arabia will continue to rise, hence adequate multi-sectoral services for the abuse victims require further development and improvements throughout the country.
Al Eissa M; Almuneef M
The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes. Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp. Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help
Updated for 2011, the Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that covers today's most popular science topics, from digital TV to microchips to touchscreens and beyond. Perennial subjects in earth science, life science, and physical science are all explored in detail. Amazing graphics-more than 1,000 per title-combined with concise summaries help students understand complex subjects. Correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-9, each title also contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary.
The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P
The Director General for Financial Affairs for Petroline described the oil pipeline linking the east and west coasts of Saudi Arabia in an interview. Owned by Petromin (General Petroleum and Mineral Organization), Petroline has a design capacity of 1.85 million barrels per day, with the rate varying according to oil demand on the international market and the rate of use of Saudi refineries supplied by the pipeline. Mr. Taher describes the economic advantages of the pipeline, the significance of the Iraqi pipeline through Saudi territory, the distribution of petroleum products to remote areas, and the development of other mineral resources.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, experience, and the impact of seniority of Saudi emergency services (EMS) personnel in dealing with acute stroke patients. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional survey using a 3-part structured questionnaire involving 102 EMS personnel in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October and December 2011. We assessed participants` demographic factors, their ability to identify cardinal symptoms of stroke, use of assessment tools, knowledge of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), and dispatch of patients. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 27.6 (+/-4.5) years. Approximately half of the group had experience of up to 2 years. Six percent of participants were not aware of any stroke symptoms, and only 3% identified 5 or more correct symptoms. None of the participants used any stroke specific assessment tools. Around 98% of participants dispatched patients to the nearest hospitals without taking into account availability of stroke treatment facilities. Only 6% of the participants were aware of t-PA and its use in stroke care. CONCLUSION: Most of the EMS personnel lacked knowledge of the cardinal stroke symptoms, t-PA`s principal uses, and its therapeutic time window. Training opportunities coupled with the implementation of screening tools, stroke triage, and dispatch protocols are urgently required.
Althubaity E; Yunus F; Al Khathaami AM
Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4?ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P?1·g?1, respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2?ng/mL, 64.5?g, and 0.08?ng·mL?1·g?1, respectively, for KSUH patients (P
O.Z. Al-Abdin; D.M. Rabah; G. Badr; A. Kotb; A. Aprikian
Full Text Available The relationship between image quality and processing conditions was assessed in a survey of 26 primary health care clinics in Riyadh City. Each clinic is equipped with a basic X-ray room and a darkroom that has a small table-top automatic processor. Rooms were evaluated for the quality of safe light, light leakage, storage of films and chemicals and processor temperature setting. A relationship was obtained between the quality of these parameters and the analysis of characteristic curves (H and D curves) of images produced at each facility. Base plus fog indexes in 50% of clinics were found to be above normal values. Contrast and speed indexes were above control in 46 and 19% of clinics, respectively. The results showed that the image quality is negatively affected when the above conditions are unsatisfactory, even though the X-ray machine, cassettes and films used are in good condition. In conclusion, image quality can be improved significantly by applying quality control principles related to darkroom conditions.
Mohammad Omar Alsubael
Exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. In today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. This is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in washing residues and in the tissues of fruits of date palm growing in 14 sites of Riyadh and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The washing residues and tissue of date palm fruits collected from different sites showed the presence of significant amounts of the Pb and Cd. The concentration of Pb in the dust and fruit tissue increased with increasing anthropogenic sources. Therefore, fruits of date palm might be used as a pollution indicator; it might be recommend that fruits of date palm could be safe for human consumption after washing. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in all the samples collected from different sites is within the safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO. PMID:23961121
Aldjain, Ibrahim M; Al-Whaibi, Mohamed H; Al-Showiman, Salim S; Siddiqui, Manzer H
Exposure of heavy metals to human beings has risen dramatically in the last 50 years. In today's urban and industrial society, there is no escaping from exposure to toxic chemicals and heavy metals. Humans are more likely to be exposed to heavy metal contamination from the dust that adheres to edible plants than from bioaccumulation. This is because it is very difficult to wash off all the dust particles from the plant material before ingesting them. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in washing residues and in the tissues of fruits of date palm growing in 14 sites of Riyadh and also to assess whether the fruits were safe for human consumption. The washing residues and tissue of date palm fruits collected from different sites showed the presence of significant amounts of the Pb and Cd. The concentration of Pb in the dust and fruit tissue increased with increasing anthropogenic sources. Therefore, fruits of date palm might be used as a pollution indicator; it might be recommend that fruits of date palm could be safe for human consumption after washing. The mean concentration of Pb and Cd in all the samples collected from different sites is within the safe limits recommended by FAO/WHO.
Aldjain IM; Al-Whaibi MH; Al-Showiman SS; Siddiqui MH
Full Text Available This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient. Qualitative data from a semi-structured interview were also analyzed to explore teachers'knowledge about reading strategy instruction. The results of this study show that Saudi teachers believestrongly in the importance of cognitive reading strategies and that they have insufficient knowledge of theimportance of metacognitive reading strategies. The study ends with recommendations for training Saudi EFLteachers in some of the most effective metacognitive reading strategies to help students plan, monitor, evaluate,and regulate their learning.
Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani
In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.
Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.