WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

2

Integrated random measurements in King Saud University Girl's Campus,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This residential site consisting of three buildings was chosen because itis highly populated and in the center of the city of Riyadh. The dosimeterswere kept in the buildings for a period of nine months from January toOctober, 2001. The radon average concentration per room in buildings one, twoand three are found as (32+-2) Bqm-3, (40+-3) Bqm-3 and (59+-6) Bqm-3respectively. In this study a consisted trend of high radon concentration insmall rooms than large ones may indicate poor ventilation in small rooms. Thestatistical analysis shows that 75% of the values are equal or less than 50Bqm-3. It is also seen that 98% of the measured values are less than the safelimit of 148 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency of the U.S.A.It can therefore be concluded that these buildings may have no potentialhealth hazard of Radon. (author)

3

Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1 along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2 were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2. About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.% ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (% T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.

R.S. Aljumaah

2011-01-01

4

Perceptions and Attitudes of Riyadh University Students towards Products Derived from Genetically Modified Crops in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted during 2008 to assess the attitudes and perceptions of the Riyadh University students towards genetically modified crops and foods. Using descriptive analysis, it was found that the majority of surveyed students had good knowledge of genetic modifications, but lack knowledge about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO values. Most respondents would not purchase clearly labelled GMO products, though considerable number of the respondents was ready to taste or try the products. It is evident from these results that majority of university students who participated in this survey, in general had very little information or didn’t know the genetic engineering technology e.g., gene therapy, fingerprinting, role in reducing pesticide application etc., as appeared in the results, therefore, most of the participants did not know or thought GM foods are harmful and could not be easily detected. The implication of this result is that majority will not support GM products.

Dalal Hamad Al-jebreen

2010-01-01

5

Learning style preferences of first-year dental students at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: influence of gender and GPA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the learning style preferences of a group of first-year dental students and their relation to gender and past academic performance. A total of 113 first-year dental students (forty-two female, seventy-one male) at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, participated. The Visual, Aural, Read-write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire was used to determine the students' preferred mode of learning. This sixteen-item questionnaire defines preference of learning based on the sensory modalities: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. More than half (59 percent) of the students were found to have multimodal learning preferences. The most common single learning preferences were aural (20 percent) followed by kinesthetic (15.2 percent). Gender differences were not statistically significant. However, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean values of GPA in relation to the students' learning style preferences (p=0.019). Students with a single learning style preference had a lower mean GPA than those with multiple (quad-modal) learning style preferences. For effective instruction, dental educators need to broaden their range of presentation styles to help create more positive and effective learning environments for all students. PMID:24098042

Al-Saud, Loulwa Mohammed Saad

2013-10-01

6

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

7

Obesity among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Obesity constitutes an important public health problem among male adolescents in Riyadh. A national prevention program with involvement of schools is recommended to avoid obesity-related morbidity in adulthood.

Mohammed O. Al-Rukban

2003-01-01

8

Fungal flora in house dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi in the house-dust of houses in the less populated and densely populated areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were screened. The screened area included drawing rooms, living rooms, kitchens, bedrooms and bathrooms. A total of 74 fungal species were isolated. The highest number of fungal colonies were found in the living rooms followed by bedrooms. The number of fungal colonies isolated were higher in densely populated areas compared with less populated areas. Aspergillus was the predominant genus represented by highest number of species followed by Penicillium. PMID:10424107

Bahkali, A H; Parvez, S

1999-01-01

9

CD4+ T-Lymphopenia in HIV negative tuberculous patients at king khalid university hospital in riyadh, saudi arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (Tb is a chronic infectious disease in which the cellular immunity (specifically CD4+ and CD8 lymphocytes provides the most important defense in controlling infection. CD4 lymphopenia is a well-defined risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. In HIV - negative patients, CD4 and CD8 cell count suppression has been associated with Tb infection. Our study was designed to deter mine the baseline and post-treatment values of CD4 and CD8 in HIV negative patients diagnosed with active Tb in Saudi Arabian patients. We recruited twentyeight, non-HIV patients with tuberculosis for the study group comprising 16 males and 12 females with either disseminated or localized active Tb infection. Two control groups were selected - one of twenty one matched healthy controls and the second of fortytwo subjects from pool of controls of an ongoing study in same population for normal CD4 and CD8 counts. The baseline pre-treatment CD4 and CD8 counts in the study group were significantly lower than either control group. Specifically the mean ± SD of CD4 counts were 556.79 ± 298.81 in the study group vs 1,132.38 ± 259.90 in control group 1 and 1,424.38 ± 870.98 in control group 2 (p 0.000. Likewise the CD8 counts in the study group were 1,136.00 ± 512.06 vs. 1,461.90 ± 367.02 in control group 1 and 1,495.90 ± 565.32 in control group 2 (p 0.000 respectively. After treatment of tuberculosis, the study patients experienced a significant increase in their mean ± SD CD4 and CD8 cell counts, from 556.79 ± 297.81 to 954.29 ± 210.90 for CD4 cells (p 0.005 and 1136.00 ± 512.06 to 1,316.54 ± 286.17 for CD8 cells (p 0.002. Analysis of study patients with disseminated disease found significantly lower CD4 cells (but not lower CD8 cells compared to study patients with localized disease, both at baseline and after treatment. The mean ± SD baseline CD4 cells were 247.60 ± 187.80 with disseminated vs 728.56 ± 186.32 for localized disease (p = 0.000 which rose to 842.30 ± 93.55 vs 1016.50 ± 233.51 (p = 0.033 respectively. We conclude that tuberculosis may be associated with CD4 and CD8 lymphopenia even in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection, there was the tendency of recovery towards normality especially of the CD4 and CD8 counts after treatment, and that disseminated disease is associated specifically with profound CD4 lymphopenia.

Al-Aska AI

2011-06-01

10

Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021

Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

2013-07-01

11

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

12

Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

Suaad S. Alwakeel

2011-01-01

13

New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on ...

Ak, Al-asmari; Aa, Al-saief; Nm, Abdo; Kr, Al-moutaery

2009-01-01

14

IISD RS @ First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

...Climate Change, First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Your Meeting Bulletin at the First International Conference ...on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia IISD RS @ First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (...CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia // IISD RS Linkages Home JOIN THE IISD-RS INITIATIVE IISD's Summary HTML PDF 24 ...September Following on from the First International Conference on the CDM in Saudi Arabia, an EU-OPEC Roundtable on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage ...

15

Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.Keywords: test blueprinting, psychiatry, residency program, summative assessment, documentary and content analysis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Gaffas EM

2012-05-01

16

Creating and Mapping Flash Flood Social and Physical Vulnerability Index of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past couple of years, the frequency and magnitude of flash floods are increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For effective planning and mitigation purposes, it is necessary to identify and visualize areas that are vulnerable to the flooding. In this paper, we will first create a flash flood social and physical vulnerability index for the city of Riyadh based on physical and social-economic data. Building upon the index, the areas of Riyadh that are highly vulnerable to flash floods will be identified and mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Finally, possible mitigation measures that can be used to reduce the impacts of flooding will be discussed in details.

Tauhidur Rahman, Muhammad; Aldosary, Adel S.; Nahiduzzaman, Khondokar Mohammad

2014-05-01

17

Distribution of ultraviolet solar radiation at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultraviolet UV solar radiation flux is monitored over a fixed time interval to study the daily, monthly and annual variations for a nearly one decade in Riyadh. Mathematical expressions will be presented based on a comparison between theoretical and experimental values. It is believed that the present analysis of UV radiation suggest that the environmental effects led to a better understanding of UV scattering, UV reflection, ozone and clouds layers in Riyadh and other selected areas in the mid-east region. PMID:16897517

Elani, U A

2007-01-01

18

A Quantitative Survey of Air-borne Fungal Spores from Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The air-borne fungal flora inhabiting school environments at different places in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia were screened. A total of 36 fungal species belonging to 6 genera were isolated from the air of schools at different places in Riyadh, while a total number of 68 fungal species belonging to 21 genera were isolated from the schools dust. The highest number of fungal species was found in the secondary stage followed by intermediate stage. The primary stage, which had a less populated classroom, recorded the lowest number of fungal species. The commonest genera of fungi isolated were Aspergillus and Penicillium. All the localities, the highest number of fungal colonies were obtained from schools in the south location of Riyadh city followed by schools in the central area.

Abdullah M. Al-Falih

2001-01-01

19

Predictors of smoking among male junior secondary school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among intermediate (junior secondary) schoolboys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 1382 students (ages 12-19 years) in 45 classes randomly selected from 15 schools, using a two- stage stratified cluster sampling scheme. DESIGN: Students in the selected classes were requested to complete an anonymous questionnaire, under the supervision of trained interviewers. Univariate and multivariate statis...

Jarallah, J. S.; Bamgboye, E. A.; Al-ansary, L. A.; Kalantan, K. A.

1996-01-01

20

Measurement of atmospheric particle size distribution during sand/duststorm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents new results of measuring and analyzing atmospheric sand/dust particles during storms. Particles are collected at various heights in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a typical arid inland city. It is found that most of the particle size distributions can be described by a lognormal or normal distribution depending on the storm condition and height. The average diameter of sand/dust particles decreases with the increase of height according to a power law.

Ahmed, Abobakr S.; Ali, Adel A.; Alhaider, Mohammed A.

 
 
 
 
21

Measurements of indoor gamma radiation and radon concentrations in dwellings of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indoor gamma radiation measurement at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia using TLD has been performed. Measurements were carried out from October 2004 to June 2005. The city was divided into five sectors, for four categories of bed rooms, living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens. The indoor gamma annual absorbed dose of Riyadh city is in the range from 303±57 to 700±38 ?Gy y-1 with an average value of 455.1±45 ?Gy y-1. The calculated corresponding annual effective dose to the adult population of the locations will vary from 212±40 to 490±27 ?Sv y-1 with an average value of 318.57±31 ?Sv y-1.222Rn concentration was measured at dwellings of Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia to estimate effective annual dose to the public from 222Rn and its progeny. The 222Rn concentrations were measured using CR-39 detector. The range of annual mean 222Rn concentrations for all sites was 2-69 Bq m-3 with an average of 18.4 Bq m-3. The effective annual dose was estimated to be 0.46 mSv y-1

22

Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139

Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S

2011-07-01

23

Impacts of Management Practices on Economic Performance of Firms Located in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management practices employed by a firm can have direct impacts on its economic performance in the market. This research focused on how economic performance of two banks located in the City of Riyadh is affected by their management practices. These two banks were Samba Financial Group and Saudi British Bank. It was realized that management skills applied by an organization would pose direct effects on the economic performance of that firm. Samba Financial Group has designed management practices that are meant to offer customers what they need in the best manner possible. On the other hand, most of the management practices of Saudi British Bank have always been focusing on motivating employees. In both cases, it is clear that the approach taken by the management will have direct impact on a firm’s economic performance.

Shahnaz Hamid

2014-02-01

24

Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from outpatient clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the recovered strains phenotypically, by conventional methods and genotypically by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) 16S ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid (rRNA) gene (which serves as an internal control) and mecA gene. Secondly, introduce multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type 4. Thirty-seven strains of S. aureus collected in 2007 from outpatient clinics in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were tested in the College of Pharmacy phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR for direct detection of S. aureus 16S rRNA and mecA genes. All the 37 strains, were tested also by multiplex PCR targeting at the same time S. aureus 16S rRNA, PVL, and (SCCmec) type 4. Polymerase chain reaction detected all the 37 bacteriologically positive S. aureus (100%) and the mecA gene in all strains phenotypically resistant to methicillin (100%), at the same time it detected the mecA gene in 2 strains phenotypically sensitive to methicillin. Only 3 strains (8.1%) recovered from skin and soft tissue infections were positive for PVL and SCCmec type 4. The PCR assay can be used for rapid detection of S. aureus and mecA gene. At the same time the multiplex PCR assay explained in this study is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable test for direct detection of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (author)

25

New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02% and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%. The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%, Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%, Androctonus bicolor (64.60%, Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%, Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%, Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%, Buthacusleptochelys (3.24% and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%. The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

AK Al-Asmari

2009-01-01

26

New additions to the scorpion fauna of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this work, we present additional morphological data about the scorpion fauna of Saudi Arabia. This investigation was carried out in the central region (Riyadh) of the country and identified existing and newly discovered scorpion species for taxonomic documentation while determining the medically [...] important ones. The survey covered the entire Riyadh region, including all major districts, and collected a total of 4,164 specimens. Morphological identification of collected animals was based on identification keys. There were two species (one with a subspecies) that belonged to the family Scorpionidae, namely Scorpio maurus kruglovi (0.02%) and Hemiscorpius arabicus (0.05%). The latter, currently, is part of the Hemiscorpiidae family that had been upgraded from a subfamily. Eight more species from the Buthidae family were found: Leiurus quinquestriatus (7.20%), Androctonus crassicauda (17.24%), Androctonus bicolor (64.60%), Compsobuthus arabicus (3.84%), Compsobuthus werneri (0.94%), Buthacusyotvatensis nigroaculeatus (2.31%), Buthacusleptochelys (3.24%) and Orthochirus innesi (0.55%). The major locations of collection were the outskirts of Riyadh city and the airport vicinity. The specimens were transported from all central region areas in 124 short trips.

AK, Al-Asmari; AA, Al-Saief; NM, Abdo; KR, Al-Moutaery.

27

Simulated changes in water levels in the Minjur Aquifer, Riyadh area, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-dimensional finite-difference computer model of the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area of Saudi Arabia was developed to simulate and predict drawdown in an aquifer which, in 1979, supplied more than 80 percent of all water used in this capital area. The Minjur was modeled as a confined aquifer recharged by leakage through underlying confining beds. Pumpage was simulated for a 23-year period during which it increased from 2,160 to 220 ,000 cubic meters per day. At Riyadh, the top of the Minjur aquifer is about 1200 meters below land surface. Aquifer thickness within the 40,000-square-kilometer study area ranges from 74 to 138 meters inclusively. Values for aquifer characteristics used in the model are: transmissivity, from 0.001 to 0.0062 square meters per second; storage coefficients, 0.07 for the unconfined, and 0.0004 for the confined sectors of the model area. A value of 0.02 meters per second was used to represent the vertical conductivity of the confining bed. Predictive simulations indicate that if the Minjur aquifer in the Riyadh area is stressed by estimated future pumpages, static water-level declines ranging from 10 up to and including 90 meters, depending on location, will occur from 1980 through 1999. Simulations also demonstrated that pumping levels in the new Buwayb well field will decline substantially from 1980 through 1981. (USGS)

Williams, J.F.; Sagaby, I.A.

1982-01-01

28

How Saudi women researchers perceive their role at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study discusses the way in which Saudi academic women perceive their role as academic researchers at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. My aim is to illustrate and explain the role of women academics who live in a conservative religious culture in Saudi Arabia, and how they fulfil their research obligations. Moreover, I aim to clarify and understand the challenges they face throughout their academic journeys. I have used the method of narra...

Alsudis, Mona Saleh A.

2014-01-01

29

Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478

Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz

2014-01-01

30

Applying a SERVQUAL Model to Measure the Impact of Service Quality on Customer Loyalty among Local Saudi Banks in Riyadh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates the impact of service quality underlying the SERVQUAL model on customer loyalty, with customer satisfaction mediating these variables. This analytical study is mainly based on the primary data collected through a questionnaire that was personally administered to 422 individuals selected from five local banks in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The findings indicate th...

Albarq, Abbas N.

2013-01-01

31

Body Mass Index and Dietary Intake of Saudi Adult Males in the Riyadh Region-Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate intake of macronutrients and its relation to Body Mass Index (BMI as well as intake of selected micronutrients in urban and rural healthy adults in Riyadh region-Saudi Arabia. 170 health adults were recruited, 85 of which were urbans and 85 were rurals. Three consecutive days food records were collected and dietary intakes were analyzed by the food processor and other food composition tables. Results showed high intake of macronutrients and prevalence of overweight and obesity in both groups with no significant differences. Subjects of both groups also had high intake of saturated fat. Results also showed inadequate intake of vitamin D, calcium and folate. Few of the participants of both groups had inadequate intake of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 was adequate. No significant differences between the two groups were observed except for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin B2 that their mean intakes were significantly higher in urban group compared to rural group. Mean intake of vitamin B3 was higher in rural group compared to urban group. These findings suggested that overweight and obesity among adult Saudis are due to high intake of macronutrients combined with inadequate intake of some micronutrients, which are results of non-balanced diet and inappropriate consumption patterns. The study also suggests that there is a need of increasing the nutritional education and awareness among adult Saudi males.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

32

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Al-Aqeel SA

2013-09-01

33

The prevalence of obesity among saudi males in the Riyadh region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attendees of 15 health centers in urban and rural areas in the Riyadh region were screened for obesity during May and June 1994. Systemic selection yielded 1580 Saudi males for analysis. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 13.5 years and body mass index (BMI) was 26.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2). Only 36.6% of subjects were their ideal weight (BMI 40 kg/m(2)). Middle age, lower education and joblessness predicted a higher risk for obesity. Patients living in a rural areas had greater BMIs than those living in urban areas (P diabetis mellitus, hypertension, stroke, heart disease, sleep apnea syndrome and osteoarthritis of the knees. Young parents who are at risk of developing obesity and who play a central role in perpetuating it in their offspring should be the target of obesity-prevention programs. PMID:17372433

Al-Shammari, S A; Khoja, T A; Al-Maatouq, M A

1996-05-01

34

Measurements of environmental radiation doses due to natural radiation sources at Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and the directional dose equivalent, H'(0.07), for indoor and outdoor natural exposure are measured in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The indoor H*(10) rate varies from 61 to 135 nSv h-1, while it is in the range of 57-105 nSv h-1 for the outdoor. The indoor and outdoor rates of H'(0.07) are in the range of 67-142 nSv h-1 and 59-110 nSv h-1, respectively. The indoor-to-outdoor ratio of H*(10) is between 0.92 and 1.39, and it is 0.90-1.54 for H'(0.07). The ratio H'(0.07) to H*(10) lies between 1.0 and 1.22 for indoor, while it is 0.97-1.20 for the outdoor. (authors)

35

Characterisation of MRSA strains isolated from patients in a hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microarray-based assay. Results Five major MRSA strains from four clonal complexes were identified CC8/ST239-III (20.75%, PVL-positive as well as -negative CC22-IV (18.87% and 9.43%, respectively, PVL-positive CC30-IV (12.26% and PVL-positive CC80-IV (17.92%. Minor strains, which accounted for less than 3% each, included CC1-IV/SCCfus, PVL-positive CC1/ST772-V, PVL-positive as well as- negative CC5-IV, CC5-IV/SCCfus, CC5-V, CC6-IV, CC45-IV, PVL-negative CC80-IV, PVL-positive CC88-IV, CC97-V and a CC9/ST834-MRSA strain. Conclusions Typing of MRSA strains from Riyadh revealed a high diversity of clonal complexes. The prevalence of the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was surprisingly high (54.21%, and a significant rate of resistance markers was detected also in strains considered as community-associated.

Monecke Stefan

2012-07-01

36

Atmospheric turbidity and transmittance of solar radiation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the urban areas in the city of Riyadh—the capital of Saudi Arabia—were increasing at an exceptionally high rate through a series of development plans. The major plans had been completed by the end of 1982. Some other big utility projects were started and completed during 1987. As a consequence, the air quality has deteriorated markedly and air pollution episodes recorded during these activities showed that particulates were present in the atmosphere at high concentrations. Later in January 1991 the Gulf war started and the firing of the oil fields in Kuwait soon followed. It was estimated that soot particulates were emitted at a rate of 600 ton d -1 along with high rates of other gases. This event has led to significant air quality and visibility problems. Direct normal solar radiation has been measured during the summer months of July and August which were characterized by very dry and cloudless weather for the period between 1982 and 1992. A year-to-year trend of the transmittance of direct normal solar irradiance was then determined. The atmospheric fine aerosol (Riyadh are presented. The reduction in solar irradiation reflects the intensity of dark smoke at a distance of 500 km from Kuwait.

El-Shobokshy, Mohammad S.; Al-Saedi, Yaseen G.

37

Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

Al-Haqwi Ali

2010-01-01

38

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department o...

Ma, Abolfotouh; Aa, Alabdrabalnabi; Rb, Albacker; Ua, Al-jughaiman; Sn, Hassan

2013-01-01

39

Hydrochemical and quality of water resources in Saudi Arabia groundwater: A comparative study of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the arid climate of the Saudi Arabia, groundwater is a most precious natural resource, providing reliable water supplies for population of these areas. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of groundwater resources in the selected study areas of Riyadh and Al-Ahsa regions. This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available groundwater resources in these two areas of Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor and trace elements is determined and compared with each other. The groundwater salinity as one primary indicator of water quality for irrigation was found to be moderately high in most studied water samples for both areas. Besides salinity, chloride makes these waters unsuitable for irrigation, affecting agricultural activities. However, boron and trace elements were within acceptable levels. Comparative study revealed that the Al-Ahsa groundwater is generally considered higher in its salinity, chloride, and sodium content than Riyadh groundwater. Generated piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters types in Al-Ahasa were sodium chloride - sulphate, however, in Riyadh the majorities were to calcium magnesium sulphate - chloride. The most important results of speciation calculations, computed by Phreeq model, are saturation indices for minerals, which indicate whether minerals should dissolve or precipitate. The results indicated that most studied water samples in Al-Ahsa were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. However, in Riyadh most water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite and halite, and saturated for Gypsum.

Anwar Aly

2013-03-01

40

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey: 2001–2002 in Riyadh region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah1, Naseem Akhtar Qureshi21Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, 2General Administration for Medical Research and Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Tobacco use is a major public health problem, and its prevalence is globally increasing, especially among children and adolescents.Objective: The Global Youth Tobacco Survey aimed to explore the epidemiological trends and risk factors of tobacco smoking among intermediate school boys in Riyadh region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Method: A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce a representative sample of male students from selected schools. The participants (n = 1830 self recorded their responses on the Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire.Results: Lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking was 35%, while 13% of students currently used other tobacco products. About 16% of students currently smoked at home, and 84% of students bought cigarettes without any refusal from storekeepers. Thirty-one percent and 39% of students were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke inside and outside the house, respectively, which was definitely or probably harmful to health as opined by 87% of participants, and 74% voiced to ban smoking from public places. Among current smokers, 69% intended (without attempt to quit and 63% attempted (but failed to quit during the past year. Almost an equal number of students saw antismoking and prosmoking media messages in the last month, and 28% of students were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative. In schools, more than 50% of students were taught about the dangers of cigarette smoking in the last year. Smoking by parents, older brothers, and close friends, watching prosmoking cigarette advertisements, free offer of cigarettes by tobacco company representatives, perception of smoking being not harmful, and continuing smoking which can be easily quit significantly increased the odds of smoking by students.Conclusion: The common use of tobacco in school populations needs to be addressed by, among other tobacco control measures, a strict ban on cigarette selling to minors and intensive regular tobacco control campaigns involving health and religious messages.Keywords: tobacco use, secondhand tobacco smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, intermediate school boys, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Saudi Arabia 

Al-Bedah AM

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project. Final report, project summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proposals for research on solar cooling are presented for four Saudi Arabian universities. The universities are the University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, King Saud University in Riyadh, King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, and King Faisal University in Dammam. Topics researched include the Rankine cycle, passive solar cooling systems, a solar-powered lithium bromide-water absorption machine and a photovoltaic-powered thermoelectric cooling machine. (BCS)

1986-01-01

42

Budd chiari syndrome: Experience at King Faisal specialist hospital and research centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Budd-chiari syndrome (BCS is rare disorder, varied in etiology, inconsistent in presentation, unpredictable in progression, and challenging in therapy. Aim of study: The aim of this study is to review experience of Budd-Chiari syndrome at KFSH, Riyadh; over a ten-year period. Methods: In a retrospective study using a computer data search of the medical records from May 1990 to May 2000, 43 patients? charts suspected of BCS were reviewed. 29 patients were found to have BCS, diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound, venography, MRI, or CT with or without liver biopsy. Findings: Of the 29 patients, 18 were male (62.1% and I 1 were female (37.9%; mean age was 35.4 (range 17-69 years. Nine patients had Behcet?s disease; seven patients had malignancy (five HCC, one melanoma and one hypernephroma. Eight patients had antiphospholipid syndrome, two patients had no known cause and three (one related to trauma, the other related to protein C deficiency and the third related nephrotic syndrome. Nineteen patients presented acutely with abdominal pain, progressive ascites and hepatomegaly. Ten patients had subacute presentation mimicking cirrhosis of liver. Five patients had web in the intrahepatic IVC or ostium HV and the remaining 24 patients had thrombosis of hepatic veins. Five patients received surgical shunts, three had balloon dilatation of webs, 11 had anticoagulant therapy and seven patients had symptomatic treatment. Eleven patients died, six of them had malignancy, two died while awaiting liver transplantation and three died with fulminant hepatic failure. Fourteen patients are still on follow-up. Conclusion: Budd Chiari syndrome in Saudi Arabia is related to a defined cause in majority of patients (92%. Behcet?s disease is a dominant cause of BCS in Saudi Arabia. This is in contrast to world literature where around 50% of patients are of unknown etiology

Al Himali Shadia

2003-01-01

43

Prevalence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Reports on extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBL production by Enterobacteriaceae, and especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae , are few in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of ESBL in K pneumoniae from Riyadh and characterized the predominant b-lactamase gene in these isolates. Methods: A total of 400 K pneumoniae samples were isolated from two hospitals in Riyadh during 2007 and screened for production of ESBL using ESBL-E-strips and combined disk methods. PCR assay was used to detect bla TEM , bla SHV , and bla CTX-M genes. Results: Phenotypic characterization identified a high ESBL rate of 55% of K pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae were PCR positive for SHV, TEM and CTX-M b-lactamase genes with prevalences 97.3%, 84.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Within the CTX-M family, two groups of enzymes, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9-like genes were found with prevalences of 60% and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: This study confirms the high rate of ESBL in K pneumoniae clinical isolates in hospitals in Riyadh. This study demonstrates the worldwide spread of bla CTX-M genes. This first report of the presence of the bla CTX-M gene in clincial isolates in Saudi Arabia is evidence of the continuing worldwide spread of this gene.

Al-Agamy Mohammad

2009-01-01

44

Bacterial and Aspergillus spp. Contamination of Domestic Kitchens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A randomized sampling of 50 households in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia was conducted to determine microbial and Aspergillus spp contaminants in domestic kitchens between May and June 2006. Samples were taken from open air in the kitchen and from used kitchen sponges. Inoculation procedures were varied from direct inoculation of the sponge into the medium to dilution of a cut portion of the sponge. A total of 200 samples were taken from which, 700 culture plates were done (BAP and Nutrient agar). Identification by the API system of identification (Analytical Profile Index, BioMerieux) revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Diphtheroids and Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus spp. was isolated and identified microscopically. Among the isolates, Staphylococcus epidermidis , Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 90% of the plates followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (83%) , Klebsiella pneumonia ; Bacillus cereus (63%).and Aspergillus spp (15%) These opportunistic pathogens may be harmful especially in immunocompromised hosts. In this setting, there is a constant risk of contamination and transfer to willing hosts, thus appropriate measures should be implemented such as the use of disposable sponges. (author)

45

A preliminary study on HTGR with air-cooled condenser at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

N GNP reactor plant adopted a Rank in steam cycle for early deployment and for reducing R and D risk and cost. Original plant design is based on a wet cooling tower with wet bulb temperature of 34 .deg. C. This cooling environment may be sufficient for most area in North America. However, we should consider air temperature of 45 .deg. C and no available cooling water for any site near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A plausible option in such arid area is using an air-cooled condenser(ACC) which is widely used in a combined cycle plant in arid region. ACC is also suitable for freezing area such as northern territory or high elevation remote area. We have studied impact of the cooling method on the power generation efficiency and the annual average power production referencing N GNP steam turbine. Even though condenser split is assumed to be the same between ACC and wet cooling tower, large difference in air temperature and wet bulb temperature makes large efficiency loss in the ACC. The ACC efficiency is lower than that of the wet cooling tower by 1.12%. To make up this loss, we proposed the variable steam extraction rates operation. An air cooled condenser is a practical

46

Incidence of Terrestrial Fungi in Drinking Water Collected from Different Schools in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forty five species belonging to nineteen genera of terrestrial fungi were recovered on glucose and cellulose Czapek?s media from one hundred and forty drinking water samples which, were collected from different kids (2 schools, primary (77 schools, mediatory (33 schools and secondary (28 schools schools from different regions in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Cellulose Czapek?s (39 species related to 19 genera was rich than glucose Czapek?s (37 species belonging to 15 genera with the species diversity. Water samples collected from primary schools were the most contaminant with fungal populations as compared with other tested samples. Both Aspergillus and Penicillium contributed the broadest spectra of the isolated terrestrial fungal species where they were represented by eight and six species, respectively on the media of isolation. The most prevalent isolated species of terrestrial fungi on the two isolation media were; Cladosporium cladosporoides, Trichoderma viride, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Emericella nidulans, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus rhizopodiformis. The majority of the isolated genera and species were almost similar on both of isolation media although several species were recorded in only one isolation medium.

Laila A. Nasser

2004-01-01

47

Metal levels in indoor and outdoor dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn of outdoor and indoor dusts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have been investigated in relation to particle sizes 0.04-0.08 mm using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Although the results showed relatively low contamination in general, the old industrial area had appreciably high levels of toxic metals and there relatively high Pb levels near motorways. Mean concentrations of outdoor dusts for Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 2.5 {+-} 0.3, 35.1 {+-}2.7, 93.9 {+-}41.9, 4.6 {+-} 0.3, 43.9 {+-} 5.6, 1762 {+-} 593, and 443 {+-} 223 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively, and mean concentrations of indoor dusts were 2.9 {+-} 1.1, 69.2{+-} 16.5, 271 {+-} 140, 6.2 {+-} 0.5, 52.9 {+-} 17.7, 639 {+-} 279, and 547 {+-} 197 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. The main source of these heavy metals, in both outdoor and indoor dusts, was from automobile emission. The relationship between indoor and outdoor dusts were investigated. In view of the high levels of some of these toxic metals, these can be considered a significant hand-to-mouth source of exposure, especially for children. 28 refs., 3 fig., 4 tab.

Al-Rajhi, M.A.; Seaward, M.R.D. [Univ. of Bradford (United Kingdom); Al-Aamer, A.S. [Univ. of Southhampton (United Kingdom)

1996-08-01

48

The impact of home computers on 12th grade students' achievement in the computer science curriculum in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology has improved many educational issues. This is a very exciting time for technology and education. The primary purpose of this study was aimed at understanding the impact of home computer use on academic achievement in the computer curriculum of the 12th grade students in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In particular, the study attempted to determine if the use of home computers would be an effective manner for increasing students' academic achievement. The participants of the study were 240 male and female students as a random sample from 12th grade from eight random high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An achievement exam and survey were developed by the researcher based on the computer science curriculum topics, the quantitative data was collected in both a single achievement exam and a single survey from a sample of 240 Saudi high school students. Both the survey and an achievement exam were split equally between male and female students. The study sought the answer to 10 questions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by tests of simple main effects and post hoc comparisons using Scheffe, as well as Pearson Correlation were conducted to answer the research questions. The study results pointed out that home computers were important to support the students in their academic achievement in the computer science curriculum. Therefore, more attention must be given to the use of home computers for all students. Moreover, we should attempt to treat the difficulties which students face for getting computers in their homes.

Aljuwaiber, Mohammed A.

49

The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend completely on traditional examinations to evaluate the performance of the students. Chi-square test shows that there are significant differences in observed and expected frequencies between teachers and supervisors with respect to geography learning objectives, geography content, methods of teaching, tools and resources, and the problems that geography teachers encounter in their teaching.

Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

50

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Me, Magzoub; Zamakhshary M

2012-01-01

51

The Quality of Medicines in Community Pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS-Based Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To classify community pharmacies (CPs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in terms of the quality of medicines sold by them, using the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS technique with a predefined threshold. Methods: Riyadh CPs were divided into 2 categories (“lots” for the purpose of LQAS, i.e., chain and independent CPs. Upper and lower rate thresholds for CPs that sell low-quality medicines were predefined as 20% and 5%, respectively. Consumer and provider risks were predefined as 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. The calculated number of randomly selected CPs required in each lot was 36; then, sale of low-quality medicines in >3 CPs implies a prevalence of >20% of such CPs according to LQAS. A randomly selected brand of amoxicillin (selected as a quality indicator of medicines because it is both widely counterfeited and heat-sensitive was purchased from each pharmacy by a “mystery shopper”, checked for authenticity, and analyzed for drug content and content uniformity using a validated HPLC method. Results: Substandard amoxicillin was purchased in 9 pharmacies (4 chains and 5 independent. Both lots were thus rejected as unacceptable, which may indicate that consumers in Riyadh are at risk of purchasing substandard medicines at CPs. Conclusions: The quality of medicines sold in CPs in Riyadh did not meet our acceptability criterion, and appropriate intervention by decision makers is recommended. LQAS proved to be a practical, economical, and statistically valid sampling method for surveying the quality of medicines. It should enable decision makers to allocate resources for improvement more efficiently.

Hani M. J. Khojah

2013-10-01

52

A study on the behaviour of TLD-100 glow peaks at extreme ambient temperatures in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the temperature-induced variations in the TLD-100 response and the modifications in its glow peaks are investigated in real environmental exposure conditions in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)), where ambient temperatures during summer reach >45 deg. C and with relative humidity of 137Cs prior to deployment; another was irradiated to the same dose after deployment, while the last group was left unirradiated. Analysis of glow curves was done using commercially available glow curve deconvolution software (CGCD). Monthly variations in peak 3, 4 and 5 areas relative to the corresponding peak areas of a prompt glow curve are presented. Results of this study show good TL signal compensation between peaks 4 and 5 at all ambient temperatures encountered in this experiment, despite the observed individual variations experienced by each of these peaks. The sum of peak 4 and 5 areas is constant to within ?10%, for both pre- and post-irradiated dosemeters, during this 12-month cycle. (authors)

53

Test for Local Insect Traps against some Solanacea Insects Plant under Green House Conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trapping efficiency of seven different colored sticky traps (Green, Fluorescent yellow, Orange, Pink, red, White and Yellow) was evaluated in some solanacea plants, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), eggplant (Solanum Magellan) and sweet pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops, for whitefly (Bemis ia airlifting), leaf miners (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips tabaci) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The traps were placed at four different heights (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m above the ground). The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) with four replications during autumn 2001, spring and autumn 2002. Significantly high insect populations were trapped on Fluorescent yellow, yellow and green colored sticky traps. No significant differences were witnessed between mean numbers of various insects caught on sticky traps placed at different heights but more insects were trapped at 0.5 - 1.5m. (author)

54

Adherence of Community Pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, to Optimal Conditions for Keeping and Selling Good-Quality Medicines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exposure to excessive temperature during distribution or storage has unfavorable consequences on the quality of medicines, particularly in hot climates. This could be one of the possible reasons behind the existence of substandard amoxicillin in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study explored the conditions under which medicines were kept in a random sample of 181 community pharmacies in Riyadh. The pharmacist in charge in each pharmacy was interviewed and our observations about the quality of storage were recorded. The inspection revealed that in 9% of the sample the readings of the existing room thermometers were >25?, and that 13% of the sample lacked thermometers. Also in 33% of the sample the readings of the refrigerator thermometers were outside the accepted range, and 7% of the sample lacked refrigerator thermometers. About 15% of pharmacists were not informed about the local regulations of community pharmacy practice, neither before nor after taking up their current positions. Surprisingly, incorrect answers to simple questions about the system were frequently given by the informed pharmacists. Certain aspects of substandard storage conditions existed, in varying degrees, in significant percentages of pharmacies regardless of the pharmacists’ qualifications, experience, or awareness about the local regulations of community pharmacy practice. Stricter monitoring by the authorities regarding the adherence of community pharmacies to optimal conditions of storing medicines is recommended. Continuing education of community pharmacists must also be improved.

Hani M. J. Khojah

2013-08-01

55

Imported malaria infections diagnosed at the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Although there is no active malaria transmission in Riyadh KSA, imported infections still poses a significant health problem. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in those with suggestive travel history. Efforts to reduce the incidence of transfusion malaria should aim at formulation of appropriate policies for selection of blood donors and for screening of blood.

Ibrahim S. Alkhalife

2003-10-01

56

Clinical aspects and frequency of scorpion stings in the Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The high prevalence of scorpion stings largely with mild signs/symptoms and without any mortality suggests the predominance of weak venomous scorpion species in the Riyadh region. Therefore, the protocol of managing scorpion-sting patients with anti-venom irrespective of the intensity of manifestations warrants a detailed review.

Abdulrahman K. Al Asmari

2012-08-01

57

A preliminary analysis of the inhalable particulate lead in the ambient atmosphere of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhalable particles in the ambient atmosphere in the city of Riyadh have been sampled during the working day (7 a.m.-4 p.m.) over the test period. Samples were taken every 3 h using an Automatic Dichotomous Sampler placed in the College of Engineering, King Saud University at a height of 25 m above the ground. A weather station 3 m above the sampler was used to record (simultaneously) the meteorological data. These data were used to determine the wind rose and the hourly standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction, which, in turn, gives the hourly atmospheric stability class. The particulates in each size range: coarse (2.5-15 ?m) and fine (Riyadh.

El-Shobokshy, M. S.

58

The Impact of Service Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction in the Banking Sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate what impact service quality that underlies the SERVQUAL model has on customer satisfaction in Saudi Arabia’s banking sector. The study was quantitative in nature and involved distributing a structured, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire that was based on a convenience method to 412 customers of various bank in the Saudi capital city of Riyadh, during the fall of 2014. The response rate was 67 percent and the study data was analyzed using SPSS and a reliability coefficient (alpha was determined. Regression analysis found a positive relationship among assurance, empathy, and responsiveness, but that this relationship has no significant effect (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. Reliability was found to have a negative relationship to customer satisfaction, but no significant effect on the same. Only tangibles were found to have a positive relationship and a significant impact (P?0.50 on customer satisfaction. The results show that, in the retail banking sector, the servqual model remains an effective way of measuring customer satisfaction. Because customer value is an asset to organizations, organizations must ensure that they provide the right products and services, supported by the right promotion, at the right time for their customers.

Ghalib Sanjuq

2014-06-01

59

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

60

Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered quest...

Al-Haqwi Ali I

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1) review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2) examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3) review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4) discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5) review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:24250730

Arabi, Yaseen M; Taher, Saadi; Berenholtz, Sean M; Alamry, Ahmed; Hijazi, Ra'ed; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Marini, Abdellatif M

2013-10-01

62

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes/serogroups causing invasive disease in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia : Extent of coverage by pneumococcal vaccines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Serogroup distribution of sterile site pneumococcal isolates varies between developing and developed countries as well as between different geographical regions. The potential efficacy of any pneumococcal vaccine depends on the degree of representation of the prevalent serogroups in the vaccine. We conducted this study to determine the prevalent pneumococcal serogroups causing invasive infections in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to estimate the coverage by the various pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. METHODS : S. pneumoniae isolated between February 2000 and November 2001 from sterile sites of patients of all age groups were collected from 8 major hospitals in Riyadh and serogrouped using the latex agglutination method. RESULTS : Isolates from 78 patients, 72% of whom were children, were studied. Eighty-eight percent of the isolates belonged to only 10 serogroups/serotypes, namely 6 and 19, 1 and 15, 14 and 23, 7, 18 and 22, in descending order of frequency. Potential coverage of the 7-valent, 9-valent, and 11-valent conjugate vaccines were 54%, 65% and 73%, respectively. The rate of reduced penicillin susceptibility in the serogroups represented in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine was significantly higher than in the non-vaccine serogroups (62% vs. 25%; P =0.0023 CONCLUSION : The currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine provides sub-optimal coverage to serogroups causing invasive diseases in our community. However, this vaccine would be a useful adjunct to penicillin prophylaxis in at-risk patients in the community. The effectiveness of the vaccine would be greater if serotype 15 could be included.

Al-Mazrou Abdulrahman

2005-01-01

63

Lipid Profile in Relation to Anthropometric Measurements among College Male Students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Anthropometric measurements can easily reflect any changes in the lipid concentration in the human body. Objectives: The present work is aimed at studying lipid profile and its relation to anthropometric measurements in college males from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted from September 2006 to December 2008. 333 students aged 18-35 years of Riyadh College of Health Science - male section - participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TG) were estimated. Socio-demographic data were collected from a questionnaire. Results: Mean TC level was 4.227 ± 0.869 mmol/l, while for LDL, HDL and TG were 2.57 ± 0.724, 1.360 ± 0.545 and 1.385 ± 0.731 mmol/l, respectively. Mean TC level did not differ significantly across weight groups except among obese patients. Mean HDL, LDL and TG did not differ significantly among different groups at 5% level of significance. There was positive, statistically non-significant correlation between age and BMI. The correlation between age and all lipid parameters were statistically non-significant. There was positive correlation between BMI and TC and LDL, while there was a negative correlation between BMI and HDL. There was no correlation between BMI and triglycerides. Conclusion: BMI, waist and hip circumferences all increase with age. The level of TC, LDL and TG go high with increase in age and BMI. PMID:23675226

Al-Ajlan, Abdul Rahman

2011-01-01

64

The use of remote sensing and geographic information system technologies to detect, monitor, and model urban change in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The city of Riyadh, the capital city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has undergone tremendous urban growth in the last half century. Fueled by social, economic, and political considerations, population and resource usage has grown at a pace that threatens to strain both the resources and the local and regional infrastructure required to support such growth. This dissertation examines the potential of remotely sensed data analyzed with other geospatial data in a geographic information systems (GIS) context to provide information that can be employed by policy makers and persons involved in making decisions concerning the future of urban development in the city of Riyadh. The dissertation research found and recovered a large number of extant aerial images of the city of Riyadh and subjected these to a rigorous photo-interpretation process that characterizes the evolving land uses in the city of Riyadh. The results were compared with an official land use map prepared from other sources, and correlated with available population estimates and water usage. Comparisons revealed the superiority of remotely sensed data to accurately capture land usage, and to reveal the growth patterns that drive resource consumption and degradation of environmental qualities. Classical models of urban structure including the Islamic City model were contrasted with the urban growth pattern in Riyadh in an attempt to capture the dynamics of growth of the city from the turn of the century to the present. Remotely sensed data has in the past been vastly underutilized in guiding urban development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. But new satellite imaging and GIS analysis systems have the spatial resolution and capability to more accurately and economically acquire land use data than by any other means. This dissertation demonstrates the value of these technologies and recommends their adoption in a new spatial data infrastructure initiative for the Kingdom.

Al-Sahhaf, Nasr Abdulhamid

65

Extended-spectrum and metallo-beta-lactamases among ceftazidime-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the extended-spectrum (ESBLs) and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Saudi Arabia. Disc susceptibility testing was performed on 200 P. aeruginosa isolates collected during 2010 at the Armed Forces Hospital in Riyadh, with MIC testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs carried out on those found to be ceftazidime resistant. Genes for ESBLs and MBLs were sought by PCR. Thirty-nine (19.5%) P. aeruginosa isolates were ceftazidime resistant, mostly with considerable resistance to other antibiotics except colistin. Twenty-three of these 39 (59%) appeared ESBL positive and 16 (41%) had MBLs. bla(VEB), and bla(GES) genes were found in 20 (86.95%), and 5 (21.74%) of 23 ESBL-positive isolates, respectively whilst bla(VIM) was detected in all 16 MBL-producers. bla(OXA-10-like) often accompanied bla(VEB), bla(VIM) or bla(GES). Several isolates had similar antibiogram and ?-lactamase profiles, and may represent outbreaks; nevertheless, the collection was not dominated by any single clone. This dominance of acquired ceftazidime-inactivating beta-lactamases, often in combination is in contrast to the situation in Europe and the USA, where most ceftazidime resistance in P. aeruginosa is attributable to AmpC and efflux. PMID:22546765

Al-Agamy, Mohamed H; Shibl, Atef M; Tawfik, Abdulkader F; Elkhizzi, Noura A; Livermore, David M

2012-04-01

66

Studies on the interrelation between rodents and their ectoparasitic acarines in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ectoparasitic acarines of commensal and wild rodents collected from various areas in Riyadh Region were four species of mites (Laelaps nutalli, Ornythonyssus bacoti, Cheyletus eruditus and Articholaelaps glasgowi), and two species of ticks. (Immature stages) Rhipicephalus spp. and Hyalomma spp. In urban areas the highest infestation rate by mites was 49.9% on Rattus rattus followed by 18.5% on Rattus norvegicus. The highest rat-mite index was 2.3 on R. rattus followed by 1.3 on R. norvegicus and 0.1 on Mus musculus. In semiarid areas, the highest rat-mite index was 2.1 on Gerbillus spp. followed by 1.7 on Meriones spp., 1.6 on Jaculus jaculus and 0.9 on Acomys dimidiatus. The highest infestation rate by mites was on Meriones spp. followed by Gerbillus spp. and then A. dimidiatus. PMID:8308342

el-Bahrawy, A A; al-Dakhil, M A

1993-12-01

67

Medical gamma processing facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and radiation applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A medical cobalt-60 facility was opened at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in 1984. Features of the facility are that it can be heated to 1200-1900F during irradiation and has an on-line 30 kw microwave oven. It can be used for small scale batch irradiation or large scale conveyor irradiation. Programs under development are the sterilization of hospital supplies, radiation processing of Saudi foods and radiation of infectious hospital wastes. (U.K.)

68

Inhalable particulates and meteorological characteristics of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambient inhalable particulates (IP) have been sampled in the city of Riyadh by means of a fixed sampling site using an automatic dichotomous sampler. The concentration of fine particulates (0-2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter), coarse particles (2.5-15 ?m aerodynamic diameter) and total (fine plus coarse) IP were determined. The meteorological variables were recorded during the sampling process. The samples were analyzed by means of the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for the metals: Al, As, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ca, K, Mg and Na. Statistical analysis using the multilinear regression technique (Sigstat Package) has been carried out to correlate the concentration of particulate matter with the several meteorological variables. It was determined that the wind speed and atmospheric pressure could be used to predict the concentration of Al, As, Cu, Fe and Pb particulates, whereas wind speed, atmospheric pressure and r.h. could be used to predict the concentration of Ca, K, Mg and Na. The concentrations of atmospheric fine, coarse and total IP matter were found to be high compared to accepted standards. The highest correlation coefficients obtained from the regression analysis were for Fe, Pb and As. The low correlation coefficients for Ca, K, Mg and Na suggest that some significant parameters which are correlated with them may have not been considered in the analysis. Wind speed was shown to have positive correlation with Fe and Al, but negative correlation with Pb.

El-Shobokshy, M. S.; Al-Tamrah, S. A.; Hussein, F. M.

69

Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and...

Ct, Bou Chacra

2013-01-01

70

Childhood obesity: Referred cases to a tertiary health center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To show the pattern of etiology of childhood obesity referred to our endocrinology clinic between December 1989 and December 1994. Subject and Methods: All the children referred to our clinic at the above stipulated dates were studied. This is a retrospective medical records review of these patients. The patients? height and weight were measured by trained staff of the clinic. The Quetelet index also known as Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated as weight (kg/height (m2 for each patient. Laboratory data as well as results of clinical investigations were also obtained from the records of the patients. Results: 52 patients with ages ranging between 2 years and 16 years (median 8 years were studied. Male : female ratio was 1:1. 35 (67.3% of the patients were Saudis while 17 (32.7% were non-Saudis. The etiology of obesity among the series were nutritional 46 (88.5%, Prader-Willi Syndrome 3 (5.8%, Laurence-Moon-Biedl Syndrome 1 (1.9%, pseudohypoparathyroidism 1 (1.9% and hypothyroidism 1 (1.9%. The study showed that the majority of the patients had simple nutritional obesity.

Al Herbish Abdullah

1999-01-01

71

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Rhazya stricta L. Plant Growing on Industrial Wastewater of Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the potential of Rhazya stricta L. growing on a surrounding area of the second industrial zone (24°39.8’ N; 46°57’ E, east of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Plant and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentration. The degree of contamination by those heavy metals in soil and transfer to Rhazya stricta has been estimated. The results showed a medium contamination of soil heavy metal content with respect to Cd and Pb. The total concentration of Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu in shoots of Rhazya stricta was 275, 5.30, 10.5, 27.5 and 8.30 mg kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the total concentration of heavy metals in the roots was as follows (mg kg-1: Fe: 0.1; Cr: 0.5; Ni: 3.0; Zn: 0.8 and Cu: 1.6. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn tended to be accumulated in the roots Rhazya stricta rather than the stems and leaves expect for Zn. The calculated accumulation coefficient of heavy metals in the roots was higher than that in stems or leaves. The Rhazya stricta plant exhibiting Translocation Factor (TF values less than one except for total Zn (1.10-1.60. The results indicated that, Rhazya stricta plant could not suitable for heavy metals extraction from the contaminated studied soil but can be used as an indicator for soil contamination with some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn and also to minimize heavy metals mobility in contaminated soils.

Adel M. Ghoneim

2014-01-01

72

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Leafy Vegetables in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate some of the leafy vegetable plants sold in local markets for human consumption to check whether they harbor different parasites stages. A total of 470 leafy vegetable samples were collected from 12 different plant species randomly from local markets in the Riyadh city during the period April and March 2008. The samples were analysed in the laboratory for parasitic stages contained in these samples after washing them in physiological saline and then examining the sediment. Results of the present study has shown that 76 out of 470 samples (16.2% contained parasite stages. Depending on the type of leafy plant, examined the prevalence of parasitic stages in these plants, was found to be 27.8% (17/61 in lettuce, 22.8% (13/57 in watercress, 20.6% (7/34 in leek, 19.1% (9/47 in green onion, 17.4% (15/87 in parsley, 15.4% (4/26 in spinach, 13.6% (3/22 in basil, 11.5% (3/26 in coriander, 9.4% (3/32 in radish, 5.3% (1/19 in dill and 4.7% (2/42 in mint. No parasites were detected in 17 samples collected from cabbage. Stages of intestinal parasites detected were Entamoeba coli (35.5%, Giardia lamblia (31.6%, Dicrocoelium sp. (28.9%, Ascaris sp. (26.3%, Taenia sp. (19.7%, Blastocystis hominis (17.1%, Fasciola sp. (14.5%, Hymenolepis sp. (14.5%, Ancylostoma sp. (11.8%, Toxoplasma gondii (6.6% and Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%. The results indicated a significant seasonal variation (p<0.05, with highest prevalence in spring (23.1%, followed in descending order by Summer (17.9%, Autumn (10.6% and Winter (9.9%.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

73

Ecology of the Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari in Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ecology, feeding habits and sexual dimorphism in Arabian Sand Boa, Eryx jayakari from the Central region of Saudi Arabia, were studied. In this study the E. jayakari was recorded for the first time from several sites. Significant differences were noted in total length of body and tail, and body diameter of male and female. The females were of larger size. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudal for both sexes were not significantly different. The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventral body scales and subcaudal scales for the females was 43, 169 and 18 scales which were not significantly different from respectively ones in males 42, 168 and 18 scales. Frequent prey consumed were lizards (50%), rodents (25%) and arthropods (12.5%). PMID:25313272

Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Al-Otaibi, Fahed S

2014-11-01

74

Aluminum, Cadmium and Microorganisms in Female Hair and Nails from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

1A.R. Hashem and 2K.F. Abed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9) and done according to Ellis, Ramir...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2007-01-01

75

Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among patients attending primary care clinics at a university hospital in Riyadh.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background And Objectives: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450. Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306 compared to males (71.5%, 103/144 (P< .001. The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405, which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441 of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. Conclusion: Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet.

AlQuaiz Aljoharah

2009-01-01

76

Barriers to a healthy lifestyle among patients attending primary care clinics at a university hospital in Riyadh  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The occurrence and progress of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is associated with unhealthy lifestyles and behaviors. Modification of barriers to healthy lifestyle can produce great benefits. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity and healthy eating among patients attending primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh city. Four hundred and fifty participants attending primary health care clinics (PHCC) from 1 March to 30 April 2007 were randomly selected. A questionnaire about barriers to physical activity and healthy eating was adapted from the CDC web site. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity among the Saudi population in the study was 82.4% (371/450). Females were more physically inactive (87.6%, 268/306) compared to males (71.5%, 103/144) (P<.001). The most common barrier to physical activity was lack of resources (80.5%, 326/405), which was significantly higher among females than males and among the lower income versus the higher income group. The most common barrier to healthy diet was lack of willpower. More than four-fifths (80.3%, 354/441) of the study group stated that they did not have enough will to stick to a diet. CONCLUSION: Lack of resources was the most important barrier for physical activity, while lack of willpower and social support were both barriers for adherence to physical activity and a healthy diet. PMID:19139617

AlQuaiz, Aljoharah M.; Tayel, Salwa A.

2009-01-01

77

The intestinal cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a lead sink for its rat host in the industrial areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study sought to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta as a bioindicator for lead accumulation in two industrial areas of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Rats (Meriones libycus) were collected from two sites (industrial area II and Salbukh) in Riyadh. In the industrial area II, the mean levels of lead concentrations were found to be 1.96, 1.92, 1.4 and 30.72 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In Salbukh, meanwhile, the lead concentrations were 1.63, 1.52, 1.20 and 21.31 ?g/g in the rats' liver, kidney, and intestine, and in H. diminuta, respectively. In addition, in industrial area II, compared with the liver, kidney and intestine of their host, the bioconcentration factors of lead were found to be, respectively, 15.6, 16 and 21.9 times higher in H. diminuta, and were 7.5, 8, and 10.2 times higher in the same organs compared to H. diminuta in Salbukh. The present study, therefore, proved that H. diminuta could be used as a bioindicator for heavy metal contamination in the industrial areas of the city of Riyadh. PMID:25183950

Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Gewik, Mohamed M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

2014-09-01

78

Characterization of 137Cs in Riyadh Saudi Arabia Soil Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The current study was conducted primarily to investigate and estimate 137Cs activity concentrations and the external dose rate due to fallout radionuclide 137Cs. Soil samples were collected from different 25 locations at Riyadh Province and analyzed using low level ?-spectrometry equipped with HPGe-detector. 137Cs activity concentrations and calculated dose rate were found in the range of 0.8 - 3.1 Bq·kg–1 and 0.05 to 0.8 nSv·h–1 with an average value of 1.70 ± 0.7 Bq·kg–1 and 0.11 ± 0.05 nSv·h–1 respectively. The measured 137Cs activity concentration range was compared with the reported ranges in the literature from some of the other locations in the world. Results obtained in this study show that 137Cs concentration is of a lower level in the investigated area. However, the range of 137Cs concentrations observed in this study is significantly high relative to similar data reported from Libya. The average value of estimated external effective dose rate is found far below the dose rate limit of of 1.0 mSv·y–1 for members of the general public recom-mended by ICRP as well as the external gamma radiation dose of 0.48 mSv·y–1 received per head from the natural sources of radiation assessed by (UNSCEAR, 2000. It is concluded that 137Cs soil contamination does not pose radia-tion hazards to the population in the investigated areas.

Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

2012-10-01

79

Procedural sedation for pediatric patients in the emergency department at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, K.S.A  

Science.gov (United States)

Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) has become the standard of care for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures undertaken in the Emergency Department (ED). In the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) of King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), which is a major teaching hospital in Riyadh Kingdom of Saudi Arabia we developed a standard protocol for PSA since 2005. The aim of this article is to report the experience at KKUH in pediatric PSA. Objectives: To report the experience at KKUH in pediatric PSA Objectives: To report the experience at KKUH in pediatric PSA. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study of all cases who underwent PSA for painful procedures in Pediatric Emergency at KKUH from December 2005 to July 2008. Results: A total of 183 patients were reviewed. 179 patients were analyzed. Age ranges from 4 months to 13 years (mean 6 years). Nearly 66% were male. Ketamine was the most commonly used drug. Reduction of fracture/dislocation was the most common indication for sedation. Adverse events were identified in only 5.6% of patients. Vomiting was the most common recorded side-effect. The length of stay in the ED was ranging from 28 to 320 min (mean 111 min). Conclusion: Intravenous Ketamine is a consistently effective method of producing a rapid, brief period of adequate sedation and analgesia in children in the ED with no major side-effects noted in our experience. PMID:25114429

Salleeh, Hashim M. Bin; Ahmadi, Tahani Al; Mujawar, Quais

2014-01-01

80

The Learners' Satisfaction toward Online E-Learning Implemented in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia: Can E-Learning Replace the Conventional System of Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of distance education course offerings is an indication of its importance to students. The purpose of this study is to investigate learners' satisfaction toward online e-learning implemented in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In the meantime, also, this study was…

Al-Fahad, Fahad N.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

82

Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

Al-Kadeeb A. Siham

2007-01-01

83

Impact of Breakfast Eating Pattern on Nutritional Status, Glucose Level, Iron Status in Blood and Test Grades among Upper Primary School Girls in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between breakfast consumers and non consumers, on nutritional status (body mass index, glucose level, iron status and test grades (school performance among Saudi school children (girls. A total of 120 female students aged 9-13.9 years from Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia Participated in this cross-sectional study. A pre-designed questioner was used to collect information on their breakfast eating habits. Body weight and height of the girls were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Tests for blood Glucose (GLU, Hemoglobin (HG, Hematocrit (HT, Serum Iron (SI, serum ferritin were performed and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC was calculated. School marks of the previous semester were also collected (used. The results shows that 23.33% of girls ate breakfast only once a week or less often, whereas (40.83% of the girls ate breakfast daily. Skipping breakfast increased with age. Breakfast skipping was significantly noticed among over weight-obese students compared to lean students, the mean level of HB, HCT, SI, TIBC and ferritin of the girls who ate breakfast regularly was the highest with no significant difference. Regular habit of eating breakfast had beneficial impact on nutritional status.

Latifah M. AL-Oboudi

2010-01-01

84

Perception among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding alcohol and substance abuse in the community: a cross-sectional survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early stage of their academic life, as a medical student about the existence of this problem in the community, its consequences and predisposing factors. Teaching teenagers and young adults about stress coping strategies may be of special importance in reducing the risk of alcohol and substance abuse.

Al-Haqwi Ali I

2010-01-01

85

Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia / Análisis del material escrito de propaganda distribuido a través de farmacias comunitarias en Riyadh, Arabia Saudita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: La propaganda es un componente crucial de la promoción de la industria farmacéutica. La investigación indica que la información de los materiales de propaganda puede ser inadecuada, imprecisa, sesgada y engañosa. Objetivo: Analizar y evaluar críticamente la información presentada en lo [...] s anuncios impresos en Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se recogió propaganda farmacéutica de 280 farmacias comunitarias en la ciudad de Riyadh, Arabia Saudita. Los anuncios fueron evaluados usando los criterios derivados de la reglamentación de la Autoridad Saudita de Medicamentos y Alimentos (SFDA), y de los criterios éticos de promoción de productos medicinales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Los datos fueron extraídos independientemente por dos de los investigadores utilizando un formulario de evaluación estandarizado. Resultados: Se incluyeron en la muestra final 185 anuncios escritos. Aproximadamente la mitad de los anuncios (n=94; 51%) eran de medicamentos OTC y 71 (38%) eran de medicamentos de prescripción. Información tal como nombre de los principios activos estaba disponible en 168 (90,8%) de los anuncios, usos terapéuticos aparecían en 156 (98,7%). Información sobre la seguridad relacionada con los efectos secundarios, precauciones e interacciones serias estaba presente en 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), y 33 (16.5%) anuncios, respectivamente. Sólo 119 anuncios (64%) proporcionaban referencias para la información presentada. Conclusiones: Nuestro hallazgos sugieren que los anuncios escritos no contienen toda la información necesaria para una prescripción segura. Estos resultados tienen implicaciones para la reglamentación de la propaganda de medicamentos y la formación continuada de los farmacéuticos. Abstract in english Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical a [...] dvertisements in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

Sinaa AbdulMohsen, Al-Aqeel; Jawza Fahad, Al-Sabhan; Noha Yahia, Sultan.

2013-08-01

86

Aluminum, Cadmium and Microorganisms in Female Hair and Nails from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia1A.R. Hashem and 2K.F. Abed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mineral analysis from hair and nails may be useful in knowing the elemental concentration in body tissue. This study was conducted to ascertain levels of aluminum, cadmium and microorganisms in hair and nails from 20 adult Saudi women aged between 20-25 years old from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2005 and January 2006. Metal analysis were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS using Electrothermal atomization (Pye Unican Sp9 and done according to Ellis, Ramirez, Buchanan and Gibbons methodology. The levels of aluminum was 5.23±1.31 to 26.02±3.65 ?g g-1 and cadmium was 0.04±0.01 to 0.014±0.002 ?g g-1 in hair and nail samples. Aluminum is more significantly concentrated in the nails than hair (p<0.0001. Cadmium levels were significantly higher in hair than in nails (p<0.0001. However, levels of aluminum are higher in both hair and nail samples compared to cadmium (p<0.0001. These levels are much lower compared to reports from other countries like Spain, Germany, Norway and USA. Microbial isolates revealed Microsporum, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Fungal isolates included Penicillium, Trichophyton and Aspergillus. These are all known bacterial and fungal isolates from the soil. Despite lower level findings of aluminum and cadmium compared to other countries, further information is needed on concentrations of elements in the hair of individuals with known exposures to trace elements. Our levels are within the worldwide range for normal occupationally exposed population despite the booming economic growth and rapid industrialization of Saudi Arabia.

A.R. Hashem

2007-01-01

87

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

88

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil and wild Libyan jird Meriones libycus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to document the impact of heavy metal pollution on the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus and to contribute to an environmental impact statement for the rapidly growing City of Riyadh. All metal concentrations in surface soil of a polluted site (within Riyadh City) were higherthan those from a reference site (outside the city).Although Pb declined versus earlier reports on Riyadh soil, Cd (0.97 microg g(-1)) and Hg (0.28 microg g(-1)) were above some of the most stringent quality guidelines (0.07-0.62 microg g(-1) for Cd and 0.14-0.18 microg g(-1) for Hg). Metal distribution in M. libycus proved site-related and organ-specific, recognizing a higher affinity of most tested metals towards the kidneys, liver and brain than the lung and heart. The comparatively lower site-specific accumulation of Pb in soft tissues was attributed primarily to its major hypothetical accumulation in bones, whereas, the transition rate of Hg from the liver was suggested to be lower to the brain than to the kidneys. Although a non hazardous status was assumed for Cu (11.27-13.16 microg g(-1)) and Hg (up to 0.207 microg g(-1)) in tissues of M. libycus, a potential risk was imposed by mean tissue concentrations of Cd (up to 3.29 microg g(01)), Ni (up to 1.48 microg g(-1)) and Pb (up to 1.94 microg g(-1)). On the grounds of the significantly higher metal levels in polluted soft tissues versus reference subjects, Libyan jirds possess high exposure potential and can be useful biomonitors of environmental metal contamination. PMID:22471221

Adham, Khadiga G; Al-Eisa, Nadia A; Farhood, Manal H

2011-11-01

89

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

Hm, Al-kadri; Madkhali A; Mt, Al-kadi; Bakhsh H; Nn, Alruwaili; Hm, Tamim

2014-01-01

90

Factors Related to Teachers' Attitudes towards the Inclusive Education of Students with Severe Intellectual Disabilities in Riyadh, Saudi  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saudi Arabia, the majority of students with severe intellectual disabilities are still educated in special schools that do not meet their unique needs for interaction with their typically developing peers in public schools settings where they could improve social, communication and academic skills. One of the most significant obstacles to…

Alquraini, Turki A.

2012-01-01

91

Efficiency of Integrated Geophysical techniques in delineating the extension of Bauxites ore in north Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

We exploit the integration of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study for delineating the subsurface Bauxite layer in Zabira locality, north of Riyadh. Integrated GPR, magnetic gradiometry resistivity and seismic refraction are used in the case of high contrast targets and provide an accurate subsurface reconstruction of foundations in sediments. Resistivity pseudo-sections are in particular useful for the areal identification of contacts between soils and foundations while GPR and magnetic gradiometry provide detailed information about location and depth of the structures. Results obtained by GPR, Magnetics and resistivity shows a very good agreement in mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 5 m to 10 m while the depth obtained by seismic refraction was 10 m to 15 m due to lack of velocity information.

Almutairi, Yasir; Alanazi, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Muteb; Alsama, Ali; Alhenaki, Bander; Almalki, Awadh

2014-05-01

92

Knowledge, attitudes and intention of high school students towards the nursing profession in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Results indicated that the more knowledge and positive attitude on nursing, the more likely the student would be attracted to the nursing profession. Accordingly, it could be concluded that Saudi health decision-makers need to increase the positive attitude on the nature and encouraging characteristics of modern nursing and its increasing respect as a skillful career for high school students. Reconsideration of salaries and benefits were recommended in order to attract more students to the nursing profession.

Badran A. Al-Omar

2004-02-01

93

Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

2010-01-01

94

Prevalence and associated factors of cigarette smoking among medical students at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among medical students at the medical college at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, and assess the association between smoking and socio-demographical factors, smoking contacts, reasons for smoking and attempts to quit. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey in which anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used to survey the cigarette smoking habits of the first- and second-year medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City in June 2009. Results: Overall 39.8 % of the investigated students (153) had smoked before, and 17.6% were current smokers. The mean age of initiating smoking was 15.8 (±3.3). There were significantly more males than females. The most important reasons for smoking were leisure, imitation of other people and a means of relieving psychological pressure. Reasons for not smoking were mostly health and religion-based. Smokers tended to have friends who smoked. Conclusion: Cigarettes smoking is highly prevalent among medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City. Contact with smokers particularly friends are the major risk factors for the initiation of the habit. Health and religious considerations are important motives for not smoking, quitting or attempting to quit. These findings can be of help in designing future intervention strategies. PMID:21694953

Al-Kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Hassan, Hashim A.; Mustafa, Ali A.

2011-01-01

95

Tuning of Lee Path Loss Model based on recent RF measurements in 400 MHZ conducted in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)

96

Concentrations and changes of chemical elements in aerosol particulate matter as indicators of air quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

: Samples of air particulate matter (PM) were collected for the determination of chemical elements from June 2006 to May 2007. PM samples were taken in two size modes (PM2.5 and PM10) using MiniVolume air samplers on rooftops of various buildings (15-25 m above ground) in the city of Riyadh. The samples were subjected to XRF analysis to determine both major (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Si, P, S and Fe) and trace elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba). The results show that the concentrations of both were higher in PM10 compared to PM2.5 indicating that the major source of the atmospheric PM was local dust. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of high concentrations of PM was in the south and southeast of the city and the lowest was found in the center and north eastern part of the city. This spatial PM distribution was attributed different factors such as wind direction and velocity, existence of cement factories in the southeast of the city, the presence of buildings and trees, and paved streets in the city center that reduce the amount of dust resuspended into the atmosphere. The air quality of the city was found to range from moderate to highly unhealthy for PM2.5 and from good to highly unhealthy for PM10. The enrichment factors for the measured elements were examined and revealed two groups based on their regional distribution. The first group showed no significant spatial changes indicating it has a common source throughout the sampling grid. The second group (mainly S and Ni) showed significant changes as expected from anthropogenic inputs. The S is possibly a combination of a mineralogical (CaSO4) and fossil fuel combustion origin. The source of Ni is probably in emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

Rushdi, A. I.; Al-Mutlaq, K. F.; Simoneit, B. R.

2010-12-01

97

Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.

Reem Alebaikan

2010-12-01

98

Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and d) the solutions to overcome Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems. To collect data for this purpose, senior faculty members were ...

Mohamed Ali Al-Khairy

2013-01-01

99

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

100

Evaluation of Preparation Program for Teachers Specializing in Learning Disabilities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to provide an evaluation of the undergraduate special education teacher preparation program at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A final sample of 160 LD teachers provided the data used for analysis. Data for the study were collected by a survey consisting of five subscales: coursework, internship quality,…

Hussain, Omer A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region. This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy. Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients. Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts. Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region. (author)

102

Retinopathy of prematurity at a University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Incidence of ROP in our patients in comparable to other reports. Screening for ROP should be carried out for all preterms of <1500 g birth weight. Such screening programs will identify those requiring retinal ablative surgery in order to induce regression of the acute ROP and prevent cicatrizing sequelae with subsequent traction retinal detachment and blindness.

Saleh A. Al-Amro

2003-07-01

103

Despite Doubts, 3 Prominent Universities Sign Deals with a Saudi University  

Science.gov (United States)

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, the ambitious $10-billion research institution that Saudi Arabia plans to open in 2009, has signed agreements with three leading universities to help it design a curriculum and hire faculty members. The agreements, with Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the…

Fischer, Karin

2008-01-01

104

Knowledge of Saudi female university students regarding cervical cancer and acceptance of the human papilloma virus vaccine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer and the acceptance of the human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine among Saudi female students in health colleges. Methods: This cross-sectional study of a convenient sample encompassed 1400 students in Health Colleges at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted between December 2013 and February 2014. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to all participants. Data collected included socio-demographic data, knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and clinical presentation, Pap smear, and HPV vaccine acceptance. The questionnaire reliability as tested by Cronbach’s alpha was 0.82. Results: The response rate was 89.9%, and data analysis revealed that 95.7% of students had poor knowledge level. The Pap smear was poorly recognized as a screening tool, with 46.7% of students having heard of the test. Senior and medical students had a significantly higher knowledge score. Father’s health profession, high monthly income, and presence of cervical cancer among family members or friends increased the level of knowledge. Vaccine acceptance is influenced by its price, approximately 80% of students thought that an affordable vaccine price should not exceed 300 Saudi Riyals. Perceived barriers to the vaccine were fear of injections and vaccine side effects. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge and misinformation regarding cervical cancer, Pap smear, and HPV as a major risk factor for cancer of the cervix. These data can be used as a benchmark to formulate effective awareness programs. 

Ghadeer K. Al-Shaikh

2014-10-01

105

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, incidence rate, age standardized incidence rate, Saudi Cancer Registry

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

106

Aeropuerto Internacional King Khaled. Riyadh/Arabia Saudita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

King Khaled International Airport in Riyadh is the new access to the Saudi Arabia capital and to the heart of the Kingdom. It is the center of the national air transport and it has been planned to attend all the needs of the national and International air traffic, which has a fast growth in Riyadh zone. Its design is adapted to the Islamic traditions and harmonizes with the natural beauty of the desert.El aeropuerto internacional King Khaled de Riyadh es el nuevo acceso aéreo a la ca...

Dahman, Mohammed N.; Tassan, Saad M.

1984-01-01

107

Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their reading comprehension. One hundred three students participated in the study in which quantitative method was used. Two reading passages with different length and topics were given to the students followed by 10 multiple questions for each passage. Major findings of the study indicate that 1 participants of the study showed an overall low reading comprehension X= 9.8, 2 GPA was found a statistically significant factor that impacted students’ reading comprehension, 3 students’ age, on the other hand, had no significant effect, 4 reading courses at the mentioned department seemed to generally focus on reading strategies whereas they should have adequately considered comprehension instruction since reading and decoding words without comprehension becomes meaningless.

Waleed B. Al Abiky

2014-08-01

108

Soil Analysis of Contaminated Soil from Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and Influence of Aluminium and Cobalt Ions on the Growth of Fungi Isolated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty soil samples from Eastren, Westren, Northen an Southern directions of Gold and Silver manufactory in second industrial city, Riyadh, Saudia Arabia were collected and analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total solubal salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. From soil samples collected thirteen fungal isolates were able to grew in media containing 10 mM of either aluminium or cobalt ions. Aspergillus were predominant and represented by four species. Fusarium and Penicillium were represented by 3 species. While Auerobasidium, Mucor and Monascus were represented by one species each. Intraspecific variability in growth response to Al3+ and Co2+ on agar media was studied among isolated fungi.

Al-Kadeeb A. Siham

2007-01-01

109

Characteristics and sources of organic matter in Desert Sand Samples from Riyadh and Al-Qasim Areas of Saudi Arabia: Preliminary Results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sand samples from Riyadh and Al-Qasim areas were collected, extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v: v), and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to characterize the contents and sources of their organic compounds. The major components of the total extracts were the straight chain aliphatic compounds from vegetation waxes, fossil fuel combustion and anthropogenic and agricultural activities. The results showed that the anthropogenic inputs had a significant contribution to the organic content of sands near populated areas. The urban component consisted mainly of n-alkanes, n-alkonic acids, n-alkyl amides, hopane and sterane biomarkers and pesticide residues. Organic inputs from natural sources include n-alkanes, n-alkonic acids, n-alkanols, methyl alkanoates, sterols and n-alkanones. (author)

110

EFL Teachers’ Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the studen...

Hussain Ahmed Liton

2013-01-01

111

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

112

Glaucoma after open globe injury at a tertiary care university hospital in Central Saudi Arabia. Cumulative incidence and risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of glaucoma after open globe injury (OGI. Methods: The medical records of all patients admitted with the diagnosis of OGI at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and had undergone primary repair from January 1996 to December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: For the 15-year study period, 775 patients who underwent repair of an OGI were identified. The overall risk of post-traumatic glaucoma was 5.3% (41/775 with a mean ± SD follow-up period of 12±6.5 months. Univariate analysis revealed that Zone II injury (p=0.027, penetrating ocular injury (p=0.0008, lens injury (p=0.011, vitreous hemorrhage (p=0.002, and presence of intraocular foreign body (p<0.0001 were significantly associated with glaucoma. Age of more than 18 years was critical (p=0.054. Following logistic regression, penetrating ocular injury (p=0.019, lens injury (p=0.002, and vitreous hemorrhage were significant (p=0.037. Conclusion: Glaucoma after OGI is not uncommon. Zone II injury, penetrating ocular injury, lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, and presence of an intraocular foreign body were significant risk factors for developing post-traumatic glaucoma.

Essam A. Osman

2013-04-01

113

Glaucoma after open globe injury at a tertiary care university hospital in Central Saudi Arabia. Cumulative incidence and risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of glaucoma after open globe injury (OGI. Methods: The medical records of all patients admitted with the diagnosis of OGI at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and had undergone primary repair from January 1996 to December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: For the 15-year study period, 775 patients who underwent repair of an OGI were identified. The overall risk of post-traumatic glaucoma was 5.3% (41/775 with a mean ± SD follow-up period of 12±6.5 months. Univariate analysis revealed that Zone II injury (p=0.027, penetrating ocular injury (p=0.0008, lens injury (p=0.011, vitreous hemorrhage (p=0.002, and presence of intraocular foreign body (pp=0.054. Following logistic regression, penetrating ocular injury (p=0.019, lens injury (p=0.002, and vitreous hemorrhage were significant (p=0.037. Conclusion: Glaucoma after OGI is not uncommon. Zone II injury, penetrating ocular injury, lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, and presence of an intraocular foreign body were significant risk factors for developing post-traumatic glaucoma.

Nawaf Al-Fawaz

2013-04-01

114

High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

115

Depression among Women with Primary Infertility attending an Infertility Clinic in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Rate, Severity, and Contributing Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Infertility is a severely distressing experience for many couples. Depression is considered as one of the main psychological disorders associated with infertility and it may significantly affect the life of infertile individuals, their treatment, and follow-up. Objective The objective of the study was to determining the prevalence and predisposing factors of depressive disorders among the infertile compared to fertile women. Methodology Rate of depression was explored by this cross-sectional study carried out among women attending In-Vitro Fertilization Clinic (91 infertile women) and Well Baby Clinic (94 fertile women) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) in Riyadh, KSA. Self administrated questionnaire including Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used. Mean BDI score was measured and its relation with different variables was explored, such as age, educational level, duration of infertility, pressure from family members, miscarriages and support from husband. Results This study showed that 49 (53.8%) of the infertile women and 35 (37.2%) of the fertile women had depression. Mean BDI score between infertile and fertile women was significantly different (p <0.001). Infertile women were found to be more severely depressed (p =0.014). Among the infertile women, those who had pressure from family members for not getting pregnant were more depressed than those with no such pressure (P=0.001). Conclusion Depression is more common and severe in infertile women than fertile women. Pressure from family to get pregnant is a significant contributor to depression. Caregivers should routinely screen infertile women for depression during and after treatment for infertility and manage concomitantly. PMID:23267288

Al-Homaidan, Homaidan Turki

2011-01-01

116

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design analysis study. Volume 3. Appendixes VII-X  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Documentation supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia is presented. The documents include: computer printouts for comparisons of design; landscapes analysis; field station study for Al Batin, Saudi Arabia; data acquisition systems; and performance evaluation. (BCS)

1985-01-01

117

Extreme intrafamilial variability of Saudi brothers with primary hyperoxaluria type 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel,1 Khalid A Alhasan,2 Mohammed Alotaibi,3 Khalid Al Fakeeh41Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Division of Nephrology Department of Pediatrics, King Saud University King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1 is characterized by progressive renal insufficiency culminating in end-stage renal disease, and a wide range of clinical features related to systemic oxalosis in different organs. It is caused by autosomal recessive deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase due to a defect in AGXT gene.Case report: Two brothers (one 6 months old; the other 2 years old presented with acute renal failure and urinary tract infection respectively. PH1 was confirmed by high urinary oxalate level, demonstration of oxalate crystals in bone biopsy, and pathogenic homozygous known AGXT gene mutation. Despite the same genetic background, same sex, and shared environment, the outcome of the two siblings differs widely. While one of them died earlier with end-stage renal disease and multiorgan failure caused by systemic oxalosis, the older brother is pyridoxine responsive with normal development and renal function.Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of extreme intrafamilial variability of PH1 and international registries are needed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation in such disorder.Keywords: primary hyperoxaluria, oxalosis, PH1, intrafamilial variability

Alfadhel M

2012-08-01

118

Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100% published per million population (1258.571+. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3% were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%, and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%, Pathology (13.7%, Medicine (13.2%, and Surgery (13.1%. King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 ± 3.45. Conclusion: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom. NOTICE FOR CORRECTION OF DATE OF STUDY IN: SAUDI MED J 2014; VOL. 35 (5: 511. 

Jamal Al-Bishri

2013-09-01

119

Student-Centered Integrated Anatomy Resource Sessions at Alfaisal University  

Science.gov (United States)

Alfaisal University is a new medical school in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that matriculates eligible students directly from high school and requires them to participate in a hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. PBL is a well-established student-centered approach, and the authors have sought to examine if a student-centered,…

Cowan, Michele; Arain, Nasir Nisar; Assale, Tawfic Samer Abu; Assi, Abdulelah Hassan; Albar, Raed Alwai; Ganguly, Paul K.

2010-01-01

120

THE LEARNERS' SATISFACTION TOWARD ONLINE E-LEARNING IMPLEMENTED IN THE COLLEGE OF APPLIED STUDIES AND COMMUNITY SERVICE, KING SAUD UNIVERSITY, SAUDI ARABIA: Can E-Learning Replace the Conventional System of Education?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The growth of distance education course offerings is an indication of its importance to students. The purpose of this study is to investigate learners' satisfaction toward online e-learning implemented in the College of Applied Studies and Community Service, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In the meantime, also, this study was conducted to assess whether substitution of conventional learning with e-learning can improve the educational standard and knowledge of people especially in this information world. The target group consists of 201 university students (female from the College of Applied Studies and Community Service. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrate that students’ satisfaction has been very positive toward e-learning as a teaching assisted tool, and provides more benefits than conventional learning.

Fahad N. AL-FAHAD

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Hysterectomy for benign conditions in a university hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifett time prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of women who underwent hyst...

Sait Khalid; Alkhattabi Maysoon; Boker Abdulaziz; Alhashemi Jamal

2008-01-01

122

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PRIVACY POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN SAUDI ARABIAN UNIVERSITIES AND TOP 10 UNIVERSITIES OF THE WORLD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information privacy defines the collection, usage and disclosure of the data acquired from the user by an organisation. It has been one of the areas of extended discussion over a past decade. There hasbeen a lot of discussion and research conducted about the information privacy online. One way of ensuring privacy is the presence privacy policy page in the websites. This paper is concerned with privacy policy implementation in Saudi Arabian universities and top 10 universities of world. The top 10 universities for this study were selected on the basis of authentic ranking source and all theuniversities in Saudi Arabia both the government and the private ones were selected for this study. In this paper we present the result of study of privacy policy between Saudi Arabian universities andtop 10 universities of world.

ALHOMOD, S.M.

2013-01-01

123

Compliance with appointments and medications in a pediatric neurology clinic at a University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Failure to keep the clinic appointment is an indicator of poor compliance with medications. A telephone call is recommended to reduce the role of clinic non-compliance. Developing a questionnaire form to investigate parents health belief model could be used routinely by social workers and then health education could be tailored for each patient and parent.

Eiad A. Al-Faris

2002-08-01

124

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431 with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5% pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and 248 (57.5% extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA (86.3% and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA 59 (13.7%. The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years. The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9% compared to SA patients (55.1%. Females had higher proportion (59.5% of EPTB than males (55.6%. The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia

2010-04-01

125

Peak expiratory flow rate in Saudi school boys at Al-Khobar City, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Peak expiratory flow rate values in this study were lower than those reported from Riyadh, other Arab countries, Europe and North America. However, they are close to those reported from Yanbu (Saudi Arabia. Normal values of peak expiratory flow rate for Saudi children should be developed.

K. Al-Dawood

2000-06-01

126

Emirati and Saudi Students’ Writing Challenges at U.S. Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examines writing challenges Emirati and Saudi students face at U.S. universities. Based on a sample of 219, a mixed methods approach was used to analyze responses from the participants. The results of the questionnaire reveal that Less than 31% Emirati and Saudi students feel “comfortable” in completing written assignments. The interviews results indicate that Emirati and Saudi students have different opinions regarding writing difficulties. An Emirati student, stated: “I am worried a lot because writing is not easy. Writing is very difficult for us.” However, a Saudi student expressed the easiness of her writing assignments. Emirati students stated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “somewhat easy”; however, Saudi students indicated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “Somewhat difficult.” An Emirati student, stated: “Most Arabs students are told that we do not have vocabulary or grammar. For me, grammar is okay but my difficulty is how to choose the appropriate word for a sentence. A female Emirati student expressed her worry for grammatical mistakes, which she tries to correct: “When I write my reports, I have to reread my report again because I am sure I will have some grammatical mistakes because English is not my first language. The study implies that the students need more coursework in academic writing to prepare them for their academic writing in their disciplines. U.S. universities need to increase the visiting hours of writing centers and design more workshops that teach the students about writing in various genres.

Ghadah Al Murshidi

2014-05-01

127

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-01-01

128

Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and d the solutions to overcome Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems. To collect data for this purpose, senior faculty members were interviewed and a 32-item structured Likert-scale questionnaire was developed that was administered to 75 English-major students (sophomores, juniors & seniors studying at foreign languages department, Taif University. Data generated through the questionnaire were subjected to descriptive analyses and mean and standard deviation were recorded using SPSS. The findings of this study reveal that Saudi English-major undergraduates are very weak in writing skills and commit lots of errors in their academic writings and are usually engaged in sentence-level or at the maximum at paragraph-level academic writing and they do not consider it important at this level to write different kinds of essays. It has been strongly recommended that the language courses should be increased to strengthen all the language skills in general and writing in particular, motivate the students to use English with the teachers as well as with each, introduce modern and novel teaching techniques, equip the classrooms with necessary audio-visual aids, diagnose students’ writing problems in the beginning of their studies at university, tailor the course contents according to their needs, introduce group/pair work, peer correction, use dictionaries frequently etc.

Mohamed Ali Al-Khairy

2013-05-01

129

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and indepe...

Raouf, Tarek A.; Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi; Nassef, Shereen L.

2013-01-01

130

Online Search Service at the King Abdulaziz University Library, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a study of the online search service at a university in Saudi Arabia which used personal interviews and questionnaires to evaluate the demand from faculty in different institutions and departments and to discover which subjects were requested the most. Guidelines for improvements to the service are proposed. (Contains seven references.)…

Marghalani, Mohammad Amin; Hafez, Abdulrashid A.

1993-01-01

131

Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

2010-01-01

132

Attitudes of Saudi Universities Faculty Members towards Using Learning Management System (JUSUR)  

Science.gov (United States)

The research aims to identify the Attitudes of faculty members at Saudi Universities towards using E-learning Management System JUSUR, which follows the National Center for E-learning. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Ninety participants in this research were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, which…

Hussein, Hisham Barakat

2011-01-01

133

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2014-08-01

134

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design and analysis study. Volume 2. Appendixes I-VI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Documents supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia are presented. The papers include the following topics: comfort measurements; cooling methods and strategies for hot/arid climates; ventilation design; solar hot water heaters; backup HVAC equipment specifications; and computer printouts for design review and analysis. (BCS)

1985-01-01

135

Positional Accuracy Assessment of Googleearth in Riyadh  

Science.gov (United States)

Google Earth is a virtual globe, map and geographical information program that is controlled by Google corporation. It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and GIS 3D globe. With millions of users all around the globe, GoogleEarth® has become the ultimate source of spatial data and information for private and public decision-support systems besides many types and forms of social interactions. Many users mostly in developing countries are also using it for surveying applications, the matter that raises questions about the positional accuracy of the Google Earth program. This research presents a small-scale assessment study of the positional accuracy of GoogleEarth® Imagery in Riyadh; capital of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results show that the RMSE of the GoogleEarth imagery is 2.18 m and 1.51 m for the horizontal and height coordinates respectively.

Farah, Ashraf; Algarni, Dafer

2014-06-01

136

Patient exposures in Saudi diagnostic radiology  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 ?Gy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 ?Gy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.

Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin

1994-07-01

137

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1 <16 years, group 2 (G2 ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3 ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery.Results: The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81, and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51.Conclusion: The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity

Al-Kadri HM

2014-04-01

138

EFL Teachers’ Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the students in dealing with their disciplines or programs oriented courses. Even after completion of the Foundation English courses in consecutive two or three semesters, students fail to grasp comprehensive control over the reading materials of their discipline-oriented courses. This is a common scenario in almost all the universities in KSA. The author of this paper ventured to study the predicament of EFL courses in some universities through survey questionnaires, observation as well as primary and secondary sources. The data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 25 EFL teachers at renowned Saudi universities. The research results revealed that the existing Foundation English Course syllabus is not tailored appropriately to the needs of the students so far as the higher studies concerned, and EFL classroom is not conducive to task-based language teaching (TBLT practice due to large class size (100-140. It, therefore, suggests that university Foundation English Courses should be redesigned in assimilating the learners’ standard and previous learning, and course contents should cover the socio-cultural factors of the learners. The study also concludes with some effective implications and recommendations based on the findings of the present research.

Hussain Ahmed Liton

2013-07-01

139

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: ...

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

140

E-mail use by the faculty members, students and staff of Saudi Arabian and Gulf states Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic mail systems (Email constitute one of the most important communication and business tools that people employ. Email in the workplace can help a business improve its productivity. Many organisations now rely on email to manage internal communications as well as other communication and business processes and procedures. This paper compares email use by university stakeholders (i.e. faculty members, staff and students between Saudi Arabia on one hand, and the Gulf States - Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Bahrain – on the other. A questionnaire that was expertreviewed and pilot-tested, was used to collect data from ten universities in Saudi Arabia and five universities in the Gulf States. Slight differences emerged in the Saudi Arabia and Gulf States universities’ stakeholders’ use of email in terms of having email, frequency of checking email, and skills in using email. The Saudi Arabian universities must improve their IT infrastructure, including the provision of suitable connection networks and formal training of staff in utilising IT resources. This study’s findings aim to advise the Saudi Arabian and Gulf States’ universities on their plans and programmes for e-learning and the consolidation of required resources.

Fahad Alturise

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

The incidence of leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry (2001-2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To describe the epidemiological data of leukemia cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among male and female Saudis, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR stratified by leukemia subtype, region, and year of diagnosis.Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi leukemia cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The study was carried out in 2013 to investigate the pattern of leukemia in the Saudi population. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression model were used. Results: A total of 3852 leukemia cases were registered in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR among Saudi males at 5.2 per 100,000 males, followed by both the Eastern region and Northern region at 4.9 per 100,000 males. Furthermore, the region of Najran recorded the highest overall ASIR among Saudi females at 4.5 per 100,000 females. However, Jazan had the lowest average ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and the Northern region had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi males, and Najran had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi females; while Jazan had the lowest rates among the Saudi population.  

Ibrahim G. Alghamdi

2014-07-01

142

Stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared thies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

143

Attitudes of students and employees towards the implementation of a totally smoke free university campus policy at King Saud University in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional baseline study on smoking behavior following the implementation of policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco smoking is the preventable health issue worldwide. The harmful consequences of tobacco smoking and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke are well documented. The aim of this study is to compares the prevalence of smoking among students, faculty and staff and examines their interest to quit. Study also determines the difference on perceptions of smoking and non-smoking students, faculty and staff with regard to implementation of a smoke-free policy. A cross-sectional survey was administered to one of the largest universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the academic year of 2013. A Likert scale was used on questionnaires towards attitude to smoking and smoking free policy. The Chi squared test was used to determine the difference of support on completely smoke free campus for smokers and non-smokers. Smoking rates were highest among staff members (36.8 %) followed by students (11.2 %) and faculty (6.4 %). About half of the smokers (53.7 %) within the university attempted to quit smoking. Students (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.00-9.60) and faculty (OR 4.06, 95 % CI 1.16-14.18) were more likely to make quit smoking than staff members. Majority of the respondents (89.6 %) were supportive of a smoking--free policy and indicated that should be strictly enforced especially into public places. Results also showed that smokers were more likely to support a smoke-free policy if there are no fines or penalties. These baseline findings will provide information among administrators in formulating and carrying out a total smoke free policy. Although the majority of people within the King Saud University demonstrate a high support for a smoke-free policy, administrators should consider difference between smokers and non-smokers attitudes when implementing such a policy. PMID:24906791

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-10-01

144

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions

Abolfotouh MA

2013-07-01

145

Energy conservation strategies for school buildings in Riyadh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the main oil producing countries, yet the latest five year development plan calls for energy conservation. Due to the expansion of the Saudi economy, which is reflected by the challenging and ambitious development in various sectors, such as housing, health, industry, agriculture, education etc., the consumption of electric energy experienced a sharp increase during the last twenty years. In 1983 the Ministry of Education implemented various strategies to conserve energy consumption by school buildings. In the 1990s more attention is geared towards improving the U-value of the external envelope through the use of hollow blocks and thermal insulation. This study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of the use of thermal insulation and hollow blocks in reducing energy consumption. This is conducted by the analysis of actual electric energy consumption of some selected examples of school buildings in Riyadh. Also the study will investigate other energy conservation strategies which might yield additional energy savings. This will be carried out using analysis of the Riyadh climate. (author)

Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Ryadh (Saudi Arabia). College of Architeture and Planning

1997-01-01

146

The Relationship between Saudi English Major University Students’ Writing Performance and Their Learning Style and Strategy Use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners’ learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the most common learning style preferences of Saudi undergraduate students majoring in English? what are the most common writing strategies used by Saudi students when writing an essay? Is the choice of writing strategy related to a learner’s learning style preference and writing task, and how might they be linked with one another? And finally does the use of writing strategies contribute to students’ writing performance? The sample of the study consisted of 74 Saudi female undergraduate students in their final year of their bachelor degree in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Two questionnaires were used: (a the Perceptual Learning Style Preference by Reid (1987, and (b a writing strategy questionnaire by Petri and Czárl (2003. Moreover, students were asked to choose one of the two TOEFL writing prompts to write an essay. The data received from the returned questionnaires and writing tests were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS19. Results indicated that Saudi female students were mostly auditory and group learners. As for the writing strategies, Saudi learners used more “before writing” strategies than “during writing” strategies and “reviewing writing” strategies. Results revealed that there was no correlation between the participants’ learning style preference and writing strategies, nor their use of writing strategies and their writing proficiency. As a whole, this study contributed to the ESL/EFL field by providing information on Saudi undergraduate female learners in terms of their preferred perceptual learning style, their level of writing proficiency, and indeed their use of writing strategies.

Miriam A. Alkubaidi

2014-03-01

147

Nutritional and health status of medical students at a university in Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessments was conducted from January to May 2011 on 194 randomly selected Saudi medical students at Taibah University, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The adequacy of nutrient intake was compared with the recommended daily intake (RDI per the National Research Council. Results: Caloric intake was derived from carbohydrates (72.1%, fats (19.4% and proteins (8.4%. Proteins and fats were obtained from a greater number of animal sources than of plant sources (5.3% versus 3.2% for proteins and 11.6% versus 7.8% for fats. There were low percentages of RDI of fibers (8.5%, most vitamins especially vitamin D (14.2%, and minerals (potassium (31.3%, zinc (40.7%, magnesium (24.5%, and calcium (47%. Overall, 34.5% of the students were overweight, and 10.3% were obese. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 24.7%, and 56.2% had high high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP. There was a positive correlation between the median caloric intake and both the BMI (r=0.42, p=0.00 and hs-CRP (r=0.3, p=0.001. Inactivity was prevalent among the students (64.4%. Conclusion: This study showed deficiencies in several essential nutrients among medical students, and the prevalence of overweight status, obesity, and inactivity were relatively high. These results indicate the need to improve nutrition and promote healthy lifestyles among the medical students. 

Omar M. Al-Nozha

2012-11-01

148

It Is Better to Light a Candle than to Ban the Darkness: Government Led Academic Development in Saudi Arabian Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

At first glance, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's current multi-billion dollar investment in its social sector, especially in setting up new schools and universities, seems to have as its primary aim the preparation of the Kingdom for a future that is not dependent on its oil resources which are predicted to run out in less than a 100 years. However,…

Onsman, Andrys

2011-01-01

149

Computer Based Instruction in Saudi Education: A Survey of Commercially Produced Software.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addressed the status quo of instructional software produced by national Saudi Arabian software companies as well as the utilization of commercially produced software at selected 1-12 private schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive data from a survey of general managers of four major software producers are reported, as well as from…

Al-Saleh, Bader A.; Al-Debassi, Saleh M.

150

Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

2013-07-01

151

Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid

2013-01-01

152

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: After almost a decade of implementing competency-based programs in postgraduate training programs, the assessment of technical skills remains more subjective than objective. National data on the assessment of technical skills during surgical training are lacking. We conducted this study to document the assessment tools for technical skills currently used in different surgical specialties, their relationship with remediation, the recommended tools from the program directors’ perspective, and program directors’ attitudes toward the available objective tools to assess technical skills.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey of surgical program directors (PDs. The survey was initially developed using a focus group and was then sent to 116 PDs. The survey contains demographic information about the program, the objective assessment tools used, and the reason for not using assessment tools. The last section discusses the recommended tools to be used from the PDs’ perspective and the PDs’ attitude and motivation to apply these tools in each program. The associations between the responses to the assessment questions and remediation were statistically evaluated.Results: Seventy-one (61% participants responded. Of the respondents, 59% mentioned using only nonstandardized, subjective, direct observation for technical skills assessment. Sixty percent use only summative evaluation, whereas 15% perform only formative evaluations of their residents, and the remaining 22% conduct both summative and formative evaluations of their residents’ technical skills. Operative portfolios are kept by 53% of programs. The percentage of programs with mechanisms for remediation is 29% (19 of 65.Conclusion: The survey showed that surgical training programs use different tools to assess surgical skills competency. Having a clear remediation mechanism was highly associated with reporting remediation, which reflects the capability to detect struggling residents. Surgical training leadership should invest more in standardizing the assessment of surgical skills.Keywords: objective assessment, program directors, surgical skills, surgical residency

Alkhayal A

2012-10-01

153

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

154

Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

2009-11-01

155

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

156

Assessment of fluoride concentrations in commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the fluoride concentration of different commercially available mouthrinses in central Saudi Arabia, and compare the obtained measurements with label values. Methods: This cross-sectional study identified 25 brands of mouthrinses in the markets of Riyadh city  between August and September 2013. Nineteen brands of mouthrinses whose labels indicate the percentage of sodium fluoride (NaF and 6 brands not indicating the fluoride percentage were included in the study. Three bottles of 2 manufacturing batches of each brand were acquired, coded, and analyzed after dilution using specific electrodes for fluoride and an ion analyzer at the College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.   Results: The average fluoride concentrations in the tested mouthrinses ranged from 8.4 ppm (Voza to 448.7 ppm (Sensodyne `Pronamel`. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in the fluoride concentration between the studied 25 brands. Almost 60% of the brands’ fluoride concentrations were significantly different (mainly lower from the label value. However, only 5 brands contain fluoride at a concentration not significantly different from the recommended fluoride concentration in daily mouthrinses 0.05% (225 ppm. Conclusion: Most of the studied commercially available mouthrinses contain topical fluoride at concentrations below the manufacturers’ label value, but above the recommended 0.05%. 

Abdullah M. Aldrees

2014-10-01

157

Male Saudi Arabian freshman science majors at Jazan University: Their perceptions of parental educational practices on their science achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

Examination of Saudi Arabian educational practices is scarce, but increasingly important, especially in light of the country's pace in worldwide mathematics and science rankings. The purpose of the study is to understand and evaluate parental influence on male children's science education achievements in Saudi Arabia. Parental level of education and participant's choice of science major were used to identify groups for the purpose of data analysis. Data were gathered using five independent variables concerning parental educational practices (attitude, involvement, autonomy support, structure and control) and the dependent variable of science scores in high school. The sample consisted of 338 participants and was arbitrarily drawn from the science-based colleges (medical, engineering, and natural science) at Jazan University in Saudi Arabia. The data were tested using Pearson's analysis, backward multiple regression, one way ANOVA and independent t-test. The findings of the study reveal significant correlations for all five of the variables. Multiple regressions revealed that all five of the parents' educational practices indicators combined together could explain 19% of the variance in science scores and parental attitude toward science and educational involvement combined accounted for more than 18% of the variance. Analysis indicates that no significant difference is attributable to parental involvement and educational level. This finding is important because it indicates that, in Saudi Arabia, results are not consistent with research in Western or other Asian contexts.

Alrehaly, Essa D.

158

Factors associated with adherence to medication among depressed patients from Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Khalaf Al Jumah,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,2 Dalal Al Qhatani,1 Kamal El Tahir3 1Department of Pharmacy, Al Amal Psychiatric Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 3College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Several studies have investigated the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants, with inconsistent conclusions. However, no similar study has investigated this issue among patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study is to explore patients’ adherence to antidepressant medications, and the factors associated with adherence.Methods: A non-experimental cross-sectional design was used to measure adherence to antidepressants among major depressive disorder patients, and the factors associated with adherence. The patients were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between August 2013 and January 2014. Eligible participants met with one of the research coordinators for assessment of their adherence. Adherence was investigated indirectly by use of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, and patients’ beliefs were assessed through the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire. Information about the severity of their depression, demographics, and other study variables were collected.Results: A total of 403 patients met the inclusion criteria and participated in the study. Of those, 203 (50.37% were females, while the remaining 200 (49.6% were males. There was an average age of 39 years (standard deviation, ±11 years. Half of the patients (52.9% reported low adherence to their antidepressant medication, with statistically significant differences between the low adherence and high adherence scores relating to sex, age, and duration of illness. Conclusion: Low medication adherence is a common problem among major depressive disorder patients in Saudi Arabia. Medication-taking behavior among depressed patients is influenced by several factors, mainly patients’ beliefs regarding antidepressants. This study has improved the understanding of the factors associated with adherence to antidepressants. Keywords: patient compliance, predictors, antidepressants, patients’ beliefs, depression, psychiatry

Al Jumah K

2014-10-01

159

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

1985-01-01

160

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Prevalence of Obesity and Some Related Attributes among Umm Al-Qura University Female Students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate in both developing and developed countries. It has become a serious epidemic health problem, estimated to be the fifth leading cause of mortality at global level. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among students at Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and to investigate some of the epidemiologic risk factors contributing to it. A cross sectional study was conducted during the aca...

Salma Sa`ad Mohammad Al-Mashi; Amany Mokhtar Abdelhafez

2013-01-01

162

Temperature Icreasing Trend During Recent Four Decades At Riyadh Region  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the data analysis of one element of the meteorological data of old Riyadh, namely air temperature will be discussed. This station is located on the middle province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and of coordinates (46.72 E and 24.65 N). The analysis of each of the global maximum and, the global minimum temperature is given for each year through out five points: its value, the date of occurrence, the day of the year and the Julian day, finally, the day of the year. Some statistics are provided for the smoothed values of the mean daily variation of the air temperature. We finally addressed some graphical representations, e.g. histograms, daily variations with their fitting equation. A preliminary conclusion indicating that there are general increasing trend in the temperature during the recent thirty four years.

Almleaky, Y.; Sharaf, M.; Basurah, H.; Malawi, A.; Euony, S.

163

Estimation of rainfall using remote sensing for Riyadh climate, KSA  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall data constitute an important parameter for studying water resources-related problems. Remote sensing techniques could provide rapid and comprehensive overview of the rainfall distribution in a given area. Thus, the infrared data from the LandSat satellite in conjunction with the Scofield-oliver method were used to monitor and model rainfall in Riyadh area as a resemble of any area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA). Four convective clouds that covered two rain gage stations were analyzed. Good estimation of rainfall was obtained from satellite images. The results showed that the satellite rainfall estimations were well correlated to rain gage measurements. The satellite climate data appear to be useful for monitoring and modeling rainfall at any area where no rain gage is available.

AlHassoun, Saleh A.

2013-05-01

164

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

165

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

1991-11-18

166

Investigating the Interaction Between Cognitive Complexity and Amount of L2 Exposure in Saudi College Students in the English Department at King Faisal University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the relationship between Saudi EFL students writing competence and their Arabic writing proficiency. The study also examined the possible relationship between Saudi students' first language (Arabic) and second language (English) writing competence and their self-regulatory abilities. Participants included 35 college-level students majoring in English at King Faisal University. The participants wrote English and Arabic argumentative essays on the same topic during two s...

Faizah Saleh Al-Hammadi

2011-01-01

167

Awareness of interventional radiology among final-year medical students and medical interns at a University in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st  December 2012.  One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3% replies were received. The survey consisted of 25 questions covering perception, knowledge, and interest of interventional radiology. Results: The majority of the respondents (52% felt their knowledge in IR is poor. Only 40% of the respondents either completed or plan to complete an elective rotation in radiology. Thirty-eight percent of respondents were willing to consider a career in IR. The most common reason (43% for not considering a career in IR was lack of knowledge. Only 33% correctly identified the route of training of interventional radiologist. The majority of respondents thought that interventional radiologists performed cardiac angioplasty (81%, and femoral popliteal bypass (74%. Conclusion: Exposure to IR among medical students and interns was poor. This can be addressed by dedicated undergraduate teaching of IR by interventional radiologists with emphasis on the clinical practice. 

Ghazi A. Alshumrani

2013-08-01

168

Body Shape Dissatisfaction, Weight Status and Physical Activity among a Sample University Students in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction, weight and physical activity status among university students and predictors for body shape dissatisfaction. A cross sectional study was carried out in a sample comprising of 368 female and male university students aged 18 years or more at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Body weight, height, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and physical activity level were used as assessment tools. Chi-square and independent sample T-test were used to assess gender difference. Linear regression analysis was conducted to examine predictors of the body shape dissatisfaction. Overall, 65% of students had normal BMI, more males then females overweight (23%, while more females underweight (16.8%. Females have higher body shape dissatisfaction (33.5% then males (21.4%, half of males inactive and this percentage increased in females to (73.8%. Overweight males were more dissatisfied with their body shape (10.7% than females (6.3%. Almost one fifth of inactive males dissatisfied comparable to quarter inactive females dissatisfied with their body shape. Younger age is predictor for body shape dissatisfaction in both genders, also weight in males. BMI and being married female was predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. Collectively results indicate that body shape dissatisfaction and inactive lifestyle were prevalent among females than male’s age, weight; BMI and marital status was the most predictor for body shape dissatisfaction. However developing educational program to promote body shape satisfaction and active lifestyle will be very useful especially among females.

Tarek A. Raouf

2013-06-01

169

The pattern of fruit and vegetable consumption among Saudi university students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming =5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively). Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000), but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group. PMID:24576375

Al-Otaibi, Hala Hazam

2014-03-01

170

Evaluating an Integrated EFL Teaching Methodology in Saudi Universities: A Longitudinal Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and suitability of the integrated holistic method for teaching EFL skills embedded in an Oxford® series of courses selected for study at the lower-to-upper intermediate levels of learning EFL, namely Open Forum 3, Well Read 3 – Effective Academic Writing2. Participants of the study were selected from the population of students in a Southwestern Saudi university. The sample included 52 participants in intermediate levels. Researchers employed a pre-test, posttest control group design in a quasi-experimental method to evaluate the instructional effectiveness of the integrated holistic teaching method. Findings indicate that the treatment in this study, the Integrated Skills Treatment, had a significant effect on student performance in all skills presented instructionally according to an integrated, holistic approach. Further findings showed that the experimental group participants achieved improvements in gain scores compared with their peers in the control group on the tested language skills, namely listening and speaking, reading, and writing.  Qualitative data from a follow-up questionnaire study asserted the effectiveness and appropriateness of an integrative pedagogy to teaching EFL skills. The paper, in the end, provides a set of relevant implications and recommendations for further pedagogical practice and further research implications.

Mohamed Amin Mekheimer

2013-11-01

171

The Pattern of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Saudi University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The positive benefits of consumption fruit and vegetable are well documented in studies of health and body weight maintain. A cross sectional study was conducted utilized street based survey among 960 female students at King Faisal University in AL-Hasa, Saudi Arabia, to investigate the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and the psychosocial factors related to the consumption. Seventy-eight percent of students consuming <5 servings/day of fruit and vegetable with only 22% of them consuming >=5 servings/day, majority of them are in the normal BMI category. For psychosocial factors the higher consumption group more knowledgeable about the daily consumption of fruit and vegetable, and had more confidence in eating fruit and vegetables under difficult circumstances with significant differences between the groups (P=0.000, P=0.045; respectively. Self efficacy was significantly predictor for recommended daily fruit and vegetable consumption (?=0.303, SE=0.023, P=0.000, but perceived barriers and knowledge not predictor for recommended daily consumption. The results of this study can be useful to design an intervention to promote fruit and vegetable intake among this target group.

Hala Hazam AL-Otaibi

2013-11-01

172

Bone mineral density and bone scintigraphy in adult Saudi female patients with Osteomalacia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the role of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone scan in the management of adult Saudi female patients with established diagnosis of osteomalacia. Bone scan using Tc99m methylene diphosphate (MDP) and BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed at the time of diagnosis 6 months and one year after therapy in 96 Saudi female patients attending the metabolic bone disease clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1997 through to June 1999, aged between 20 and 73 years (mean 42 years). Alkaline phosphates, calcium and inorganic phosphorus were measured for all patients before and after treatment. 25 Hydroxy vitamin D was only measured with the first BMD measurements. A bone profile showed typical biochemical abnormalities of osteomalacia.The bone scan showed features of superscan in all patients and pseudofractures in 43 patients. BMD measures were compared with that of normal Saudi subjects matched for age and sex. The BMD was low at diagnosis and showed significant improvement after therapy. The improvement of bone density in response to therapy was more evident in lumbar spine than in femoral neck bone.Our results showed that BMD in adult Saudi female patients with osteomalacia was markedly affected probably due to specific constitutional and environmental factors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exctors ( inadeqate exercise, lack of sun exposure and lack of intake of milk and dairy products). In addition, lumbar BMD and serum calcium appeared to be better markers to monitor therapy.Bone scan helped in demonstrating disease activity, the presence of pseudofractures. (author)

173

New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

Bin Fayez, A.

2006-05-01

174

The willingness toward deceased organ donation among university students. Implications for health education in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The majority of students were willing to donate organs, and more dissemination of information can increase the awareness of the public, including students, to the importance of organ donation and transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

Saad A. Al-Ghanim

2009-10-01

175

Study of particulate pollutants in the air of Riyadh by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulate pollutants in air samples from different parts of the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied prior to the Gulf war, employing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Eight significant elements were found. Particular attention was paid to the study of the pollutants Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb due to their potential toxicity. These results will be of interest given the changed conditions.

Raoof, S. A.; Al-Sahhaf, Maarib

176

Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

177

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

2008-01-01

178

Pattern of thyroid malignancy at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim is to study the incidence of thyroid cancer in surgically treated nodular thyroid disease, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment results. A retrospective review of 45 patients with thyroid malignancy at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a 3-years period between January 2000 through to December 2003 was carried out. Analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, outcome of surgery and radioiodine treatment. A total of 120 thyroidectomies were performed during the 3-years period, January 2000 through to December 2003 at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital. Forty-five (37.5%) patients had histopathology confirmed diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Eighty-two point two percent cases of papillary carcinoma, 4.4% follicular type and 6.7% anaplastic and medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Mean age was 40.5 +/- 14.8 years. Male preponderance was seen in this study with males: females ratio is 1.1:1. Nodular goiter was the most frequent presentation, observed in 30 (66.7%) cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of malignancy in 76% of cases. Ninety-seven patients with papillary carcinoma received ablative dose of radioiodine with average dose of 100-200 mCi. One female patient with follicular carcinoma of thyroid with bone, lung, and brain metastases received 4 doses of radioiodine with total dose of 800 mCi. Mortality rate was (2.2%), one patient died of complication of invasive anaplastic carcinoma with invasion of the trachea. There is a lot of controversy regarding thyroid malignancy investigations and management. We recommend that thyroid cancer patients should be treated by a team of endocrinologist, pathologist, experience thyroid surgeon, nuclear medicine and external radiotherapy physician to achieve an optimum care and good prognosis. (author)

179

Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi Males older than 12 years of age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) were calculated for all patients. The total number of participants was 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily basis, 51.2% exercised sometimes and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming and other sports club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI=30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits and minimization of fat and suits) encouraging exercise and walking and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving life styles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce the prevalence of the coronary artery disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, national community-based studies are recommended to evaluate life style factors related to coronary artery disease among both males and females at different age groups in Saudi Arabia. (author)

180

Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life  

Science.gov (United States)

In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357

Al-Daghri, Nasser M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S.; Alokail, Majed S.; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Perceived stress scores among Saudi students entering universities: a prospective study during the first year of university life.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU) predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010-2011 academic year) were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35) and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35), while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life. PMID:24727357

Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Albanyan, Abdulmajeed; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Sabico, Shaun; Chrousos, George P

2014-04-01

182

Perceived Stress Scores among Saudi Students Entering Universities: A Prospective Study during the First Year of University Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this prospective study we wanted to determine whether perceived stress over time among students in the Preparatory Year of King Saud University (KSU predisposes them to cardiometabolic abnormalities. A total of 110 apparently healthy Saudi students (35 men and 75 women enrolled during the 2010?2011 academic year were included. Perceived stress was determined at baseline and 1 year later. Anthropometrics were obtained and morning fasting serum glucose, lipid profile and cortisol were measured at both times. Perceived stress was noted among 48.2% of subjects at baseline and was not significantly different after follow-up, with 45.4% scoring high. In men, the prevalence of perceived stress was 48.6% at baseline (13 out of 35 and 37.1% at follow-up (13 out of 35, while in women it was 48% at baseline and 49.3% at follow-up. Interestingly, significant improvements in the blood pressure and lipid profiles, with the exception of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in both men and women, while fasting glucose also improved in women. Serum cortisol was inversely associated to fasting glucose, and total- and LDL-cholesterol (p-values 0.007, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively. These data are opposite to findings in students entering Western universities, in whom increasing stress and a deteriorating cardiometabolic profile have been repeatedly noted. Perceived stress and morning cortisol levels among students of the Preparatory Year in KSU remained constant for both genders over time, yet an improved cardiometabolic profile was observed, suggesting good adaptation among our pre-college students in their first year of university life.

Nasser M. Al-Daghri

2014-04-01

183

Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author) sources. (author)

184

Echocardiographic abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular complications in sickle cell disease (SCD) have been well documented but cardiac involvement in Saudi patients with SCD is not known. We sought to identify cardiac abnormalities by electrocardiography in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with stable SCD. Sixty-five consecutive patients with SCD followed at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, were prospectively studied from January 2005 to December 2005. All patients underwent echocardiographic examination to determine chamber dimensions, left ventricular function, valvular anomalies and pulmonary artery pressure. Data were compared to normal age and gender-matched controls. Hematological data were also collected from the patients and correlated with the echocardiographic results. Twenty-eight males and 37 females were evaluated. The mean age of the group was 24.5+-9.2 range (14-44) years. The most common abnormality found was pulmonary hypertension (PH) present in 25 (38%) patients. The majority of these patients had mild PH and only 6 (9%) patients had pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) more than 40 mm Hg. Older age, lower level of fetal hemoglobin and high serum ferritin were associated with increased PASP. Other abnormalities present included dilated left atrium in 17 (26%) patients, dilated right atrium 13 (20%), dilated left ventricle 10(15%), valvular anomalies 21 (32%) and reduced ejection fraction in 4 (6%) patients. Cardiac abnormalities are found in a significant proportion of Sare found in a significant proportion of Saudi patients with SCD. Pulmonary hypertension is the most common finding while other abnormalities are less frequent. (author)

185

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi newborns at a tertiary care center  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D levels in Saudi newborns utilizing umbilical cord samples, and to benchmark the results with international figures. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between November 2013 and March 2013. Vitamin D levels were assessed in the umbilical cord of healthy term neonates born above 2.5 kg from healthy pregnant mothers.  Gestational age (GA, birth weight, gender, levels of sun exposure, and consumption of vitamin D rich food data were collected. Our primary outcome was the percentage of newborns with vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D level below 25 nmol/l.  Association of vitamin D deficiency with sun exposure and consumption of vitamin D rich food was tested using a Chi-squared test.Results: Umbilical samples of 200 newborns were obtained. The average birth weight was 3.2 kg. Deficient vitamin D levels were detected in 59% of the sample. Almost 90% of included newborns had vitamin D levels below 50 nmol/l. We found no association of vitamin D deficiency status to level of sun exposure or to consumption of vitamin D rich food. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is very common in Saudi newborns at hospital, and is consistent with regional data. Efforts to assess and treat vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and provide adequate supplementation to newborns are necessary to rectify such a public health concern. 

Khalid M. AlFaleh

2014-02-01

186

Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

187

Mycoflora of Animal and Human Hairs from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total number of 28 species were isolated from different type of hairs including, sheep, goat, cow, rabbit and human hairs, by hair baiting technique. Isolated fungi were tested for hair degradation and also grown on Modified Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM. A correlation was found between quntity of hair degradation and percent of coloured zone shown on DTM by the fungi tested.

H.A. Bokhary

1999-01-01

188

Mycoflora of Animal and Human Hairs from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total number of 28 species were isolated from different type of hairs including, sheep, goat, cow, rabbit and human hairs, by hair baiting technique. Isolated fungi were tested for hair degradation and also grown on Modified Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM). A correlation was found between quntity of hair degradation and percent of coloured zone shown on DTM by the fungi tested.

Bokhary, H. A.; Bahkali, A. H.; Sarwat Parvez

1999-01-01

189

Standard Precautions and Infection Control, Medical Students' Knowledge and Behavior at a Saudi University: The Need for Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: No previous studies have reported the knowledge of Saudi medical students about Standard Precautions (SPs and infection control. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess medical students' knowledge in clinical years at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia about SPs' and to explore their attitudes toward the current curricular/training in providing them with effective knowledge and necessary skills with regard to SPs. Subjects and Methods: This cross sectional study targeted students in clinical stage at College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested anonymous self administered data collection form was used. Inquires about students' characteristics, general concepts of infection control/SPs, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, sharp injuries and disposal, and care of health providers were included. The main source of information for each domain was also inquired. The second part dedicated to explore the attitudes toward the curricular and teaching relevant to SPs. Results: A total of 251 students were included. Knowledge scores in all domains were considerably low, 67 (26.7% students scored ? 24 (out of 41points which was considered as an acceptable level of knowledge, 22.2% in 4th year, 20.5% in 5th year and 36.8% in 6th year. Sharp injuries, personal protective equipment and health care of the providers showed the least knowledge scores. The main sources of knowledge were self learning, and informal bed side practices The majority of students' believed that the current teaching and training are insufficient in providing them with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding SPs. Conclusion: The overall knowledge scores for SPs were low especially in the domains of hand hygiene, sharp management, and personal protective equipment reflecting insufficient and ineffective instructions received by medical students through the current curriculum posing them vulnerable to health facilities related infections. Proper curricular reform and training are required to protect students and their patients.

Tarek Tawfik Amin

2013-03-01

190

Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS

Alharbi AA

2014-02-01

191

Infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the risk of infection of dental health care workers and patients, interruption of possible chains of infection is to be demanded. The objective of this study was to assess infection control practice in private dental laboratories in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted on thirty-two private dental laboratories in Riyadh City regarding infection control practiced by these laboratories. The instrument of the study consisted of ten open-ended questions that were asked from the laboratories directors. A large percentage of the surveyed laboratories (87.5 %) did not implement any infection control protocol during their practice. The mean number of impressions received per week was 16. Most of the surveyed laboratories (90.6 %) had no way of communication with the clinics regarding the disinfection procedures. The results indicated that 62.5 % of the laboratories reported that they were aware that they may get infection from non-disinfected items. Only a small percentage (6.2%) of the laboratories added disinfecting agent to pumice slurry. Wearing laboratory coats was reported by 75% of the laboratory workers. The use of gloves during work was reported by 59.3% of the laboratories while 56.2% reported the use protective eyewear. Only 21.8% of the laboratories use face masks during work. Construction of infection control manuals that contain updated and recommended guidelines to ensure aseptic practice in private dental laboratories is highly recommended. Also, a way of communication between dentists and dental technicians regarding disinfection of laboratory items should be strongly encouraged. (author)

192

Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We conducted this study to assess knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between de-mographic variables, knowledge of breast cancer, and the practice of breast self-examination and use of mammography screening. Methods: Women interested in participating in this community-based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi, 45% were mar-ried and 67.8% had a university level education. Eighty percent were be-tween the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE was high; 82% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4% knew about BSE, while 61% (95% CI: 57.9%-64.5% knew about mammogra-phy, but only 41.2% (95% CI, 37.9%-44.5% had performed BSE and 18.2% (95%CI, 15.5%-20.8% had had mammography screening. Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between the demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Conclusion: Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbal-ance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only moderate knowledge of risk and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammograms vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer.

Alam Awatif

2006-01-01

193

Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine lead contamination in 104 of the representative food items in the Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary lead intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples of each selected food items were purchased from the local markets of Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate by ICP-AES after thorough homogenization. Sweets (0.011–0.199 ?g/g, vegetables (0.002–0.195 ?g/g, legumes (0.014–0.094 ?g/g, eggs (0.079 ?g/g, meat and meat products (0.013–0.068 ?g/g were the richest sources of lead. Considering the amounts of each food consumed, the major food sources of lead intake for Saudi can be arranged as follows: vegetables (25.4%, cereal and cereal products (24.2%, beverages (9.7% sweets (8.2%, legumes (7.4%, fruits (5.4% milk and milk products (5.1%. The daily intake of lead was calculated taking into account the concentration of this element in the edible part of the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources, (a the KSA food sheet provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO and (b from questionnaires distributed among 300 families in Riyadh city. The results showed that the daily intakes of lead according to the two sources are 22.7 and 24.5 ?g/person/day respectively, which are lower than that mentioned by The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, whereas it is comprabale with that of other countries.

Zeid A. Al Othman

2010-10-01

194

Life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age life styles related to coronary artery disease in Saudi males older than 12 years of age  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study highlighted life styles related to coronary artery disease risk factors among patients attending a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a primary care clinic at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from 18/4/2006 to 13/6/2006. All adult male patients older than 12 years of age who attended one consultant primary care clinic were included in the study. All patients were interviewed by one consultant in family medicine during the study period. The patients were asked about dietary habits, physical activity and type of exercise, and smoking habits. Weight and height was taken for all patients by the nurse in the clinic and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients. The total numbers of participants were 246 patients. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 246 male adult patients, 45.4% always consumed vegetables and fruits in their diet, 21.5% exercised on a daily bases, 51.2% exercised sometimes, and 26% did not exercise at all. The type of exercise practiced by active participants was walking (76.5%) and sports (22.9%). Sports included football, basketball, swimming, and other sport club activity. Only 20.7% of the participants had an ideal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overdeal body weight (BMI<25), 37.4% were overweight (BMI 25 to <30), while 37.7% of the participants were obese (BMI ? 30). 8.9% of the participants were current smokers. Conclusion and recommendation: Overweight and obesity is a common health problem among male adult patients attending a primary care setting. Improved dietary habits (consumption of vegetables and fruits, and minimization of fat and sweets), encouraging exercise and walking, and helping current smokers to quit smoking are essential steps towards improving life styles in the community. It is an important health plan priority to concentrate on improving lifestyles in the Saudi community, to prevent cardiovascular risk factors and to reduce the prevalence of coronary artery disease in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Further, national community-based studies are recommended to evaluate lifestyle factors related to coronary artery disease among both males and females at different age groups in Saudi Arabia. (author)

195

Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y  

Science.gov (United States)

Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

Bin Fayez, A.

2005-05-01

196

Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

Alnahdi, Ghaleb

2014-01-01

197

The Institutional Context of School to Work Transition in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using questionnaire data collected in 2000 from 524 senior general high school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, researchers explored the gap between national development goals and student educational interests. They analyzed the relationship between available curriculum and student perceptions of the curriculum's ability to prepare them for the…

Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.

198

Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

2010-01-01

199

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity

Alghamdi IG

2014-08-01

200

NSR project in Saudi Arabia. Implementation of the longest ERTMS network in the world; NSR-Projekt in Saudi Arabien. Errichtung der laengsten ERTMS-Strecke der Welt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)

Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-03-15

 
 
 
 
201

Eruption time of permanent first molars and incisors among female primary school children of riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the mean eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors and to compare the relationship of mean eruption time with body mass index (BMI) in Saudi female primary school children from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The mean age of children was 89.3 (SD 9.6) months ranging from 71 months to 109 months. The maxillary right first molar had the lowest mean eruption time of 77.4 (SD 3.9) months and the maxillary right lateral incisor was the last tooth to erupt with eruption time of 98.4 (SD 6.5) months. Furthermore, the mandibular incisors erupted significantly earlier than maxillary incisors. By the age of 100 months, 97% of the girls had all their first permanent molars erupted. There was no significant correlation observed between eruption times with BMI of the studied teeth except the maxillary right lateral incisor. However, an inverse relationship may exist between the eruption times and BMI. The Saudi female primary school children showed later eruption time of permanent first molars, central and lateral incisors when compared with the reported results of other national studies. Key words: Eruption time, permanent teeth, Saudi Arabia, female children. (author)

202

Reduction in the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus among young Saudi adults: Implications for hepatitis A vaccine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viral etiology was investigated in 133 Saudi patients with acute hepatitis seen in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh. between July 1993-May 1994. Out of the 133 patients, 51 (38.3% were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis due to hepatitis A virus (HAV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV was the second most common etiological agent (20.3%. There were 35 patients with acute hepatitis (26.3% in whom no viral marker for HAV, HBV, HCV, CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV was detected. Among the 51 patients with acute hepatitis due to HAV, the major-ity (88.2% were children (1-12 years and only 6 (11.8% were adults (15-24 years. This is in contrast to patients with HCV or HBV infection where the majority were adults: 74.1% and 82.3% respectively. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis due to HAV in Saudi adults, an observa-tion not seen earlier, indicated a change in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection in the Saudi population. This change was confirmed by the significant reduction in the prevalence of anti-HAV in 630 Saudi subjects (1-30 years old (50.2% investigated in 1994 compared to that of 587 subjects of the same age group investigated in 1986 (76.5% (P < 0.005. In the light of these results, a nation-wide survey is recommended to confirm this pattern in other areas. It is important that high-risk Saudi groups be identified and evaluated for their anti-HAV status as these groups are candidates for HAV vaccination.

Arif M

1995-01-01

203

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney function and urine examination to detect proteinuria and other urinary abnormalities. In addition, 53 patients from the cohort had 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantitate proteinuria. The patient population consisted of 34 males (46.5% and 39 females (53.5% with a median age of 23 years (range 14-40. Proteinuria was present in 30 patients (41%. Creatinine clearance was low in 12 patients (22.5% and seven of these patients had low or low-normal serum creatinine despite reduced creatinine clearance. Low serum creatinine was common and present in 28 patients (38%. Two patients had chronic renal failure and one of them is on regular dialysis. Other abnormalities detected include hematuria in seven patients (8.5% and hemoglobinuria in 12 patients (14.5%. In conclusion, renal abnormalities are present in a significant number of Saudi patients with SCD and proteinuria is the most common abnormality. Serum creatinine may remain low or within low-normal range in SCD patients despite reduced creatinine clearance. As proteinuria is a risk factor for developing renal failure in future, routine screening of SCD patients is recommended for timely intervention in order to prevent or delay renal damage.

Aleem Aamer

2008-01-01

204

Quality of life in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult patients who visited the outpatient dermatology clinics of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 3 months. The patients were interviewed using a pretested Arabic version of the Skindex-16 to measure the effect of skin disorders on their QoL during the previous 7 days. Patient characteristics, medical history, and clinical findings were collected. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to relate the demographic and clinical characteristics to the percentage mean QoL score, and P # 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: QoL was good in 69% of the respondents, with a total percent mean score of 31.80 ± 20.16. The emotional domain was the most affected (mean percentage score 44.27 ± 27.06, followed by symptoms (31.45 ± 28.40 and functioning (14.61 ± 22.75. After adjustment for potential confounders, poorer QoL was significantly associated with female gender (P = 0.03, older age (P = 0.003, rural origin (P = 0.03, positive family history of the same lesion(s (P = 0.01, shorter duration of ? 6 months (P = 0.02, generalized spread (P ? 0.02, and lack of isotretinoin treatment (P = 0.02.Conclusion: The QoL results in this study were generally more optimistic than those of many previous studies. This discrepancy may be due to biases in questionnaire responses or to cultural differences in experience of skin disease and perception of disability. Significant predictors of QoL were not the same for the three domains of the Skindex scale. Further studies of specific diseases and educational programs targeting patients at higher risk for QoL impairments are recommended.Keywords: quality of life, skin disease, Saudi Arabia

Abolfotouh MA

2012-07-01

205

Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

206

Investigating the Interaction Between Cognitive Complexity and Amount of L2 Exposure in Saudi College Students in the English Department at King Faisal University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between Saudi EFL students writing competence and their Arabic writing proficiency. The study also examined the possible relationship between Saudi students' first language (Arabic and second language (English writing competence and their self-regulatory abilities. Participants included 35 college-level students majoring in English at King Faisal University. The participants wrote English and Arabic argumentative essays on the same topic during two separate sessions. The collected data were used to compare and contrast the participants writing competence in Arabic and English. The study showed a strong correlation between L2 (English writing competence and L1 (Arabic writing proficiency. Saudi students who scored high in L1/L2 writing had high self-regulation abilities. Furthermore, the study revealed a strong-to-medium correlation between students L1/L2 writing competence and their self-regulation abilities, as measured by the two factors of the MAI (knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. Therefore, the study suggests that EFL instructors in Saudi Arabia should focus more on these factors when planning their writing curriculum and instruction. The study also recommends that L1/L2 writing instruction should help students build proper writing schemata and regulate their writing processes. In addition, the results of this study can help language teachers in Saudi Arabia understand the extent and effectiveness of Saudi students use of self-regulation processes to help them acquire English and Arabic language skills. Also, the planners at the Ministry of Education can benefit from the results of this study to design integrative texts that treat writing skill in Arabic as interrelated with English writing skill.

Faizah Saleh Al-Hammadi

2011-01-01

207

Unusual Features of Rosacea in Saudi Females with Dark Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin.

Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.

2014-01-01

208

Smoking in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%. Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%, among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%, and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%. In elderly people, the prevalence of current smoking is 25%. The prevalence of smoking in males ranges from 13-38% (median = 26.5%, while in females it ranges from 1-16% (median = 9%. To conclude, smoking is prevalent in the Saudi population at different age groups. The prevalence of current smoking is much higher in males than in females at different ages. More research is needed in the area of prevention and treatment of smoking.

Medhat M. Bassiony

2009-07-01

209

Prevalence of nontyphoidal Salmonella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a university teaching hospital in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nasreldin Elhadi,1 Reem Aljindan,2 Mohammed Aljeldah11Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) species are important food-borne pathogens that cause gastroenteritis and bacteremia, and are responsible for a huge global burden of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalent serogroups and ...

Elhadi N; Aljindan R; Aljeldah M

2013-01-01

210

Advancing adolescent health and health services in Saudi Arabia: exploring health-care providers' training, interest, and perceptions of the health-care needs of young people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fadia S AlBuhairan,1–3 Tina M Olsson3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Adolescent health is regarded as central to global health goals. Investments made in adolescent health and health services protect the improvements witnessed in child health. Though Saudi Arabia has a large adolescent population, adolescent health-care only began to emerge in recent years, yet widespread uptake has been very limited. Health-care providers are key in addressing and providing the necessary health-care services for adolescents, and so this study was conducted with the aim of identifying opportunities for the advancement of knowledge transfer for adolescent health services in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This Web-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at four hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Physicians and nurses were invited to participate in an online survey addressing their contact with adolescent patients, and training, knowledge, and attitudes towards adolescent health-care. Results: A total of 232 professionals participated. The majority (82.3% reported sometimes or always coming into contact with adolescent patients. Less than half (44%, however, had received any sort of training on adolescent health during their undergraduate or postgraduate education, and only 53.9% reported having adequate knowledge about the health-care needs of adolescents. Nurses perceived themselves as having more knowledge in the health-care needs of adolescents and reported feeling more comfortable in communicating with adolescents as compared with physicians. The majority of participants were interested in gaining further skills and knowledge in adolescent health-care and agreed or strongly agreed that adolescents have specific health-care needs that are different than children or adults (82.3% and 84.0%, respectively. With respect to health services, the majority (85.8% believed that adolescents should be hospitalized in adolescent-specific wards. Only 26.7% of health-care providers believed that patients should be transferred from child to adult health-care services at 12–13 years of age, as is currently practiced in the country. Conclusion: A gap exists between the training, knowledge and skills of health-care providers, and the needs to address health-care issues of adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This coupled with the fact that health-care providers are interested in gaining more knowledge and skills and are supportive of changes in the health-care system provides an opportunity for building local capacity and instituting medical and nursing education and health-care reform that can better serve the needs of the country's young population. Keywords: medical education, young population, knowledge transfer

AlBuhairan FS

2014-09-01

211

Prevalence of Obesity and Some Related Attributes among Umm Al-Qura University Female Students in Makkah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide at an alarming rate in both developing and developed countries. It has become a serious epidemic health problem, estimated to be the fifth leading cause of mortality at global level. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among students at Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and to investigate some of the epidemiologic risk factors contributing to it. A cross sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2009-2010. The study included 224 randomly selected students enrolled at Umm Al-Qura University. Data were collected using a pretested, structured self-administered questionnaire. Weight, height, waist hip ratio and Body Mass Index (BMI were recorded for each student. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the studied students was 25% (19.2%, were overweight and 5.8% were obese. Factors behind overweight and obesity were; high family monthly income, family history of obesity, eating while bored, depressed and upset. The association between physical activity, dietary factors and obesity were not observed in this study. Our findings suggest the need for strategies and coordinated efforts at all levels to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity and to promote healthy eating habits in our youth.

Salma Sa`ad Mohammad Al-Mashi

2013-01-01

212

Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

213

The Influence of Gender on Undergraduate Performance in Multiple Choice Testing in Clinical Disciplines at University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We assessed the influence of gender on the performance in surgical and medical disciplines in undergraduate final theory examinations at College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. The college admits 200 students (120 males and 80 females every year in the 6 year degree program. The results of written exam for the year 2008-09 for all subjects were analyzed. The question papers consisted of multiple choice tests only. There were 50 assessments which included 19 from medical, 22 from surgical and 9 from pre-clinical disciplines. Using cross sectional design we analyzed the students' theory results. The female students showed overall better performance in all theory assessments (mean ±SD; 71.21±7.89 vs. 67.14±8.08, p=0.01. In a subject-wise comparison, the female students showed significantly higher mean scores in 24 out of 50 assessments. Both the genders had comparable scores for medical disciplines (n=19 assessments, however, in surgical disciplines females’ performance was superior (mean ±SD; 72.0±6.6 vs. 67.47±7.0; p=0.03. The female students showed significantly better scores in surgical disciplines than in medical disciplines and they outperformed male students in overall scores in surgical disciplines.

Kishore K. Deepak,

2011-04-01

214

Crystal chemistry and Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis of clays around Riyadh for brick industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 Degree-Sign C. The Moessbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.

Khalil, Mutasim I., E-mail: mkhalil@ksu.edu.sa [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia)

2013-04-15

215

Crystal chemistry and Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis of clays around Riyadh for brick industry  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 30 clay samples were collected from the area around Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A complete chemical analysis was carried out using different techniques. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the clay samples were mainly of the smectite group with traces of the kaolinite one. The samples studied were classified as nontronite clay minerals. One of the clay fraction has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy as raw clay fraction and after being fired at 950-1,000 °C. The Mössbauer spectra showed accessory iron compounds in the form of hematite and goethite. The structural iron contents disintegrate on firing transforming into magnetic iron oxide and a paramagnetic small particles iron oxide.

Khalil, Mutasim I.

2013-04-01

216

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...

Abdullah, Layla S.; Alghanmi, Najla M.

2013-01-01

217

Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

1996-01-01

218

A prospective study of congenital malformations among live born neonates at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to estimate the incidence of major and minor congenital malformations among live born infants at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Estimation of risk factors was also evaluated. Between March 2004 and May 2005, a total of 5356 babies born at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, were enrolled in this study for malformations. Details of cases were recorded after parent's interviews, clinical, radiological and laboratory evaluations. One hundred and forty-seven (27.06/1000 livebirth) and 13 (2.39/1000 birth) stillbirth have congenital anomalies. In all livebirth, incidences of major anomalies were 93.9% and minor were 6.1%. Mothers of 95.9% with congenital malformation were healthy, 3.4% were diabetic and 0.7% had cardiac malformation. In 38.8% of cases parents were consanguineous. Among the liveborn births, the most common system involved was cardiovascular (7.1/1000), followed by musculoskeletal/limb (4.1/1000), external genitilia (2.8/1000), urinary (2.6/1000),multiple chromosomal (2.2/1000), orofacial (1.9/1000), central nervous system (1.9/1000), skin (1.7/1000), multiple single gene (1.3/1000), multiple sequence (0.75/1000), eyes (0.56/1000), unclassified (0.19/1000), musculoskeletal/abdominal (0.19/1000), endocrine (0.19/1000). High incidence of major malformation was found in Jeddah. Importance of Genetic Counseling is revealed in our study since more than three quarters of mothers were under 36 years and may well plan future pregnancies. (author)

219

Outcome of corneal transplantation in a private institution in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results: Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2% males and 33 (38.8% females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years, and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months. The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months -98.4 months while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038, immune rejection (P < 0.001, preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022, and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032 were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001 and vascularization (P = 0.009. Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69 and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09. At last visit following PKP, 34 (40% eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0% eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6% eyes. Conclusion: The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation and comprehensive postoperative management are crucial for successful corneal transplantation. A larger multicenter study is recommended to portray the outcome of private corneal transplantation in Saudi Arabia in general. Keywords: cornea, corneal transplantation, corneal dystrophy, corneal scars, bullous keratopathy, keratoconus, herpetic keratitis

Omar N

2013-06-01

220

Clinical features of culture-proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective This retrospective chart review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of 40 patients with culture-proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Patients with positive M. pneumoniae cultures from respiratory specimens from January 1997 through December 1998 were identified through the Microbiology records. Charts of patients were reviewed. Results 40 patients were identified, 33 (82.5% of whom required admission. Most infections (92.5% were community-acquired. The infection affected all age groups but was most common in infants (32.5% and pre-school children (22.5%. It occurred year-round but was most common in the fall (35% and spring (30%. More than three-quarters of patients (77.5% had comorbidities. Twenty-four isolates (60% were associated with pneumonia, 14 (35% with upper respiratory tract infections, and 2 (5% with bronchiolitis. Cough (82.5%, fever (75%, and malaise (58.8% were the most common symptoms, and crepitations (60%, and wheezes (40% were the most common signs. Most patients with pneumonia had crepitations (79.2% but only 25% had bronchial breathing. Immunocompromised patients were more likely than non-immunocompromised patients to present with pneumonia (8/9 versus 16/31, P = 0.05. Of the 24 patients with pneumonia, 14 (58.3% had uneventful recovery, 4 (16.7% recovered following some complications, 3 (12.5% died because of M pneumoniae infection, and 3 (12.5% died due to underlying comorbidities. The 3 patients who died of M pneumoniae pneumonia had other comorbidities. Conclusion our results were similar to published data except for the finding that infections were more common in infants and preschool children and that the mortality rate of pneumonia in patients with comorbidities was high.

Al-Ghamdi Aisha A

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

New Records of Eriophyoid Mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea, fig (Ficus carica, grapes (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, citrus (Citrus spp., pomegranate (Punica granatum and pear (Pyrus communis. Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah, Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad, Rhynchaphytoptus ficifolia (Keifer and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer, belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites.

Fahad J. Al-Atawi

2011-01-01

222

New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M

2011-01-15

223

New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

Bin Fayez, A. A.

2007-05-01

224

Perception of Stakeholders towards the Effectiveness of Diploma Programs: A Case Study of Saudi Arabian University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of civilization is determined by the excellent education system and excellent education program. It isbelieved that the aims of producing outstanding and dedicated students are determined by the quality of educationprogram. Students chose the education program based on many criteria, like job guarantee, reputation of theuniversity, duration of the program etc. For the present research perception of stakeholders towards the effectivenessof diploma program, Majmaah University was selected. Questionnaire was distributed among the stakeholders ofdiploma program which include teachers, faculty members, members of the university’s chancellery, employers,funding body etc. To find out their perception towards the effectiveness of diploma program, different statisticaltools were used to complete the present research. In the findings it has been found that there is a positive perceptionof stakeholders towards the effectiveness of diploma program.

Khalid Abdullah Alotaibi

2014-06-01

225

Faculty Perception of Stress and Coping Strategies in a Saudi Private University: An Exploratory Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching profession was once viewed as a ‘low stress occupation’ and they have been envied for tenure, light workloads, flexibility and other perks such as foreign trips for study and conference. However, some recent studies suggest that university faculty is among the most stressed occupational group. The present study was conducted to explore the faculty perception towards occupational stress using established questionnaire, data collected from five departments in the private university. Research findings on the coping strategies that faculty used to tackle stress were also reviewed. Through this study, it is suggested that the top management and University Administration should focus their attention on faculty stress, especially on two areas (student Interactions and Professional Identity to reduce the stress among the faculty members. Care should be taken to make even remote faculty feel a part of the greater whole of this institution thorough regular communication and support.

Adnan Iqbal

2011-07-01

226

Evaluation of the orthopedic residency training program in Saudi Arabia and comparison with a selected Canadian residency program  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (PEducational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers.

Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D

2014-01-01

227

Students' Attitudes and Perceptions towards the Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this research study is to better understand and measure students' attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning. This paper reports on the results of a survey of one hundred eighty six undergraduate female students at King Saud University about their attitude and perception to the use of mobile technology…

Al-Fahad, Fahad N.

2009-01-01

228

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) u...

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-01-01

229

Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25288969

Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

2013-12-01

230

Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were deployed for twenty eight days (based on the memory available with the recorder) continuously collecting data at all three potential sites. This continuous data collection was done as part of a larger study where microtremor measurements were made to better understand and characterize the origin of various near-surface noises over a non-producing reservoir in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Papoola and Kaka, 2011). The new station at KFUPM will be equipped with a 3-component 120s to 50Hz Trillium120 broad band seismometer, Taurus 24-bit data acquisition system along with a large LCD to display the waveform data in real-time. The KFUPM community will have an opportunity to observe daily seismic activity in real-time and to monitor/record both regional and teleseismic events. Moreover, students will gain the opportunity to identify P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves and learn how to locate an earthquake. The station will also play an important role in providing a source of information about seismic activity for the general public. The new station is expected to be operational in a few months time.

Kaka, S. I.

2012-04-01

231

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As, lead (Pb and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.

A. R. Hashem

2002-01-01

232

Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

2013-09-01

233

Prevalence, knowledge, beliefs and psychosocial impact of acne in University students in Central Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Acne is a common skin disease among Qassim university students, affecting both gender. We need health education in our community to encourage people to seek appropriate help for skin problems. We require further community based research to evaluate the effectiveness of such educational interventions in under-standing the natural history, pathogenesis and the sequelae of acne, increasing help-seeking behavior, and improving the awareness of patients about acne.

Ahmad A. Al Robaee

2005-12-01

234

The etiology and symptoms of endodontic cases treated in a university clinic in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endodontic patients treated at a University Dental Clinic over a two year period were studied. A total of 281 patients seen in a beginning endodontic course were analyzed to determine (1) the etiology of the pulpal disease presenting and (2) the signs and symptoms of pulpal disease. Results indicated that caries was the most prevalent reason for endodontic treatment. Most cases (40.6%) were asymptomatic. Lower molars were the most commonly affected and there was no significant difference in endodontic treatment distribution between males and females in the patient population studied. (author)

235

Prevalence of nontyphoidal Salmonella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in a university teaching hospital in Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasreldin Elhadi,1 Reem Aljindan,2 Mohammed Aljeldah11Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS species are important food-borne pathogens that cause gastroenteritis and bacteremia, and are responsible for a huge global burden of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalent serogroups and antibiotic resistance of NTS in our region.Methods: We reviewed the serogroup distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of NTS strains obtained from 158 stool specimens of patients with acute diarrheal infection attending the outpatient and inpatient department at a university hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia in the period from September, 2008 to April, 2011. A retrospective analysis of the 158 patients with NTS infection was conducted to determine the most prevalent NTS serogroups causing acute gastroenteritis and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.Results: At this teaching hospital, a total of 17,436 fecal samples were analyzed during the 2008–2011 study period. Of these specimens, 158 tested positive for NTS, giving an overall prevalence of 9.06 per 1,000. Of 158 NTS cases, serogroup D1 (25.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serogroup B (19.6%, and serogroup C1 (18.9. One third of all NTS serogroup strains tested were resistant to tetracycline. The NTS strains showed resistance to ampicillin (31.3%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (29.9%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (20.9%, and cefotaxime (14.93%.Conclusion: The findings of this study support the concern that use of antibiotics in animal feeds may contribute to acquisition of resistance in food-borne bacteria, such as Salmonella. Our study also concludes that the prevalence of NTS in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is very low compared with other studies worldwide.Keywords: nontyphoidal Salmonella, serogroups, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, Saudi Arabia

Elhadi N

2013-11-01

236

Characterization, quantification, and assessment of immune protection potential of secretory immunoglobulin A in colostrum samples from Saudi women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize, quantify, and assess the function of colostral secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA  in Saudi women. Methods: This prospective study was performed between March 2009 and February 2010 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty milliliters of colostrum sample was collected from each of 23 healthy Saudi women (mean age 26±4 years included in the study within 48 hours postpartum. Levels of sIgA and sIgM were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and purification of secretory antibodies from pooled clarified sample was performed by thiophilic-gel chromatography, Jacalin-agarose chromatography, and Sephacryl S-300 gel filtration. Antibody induced respiratory burst in peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes was assessed by chemiluminescence. Results: The median concentration of sIgA1 was 0.053 mg/ml, sIgA2 0.047 mg/ml and sIgM 0.067 mg/ml with interquartile ranges of 0.308, 0.158 and 0.150. The levels of antibodies were no different. Whereas, 60% of IgA1 was present in dimeric and 30% in trimeric form; the major bulk of sIgA2 (85% were comprised of the dimeric form. Both sIgA and serum IgA were able to induce effective and almost identical respiratory bursts in neutrophils and monocytes. Conclusion: Dimeric forms of sIgA were the predominant antibodies in colostrum samples and sIgA antibodies exhibited functional similarity with serum IgA. 

Adel Almogren

2013-10-01

237

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia in Saudi children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD in children. Methods: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2011 to December 2011. The study population consisted of 22 children with symptoms suggestive of PCD and the diagnosis was confirmed by ciliary biopsy. Using the American Thoracic Society guidelines, measurements of FENO were performed in 22 subjects with proven PCD biopsies and in 11 healthy age-matched subjects. Results: No significant differences were found on the basis of age or ventilatory function tests between the PCD patients and control groups. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide values were significantly lower in children with PCD (6.19±1.43 compared to control group (17.00±6.30 (CI: -14.854 to -5.927, p<0.0001. Rhinorrhea was seen in 7 (31.8%, recurrent acute otitis media in 16 (72.7%, chronic otitis media in 5 (22.7%, recurrent sinusitis in 5 (22.7%, chronic productive cough in 8 (36.4%, bronchospasm in 11 (50%, and dextrocardia in 3 (13.6% subjects. There was no correlation between age, FENO, and ventilatory function parameters. Conclusion: The measurement of FENO appears to be a useful tool for screening children for PCD. It can complement other tests such as nasal biopsy and electron microscopy studies. 

Muslim M. Al Saadi

2013-01-01

238

Significance of fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia in Saudi children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the usefulness of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements in detecting primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD in children. Methods: This observational study was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2011 to December 2011. The study population consisted of 22 children with symptoms suggestive of PCD and the diagnosis was confirmed by ciliary biopsy. Using the American Thoracic Society guidelines, measurements of FENO were performed in 22 subjects with proven PCD biopsies and in 11 healthy age-matched subjects. Results: No significant differences were found on the basis of age or ventilatory function tests between the PCD patients and control groups. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide values were significantly lower in children with PCD (6.19±1.43 compared to control group (17.00±6.30 (CI: -14.854 to -5.927, p Conclusion: The measurement of FENO appears to be a useful tool for screening children for PCD. It can complement other tests such as nasal biopsy and electron microscopy studies. 

Abdulamajeed AlDrees

2013-01-01

239

Reduction of Ambient Radon Activity by the use of Advanced Building Materials at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial variation of radon concentration within the building of the preparatory year located in Riyadh was studied. Nuclear track detectors (CR-39) were used to measure radon concentration for two consecutive six month periods in more than 40 rooms of the surveyed building. Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as a measure of relative variation of radon concentration between floors and between rooms on the same floor. Floor mean ratios, with ground floor as a reference level, were calculated also in order to study the correlation between radon concentration and floor levels in case of using advanced Italian granite building material. All the results of this study were investigated and compared with usual Indian granite building material and it was found that the knowledgement buildingis a healthy work place which may be due to uses of advanced building materials.

240

Pattern of Thyroid Cancer in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: University Hospital Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To review the pattern of thyroid tumor, demographic data of the patients, sensitivity, and specificity of fine needle aspiration cytology; Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy at King Fahad Hospital of the University between 1982 and 2008. Data were analyzed for demographic characteristics, type of thyroid tumors, Fine Needle Aspirations Cytology (FNAC yields and surgical complications; Results: A total of 143 patients with thyroid tumors underwent throidectomy. Their median age was 37.5 years. Females were predominantly affected (81% with female to male ratio of (4:29. Thyroid carcinoma accounted for (75% while benign tumors for (25%. The most common thyroid epithelial cancer was papillary type (74% and was limited to thyroid tissues in almost two third of cases. Non-epithelial cancer in the form of thyroid lymphoma accounted for (4.89% of the cases. FNAC sensitivity was 56% and specificity 92%. Surgical complications occurred in 18% of the patients; Conclusions: The commonest malignant thyroid cancer was papillary carcinoma. Thyroid cancer was more common in females. FNAC is highly accurate to confirm thyroid cancer but less sensitive in this study. Surgical complications were relatively minimal.

Ali M. Al-Amri

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Intervention Strategies in a Saudi English Classroom at Majma'ah University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Verbal reports and English teachers’ classroom experience at   Community College of Majma'ah University (MU warn that underachievement is an educational crisis in the making. And in the paucity of research findings to raise the institutional awareness of the phenomenon, coupled with the lack of relevant professional training programs to deal with the situation, the crisis could be further aggravated. This study is an attempt to address underachievement among English students at Community College; it particularly reports a tripartite teaching strategy comprising three intervention methods: orientation, use of the students' first language (L1 and multiple mid-term exams. This teaching strategy has been devised to achieve two objectives: to motivate the students to improve their performance; and to help them acquire new (college-related study skills. In the light of what has so far been done, it can be concluded that the majority of the students are able to excel academically provided that they are properly informed   and guided to discover these abilities.

El-Sadig Yahya Ezza

2013-06-01

242

Cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to ascertain the role of cardiac diseases as a risk factor for stroke in a cohort of Saudi children who were evaluated in a retrospective and prospective study. Children with cardiac diseases were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who presented with stroke. They were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards or evaluated at the Outpatient Clinics of the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). A comprehensive form for clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological and laboratory data retrieval was designed and completed for each patient. Cardiac evaluation included 12-lead ECG and serial echocardiograms. Cardiac catheterization and 24-hour ambulatory ECG (Holter) were conducted on clinical discretion. Cardiac diseases were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). The patients (4males and 2 females) were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 5.3 years (range=1-8 years; median 6.5 years). Onset of stroke was at a mean age of 34 months (range= 4 months - 8 years; median = 30 months). Five patients had stroke in association with congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas the sixth had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The identified CHD consisted of membranous ventriculfied CHD consisted of membranous ventricular septal defect in a 5-year-old boy who had moyamoya syndrome and sickle cell b-thalassemia, asymptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in a 17-months-old girl, atrioventricular canal defect and PDA in an 8-year-old boy who also had Down syndrome, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in a one-year-old boy. The latter patient developed hemiparesis secondary to a septic embolus, which evolved into brain abscess involving the right fronto-preital region. This was successfully managed surgically. The sixth patient was an 8 1/2-year-old girl who had hemiparesis and complex partial seizure in association with restrictive cardiomyopathy. Serial echocardiograms depicted resolution of the cardiac abnormalities within 5 years and subsequent normal findings. Cardiac diseases, as, a group constitute a significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Early diagnosis of these diseases is important to prevent further recurrences of stroke, and because some of them are potentially curable. (author)

243

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

244

The Relationship between Saudi English Major University Students’ Writing Performance and Their Learning Style and Strategy Use  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the link between writing tasks, learners’ learning style preference, and writing strategy use. It also investigates if students with various proficiency levels stem from different learning style preference and use different writing strategies. This research attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the most common learning style preferences of Saudi undergraduate students majoring in English? what are the most common writing str...

Alkubaidi, Miriam A.

2014-01-01

245

A clinical study of mentally retarded children with fragile X syndrome inSaudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on fragile X syndrome are scarce in Saudi Arabia and othercountries of the Arabian Peninsula. The few studies previously done haveeither been in the form of case reports or those performed oninstitutionalized mentally retarded patients. The aim of this study was todetermine the prevalence of fragile X syndrome among cases with mentalretardation who have been referred to the pediatric neurology clinics of KingKhalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. Cytogenetic studies wereperformed in 94 cases that were referred to the pediatric neurology clinicsof KKUH because of mental retardation and/or delayed milestones ofdevelopment, from July 1995 to December 1997. Six male probands (6.4%) showedthe classic fragile X chromosome and another six (including a four year oldgirl) were detected, following extension of the cytogenetic studies to all 32first-degree relatives. Affection of more than one sibling was ascertained infour families. One family had four brothers with fragile X syndrome, whereasanother formed part of a large kindred with twelve males and five females whowere mentally retarded. A clinical, physical and psychological screeningchecklist was applied to the eleven affected males. Large testicular size,long face and short attention span were the most frequent features and eachwas detected in nine patients (82%). Pes planus and history of delayed speechwere found in eight patients (73%). The study showed that the fragile Xsyndrome clinical screening checklist has been applied in other populationsmight equally valuable and applicable among the population of Saudi Arabia.However, the presence of pale blue eyes can be excluded and more weight givento positive family history of mental to the most common clinical diagnosticfeatures of fragile X syndrome. (author)

246

Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in saudi population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)

247

Adjustment factors for the ASHRAE clear-sky model based on solar-radiation measurements in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solar-radiation variation over horizontal surfaces calculated by the ASHRAE clear-sky model is compared with measurements for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both model results and measurements are averaged on an hourly basis for all days in each month of the year to get a monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. The measured data are further averaged over the years 1996-2000. The ASHRAE model implemented utilizes the standard values of the coefficients proposed in the original model. Calculations are also made with a different set of coefficients proposed in the literature. The results show that the ASHRAE model calculations generally over-predict the measured data particularly for the months of October ? May. A daily total solar-flux is obtained by integrating the hourly distribution. Based on the daily total flux, a factor PHI (<1) is obtained for every month to adjust the calculated clear-sky flux in order to account for the effects of local weather-conditions. When the ASHRAE model calculations are multiplied by this factor, the results agree very well with the measured monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. It is recommended that these adjustment factors be employed when the ASHRAE clear-sky model is used for solar radiation calculations in Riyadh and localities of similar environmental conditions. Instantaneous, daily and yearly solar-radiation on various surfaces, such as building walls and flat-plate solar collectors, can then be convenite solar collectors, can then be conveniently calculated using the adjusted model for different orientations and inclination angles. The model also allows the beam, diffuse and ground-reflected solar-radiation components to be determined separately. Sample results characterizing the solar radiation in Riyadh are presented by using the 'adjusted' ASHRAE model

248

Adjustment factors for the ASHRAE clear-sky model based on solar-radiation measurements in Riyadh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar-radiation variation over horizontal surfaces calculated by the ASHRAE clear-sky model is compared with measurements for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both model results and measurements are averaged on an hourly basis for all days in each month of the year to get a monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. The measured data are further averaged over the years 1996-2000. The ASHRAE model implemented utilizes the standard values of the coefficients proposed in the original model. Calculations are also made with a different set of coefficients proposed in the literature. The results show that the ASHRAE model calculations generally over-predict the measured data particularly for the months of October {yields} May. A daily total solar-flux is obtained by integrating the hourly distribution. Based on the daily total flux, a factor PHI (<1) is obtained for every month to adjust the calculated clear-sky flux in order to account for the effects of local weather-conditions. When the ASHRAE model calculations are multiplied by this factor, the results agree very well with the measured monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. It is recommended that these adjustment factors be employed when the ASHRAE clear-sky model is used for solar radiation calculations in Riyadh and localities of similar environmental conditions. Instantaneous, daily and yearly solar-radiation on various surfaces, such as building walls and flat-plate solar collectors, can then be conveniently calculated using the adjusted model for different orientations and inclination angles. The model also allows the beam, diffuse and ground-reflected solar-radiation components to be determined separately. Sample results characterizing the solar radiation in Riyadh are presented by using the 'adjusted' ASHRAE model.

Al-Sanea, Sami A.; Zedan, M.F.; Al-Ajlan, Saleh A

2004-10-01

249

Adjustment factors for the ASHRAE clear-sky model based on solar-radiation measurements in Riyadh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar-radiation variation over horizontal surfaces calculated by the ASHRAE clear-sky model is compared with measurements for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Both model results and measurements are averaged on an hourly basis for all days in each month of the year to get a monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. The measured data are further averaged over the years 1996-2000. The ASHRAE model implemented utilizes the standard values of the coefficients proposed in the original model. Calculations are also made with a different set of coefficients proposed in the literature. The results show that the ASHRAE model calculations generally over-predict the measured data particularly for the months of October {yields} May. A daily total solar-flux is obtained by integrating the hourly distribution. Based on the daily total flux, a factor {phi} (<1) is obtained for every month to adjust the calculated clear-sky flux in order to account for the effects of local weather-conditions. When the ASHRAE model calculations are multiplied by this factor, the results agree very well with the measured monthly-averaged hourly variation of the solar flux. It is recommended that these adjustment factors be employed when the ASHRAE clear-sky model is used for solar radiation calculations in Riyadh and localities of similar environmental conditions. Instantaneous, daily and yearly solar-radiation on various surfaces, such as building walls and flat-plate solar collectors, can then be conveniently calculated using the adjusted model for different orientations and inclination angles. The model also allows the beam, diffuse and ground-reflected solar-radiation components to be determined separately. Sample results characterizing the solar radiation in Riyadh are presented by using the ''adjusted'' ASHRAE model. (author)

Al Sanea, S.A.; Zedan, M.F. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Al Ajlan, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Inst.

2004-10-01

250

The relationship between cytokine gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion in Saudi females  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the relationships between unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA and single nucleotide polymorphisms tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-? (-238 G/A, -308 G/A, interleukin (IL-6 (-634 G/C and IL-10 (-592 C/A in the promoter region of 3 different interleukin (TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 genes. Methods: The study group comprised 65 women (mean age: 34.1±6.2; range: 15-45 years with unexplained RSA, consecutively referred to the Recurrent Abortion Clinic, King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to January 2011. The control group consisted of 65 females with at least 2 successful pregnancies and no history of abortion. Blood samples were drawn and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was extracted using Puregene DNA purification kit. Utilizing polymerase chain reaction, the promoter region was amplified and sequenced on an Applied Biosystems Integrated sequencer to study the polymorphic sites of interest. All polymorphisms were identified in the case and control samples. Results: A significant association was identified only between the -308 G/A polymorphism in the TNF-? gene promoter and the occurrence of unexplained RSA, and there was no significant association with other positions. Conclusion: The TNF-? gene polymorphism at position -308 could be a genetic predisposing factor for unexplained RSA. 

Afrah F. Alkhuriji

2013-05-01

251

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. PMID:24511244

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

252

Moyamoya syndrome as a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children: Novel and usual associations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To report on moyamoya syndrome (MMS) as a risk factor for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. The usual and novel associations of MMS in this cohort will also be described. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February201 to March 2003 (retrospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included hemostatic assays, biochemical, and serological tests. Neuroimaging included CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) brain scan and conventional cerebral angiography. Moyamoya syndrome was the underlying risk factor for stroke in 6 (5.8%) of the 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). They were 4 females and 2 males. Their first cerebral ischemic event occurred at a mean age of 45 months (median = 44 months, range 17-66 months). In all 6 cases, MMS was associated with an underlying hematologic abnormality or other diseases. Protein C deficiency was identified in one girl and protein S deficiency in another. Two patients had retrospectively, sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell-b-thalassemia (Sb-thalssemia), which had been associated in the latter with membranous ventricular septal defect. Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS, OMIM 100300) was associated with MMS in an 18-month-old girl. A 4-year-old boy had wrinkly skin syndrome (WWS, OMIM 278250) phenotype. The association of MMS and protein C deficiency was first reported in this cohort of patients, whereas the association of the syndrome with WWS and AOS has not, hitherto, been described. The 3 patients who had MMS associated with protein C deficiency, SCD, and AOS underwent successful revascularization surgery in the form of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis. Moyamoya syndrome constitutes an important risk factor of stroke in Saudi children. Comprehensive clinical evaluation and investigations, including screening for throphilia and neuroimaging studies are required for the primary diagnosis of the disease and for unraveling other diseases associated with MMS. This will help in managing these patients and in guiding genetic counseling for their families. (author)

253

The Effect of High Altitude on Blood Hormones in Male Westar Rats in South Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Living in high altitude areas results in chronic hypoxia, which induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. The current study investigated the endocrine responses of male Westar rats chronically exposed to high altitude-induced hypoxia in Abha City, in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Approach: The rats were separated in to 2 groups of 10 rats. The first group was kept at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in the King Saud University animal house in Riyadh City and designated the low altitude group; the second group of rats was transferred to the King Khalid University animal house in Abha City, which is 2800 m height above sea level and was designated the high altitude group. All rats were housed under the same laboratory conditions and fed the same diet. Blood samples were collected from both groups of animals 45 days after transferring the high altitude group to Abha City. Results: The data revealed that the rats transferred to the high altitude area had significant decreases in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and testosterone levels and significant increases in the levels of serum cortisol, free Triiodothyronine (T3 and free Thyroxin (T4 compared to rats kept at low altitude. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that rats chronically exposed to high altitude hypoxia experienced alternations in various hormones. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.

Fahaid H. Al-Hashem

2010-01-01

254

Comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for Ar-Riyadh region in the KSA  

Science.gov (United States)

The General Directorate for Surveying and Mapping (GDSM) of the Deputy Ministry for Land and Surveying (DMLS) of the Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs (MOMRA) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the exclusive mandate to carry out aerial photography and produce large-scale detailed maps for about 220 cities and villages in the KSA. This presentation is about the comprehensive geo-spatial data creation for the Ar-Riyadh region, Central KSA, that was founded on country-wide horizontal geodetic ground control using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) within the MOMRA's Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (MTRF2000) that is tied to International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000 (ITRF2000) Epoch 2004.0, and vertical geodetic ground control using precise digital leveling in reference to Jeddah 1969 mean sea level, and included aerial photography of area 3,000 km2 at 1:5,500 scale and 10,000 km2 at 1:45,000 scale, full aerial triangulation, and production of orthophoto maps at scale of 1:10,000 (480 sheets) for 10,000 km2, with aerial photography lasting from July 2007 thru August 2007.

Alrajhi, M.; Hawarey, M.

2009-04-01

255

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, held on March 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi or expatriate dentists working in Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The questionnaires were designed to meet the obje...

Al-samadani, Khalid H.; Al-dharrab, Ayman A.

2012-01-01

256

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2011-12-01

257

Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%. The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat; the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate. By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol; the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.

Khalid S. Al-Numair

2004-01-01

258

Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore the role of and report congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (Dpn), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Stroke work-up for each suspected case included hemostatic assays, serological, biochemical and neurophysiological tests. Neuroimaging modalities included routine skill x-rays, CT, MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and conventional cerebral angiography. Of 104 children with stroke, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying risk factor in 7 (6.7%). The patients were evaluated at the DPN at a mean age of 66 months (range = 8 months to 11 years, median = 6 years); and they had stroke at a mean age of 48 months (range = 2 months to 10 years, median = 8 months). Four patients had stroke in association with neurocutaneous syndromes. Two had Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), one had Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome associated with SWS, and the fourth had neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had intracranial hemorrhage secondary to ruptured aneurysm. A girl (aged 9 years and 4 months) had left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosoaneurysm. She was diagnosed to have autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease following renal ultrasonography. She died 5 months later despite surgical intervention (clipping of aneurysm). The second child was an 8-months-old boy who presented with subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) following ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. He recovered with no residual symptoms following successful clipping of the aneurysm. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) caused IVH in a 7-year-old boy who reported to hospital 5 hours after onset of headache, vomiting, drowsiness, and dizziness. Following drainage of the IVH and stabilization of the patient, the AVM was successfully emboli zed 6 weeks latter. As a group, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies constitute significant risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. Recognition of these diseases is important since some are treatable and because other family members may be at risk. (author)

259

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

260

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Mohammed A. Alsaif

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Science.gov (United States)

...satisfy the selection criteria as...500 or fewer employees or that otherwise...or service. Selection Criteria for...the review process. Referrals...during the selection process. Timeframe for Recruitment and...

2011-12-15

262

Prevalence of stress in junior doctors during their internship training: a cross-sectional study of three Saudi medical colleges’ hospitals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani,1 Mohammad Irshad,1 Mohammed A Al Zunitan,1,2 Ali A Al Sulihem,1,2 Muhammed A Al Dehaim,1,2 Waleed A Al Esefir,1,2 Abdulaziz M Al Rabiah,1,2 Rashid N Kameshki,1,2 Nourah Abdullah Alrowais,2 Abdulaziz Sebiany,3 Shafiul Haque1 1Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of  Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia Background: Medical science is perceived as a stressful educational career, and medical students experience monstrous stress during their undergraduate studies, internship, and residency training, which affects their cognitive function, practical life, and patient care. In the present study, an assessment of the prevalence of self-perceived stress among new medical graduates during their internship training has been performed, and correlations of self-perceived stress with sex, marital status, and clinical rotations have been evaluated.Patients and methods: Interns of the King Khalid, King Abdulaziz, and King Fahd University hospitals in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete a stress inventory known as the Kessler 10, which is used for stress measurement. Apart from stress evaluation, the questionnaire collected personal data, such as age, sex, and marital status, in addition to information relevant to hospital training, assigned duties, and clinical training rotations.Results: Our results showed that nearly 73.0% of interns were under stressed conditions. Most of the interns were affected by a severe level of stress (34.9%, followed by mild (19.3% and moderate (18.8% levels of stress. The stress level was significantly higher (84.0% among female interns in comparison with male interns (66.5% (odds ratio =2.64; confidence interval =1.59–4.39; P<0.0002. There were statistically significant differences between the percentages of male and female interns (P?0.047 at mild, moderate, and severe stress levels. Marital status had no role in causing stress. The highest stress level was reported by interns during the clinical rotations of medicine (78.8%, followed by surgery (74.7%, pediatrics (72.4%, obstetrics and gynecology (70.1%, and emergency (58.3%. The prevalence of stress among the interns and their corresponding clinical rotations in all three hospitals had significant linear correlations (r?0.829, P?0.041. Conclusion: We found a significantly high level of stress among the medical interns. High stress may have negative effects on cognitive functioning, learning, and patient care. Hence, medical interns need support and subsequent interventions to cope with stress. Keywords: medical education, clinical rotation, medicine, surgery, pediatrics

Abdulghani HM

2014-09-01

263

Distribution of Serotypes and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns Among Invasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes life-threatening infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and febrile bacteremia, particularly in young children. The increasing number of drug-resistant isolates has highlighted the necessity for intervening and controlling disease. To achieve this, information is needed on serotype distribution and patterns of antibiotic resistance in children. Methods All cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children aged less than 15 yr recorded at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed for serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility. Isolates were collected from 78 consecutive patients with IPD between 2009 and 2012. All collected isolates were subjected to serotyping by co-agglutination, sequential multiplex PCR, and single PCR sequetyping as previously described. Results The most frequently isolated IPD serotypes were 23F, 6B, 19F, 18C, 4, 14, and 19A, which are listed in decreasing order and cover 77% of total isolates. The serotype coverage for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)7, PCV10, and PCV13 was 77%, 81%, and 90%, respectively. Results from sequential multiplex PCR agreed with co-agglutination results. All serotypes could not be correctly identified using single PCR sequetyping. Minimum inhibitory concentration showed that 50 (64%) isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas 70 (90%) isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime. Conclusions The most common pneumococcal serotypes occur with frequencies similar to those found in countries where the PCV has been introduced. The most common serotypes in this study are included in the PCVs. Addition of 23A and 15 to the vaccine would improve the PCV performance in IPD prevention. PMID:24790908

A. Al-Sherikh, Yazeed; K. Gowda, Lakshmana; John, James; Khaled Homoud Mohammed, Dabwan; Chikkabidare Shashidhar, Pradeep

2014-01-01

264

Plasma Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor Levels in Angiographically Defined Coronary Artery Disease Among Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine plasma levels of total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA in a cohort of Saudi patients with chronic stable angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD and to determine its correlation with its severity.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of physiology and department of cardiology, College of Medicine, and King Khalid University Hospital and King Saud University, Riyadh. Sixty known cases of CAD who had undergone angiography (35 males and 25 females were selected. A control group included 39 (20 males and 19 females healthy subjects. Fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for total (TFPI-T and free (TFPI-F tissue factor pathway inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA. Gensini scores and vessel scores were determined for assessing CAD severity.Results: There were non-significant differences between age, body mass index (BMI and Blood pressure between the controls and CAD subjects. A comparison of hemostatic markers between control and CAD patients showed significantly higher levels of Fibrinogen, PAI-1, TFPI-T and TFPI-F in CAD patients compared to control subjects. But there was no difference in plasma t-PA levels. TFPI-T had a significant positive correlation with severity of disease determined by Gensini Scores (r=0.344; p=0.006 and vessel scores (r=0.338; p=0.015.Conclusion: Plasma levels of total tissue factor pathway inhibitor are significantly related with the presence and severity of CAD. Elevated levels of TFPI-T may be considered as useful diagnostic and prognostic markers in patients with CAD.

Syed Shahid Habib

2013-05-01

265

Arsenic, Lead and Microorganisms in Hair and Nails of Some Women from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might...

Hashem, A. R.; Abed, K. F.

2002-01-01

266

Planktonic biomass and physico-chemical parameters in Wa di Haneefah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative and qualitative study of phytoplankton and zooplankton community and physico-chemical condition of water at two sites in Wa di Haneefah Stream was carried out on a monthly basis from November, 1993 to October, 1994. Water temperature fluctuated between (13.0 deg. - 40.0 deg.) with ph values (7.1 - 7.4). High concentrations (11.3) and 10.13 mgI-1) of dissolved oxygen in two sites were recorded in April. The contents of chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate and sulphate were max mum in March-May. Different phyto planktonic genera present at the two sites belong to the families, Caryophyllaceae, Cacophony, Decasodium and Bacillanophyceae. Bacillariphyceae was the dominating group throughout the study. These plank tons were more prominent in summer and less in winter months. Zoo planktonic genera consisted mainly of protozoa ns, Rotifers and Crustaceans. These zooplankton s were prominent forming a peak in July and trough in January. the distribution of the generic composition of phyto-and-zooplankton was correlated with some of the physico-chemical changes in the environment. (authors). 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

267

The efficiency in the utilization of potential donors for organ transplantation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We have found that the reporting of brain death cases was low (33%. Dealing with the reported cases is inefficient since only 4 cases were able to become the actual donor out of 38 cases. We found also that there is a gross difference in the number of brain death cases among different hospitals. To improve the efficiency of ICUs in dealing with brain death cases (reporting, documentation, maintenance and consent will require solving several problems at the medical, administrative, and religious and mass media levels.

Mohammed I. Al-Sebayel

2003-07-01

268

Characterization and Assessment of Spectral Solar Irradiance in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solar radiation data requirement persists throughout a photovoltaic (PV) application, from system sizing to evaluating performance of existing PV systems. This paper compare the solar intensity measured by direct sensors with that calculated using the measured spectral data. Also, the changes in the spectral characteristics of the sun's radiation during a typical day and from month to month are analyzed (Author)

269

Job satisfaction of nurses in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The study has important implications for the way that Ministry of Health hospitals are managed and for its policies regarding several aspects of human resources including efficient and effective use of nursing manpower.

Hanan A. Al-Ahmadi

2002-06-01

270

Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

271

Measurement of natural radiation background level of Riyadh city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma-spectroscopy system is used to analyze the radionuclides in the soil samples and determine the cumulative radioactivity of terrestrial origin in Riyadh city area. Soil samples were collected from 21 places in the city with 2 depth profiles (0-5, 5-15 cm) for each site. the average concentrations of U-238 series, Th-232 series, K-40, and Cs-137 are found to be 26, 23, 315 and 14 beequerel/kg respectively. Exposure rate arising from these radionuclides as the average annual equivalent dose rate is estimated at 0.57 mSv/yr. The average annual equivalent dose-rate in the Riyadh area is less than the average world level. 44 Ref

272

Curriculum design of emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abdullah Foraih AlanaziCollege of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The emergency medical services program at the College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was adapted from the integrated problem-based learning curriculum of Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.Purpose: The purpose of this article is to discuss the major adaptations required for adoption of the full-fledged PBL curriculum, use of sequential blocks, and multilayer alignment of the curriculum.Methods: A logical model and step-by-step approach were used to design the curriculum. Several studies using Delphi methods, focus group interviews, and expert opinions were performed to identify the priority health problems; related competencies, learning objectives, and learning strategies; the web-based curriculum for delivery; student assessment; and program evaluation.Results: Sixty priority health problems were identified for inclusion in different blocks of the curriculum. Identified competencies matched the satisfaction of different stakeholders, and ascertained learning objectives and strategies were aligned with the competencies. A full-fledged web-based curriculum was designed and an assessment was created that aligned with a blueprint of the objectives and the mode of delivery.Conclusion: Step-by-step design ensures the multilayer alignment of the curriculum, including priority health problems, competencies, objectives, student assessment, and program evaluation.Keywords: emergency medical services, problem-based learning, logical model, step-by-step approach, multilayer alignment

Alanazi AF

2012-03-01

273

31 CFR Appendix A to Chapter V - Alphabetical Listing of Blocked Persons, Blocked Vessels, Specially Designated Nationals...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DOB 12 Mar 1971; POB Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; nationality Palestinian...West Al-M'ather Street, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; P.O. Box 69606, Riyadh...Lebanon; P.O. Box 1972, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [IRAQ2]ARAB...

2010-07-01

274

Hypertension Control and co-morbidities in primary health care centers in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of hypertension in Saudi Arabia has been assessed only in preliminary reports. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control of blood pressure and the prevalence of common hypertension co-morbidities among hypertensive patients attending primary health care (PHC) centers in Riyadh. A cross sectional study was conducted by reviewing medical records of hypertensive patients during May and June 2001. Two hundred fifty-five medical records selected by a stratified randomization process according to the distribution of the 73 PHC centers in the city and the total number of hypertensive patients registered in the mini-clinic of each PHC-center. Trained mini-clinic nurses collected data using a data collection form developed for this purpose. Of 255 patients, 121 (47.5%) were males and 134 (52.5%) were females, the mean age was 57.2+-11.1 years and 8.3% were smokers. The majority 204 (85.7%) had greater than normal body weight. Only 101 (40.4%) had controlled systolic BP. The most common co-morbidity was diabetes mellitus found in 98 (38.4%), followed by dislipidemia in 50 (19.6%), bronchial asthma in 28 (11.0%) and renal diseases in 12 (4.7%). Except for osteoporosis, which was reported by females only (P=0.003), the occurrences of hypertensive co-morbidities did not vary from other demographic characteristics. This study demonstrated poor blood pressure control in the mini-clinics in the PHC-centers. To improve the quality of care for hypertensive patients, we recommend an improvement in PHC physician knowledge of and attitudes toward the importance of achieving targeted blood pressure levels. (author)

275

Nutritional assessment and obesity in Down syndrome children and their siblings in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and prevalence of obesity among children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: The study group comprised pre-pubertal children, with clinically and cytogenetically proven DS. Healthy siblings, closest in age to the DS children, were used as a control group. Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT, and macro- and micronutrient intakes were measured in both groups. The study was conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between February and May 2011. Results: Children with DS were shorter than their siblings, but had comparable weights. The DS children had higher BMIs and higher TSFTs, compared with their siblings. The prevalence of overweight and obesity differed significantly between the DS and control groups. The DS children had significantly lower intakes of fat, protein, retinol, riboflavin, and potassium compared with their siblings. Conclusion: Obesity appears to be a prominent feature among Saudi DS children.

Manal M. Samarkandy

2012-11-01

276

An Introduction to Student Quality Circle at College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia—An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Catch’em young for imparting hands-on rigorous academic training. This is what has been relentlessly pursued while dealing with the undergraduate students of business management who are to be thoroughly exposed to the whole gamut of quality work life. Whether they opt for corporate career or pursue masters or choose be an entrepreneur, their exposure to the dynamics of quality management must be ensured most likely at student level. Needless to say that the student is more adaptive to change of attitude, behavior, learning etc., and is prone to imbibing the changes without any resistance. One of the collaborative approaches gaining popularity globally is the Student Quality Circle (SQC, an initiative for raising the bar of quality learning and quality teaching. To the best of our knowledge, Quality Circle very much in the vogue, does exist at scores of manufacturing units in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia but this has not yet taken roots in the academic field. This research is essentially a pilot study done at College of Business Administration, Salman bin Abdul-Aziz University, Al-Kharj. The concept “student’s quality circle” has been proved quite effective to a larger extent and its encouraging findings will prompt other colleges to opt for it. The study has done an objective analysis of pre and post session implementation of student quality circle and it has carefully measured its empirical impact on student’ s traits, attitude, learning, extracurricular activities, individual versus team chemistry, leadership, incubation of quality mind set, total quality environment, and student faculty relationship etc.

Mohammad Rishad Faridi

2014-08-01

277

Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

Salwa B. El-Sobkey

2014-08-01

278

Assessment of lipid profile in Saudi type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic periodontal patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic phis study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)

279

Knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care among multinational nurses in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills. PMID:25250548

Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania

2014-09-01

280

Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a general intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author).

 
 
 
 
281

One hundred and thirty-seven living donor pediatric liver transplants at Riyadh Military Hospital. Results and outlook for future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To review the results of 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants performed at Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH). Retrospective analysis of the in- and out-patient case notes was carried out. Data were collected regarding age, gender, nationality, diagnosis, type of procedure, complications and survival of the grafts and the recipients. The first 137 living donor pediatric liver transplants were performed in 113 months. The age range was 4.5 months to 14 years. Eighty-four recipients (61%) were male. One hundred and twelve children were Saudi. Left lateral segment was used as allograft in 135 cases. One child each received full left lobe and full right lobe. Six auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplants were carried out. Familial metabolic liver disorders made the largest group of children needing transplant. The most common indications were progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia (45 cases each). The numbers of major complications are: hepatic artery thrombosis (n=8); portal vein thrombosis (n=3); portal vein stenosis (n=3); hepatic vein stenosis (n=3) and biliary strictures (n=4). Fifteen patients died. Three further allografts have been lost. Thus, the overall patient survival rate is 89% and graft survival rate is 86.8%. Living donor liver transplantation is a viable option for children with end-stage liver disease. Metabolic liver disease is the most common indication in Saudi Arabia. The cadaveric donor supply is in shortage and ladaveric donor supply is in shortage and living donation is a practical alternative. The incidence of complications and recipient and graft survival rates of the program at RMH are acceptable, (author)

282

Human papilloma virus-16/18 cervical infection among women attending a family medical clinic in Riyadh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)

283

Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient?s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

Alabdulaali Mohammed

2010-01-01

284

The Use of Native Language in L2 Teaching: A Case Study of English Department and Preparatory Year, Najran University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite many ELT experts' opinions that while teaching a foreign language one should not use the mother tongue in the classroom, new researches show that sparing use of the mother tongue can be effective for the L2 learners. It is true that the 6- year compulsory English education of the school graduates of Saudi Arabia is not quite up to the…

Al-Dera, Abdullah Saad

2011-01-01

285

Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. PMID:25152628

Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

2014-01-01

286

The Effectiveness of Using the Cooperative Language Learning Approach to Enhance EFL Writing Skills among Saudi University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooperative language learning (CLL approach was used to encourage second-year university students at the college of languages and translation, at Al-Imam University to learn from their peers so that they could develop their writing skills. Students in CLL-based groups were trained to be more responsible for their learning through developing their personal interaction as well as their linguistic competence in a more relaxed social context. This treatment included sophomore students enrolled in EN 211 course in the second semester of 2013 academic year. Two instruments were used in this study; a pre-post writing test, and an attitude questionnaire. The pre- and post- scores from the test were calculated for descriptive statistics and compared using a Wilcoxon Test. The process of evaluating students’ writings focused mainly on analyzing their mistakes with regard to spelling, using of vocabulary, grammar, punctuation as well as coherence. The findings revealed that the students’ scores in writing were higher for the post-test than the pre-test at the significance level of .001 after being subject to this kind of treatment. However, it must be stated that the degree of improvement was not extremely high as students still made some mistakes with regard to the previously mentioned points. As for the attitude scale, the results obtained proved that the students developed positive attitudes towards using the cooperative learning approach to develop language skills in general and to develop their writing skills in particular.

Montasser Mohamed AbdelWahab Mahmoud

2014-05-01

287

Timing of dental development in Saudi cleft lip and palate patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the timing of dental development in Saudi patients affected with non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (CLP, and further investigate patients’ demographics. Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 51 Saudi subjects (5-14 years with CLP were assessed cross-sectionally in January 2012. The data were collected at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and the study was completed in February 2013. Demirjian’s method was used to evaluate the crown and root developmental stages of mandibular permanent teeth to quantify the dental age. Patients’ medical records were used to specify the chronological age, and utilized to divide all participating subjects into 3 groups. All data were collected by one investigator, and the intra-class correlation coefficient test showed a good reliability (0.984. The mean dental and chronological ages were then compared using paired t-test. Results: Dental age was found to be delayed when compared with chronological age by 8.4 months (p=0.002 for the studied sample. Both gender groups expressed such delay (p=0.022 [male], p=0.020 [female]. The age subgroup 8-11 years displayed a significantly (p=0.002 delayed dental development when compared with younger and older age groups. The present findings are consistent with previous reports in the literature. Conclusion: Compared with their chronological age, Saudi patients with CLP have delayed dental development as defined by dental age using Demirjian’s method.

Naif A. Bindayel

2014-03-01

288

Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).

289

Measurement of radon levels in groundwater supplies of Riyadh with liquid scintillation counter and the associated radiation dose.  

Science.gov (United States)

A national groundwater surveillance programme was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels in the year 2007. This paper presents (222)Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located in and around the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from 171 wells in six different locations. Most of these deep wells have an approximate depth of 1000 m, while shallow wells have a depth of 300 m. The analyses were performed by an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a (226)Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with a cocktail (high efficiency mineral oil scintillator) which was used after a certain period of time to assure radon equilibrium. The measured (222)Rn activities of deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.05 to 3.52±0.30 Bq l(-1) (average: 1.01±0.10 Bq l(-1)), whereas those of shallow wells ranged from 0.72±0.08 to 7.21±0.58 Bq l(-1) (average: 2.74±0.24 Bq l(-1)). The (222)Rn concentrations levels were found to be in compliance with the proposed national limits of 11.1 Bql(-1) and depend on the water source. PMID:22887118

Aleissa, Khalid Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Abdulrahman Sayeed; Almasoud, Fahad Ibrahim; Islam, Md Shafiqul

2013-04-01

290

Measurement of radon levels in groundwater supplies of riyadh with liquid scintillation counter and the associated radiation dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A national groundwater surveillance programme was started for investigation of natural radioactivity levels in the year 2007. This paper presents 222Rn radioactivity concentration levels in well waters located in and around the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Water samples were collected from 171 wells in six different locations. Most of these deep wells have an approximate depth of 1000 m, while shallow wells have a depth of 300 m. The analyses were performed by an ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device. Efficiency and background calibrations were performed with a 226Ra aqueous standard homogeneously mixed with a cocktail (high efficiency mineral oil scintillator) which was used after a certain period of time to assure radon equilibrium. The measured 222Rn activities of deep wells ranged from 0.34±0.05 to 3.52±0.30 Bql-1 (average: 1.01±0.10 Bql-1), whereas those of shallow wells ranged from 0.72±0.08 to 7.21±0.58 Bql-1 (average: 2.74±0.24 Bql-1). The 222Rn concentrations levels were found to be in compliance with the proposed national limits of 11.1 Bql-1 and depend on the water source. (authors)

291

Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

Naif A. Bawazeer

2013-12-01

292

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including all patients attending the DS clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 2007 and October 2011. All patients underwent full his...

Bondagji, Nabeel S.; El-harouni, Ashraf A.; Al-aama, Jumana Y.

2012-01-01

293

Knowledge and attitudes of saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

294

Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

295

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848

Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E

2013-08-01

296

Selected Dietary Nutrients and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Males and Females in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decade, the rapid economic development in Saudi Arabia resulted in an unbalanced dietary intake pattern within the general population. Consequently, metabolic syndrome was also documented to be highly prevalent in the Middle-East region. We aimed to examine the relationship between selected dietary nutrient intakes and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general adult population of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, 185 adult Saudis aged 19 to 60 years (87 males and 98 females (mean age 35.6 ± 13.2 and 37.6 ± 11.7 years, respectively were included. The criteria for metabolic syndrome were based on the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF criteria, and the dietary food intake was assessed by two 24-h dietary recall methods. The odd ratios (ORs of metabolic syndrome risk across quartiles of selected dietary nutrients were significantly lower for carbohydrates and proteins, as well as for vitamins A, C, E and K, calcium, zinc and magnesium (p < 0.05 for all in the female group with metabolic syndrome than those without. The pattern of daily dietary intake of selected nutrients among the general population of Saudi Arabia raises concern, and this dietary imbalance could increase the risk of metabolic syndrome, particularly in adult Saudi females.

Nasser M. Al-Daghri

2013-11-01

297

Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information. PMID:22175041

Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal

2011-01-01

298

Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2012-05-01

299

Physical activity profile of adult males in Riyadh City.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The proportion of Saudi males who are at risk for inactivity is very high. Indeed, it is exceedingly higher than those who are at risk for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, or cigarette smoking. Public policies are needed to encourage active living and discourage sedentary habits. Health care providers have an important role in promoting physical activity among the population.

S. A. Al-Rafaee

2001-09-01

300

Symptomatic gallstones: A disease of young Saudi women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.

Murshid Khalid

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Teaching College Computer Courses in Saudi Arabia (Issues Concerning the Classroom and the Culture).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides information concerning one teacher's experience in teaching college courses for Arkansas State University in the area of computer information systems to Saudi Arabian men employed by the Saudi Arabian Customs Automation Department. The students had spent approximately 2 years in Arkansas taking courses, and then went back to…

Rebhun, Herbert F.

302

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-05-01

303

Inter-Species Differences Between Lead Concentration in the Feathers of Pycnonotus leucogenys and Streptopelia seneglenses from Different Cities of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to determine lead accumulation in feathers of wild white-cheeked bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogenys and wild palm dove (Streptopelia seneglenses in order to find which is more suitable to monitor the lead environmental pollution. Feather samples of 270 of Pycnonotus leucogenys and 309 of Streptopelia seneglenses were collected from three different cities of Saudi Arabia (Jeddah, Riyadh and Al-Kharj and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained in this study revealed that the feathers of Streptopelia seneglenses have more capacity to retain lead than Pycnonotus leucogenys in Jeddah and Riyadh (pStreptopelia seneglenses is more suitable as a biological monitor for environmental lead exposure than Pycnonotus leucogenys.

Mansour I. Almansour

2007-01-01

304

Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed.

Ibrahim S. Alkhalife

2006-12-01

305

Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

306

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design analysis study. Volume 1. Design review report, data acquisition plan and experimental plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four preliminary passive solar dwelling design concepts were developed based upon previously established climatic design criteria and an identification of applicable passive cooling strategies was made. These were quantitatively compared for their thermal performance based upon a computer program. The selected concept was optimized and preliminary construction drawings and details were submitted for review by SOLERAS. This report deals with the further refinement and development of the design concept and improvements of the performance of the selected passive elements. The final design has been detailed for actual construction and monitoring at the King Faisal University Dammam Campus. In addition this report addresses the comparative evaluation of the previous design concepts utilizing more rigorous computer simulation methods.

1986-01-01

307

Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

2006-01-01

308

Case study of the 9 April 2009 ‘brown’ cloud: Observations of usually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloud droplets nucleate on aerosol particles termed cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is well known that a larger number concentration of CCN results in a larger number concentration of droplets in developing cumulus clouds. However, the conditions where dust particles can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence change cloud droplet concentration and precipitation formation processes is uncertain. Aircraft measurements of cloud droplet concentration between 13:20 and 13:30 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, show total cloud droplet concentration (3-50 µm in diameter) of 800 to 1200 #/cm-3 at a altitude of 18000 ft. Typical cloud droplet concentration for this type of cloud in the Riyadh region is approximately 400 #/cm-3 and is typical of observation made between 13:00 and 13:20 UTC during the 9 April 2009 flight at 18,000 ft. Photographs of ice accumulation on the unprotected leading edge of the aircraft’s wing due to the freezing of super cooled droplets show a color changed from white during the time of low droplet number condensation to brown during the high droplet number concentration. It is hypothesized that high droplet number concentration observations were the result of ingestion of a large about of dust particles by the cloud. : Case Study of the 9 April 2009 ‘Brown’ Cloud: Observations of Usually High Cloud Droplet Concentrations in Saudi Arabia.

Delene, D. J.

2009-12-01

309

Epigenetic changes and their clinical relevance in Saudi diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gene encoding the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is transcriptionally silenced by promoter hypermethylation in several human cancers including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We explored the aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in Saudi diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and to investigate MGMT hypermethylation has an effect on patients overall survival.In a retrospective cohort study, 100 cases of DLBCL were collected from the Department of Pathology at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We used methylation specific polymerase chain reaction to analyze the MGMT promoter methylation status in 100 tumor DNA of Saudi DLBCL patients receiving multi drug regimens. Tissue microarray (TMA) of these cases was also constructed. The MGMT protein expression was analyzed immunohistochemically. Molecular data were correlated with clinical outcome. Seventy one percent (71%) of 100 DLBCL patients showed MGMT promoter hypermethylation in their lymphoma. The presence of MGMT methylation was associated with statistically significant increase in the overall survival (p=0.02). The MGMT promoter hypermethylation was independent and a strong prognostic factor. The MGMT promoter hypermethylation appears to be useful marker for predicting survival in patient with DLBCL treated with multi drug regimens including cyclophosphamide, at the same time the study shows that TMA technology is useful for immunohistochemical analysis of large lymphoma populations. (author)

310

Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait as Turning Point in Iran-Saudi Relationship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi army had significant impacts on regional and international spheres. The invasion affected relations of the regional countries in particular Iran-Saudi relationship as the most influential countries in the Persian Gulf region. The present article, first, takes into consideration Iran and Saudi Arabia relations in first decade after the Islamic revolution of Iran which finally gave rise to cutting off diplomatic relations in 1988 due to some severe tensions between the two sides. Then, the article examines Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait and occupying of Kuwait city, the capital, in August 1990 which led to some significant regional developments. The study also analyzes Iran’s neutrality stance in this case as well as in Second Gulf War which was reaction of international community pertaining to the occupation. Finally, the article concludes that how Iranian rational and pragmatic decision during the crisis resulted in changing of viewpoints of regional countries in particular Saudi Arabia which eventually led to renewing of diplomatic ties of Tehran-Riyadh in March 1991 after three years frigidity.

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri

2011-02-01

311

Analysis of Saudi Arabian middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to explore Saudi middle and high school science teachers' conceptions of the Nature of Science (NOS). It also detected the effects of gender, science content major, and years of teaching experience on teachers' conceptions of the NOS. The study included a sample of 786 science teachers (137 male and 649 female) who were teaching in middle and high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 1995-1996 academic year. The study was conducted using a translated version of the Nature of Science Scale (NOSS) developed by Kimball (1967). The scale contains 29 items ranging from "agree" to "disagree", and the scoring of the items ranged from 29 to 87. The lowest score is 29 (1 x 29) and the highest score possible on the test is 87 (3 x 29 items). The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study revealed that Saudi science teachers as a group hold numerous misconceptions about the NOS with a significant difference in understanding the NOS between the male and female teachers. The study also showed that teachers with a major in physics held more adequate views than did teachers with other majors. In addition, novice teachers were found to have more adequate conceptions of the NOS than did experienced teachers.

Almazroa, Hiya Mohammed

312

Saudi Arabian solar radiation network and data for validating satellite remote sensing systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will be launching complex satellite remote-sensing platforms for monitoring the earth's radiation budget, land use, and atmospheric physics for periods exceeding 10 years. These Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) platforms will strive to detect man-made and natural variations in the Earth's climate. Form 1993 to the present (1999), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, conducted a joint solar radiation resource assessment project to upgrade the solar resources assessment capability of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KACST has deployed a high quality 12-station network in Saudi Arabia for monitoring solar total horizontal, direct beam, and diffuse radiation. One- and five-minute network data is collected and assessed for quality. 80 percent or more of the network data fall within quality limits of +/- 5 percent for correct partitioning between the three radiation components. This network will provide measured data for validating the NASA remote sensing systems. We describe the network, quality assessment procedures, and the result of estimating aerosol optical depth and precipitable water vapor. These are important for validating satellite estimates of radiation fluxes in and at the top of the Earth's atmosphere.

Myers, Daryl R.; Wilcox, Stephen; Anderberg, Mary; Al-Awaji, Saleh H.; Al Abbadi, Naif M.; Mahfoodh, Mohammed Y. b.

1999-09-01

313

The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%]) was higher than in women (162 cases [38%]), and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52%) than for women (23%). In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths), followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths) and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths). The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%), followed by Medinah (36%) and Najran (33%). MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20%) and high temperature (15°C–35°C). Conclusion MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Almalki, Shaia S; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

314

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed. PMID:24729733

Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

2014-01-01

315

Saudi Learner Perceptions and Attitudes towards the Use of Blogs in Teaching English Writing Course for EFL Majors at Qassim University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Blog is one of the recent innovations that help students in finding opportunities to practice English writing outside the classroom. More educators have applied this easy-to-use technology to classroom instruction and language learning (Campbell, 2003; Johnson, 2004. The objectives of the study are (1 to investigate students’ attitudes toward the use of blog in learning writing, and (2 to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of using blog in language learning. A total of 35 Saudi students majoring in English participated in this study. Data are collected from learners through questionnaires conducted at the end of the writing course (ENG143 during spring semester 2009. Responses indicate that students have a favorable perception towards weblog use in their writing classroom. Findings suggest that learner-perceived benefits of using blogs included increased interest and motivation to use English because of interaction with, and feedback from classmates and teachers.

Fahad Hamad Aljumah

2012-01-01

316

Brucellosis in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the history of brucellosis and the current public health picture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Health protection is made more difficult by several factors: (a) the local custom of drinking raw and warm milk of sheep, goats, and camels, (b) the animal reservoir of infection in the country complicated by importation of live animals both for sacrifice during Haj periods and to increase commercial flocks, and (c) by uncontrolled movements of humans and stock across political borders. PMID:2814586

Kiel, F W; Khan, M Y

1989-01-01

317

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...

Al-jadid, Maher S.

2013-01-01

318

Communication with Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-02-01

319

Hypertension in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hypertension is increasing in prevalence in KSA affecting more than one fourth of the adult Saudi population. We recommend aggressive management of hypertension as well as screening of adults for hypertension early to prevent its damaging consequences if left untreated. Public health awareness of simple measures, such as low salt diet, exercise, and avoiding obesity, to maintain normal arterial blood pressure need to be implemented by health care providers.

Mansour M. Al-Nozha

2007-01-01

320

Environmental isotopes in North African groundwaters; and the Dahna sand-dune study, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

I. North Saharian palaeowaters were mainly formed during a long humid period between 50,000 and 20,000 years BP., which was followed by a cool dry period from 20,000 to 14,000 years BP. These palaeowaters show a significant west-east decrease in deuterium and 18O because of past groundwater formation by local rainfall from the western drift. Sahel zone groundwaters seem to show meridional variation of deuterium and 18O due to a tropical convective influence. II. A computer model estimate of the alternate play between rainwater infiltration and evaporation in the Dahna sand-dune (near Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) yields a mean annual groundwater recharge of 20 mm annually which agrees with that obtained from bomb tritium vertical profiles of the sand moisture. The model also describes the deuterium and 18O profiles. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

Novel Program to Promote Critical Thinking among Higher Education Students: Empirical Study from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia underwent this program during the thinking skills course. The effectiveness of the program was examined using a critical thinking assessment instrument that evaluated five critical thinking skills: causal explanation, determining the reliability of sources, argument, prediction, and determining parts-whole relationships. The data demonstrated statistically significant gains in the five critical thinking skills tested.Thus, this study provides a framework for creating teaching methods that provide effective direct instruction for the development of critical thinking skills of college students.

Huda Umar Alwehaibi

2012-10-01

322

A traveltime interpretation of the 1978 seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Traveltime analysis of the USGS/DGMR-conducted seismic refraction profile in Saudi Arabia is described. The analyzed data consist of reversing and overlapping profiles obtained from six shotpoints extending from the southern Red Sea nearly to the city of Riyadh on the Arabian Shield. Data analysis consisted of the following steps. Primary and secondary arrivals were determined from record sections reduced to 6.0 or 8.0 km/s. The phases were identified as either refracted or reflected waves based on their amplitudes and traveltime behavior. The one-dimensional models (velocity as a function of depth only) to the southwest and northeast of each shotpoint were combined to make preliminary two-dimensional models. Qualitative judgments were made concerning the relative sharpness of the seismic discontinuities on the basis of the apparent amplitude relations of the various phases, and these judgments were used to vary the two-dimensional model.

Mooney, W. D.

323

Utilization of wind/solar energy in generating electricity in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar and wind data averages gathered for five years and plans for a 1.2-1.4 kW solar wind energy plant at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia are presented. Wind speeds were gathered at 2 m height averaging 3.9 m/sec, and extrapolated to 22 m and 5.45 m/sec; average solar intensity was found to be 600 W/sq m between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. The generator system comprises a 5.5 m diameter multiblade windpowered turbine on a 10 meter tower and photovoltaic modules generating 500 W. The NACA 0018 blade tips will be enclosed within a conical duct, augmenting the wind velocity by an expected 10%. Lead-acid batteries will be used for storage; initial applications of the system are targeted for remote villages and military outposts.

Nasser, A. E. M.

324

Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait  

Science.gov (United States)

The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. PMID:17136159

Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

2006-01-01

325

25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

326

Clinical and laboratory profiles of urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in a tertiary care center in central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of urinary tract infections (UTIs caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli. Methods: A retrospective clinical and laboratory study was performed at the Bacteriology Unit, Department of Pathology/Microbiology, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from June 2009 to June 2011. A total of 339 adults and pediatric patients with UTI was included in the study. Two groups of patients (ESBL E. coli UTI and non-ESBL E. coli UTI were studied. Symptoms and signs of illness, comorbidities, outcomes, and urine analysis results were analyzed. Results. There was 339 episodes of culture-verified UTI, 113 (33.3% cases were caused by ESBL E. coli, and 226 (66.7% cases were caused by non-ESBL E. coli. Non-ESBL E. coli UTI was more commonly found in children, and ESBL E. coli was more predominant in female patients. Identified risk factors for acquisition of ESBL E. coli UTI included patients who had underlying renal disease and renal transplant (p=0.017, children with vesicoureteric reflux (p=0.044, surgical intervention, recurrent UTI (pE. coli patients are more likely to present with UTI. The ESBL E. coli uropathogen are resistant to antibiotics, including the third generation cephalosporin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, whereas the non-ESBL E. coli were more resistant to antibiotics Ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Identifying the risk factors and the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with ESBL producing E. coli UTI is necessary for the development of an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment.  

Elham E. Bukhari

2013-02-01

327

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia : Experience at three hospitals in Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Because reports of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP are lacking from the Middle East, we conducted a retrospective review of of all histopathologically proven cases of BOOP over a 10-year period at three tertiary care hospitals in Riyadh and describe the clinical features and outcome. Methods: Charts at the three hospitals were searched using a specific code for BOOP or cryptogenic orga-nizing pneumonia (COP. Lung specimens had to show histological proof of BOOP with a compatible clinical picture. Chest radiographs and high-resolution CT scans were reviewed. Results: Twenty cases of biopsy-proven BOOP had well-documented clinical and radiographic data. There were 11 males and 9 females (mean age, 58 years; range, 42-78. The clinical presentation of BOOP was acute or subacute pneumonia-like illness with cough (85%, fever (70% dyspnea, (85% and crackles (80%. The most frequent radiological pattern was a bilateral alveolar infiltrate. The most common abnormality on pulmonary function testing (n=14 was a restrictive pattern (11 patients. Most patients (70% had no underlying cause (idio-pathic BOOP. Other associations included thyroid cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis and Wegner?s granulo-matosis. Ten patients (50% had a complete response to steroids, 6 (30% had a partial response and 3 (15.8% with secondary BOOP had rapid progressive respiratory failure and died. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of BOOP in our patients is similar to other reported series. A favorable outcome occurs in the majority of cases. However, BOOP may occasionally be associated with a poor prognosis, particularly when associated with an underlying disease.

Alsaghir Abdullah

2007-01-01

328

Correlation of Hormone Receptors with Her 2/neu Protein Expression and the Histological Grade in Invasive Breast Cancers in a Cohort of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Data on hormone receptor and Her2/neu expression in breast cancers from Saudi Arabia and Gulf Region is sparse. We undertook this study to describe the patterns of hormone receptor and Her2/neu protein expression in breast carcinoma and compared them with the histological grade at a university hospital in Riyadh.Material and Method: We conducted a retrospective hormone receptor and Her2/neu study on 164 histologically confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast between the year 2002 and 2008. Immunohistochemical analysis for estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor and Her2/neu was done in all the cases. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH for Her2/neu gene amplification was performed in all 2+ cases and a few equivocal 1+ and 3+cases by immunohistochemistry. The results were then compared in a blinded fashion. Correlation between Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Her2/neu amplification and grade of tumour were calculated.Result: The prevalence of estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor and Her2/neu overexpression were 64.6%, 57.3% and 35.3% respectively. The expression of estrogen receptor and progestrone receptor were significantly correlated (p<0.001. There was also a significant negative correlation between expression of hormone receptor and Her2/neu amplification. The histological grade of the tumour was also significantly correlated to the expression of both estrogen receptor and progestrone receptor. However, the relationship between Her2/neu amplification and grade of tumour was not significant and many of the grade III tumours were Her2/neu negative. In addition Her2/neu gene amplification by FISH was observed in 84.6% of breast cancers that were 3+ and in 18.75% of the cases that were 2+ by immunohistochemistry.Conclusion: The revalence of estrogen receptor, progestrone receptor expression and Her2/neu amplification in breast cancers in Saudi Arabian population is similar to that reported internationally. There is a negative correlation between hormone receptors expression and Her2/neu amplification. However, not all high-grade breast cancers showed Her2/neu positive status.

Maha ARAFAH

2010-09-01

329

New age estimations for the western outer city wall of ancient Tayma (NW Saudi Arabia) based on OSL and radiocarbon data and geomorphologic evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2004 tremendous progress has been achieved in deciphering the cultural genesis of the Tayma oasis (NW Saudi Arabia), due to the joint investigations of the German Archaeological Institute Berlin (DAI), the General Commission for Tourism and Antiquities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the Department of Archaeology and Epigraphy, King Saud University Riyadh. Nevertheless, archaeological research is still suffering from a lacking locally-based absolute chronology of buildings. The pattern of ancient constructions at Tayma is dominated by a prominent city wall system surrounding the ancient town center (Qraya) and stretching 15 km around the oasis. Its internal structure indicates several building periods, i.e. phases of wall modification or extension of the entire system. So far, according to silex and carnelian fragments included in the mud bricks and a previous 14C age of charcoal remains from the central excavation district (wall section at Area A), an initial construction date of the wall between the late 3rd and the early 2nd millennium BC seemed likely. At the excavated western outer city wall a new systematic dating approach - combining the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C methods - has been applied to generate a reliable age for the oldest branch of the wall system which nowadays is covered by aeolian sand. The dune deposit is genetically related to the existence of the wall and, therefore, dating its accumulation provides termini ante quem for the construction of the wall. Five OSL dates were generated from the dune deposit providing ages between 4,900 and 3,500 yrs. Two radiocarbon ages support the dating sequence and also contribute to its consistency. By combining the results with geomorphologic evidence we draw the following conclusions: Initial settlement activities at Qraya were accompanied by a regulation of wadi dynamics and the construction of the outer city wall, indicated by the abrupt boundary between the pre-settlement alluvial silt and the overlying wall-related dune deposit. According to the OSL and 14C dating results from this deposit, the wall section at C1 (western part of the ancient settlement, north of Area A) dates back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC or even earlier. Furthermore, the burying of the still existing remains of the city wall at C1 by sand was already completed at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC.

Engel, M.; Klasen, N.; Brückner, H.; Eichmann, R.; Hausleiter, A.; Al-Najem, M. H.; Al-Said, S. F.; Schneider, P. I.

2009-04-01

330

Analysis of ESP Syllabus: Analysing the Book Basic English for Computing as a Sample and Testing its Suitability for ESP Learners in Public and Private Yemeni and Saudi Arabian Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any syllabus could be evaluated and analysed in terms of design and format and achieving the goals of the designed syllabus in reality; in this paper the first type of analysis is conducted in addition to integrating the researcher’s experience of teaching ESP in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Reviewing previous and related literature along with collected data from the text book, the researcher used different types of methodologies to come up with detailed analysis of the above named ESP book. The book Basic English for Computing seems to have high standard design and format as an ESP curriculum in terms of: planning stage, implementation, evaluation, and management, and in terms of selection and grading of the content and tasks of the curriculum as an ESP syllabus as well. However and from the research’s perspective, this syllabus in spite of its high standards, it doesn’t suit the level of ESP learners in both public and private Yemeni Universities due to misuse and wrong interpretation of the term ESP in Yemen among English teachers, specialists in the field of English language and decision-makers as well. It is the learner, the environment learning, and the teacher rather than the book that would greatly affect on deciding the success of achieving the goals of a certain syllabus and testing its usability in a certain country where English is being taught and/or learned for specific purposes.

Ahmed Mohammed S. Alduais

2012-11-01

331

The distribution and classification of clefts in patients attending a cleft lip and palate clinic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The average age and range of CLP patients at first visit were high. Attending male patients was more than females. The environmental etiological factor was not identifiable. Males were dominant in the cleft lip and palate type. The cleft lip and palate type were the highest among oral clefts.

Khalid M. Al-Balkhi

2000-01-01

332

Profile of smoking amongst health staff in a primary care unit at a general hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Smoking prevalence is considerably high among our hospital workers. It is not only dangerous for the smokers itself but for the patients who idealize the behavior of hospital staff. Most of the smokers know that smoking is harmful to them as well as others around them but they did not succeed in quitting smoking due to various reasons. Health education combined with help from general practitioners may help to increase the quitting rate among smokers and preventing new smokers from taking up smoking.

S. Siddiqui

2001-12-01

333

The energy supply of the European Union, the Saudi proposal of Riyadh and the 'Green paper' of the Commission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both as to oil and gas, Europe will ever more have to rely on external supplies. By the year 2020, 79% of its gas consumption and 90% of its oil consumption will be imported. In addition, this dependence will be characterised by a concentration of supplies among a limited number of producers, a process which, certainly for the EU, requires a permanent dialogue and a close co-operation with its suppliers. On the level of the European Union the debate on main energy issues to be faced in the future, including a secure supply, has been launched by the Commission in its 'Green paper - Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. Within this context, the proposal of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz to set up a permanent secretariat for the International Energy Forum seems most opportune. Indeed, this initiative aims at strengthening the co-operation and the dialogue between producers and consumers of commodities which are essential for the world economic development. Besides the ministers and official representatives from energy-producing and energy consuming countries, the Secretariat also wants to involve the major energy companies in those meetings, thus benefiting from their technical expertise, more than is the case now, thanks to the introduction of the said permanent dialogue. (authors)

334

Pattern of liver disease in a Saudi patient population: A decade of experience at security forces hospital, Riyadh, KSA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the pattern of liver disease revealed by a study of liver biopsies of 277 adults aged 16-85 years old from January 1983 - December 1993. The most common histological diagnoses were: cirrhosis in 22.3%, chronic active hepatitis (CAH 16.6%, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in 7.2%, fatty changes in 12% of patients. Less common diag-noses included: Cholestasis in 8 (2.8%, Hemochromatosis in 7 (2.5%, periportal fibrosis in 4 (1.4%, Wilson?s disease in 3 (1%, Alcoholic hepatitis in one patient and lymphoma in one patient. Inadequate specimens were encountered in 7 (2.5%. The commonest causes of liver cirrhosis were: Hepatitis C virus (HCV in 73.3% of patients tested for it and hepatitis B virus (HBV in 23.2%. Complications related to the procedures were exceedingly low. One patient, with Budd-Chiari Syn-drome required emergency laparotomy to control bleeding. In conclusion, liver cirrhosis, CAH and HCC were common patterns of chronic liver disease in this series. HCV was the most common cause of CAH and liver cirrhosis.

Fashir B

1996-01-01

335

Screening for hypertension. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of primary health care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Current working primary health care physicians having poor knowledge of screening hypertension and favorable attitudes towards screening people for hypertension. Thus most probably, this actual practice is not yet optimal. Measures to remedy this situation were suggested.

A. S. Al-Khashman

2001-12-01

336

The knowledge and practices of oral hygiene methods and attendance pattern among school teachers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

It is concluded that there is much resemblance in knowledge and practice of oral hygiene habits among male and female schoolteachers and there is a need to enhance their knowledge regarding oral health and disease. Both need more awareness regarding oral health promotion to have a positive role in school oral health education for their students in collaboration with oral health care workers.

Khalid Almas

2003-10-01

337

Parents' attitude towards children's first dental visit in the College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

These data indicate that there is a relatively low level of parents' knowledge about the timing of a child's first dental visit. The dental profession and pediatricians have major responsibilities to change this concept.

Thakib A. Al-Shalan

2002-09-01

338

Effect of year of study on stress levels in male undergraduate dental students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abdullah M Alzahem,1 Henk T van der Molen,2 Benjamin J de Boer31Advanced Education in General Dentistry (AEGD) Residency Program, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Clinical Psychology, Princess Nora University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Stress among dental studen...

Am, Alzahem; Ht, Molen; Bj, Boer

2013-01-01

339

Development of Regional Planning Criteria for Health Services in the City of Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at developing criteria for planning health services in the city of Riyadh through assessing the actual distribution of these services and comparing them with planning criteria adopted by the Municipality of Riyadh, local, Arab and foreign cities, in order to propose planning criteria that best serve citizens of Riyadh city more fairly and efficiently. Data related to health services and their attributes were gathered and incorporated into a GIS database. The results of the study showed regarding the primary health centers that the criterion of the service’s coverage rate of the Riyadh Municipality was slightly applied, notwithstanding the criterion of the served population was moderately applied, the criterion of the square meters of land per capita was slightly applied, the criterion of the served population was asymptotic to that one in Dubai. The criterion of the land's area allocated to per capita was relatively high in comparison with other cities. While the results regarding hospitals showed that the criterion of the service's coverage rate for the municipality was moderately applied, the criterion of the served population was asymptotic to that one in Dubai and the criterion of the land’s area allocated to per capita was relatively high in comparison with other cities.

Suleiman S. Abu-Kharmeh

2012-05-01

340

Saudi Cancer Patients’ Attitudes towardsDisclosure of Cancer Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98% and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001. Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.

Ali M. Al-Amri

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Language Learning Strategy Use of Saudi EFL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Saudi EFL students. The subjects were 701 male and female Saudi EFL students enrolled in an intensive English language program at the University of Ha’il. The Oxford Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) was used with some modifications. The study seeks to extend our knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and proficiency level. T...

Eid Alhaisoni

2012-01-01

342

End-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to evaluate end-of-life practices in a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. A prospective observational study was conducted in the medical-surgical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over the course of the one-year study period, 176 patients died and 77% of these deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions. Of these, 66% made do-not-resuscitate decisions, 30% decided to withhold life support and 4% withdrew life support. These decisions were made after a median time of four days (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 9) and at least one day before death (Q1 to Q3: 1 to 4). The patients' families or surrogates were informed for 88% of the decisions and all decisions were documented in the patients' medical records. Despite religious and cultural values, more than three-quarters of the patients whose deaths were preceded by end-of-life decisions gave do-not-resuscitate decisions before death. These decisions should be made early in the patients' stay in the intensive care unit. PMID:22313074

Aldawood, Abdulaziz S; Alsultan, Mohammad; Arabi, Yaseen M; Baharoon, Salim A; Al-Qahtani, S; Al-Qahtani, M; Haddad, Samir H; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Jahdali, Hamdan A; Alatassi, Abdulaleem; Rishu, Asgar H

2012-01-01

343

GIST in Saudi Arabia: multicentric histopathological genetic study of 75 surgically excised cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

The availability of CD117 (Ckit) immunohistochemical testing in most hospital laboratories has facilitated the diagnosis of GIST in cKit positive cases. The aim of this study was to describe the histopathological variations of GIST in Saudi Arabia. The study involved analysis of paraffin blocks of 75 surgically excised GIST and GIST-like stromal tumors obtained from four major referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh Military Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center and Aramco's hospital) between 1998 and 2009. Patient sex and age were noted in addition to the following tumor variables: size, site, histological grade and type, immunohistochemical profile and genetic analysis of the cKit mutation. The stomach was the commonest site for tumors and spindle cell type was the most frequently seen variant. Further sub classification of the histopathological type was made in order to recognize the morphological pattern of the tumor. The most common tumor grades seen were of low-risk and high-risk groups. There was one case of familial GISTparaganglioma syndrome and the youngest subject was an 8-year-old girl with high-risk spindle cell gastric GIST. Genetic study in 34 cases revealed exon 11 mutations in all of the cKit genes. PMID:22227543

Al Hussaini, H F F

2012-01-01

344

Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

2013-02-01

345

Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI. PMID:25000031

Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

2014-01-01

346

Radon in Saudi houses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m-3 (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l-1) with a mean of 16 Bq.m-3 (0.43 pCi.l-1). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m-3 (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l-1) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m-3 (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l-1), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10-3 to 24x10-3 WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10-3 WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m-2.h-1) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m-2.h-1). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates. (author)

347

MR imaging and targeting of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in LPS-induced COPD animal model using antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Achraf Al Faraj,1 Asma Sultana Shaik,1 Sibtain Afzal,2 Baraa Al Sayed,1 Rabih Halwani21King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Radiological Sciences, Molecular and Cellular Imaging Lab, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2King Saud University, Prince Naif Center for Immunology Research, Asthma Research Chair, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Targeting and noninvasive imaging of a specific alveolar macrophage subpopulation in the lung has revealed the impor...

Al Faraj A; As, Shaik; Afzal S; Al Sayed B; Halwani R

2014-01-01

348

Listeria monocytogenes endophthalmitis following keratoconjunctivitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Samir S Shoughy,1 Khalid F Tabbara1–31The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Endophthalmitis due to endogenous or exogenous bacteria is a rare infection of the eye. We report a case of endophthalmitis following Listeria monoc...

Ss, Shoughy; Kf, Tabbara

2014-01-01

349

Prevalence of manufacturing defects in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in central Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess the defect rates in latex examination gloves used in selected dental practices in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 796 latex examination gloves were collected from 5 governmental hospitals and 5 private dental practices between April 2012 and May 2012. The gloves were  assessed for presence of defects visually (VT and using water inflation test (WIT. One and 2 sample t-tests were used to assess significant differences in defect rates among each latex brand, and between governmental hospitals and private dental practices. Results: Defects in latex gloves were more likely to be identified using WIT compared with VT (20.2% versus 4.3%, p=0.000. Using WIT, examined latex gloves had a defect rate approximately 8 times the acceptable quality level of 2.5% (20.2%, p=0.000. Using WIT, gloves used in private dental practices had significantly higher defect rates compared with governmental dental clinics (25.6% versus 14.6%, p=0.006. Conclusion: Most latex examination gloves used in the sampled governmental dental clinics and private dental practices in Riyadh had significantly higher preexisting defect rates than acceptable standard levels. 

Abdullah S. Al-Swuailem

2014-07-01

350

Centro de Conferencias, Hotel y Mezquita Riyadh - Arabia Saudita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complex, designed and built for the Finance Ministry of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is located on a 78,000 m2 lot, close to the intersection of highways crossing the Arabian desert, which connect the location directly with the area of public buildings of the city and with the airport as well. The complex situates the Convention Hall, with 23,230 m2 of constructed surface, in the southeast half of the lot; the Hotel, with 14,860 m2 of constructed surface, Is on the other half. Each has independent accesses, as is the case of the Mosque which is located at one end of the lot. Individual dwellings three-storeys high, gardens, parking areas, service roads an auxiliary buildings have been constructed next to the Mosque.

El conjunto, diseñado y construido para el Ministerio de Finanzas del Reino de Arabia Saudita, está situado en una parcela de 78.000 m2, próxima a la intersección de carreteras que cruzan el desierto arábigo y que conectan directamente la parcela con el área de edificios públicos de la ciudad y con el aeropuerto. El complejo sitúa en la mitad sudoeste el Centro de Conferencias, de 23.230 m2 de edificabilidad, y el Hotel, de 14.860 m2 de superficie construida, en la otra mitad; cada uno de ellos con accesos independientes, al igual que la Mezquita emplazada en un extremo de la parcela. Junto a ésta se han construido viviendas unifamiliares de tres plantas, así como jardines, aparcamientos, carreteras de servicio y locales auxiliares.

Dannatt, Trevor

1980-11-01

351

A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia is to establish a nuclear research facility. Selection of a research reactor type for such a case is not an easy task. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors are selected for this study. These are: the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The IFDA computer code, which based on the fuzzy set theory is applied here. The results show that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best

352

Role of physics in Saudi engineering education  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years some engineering schools in the Middle East have proposed reducing the amount of basic science courses in their curricula. A conference on engineering education in the Arabian Gulf countries held in Kuwait in 1980 suggested that the number of courses in physics and chemistry should be reduced from the present level (Jamjoom 1980). The arguments often put forward can be summarised as follows. First, engineering students are at present overburdened with too many basic science courses which puts a strain on the average student. This in turn leads to a high drop-out as is witnessed in many engineering colleges in this region. This drop-out, as high as 20% in some Saudi universities, is a cause of great concern among the university authorities. Secondly, it is argued that the number of credit hours allocated to departmental requirements is not sufficient to give a student enough breadth and depth of knowledge in his specialisation in particular engineering branches. Universities in Saudi Arabia follow the American credit-hour system in which courses are given certain credit hours, ranging from two to four, depending on the number of lectures per week as well as laboratory and tutorial requirements. Engineering students have to complete about 150 credit hours to graduate, which they normally do in four to five years. Out of these credit hours, about two-thirds are allocated to core courses (including physics) common to all branches of engineering. The remaining one-third are reserved for departmental specialisation. Since there is no possibility of increasing the overall credit hours necessary for graduation, it is suggested that the extra credit hours demanded for increasing the number of departmental courses should be obtained by correspondingly curtailing those for the basic sciences. When carefully scrutinised the arguments do not appear to be well founded. The reasons for high drop-out can be traced to more deep-rooted factors.

Ahmed, M.

1984-05-01

353

Loan for Saudi methanol plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Methanol Co., a joint venture between Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (Sabic) and a consortium of Japanese companies, has signed a $150-million loan agreement with the Export Import Bank of Japan to finance its expansion program. The loan will fund construction of an 850,000-m.t./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Sabic`s Al-Jubail complex. The new plant is scheduled to come onstream in mid-1997. It and the company`s two existing plants will produce 1.4 million m.t./year.

NONE

1996-08-14

354

Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

2013-09-01

355

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

356

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades.  North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p   Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia. 

Neil Saran

2013-04-01

357

 The establishment and roles of the Medical Education Department in the faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  Medical Education departments oversee the process of medicaleducation in medical schools and provide many educationalservices to support, evaluate and thus enhance the educationalrole of the medical school. Its roles revolve around research,teaching and providing educational support in areas of curriculumdevelopment and assessment. This paper provides a brief summaryon the emergence of different medical education centers/units/departments around the world from a historical perspective.Special attention will be given to the process followed inestablishing the Medical Education Department (MED in KingAbdul Aziz University (KAU. This paper also explores the rolesthat are currently played within the department with a reflectionon documented roles of the medical education departmentsworldwide. Special emphasis will be given to explore the currentchallenges faced by KAU MED and proposed suggestions toimprove these challenges will also be addressed.

Lana A Al Shawwa

2012-01-01

358

Education as a Tool for Peace? The King Abdullah Scholarship Program and Perceptions of Saudi Arabia and UAE post 9/11  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 9/11, Saudi Arabia has made significant attempts to change its public image because of its alleged association with global terrorism. Given its charitable interests in promoting education as a tool for peace within the Arab region, it has established the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP, considered to be the most heavily endowed overseas scholarship program ever offered by a nation-state. Since 2005, over 120,000 Saudi university students have been financed by this scholarship to pursue their university studies abroad. This investigation concerns student perceptions of Saudi and Emirati students studying abroad ten years after the tragedy of 9/11. It draws from 35 face-to-face interviews of international students in Australia about their perceptions and viewpoints of Saudi Arabia and the Arab World pre- and post 9/11. It centers on Saudi and Emirati students and suggests that education can be a tool for peace.

Kholoud T. Hilal

2013-03-01

359

The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Germination of Calligonum comosum L Her (Polygonaceae) in Two Different Populations in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different degrees of temperature and salinity have been studied to evaluate their effects on the seed germination of Calligonum comosum L Her grown in two different populations in Saudi Arabia. These two sites have been chosen in Saudi Arabian deserts, one in Nefoud El-Shakika south Onyza city on Najd plateau and the second west El-Dahnaa in the way between El-Riyadh and El-Damam cities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Each of these locations were dominated by Calligonum comosum L Her beside other species such as Artemisia monosperma, Ephedra elata and Haloxylon ammodendron. These two deserts are completely deferent in their climatic and edaphic factors, since climatic diagrams and soil chemical analyses have been investigated. Twenty plants, with plenty of fruits, from each site have been chosen and collected from each site during April 2003. Germination was in two variables, the number of days to start germinating and the final percentage of germination. The most favorable temperature was 10/20 degree C at seed depth 0.5 cm. and irrigation system every 48 hours 50 ml. dist. water supply. Meanwhile, the seeds in the two locations prefer non-saline media, as the best results obtained at salt concentration 0.0. Whereas the germination start again in Nefoud El-Shakika seeds only at salty media by the concentration of 150 mlmol. Nacl. The results have been discussed according to both differences in climatic and soil characters. (author)

360

Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

2014-05-01

362

Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2) on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective st...

Kh, Sait; Fs, Gazzaz

2011-01-01

363

Assessment of Educational Environment of Surgical Theatre at a Teaching Hospital of a Saudi University: Using Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measures  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study was aimed to determine how medical interns perceive the important factors of the learning environment the surgical theatre at the teaching hospital of the medical school, University of Dammam (UoD). The study also investigated the relationships between the learning environment and academic achievements. Finally, it determined the role and significance of gender on the above perceptions and relationships. Methods The Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measure (STEEM) was used to identify the perceptions of interns on the most important factors prevalent in the surgical theatre as an educational environment. STEEM was administered to all interns during the period of June-September 2009. Ninety-one out of 145 students completed the questionnaire representing a response rate of 63%. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17. Results The STEEM was shown to be internally consistent for the assessment of the overall educational environment in the surgical theatre of UoD. The overall STEEM mean score was 110. For male and female students, the mean scores were 114 and 107 respectively. There were statistically significant gender differences in the perceptions of "learning opportunities" and "teaching and training". Females rated these subscales lower than males. There were no significant associations between academic achievements and perceptions of the educational environment. Conclusion The interns perceived the learning environment of the surgical theatre as less than satisfactory. In comparison with the males; the perception of the females was less positive, particularly in the areas of learning opportunities, and teaching and training. The study also revealed some other problematic areas in the learning environment of surgical theatre of the teaching hospital of UoD. The results imply that there is much room for improvement. They also indicate that equal opportunities for learning and training should be given to both sexes. PMID:22811771

Al-Qahtani, Mona Faisal; Al-Sheikh, Mona

2012-01-01

364

Assessment of Educational Environment of Surgical Theatre at a Teaching Hospital of a Saudi University: Using Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: This study was aimed to determine how medical interns perceive the important factors of the learning environment the surgical theatre at the teaching hospital of the medical school, University of Dammam (UoD. The study also investigated the relationships between the learning environment and academic achievements. Finally, it determined the role and significance of gender on the above perceptions and relationships.Methods: The Surgical Theatre Educational Environment Measure (STEEM was used to identify the perceptions of interns on the most important factors prevalent in the surgical theatre as an educational environment. STEEM was administered to all interns during the period of June-September 2009. Ninety-one out of 145 students completed the questionnaire representing a response rate of 63%. Non-parametric statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Version 17.Results: The STEEM was shown to be internally consistent for the assessment of the overall educational environment in the surgical theatre of UoD. The overall STEEM mean score was 110. For male and female students, the mean scores were 114 and 107 respectively. There were statistically significant gender differences in the perceptions of "learning opportunities" and "teaching and training". Females rated these subscales lower than males. There were no significant associations between academic achievements and perceptions of the educational environment.Conclusion: The interns perceived the learning environment of the surgical theatre as less than satisfactory. In comparison with the males; the perception of the females was less positive, particularly in the areas of learning opportunities, and teaching and training. The study also revealed some other problematic areas in the learning environment of surgical theatre of the teaching hospital of UoD. The results imply that there is much room for improvement. They also indicate that equal opportunities for learning and training should be given to both sexes.

Mona Faisal Al-Qahtani

2012-05-01

365

Spatial and temporal variations of satellite-derived multi-year particulate data of saudi arabia: an exploratory analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD), have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001-2010) released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis. PMID:25350009

Aina, Yusuf A; van der Merwe, Johannes H; Alshuwaikhat, Habib M

2014-01-01

366

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Satellite-Derived Multi-Year Particulate Data of Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of concentrations of fine particulate matter on urban populations have been gaining attention because fine particulate matter exposes the urban populace to health risks such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Satellite-derived data, using aerosol optical depth (AOD, have been adopted to improve the monitoring of fine particulate matter. One of such data sources is the global multi-year PM2.5 data (2001–2010 released by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN. This paper explores the satellite-derived PM2.5 data of Saudi Arabia to highlight the trend of PM2.5 concentrations. It also examines the changes in PM2.5 concentrations in some urbanized areas of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations in major cities like Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah, Makkah, Madinah and the industrial cities of Yanbu and Jubail are analyzed using cluster analysis. The health risks due to exposure of the populace are highlighted by using the World Health Organization (WHO standard and targets. The results show a trend of increasing concentrations of PM2.5 in urban areas. Significant clusters of high values are found in the eastern and south-western part of the country. There is a need to explore this topic using images with higher spatial resolution and validate the data with ground observations to improve the analysis.

Yusuf A. Aina

2014-10-01

367

Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity, economy, environment, human activities, and variety of animal types, according to particular climatic and environmental conditions. The rock art of Saudi Arabia is the mirror of its rich cultural heritage of so-called Bedouin or desert dwellers that surprises the world with its 4000 archaeological and more than 1500 rock art sites.

Majeed Khan

2013-12-01

368

Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia

2004-01-01

369

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali

2006-01-01

370

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

371

The Saudi Initiative for asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

Al-Moamary Mohamed

2009-01-01

372

Saudi Arabia plans future strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

373

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

374

Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

375

78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification  

Science.gov (United States)

...advisory support to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Defense for three...Training Mission (USMTM) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (iv) Military Department...Training Mission (USMTM) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is the Security...

2013-10-22

376

Determinants of hand hygiene non-compliance in a cardiac center in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the baseline hand hygiene non-compliance rate, and identify the factors associated with non-compliance in a cardiac center in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This observational study was conducted in Prince Sultan Cardiac Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a 176 beds specialized cardiac center. In total, 6,022 observations were recorded by using the Infection Control Link Nurse  program from all the high and non-high risk areas from October to December 2012. The data was collected from different healthcare workers (HCW for 5 indications of hand hygiene. Non-compliance rate was calculated, and univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify factors significantly associated with non-compliance. Results: The overall hand hygiene non-compliance rate was observed to be approximately 34%. Factors significantly associated with non-compliance included physicians (OR=2.71, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=2.33-3.13, after touching the patient’s surrounding (OR=4.8, 95% CI=3.98-5.78, before touching a patient (OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.87-3.86, and high-risk areas (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03-1.31. Morning shifts were significantly associated (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.00-1.29 with non-compliance as compared to the evening shifts. Conclusion: Stratified analysis indicated that non-compliance is still a noticeable concern. The results suggest that broad spectrum educational activities and behavioral modification strategies should be advocated to include all HCW, particularly physicians, and should emphasize on performing hand hygiene during all the indications and not just the “after”  indications. 

Daifallah J. AlNakhli

2014-02-01

377

Drug-resistant ventilator associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: There is a wide geographic and temporal variability of bacterial resistance among microbial causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The contribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens to the VAP etiology in Saudi Arabia was never studied. We sought to examine the extent of multiple-drug resistance among common microbial causes of VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective susceptibility study in the adult intensive care unit (ICU) of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Susceptibility results of isolates from patients diagnosed with VAP between October 2004 and June 2009 were examined. The US National Healthcare Safety Network definition of MDR was adopted. RESULTS: A total of 248 isolates including 9 different pathogens were included. Acinetobacter spp. was highly (60-89%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including carbapenems (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 86% and 69%, respectively). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was moderately (13-31%) resistant to all tested antimicrobials, including antipseudomonal penicillins (three- and four-class MDR prevalence were 13% and 10%, respectively). With an exception of ampicillin (fully resistant), Klebsiella spp. had low (0-13%) resistance to other tested antimicrobials with no detected MDR. Staphylococcus aureus was fully susceptible to vancomycin with 42% resistance to oxacillin. There were significant increasing trends of MDR Acinetobacter spp. however not P. aeruginosa during the study. Resistant pathogens were associated with worse profile of ICU patients but not patients’ outcomes. CONCLUSION: Acinetobacter in the current study was an increasingly resistant VAP-associated pathogen more than seen in many parts of the world. The current finding may impact local choice of initial empiric antibiotics. PMID:24791174

Balkhy, Hanan H.; El-Saed, Aiman; Maghraby, Rana; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M.; Khan, Raymond; Rishu, Asgar H.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

2014-01-01

378

The Jinadriyah anticlines: a surface model for oil fields in eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesozoic oil in Saudi Arabia exists in north/south-oriented anticlines. Such anticlines are usually studied using subsurface data. The present study introduces, for the first time in Saudi Arabia, a surface analog for these anticlines. The study covers two northerly oriented anticlines located in the Jinadriyah area at 15 km to the northeast of the Riyadh city. They are named herein the North and South Jinadriyah anticlines. The outcrops in both anticlines belong to the Lower Cretaceous Yamama Formation which consists of limestone in its lower part and limestone with shale in its upper part. The study included initially detailed interpretation of Google Earth and Landsat TM images to map the structural pattern of the anticlines. Detailed field mapping confirmed the satellite image interpretation and helped describe the geometry of the two anticlines in detail. The 3.5-km-long South Jinadriyah anticline is an open doubly plunging asymmetric anticline. The western flank is dissected by 13 minor reverse faults of north-south orientation. The North Jinadriyah anticline is about 5.5 km long and is relatively more complex than the South Jinadriyah anticline. It consists of northern, central, and southern segments that differ from each others in orientation and style. The anticline is dissected by 18 minor faults of different orientations and sense of displacement. Two perpendicular fracture sets with one being parallel to the anticline axes were recorded in the two anticlines. Both anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds that were formed during the Late Cretaceous first Alpine orogeny. The mid-Late Tertiary second Alpine orogeny and Late Tertiary eastward tilting of the Arabian Plate increased the degree of folding and faulting. (author)

379

High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors.

Mahmoud I. El-Desouki

2007-05-01

380

Research and Scientific Publishing in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses current trends in scientific research and the publication of research results in Saudi Arabia. Areas discussed include fields of research; marketing of scholarly publications; publication of books, scholarly journals, conference papers, monographs, and research reports; local and foreign publishers serving researchers; leading Saudi

Islam, Manzurul

1989-01-01